WorldWideScience

Sample records for superconducting tunneljunction detector

  1. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  2. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  3. Superconductive tunnel structures as radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, A.; Gray, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief review is given on various aspects of the potential of superconducting tunnel junctions as detectors for atomic and nuclear radiations. On the basis of recent results main advantages and drawbacks are indicated providing a preliminary comparison with the presently used semiconductor detectors. The basic ideas underlying the physics of the interaction of nuclear particles and other radiations with superconducting junctions are outlined. 9 refs., 1 tab

  4. Superconducting detectors for semiconductor quantum photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmaier, Guenther M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present the first successful on-chip detection of quantum light, thereby demonstrating the monolithic integration of superconducting single photon detectors with individually addressable semiconductor quantum dots in a prototypical quantum photonic circuit. Therefore, we optimized both the deposition of high quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs substrates and the fabrication of superconducting detectors and successfully integrated these novel devices with GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides loaded with self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots.

  5. Superconducting Detectors for Superlight Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2016-01-08

    We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors that are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark-matter limit, m(X)≳1  keV. We compute the rate of dark-matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological or astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  6. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  7. Superconducting nano-striplines as quantum detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A.; Ejrnaes, M.; Mattioli, F.; Gaggero, A.; Leoni, R.; Martucciello, N.; Pagano, S.; Ohkubo, M.; Cristiano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The recent progress in the nanofabrication of superconducting films opens the road toward detectors with highly improved performances. This is the case for superconducting nano-striplines where the thickness and the width are pushed down to the extreme limits to realize detectors with unprecedented sensitivity and ultra fast response time. In this way quantum detectors for single photons at telecommunication wavelengths and for macromolecules such as proteins can be realized. As is often the case in applied nanotechnology, it is a challenge to make devices with the necessary macroscopic dimensions that are needed to interface present technologies, while maintaining the performance improvements. For nano-stripline detectors, both the fast temporal response and the device sensitivity is generally degraded when the area is increased. Here, we present how such detectors can be scaled up to macroscopic dimensions without losing the performance of the nano-structured active elements by using an innovative configuration. In order to realize ultrathin superconducting film the nano-layer is growth with a careful setup of the deposition technique which guarantees high quality and thickness uniformity at the nano-scale size. The active nano-strips are defined with the state-of-the-art electron beam nanolithography to achieve a highly uniform linewidth. We present working detectors based on nano-strips with thicknesses 9–40 nm and widths of 100–1000 nm which exhibit unprecedented speed and area coverage (40 × 40 μm 2 for single photon detectors and 1 × 1 mm 2 for single molecule detectors) based on niobium nitride thus enabling practical use of this nanotechnology.

  8. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  9. Development of superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kishimoto, Maki; Ukibe, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kurakado, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke

    1998-07-01

    Study on development of high energy resolution X-ray detector using superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) for radiation detection was conducted for 5 years under cooperation of University of Tokyo group and Kyushu University group by Quantum measurement research group of Advanced fundamental research center of JAERI. As the energy resolution of STJ could be obtained better results than that of Si semiconductor detector told to be actually best at present, this study aimed to actualize an X-ray detector usable for the experimental field and to elucidate radiation detection mechanism due to STJ. The STJ element used for this study was the one developed by Kurakado group of Nippon Steel Corp. As a results, some technical problems were almost resolved, which made some trouble when using the STJ element to detection element of X-ray spectrometer. In order to make the X-ray detector better, it is essential to manufacture a STJ element and develop serial junction type STJ element on the base of optimization of the element structure and selection and single crystallization of new superconducting materials such as Ta and others, activating the research results. (G.K.)

  10. Superconducting kinetic inductance detectors for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardulakis, G; Withington, S; Goldie, D J; Glowacka, D M

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is an exciting new device that promises high-sensitivity, large-format, submillimetre to x-ray imaging arrays for astrophysics. KIDs comprise a superconducting thin-film microwave resonator capacitively coupled to a probe transmission line. By exciting the electrical resonance with a microwave probe signal, the transmission phase of the resonator can be monitored, allowing the deposition of energy or power to be detected. We describe the fabrication and low-temperature testing, down to 26 mK, of a number of devices, and confirm the basic principles of operation. The KIDs were fabricated on r-plane sapphire using superconducting niobium and aluminium as the resonator material, and tantalum as the x-ray absorber. KID quality factors of up to Q = (741 ± 15) × 10 3 were measured for niobium at 1 K, and quasiparticle effective recombination times of τ* R = 30 µs after x-ray absorption. Al/Ta quasiparticle traps were combined with resonators to make complete detectors. These devices were operated at 26 mK with quality factors of up Q = (187.7 ± 3.5) × 10 3 and a phase-shift responsivity of ∂θ/∂N qp = (5.06 ± 0.23) × 10 −6 degrees per quasiparticle. Devices were characterized both at thermal equilibrium and as x-ray detectors. A range of different x-ray pulse types was observed. Low phase-noise readout measurements on Al/Ta KIDs gave a minimum NEP = 1.27 × 10 −16 W Hz −1/2 at a readout frequency of 550 Hz and NEP = 4.60 × 10 −17 W Hz −1/2 at 95 Hz, for effective recombination times τ* R = 100 µs and τ* R = 350 µs respectively. This work demonstrates that high-sensitivity detectors are possible, encouraging further development and research into KIDs

  11. Superconducting magnet technology for particle accelerators and detectors seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to superconducting magnets for particle accelerators and detectors, the aim being to explain the vocabulary and describe the basic technology of modern superconducting magnets, and to explore the limits of the technology. It will include the following: - Why we need superconducting magnets - Properties of superconductors, critical field, critical temperature - Why accelerators need fine filaments and cables; conductor manufacture - Temperature rise and temperature margin: the quench process, training - Quench protection schemes. Protection in the case of the LHC. - Magnets for detectors - The challenges of state-of-the-art magnets for High Energy Physics

  12. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  13. Detectors for the superconducting super collider, design concepts, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the needs of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems.

  14. The physics of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, Jelmer Jan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the detection mechanism in superconducting single photon detectors via quantum detector tomography. We find that the detection event is caused by diffusion of quasiparticles from the absorption spot, combined with entrance of a vortex. Moreover, we investigate the behaviour of

  15. Detectors for the superconducting super collider, design concepts, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the needs of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems

  16. Fabrication of Superconducting Detectors for Studying the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting detectors offer unparalleled means of making astronomical/cosmological observations. Fabrication of these detectors is somewhat unconventional; however, a lot of novel condensed matter physics/materials scientific discoveries and semiconductor fabrication processes can be generated in making these devices.

  17. Detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider, design concepts, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The physics of compensation calorimetry is reviewed in the light of the need of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors. The four major detector types: liquid argon, scintillator, room temperature liquids, and silicon, are analyzed with respect to some of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, general comments are presented which reflect the reliability of simulation code systems. 29 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Superconducting Cable Development for Future High Energy Physics Detector Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, I. L.

    1995-11-01

    Under the leadership of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) an international ad hoc collaboration for superconducting cables developed an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable for future detector magnets. With the financial support of the Swiss government, this R&D work was carried out for the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). In this report the manufacturing process is described and results of the quality control measurements are summarised. These tests showed that the industrial manufacturing of an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable is feasible.

  19. Superheated superconducting granules: a detector for particle physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-01-01

    A general introduction to superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors is given and some recent results on their basic properties are presented. Granules recently made by industrial producers exhibit good metastability properties and show sensitivity, better than naively expected, to photons and ionizing particles. The behaviour of SSG detectors at very low temperatures is also discussed. We finally sketch a critical review of proposed applications to the cross-disciplinary frontier between particle physics and astrophysics

  20. Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B., E-mail: verma@nist.gov; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.

  1. Quasiparticle losses at the surface of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panteleit, F.; Schroeder, T.; Martin, J.; Huebener, R.P.; Kiewiet, F.B.; Berg, van den M.L.; Korte, P.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are promising as high energy resolution x-ray detectors. However, the theoretical limit of the energy resolution of STJs has not yet been reached for several reasons. In many cases quasiparticle losses limit the energy resolution. We have investigated STJs

  2. New Fast Response Thin Film-Based Superconducting Quench Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; van de Camp, W; Ravaioli, E; Teixeira, A; ten Kate, H H J

    2014-01-01

    Quench detection on superconducting bus bars and other devices with a low normal zone propagation velocity and low voltage build-up is quite difficult with conventional quench detection techniques. Currently, on ATLAS superconducting bus bar sections, superconducting quench detectors (SQD) are mounted to detect quench events. A first version of the SQD essentially consists of an insulated superconducting wire glued to a superconducting bus line or windings, which in the case of a quench rapidly builds up a relatively high resistance that can be easily and quietly detected. We now introduce a new generation of drastically improved SQDs. The new version makes the detection of quenches simpler, more reliable, and much faster. Instead of a superconducting wire, now a superconducting thin film is used. The layout of the sensor shows a meander like pattern that is etched out of a copper coated 25 mu m thick film of Nb-Ti glued in between layers of Kapton. Since the sensor is now much smaller and thinner, it is easi...

  3. New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goltsman G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.

  4. A magnetically coupled quench detector for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Kristalinski, A.; Visser, A.T.

    1993-12-01

    This note describes a low voltage signal detector that is useful for detecting quenches or excessive lead voltages at superconducting magnets. It can also be used for other applications where it is needed to detect low level signals present on high voltage installations. The application of isolated operational amplifiers is often not practical for high voltage applications because of their limited input voltage rating, common mode rejection and sensitivity. The described detector can withstand 7.5 kV input to ground voltage. It has a typical common mode rejection of -150 dB at 60 Hz and an input sensitivity better than 1 mV. The magnetically coupled quench detector assembly is very sensitive to extremely small (order of 1 μAmp) current changes in the sense windings. The detector assembly can therefore also be referred to as a micro current detector

  5. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity. (topical review)

  6. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  7. Ultrasensitive superconducting terahertz detectors: novel approaches and emerging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Andrei; Mitin, Vladimir; Karasik, Boris; Vitkalov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Novel approaches to THz sensing based superconductor detectors and emerging superconducting nanomaterials have a strong potential to boost development of advanced optoelectronic devices, such as THz detectors, THz mixers, single photon counters and quantum calorimeters with outstanding sensitivity. Such devices have a number of applications in THZ environmental and industrial monitoring, astrophysics, homeland security, and medicine. Single photon counters have potential as key elements for optical communication and networking, quantum imaging and metrology, quantum optical computing and bio-photonics, and single-molecule spectroscopy

  8. Single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Akira; Onogi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sekiya, Akito; Hayakawa, Hisao; Yorozu, Shinichi; Terai, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits to multi superconducting radiation detectors system. The SFQ-based analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have the advantage in current sensitivity, which can reach less than 10 nA in a well-tuned ADC. We have also developed the design technology of the SFQ circuits. We demonstrate high-speed operation of large-scale integrated circuits such as a 2x2 cross/bar switch, arithmetic logic unit, indicating that our present SFQ technology is applicable to the multi radiation detectors system. (author)

  9. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, M., E-mail: martino.calvo@neel.cnrs.fr [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Goupy, J.; D' Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bourrion, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Catalano, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Monfardini, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-11

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  10. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D'Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  11. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  12. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki, E-mail: miyajima@nict.go.jp [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a {sup 10}B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a {sup 10}B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with {sup 10}B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  13. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a "1"0B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with "1"0B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  14. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  15. Superconducting Hot-Electron Submillimeter-Wave Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting hot-electron bolometer has been built and tested as a prototype of high-sensitivity, rapid-response detectors of submillimeter-wavelength radiation. There are diverse potential applications for such detectors, a few examples being submillimeter spectroscopy for scientific research; detection of leaking gases; detection of explosive, chemical, and biological weapons; and medical imaging. This detector is a superconducting-transition- edge device. Like other such devices, it includes a superconducting bridge that has a low heat capacity and is maintained at a critical temperature (T(sub c)) at the lower end of its superconducting-transition temperature range. Incident photons cause transient increases in electron temperature through the superconducting-transition range, thereby yielding measurable increases in electrical resistance. In this case, T(sub c) = 6 K, which is approximately the upper limit of the operating-temperature range of silicon-based bolometers heretofore used routinely in many laboratories. However, whereas the response speed of a typical silicon- based laboratory bolometer is characterized by a frequency of the order of a kilohertz, the response speed of the present device is much higher characterized by a frequency of the order of 100 MHz. For this or any bolometer, a useful figure of merit that one seeks to minimize is (NEP)(tau exp 1/2), where NEP denotes the noise-equivalent power (NEP) and the response time. This figure of merit depends primarily on the heat capacity and, for a given heat capacity, is approximately invariant. As a consequence of this approximate invariance, in designing a device having a given heat capacity to be more sensitive (to have lower NEP), one must accept longer response time (slower response) or, conversely, in designing it to respond faster, one must accept lower sensitivity. Hence, further, in order to increase both the speed of response and the sensitivity, one must make the device very small in

  16. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H

    2014-03-24

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  17. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  18. Terahertz detectors using hot-electrons in superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A. [DLR, Inst. of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Recently the terahertz gap has been recognized as a prospective spectral range for radioastronomy as well as for material and security studies. Implementation of terahertz technology in these fields requires further improvement of instruments and their major subcomponents. Physical phenomena associated with the local and homogeneous non-equilibrium electron sates in thin superconducting films offer numerous possibilities for the development of terahertz and infrared detectors. Depending on the nature of the resistive state and the operation regime, a variety of detector can be realized. They are e.g. direct bolometric or kinetic inductance detectors, heterodyne mixers or photon counters. Operation principles and physical limitations of these devices will be discussed. Two examples of the detector development made in cooperation between the German Aerospace Center, the University of Karlsruhe and PTB, Berlin will be presented. The energy resolving single-photon detector with an almost fundamentally limited energy resolution of 0.6 eV at 6.5 K for photons with wavelengths from 400 nm to 2500 nm and the heterodyne mixer quasioptically coupled to radiation in the frequency range from 0.8 THz to 5 THz and providing a noise temperature of less then ten times the quantum limit. The mixers will be implemented in the terahertz radar for security screening (TERASEC) and in the heterodyne receiver of the stratospheric observatory SOFIA. (orig.)

  19. Superconducting microresonator detectors for neutrino physics in Milano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, E; Faverzani, M; Giachero, A; Nizzolo, R; Nucciotti, A; Day, P; LeDuc, H G; Falferi, P; Giordano, C; Marghesin, B; Mattedi, F; Mezzena, R

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting microwave microresonators are low temperature detectors compatible with large-scale multiplexed frequency domain readout. Our aim is to adapt and further advance the technology of microresonator detectors to develop new devices applied to the problem of measuring the neutrino mass. More specifically, we aim to develop detector arrays which can be applied to the calorimetric measurement of the energy spectra of 163 Ho EC decay (Q ∼ 2-3 keV) for a direct measurement of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this goal, a study aimed to the selection of the best design and material for the detectors is required. A recent advance in microwave microresonator technology was the discovery that some metal nitrides, such as TiN, possess properties consistent with very high detector sensitivity. In this contribution, our progress on the design and test of Ti/TiN multilayer films is presented. We report measurements made on stoichiometric TiN, sub-stoichiometric TiN and multilayer Ti/TiN films including the critical temperature, the gap parameter and the quasi-particle recombination time extrapolated from ∼keV X-ray pulses.

  20. Conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid for a magnetic SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.H.

    1988-07-01

    The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has begun at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictibility of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Although the magnet is considerably larger than existing solenoids of this type and although many issues of manufacturability, transportability and cost have not been completely addressed, our conceptual design has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Broadband illumination of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, T; Goldie, D J; Withington, S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the detailed behaviour of superconducting pair breaking photon detectors such as Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) requires knowledge of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distributions. We have previously calculated the steady state distributions resulting from uniform absorption of monochromatic sub gap and above gap frequency radiation by thin films. In this work, we use the same methods to calculate the effect of illumination by broadband sources, such as thermal radiation from astrophysical phenomena or from the readout system. Absorption of photons at multiple above gap frequencies is shown to leave unchanged the structure of the quasiparticle energy distribution close to the superconducting gap. Hence for typical absorbed powers, we find the effects of absorption of broadband pair breaking radiation can simply be considered as the sum of the effects of absorption of many monochromatic sources. Distribution averaged quantities, like quasiparticle generation efficiency η, match exactly a weighted average over the bandwidth of the source of calculations assuming a monochromatic source. For sub gap frequencies, however, distributing the absorbed power across multiple frequencies does change the low energy quasiparticle distribution. For moderate and high absorbed powers, this results in a significantly larger η–a higher number of excess quasiparticles for a broadband source compared to a monochromatic source of equal total absorbed power. Typically in KIDs the microwave power absorbed has a very narrow bandwidth, but in devices with broad resonance characteristics (low quality factors), this increase in η may be measurable. (paper)

  2. 2 T superconducting detector solenoid for the PANDA target spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, A.A.; Koshurnikov, E.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Lobanov, Y.Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lobanov@jinr.ru; Makarov, A.F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Orth, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Sissakian, A.N.; Vodopianov, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the JINR design of the large 2 T superconducting solenoid for the target spectrometer of the PANDA experiment at HESR (FAIR, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The solenoid coil has an inner radius of 1.08 m and a length of 2.90 m. This solenoid is non-centrally split providing a warm bore of 100 mm in diameter through the coil to accommodate sufficient space for the internal target installations. Maximally stored energy in the windings is 22.3 MJ. All tracking and calorimetric detectors surrounding the target point, with exception of a forward cone of 5{sup 0} opening, are placed inside the lqHe-cryostat. The main features of the design and technique are as follows: a copper stabilizer and soldering technique for the superconducting cable; a stainless steel cryostat; winding technique over a mandrel; coreless type of the coil; low operational current. The details of the PANDA solenoid design including the magnetic field and stress-strain calculations are covered.

  3. Testing of the superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab collider detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Holmes, C.N.; Kephart, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    The 3 m phi x 5 m long x 1.5 T superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector has been installed at Fermilab and was tested in early 1985 with a dedicated refrigeration system. The refrigerator and 5.6-Mg magnet cold mass were cooled to 5 K in 210 hours. After testing at low currents, the magnet was charged to the design current of 5 kA in 5-MJ steps. During a 390 A/min charge a spontaneous quench occurred at 4.5 kA due to insufficient liquid helium flow. Three other quenches occurred during ''slow'' discharges which were nevertheless fast enough to cause high eddy current heating in the outer support cylinder. Quench behavior is well understood and the magnet is now quite reliable

  4. Advanced Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Detector Arrays for CMB Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James

    2014-01-01

    We are developing high-sensitivity millimeter-wave detector arrays for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This development is directed to advance the technology readiness of the Inflation Probe mission in NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program. The Inflation Probe is a fourth-generation CMB satellite that will measure the polarization of the CMB to astrophysical limits, characterizing the inflationary polarization signal, mapping large-scale structure based on polarization induced by gravitational lensing, and mapping Galactic magnetic fields through measurements of polarized dust emission. The inflationary polarization signal is produced by a background of gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation, an exponential expansion of space-time in the early universe, with an amplitude that depends on the physical mechanism producing inflation. The inflationary polarization signal may be distinguished by its unique 'B-mode' vector properties from polarization from the density variations that predominantly source CMB temperature anisotropy. Mission concepts for the Inflation Probe are being developed in the US, Europe and Japan. The arrays are based on planar antennas that provide integral beam collimation, polarization analysis, and spectral band definition in a compact lithographed format that eliminates discrete fore-optics such as lenses and feedhorns. The antennas are coupled to transition-edge superconducting bolometers, read out with multiplexed SQUID current amplifiers. The superconducting sensors and readouts developed in this program share common technologies with NASA X-ray and FIR detector applications. Our program targets developments required for space observations, and we discuss our technical progress over the past two years and plans for future development. We are incorporating arrays into active sub-orbital and ground-based experiments, which advance technology readiness while producing state of the art CMB

  5. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary

  6. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

  7. High-Q superconducting niobium cavities for gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paula, L A N; Furtado, S R; Aguiar, O D; N F Oliveira Jr, N F Oliveira Jr; Castro, P J; Barroso, J J

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to optimize the electric Q-factor of superconducting niobium klystron cavities to be used in parametric transducers of the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave detector. Many cavities were manufactured from niobium with relatively high tantalum impurities (1420 ppm) and they were cryogenically tested to determine their resonance frequencies, unloaded electrical quality factors (Q 0 ) and electromagnetic couplings. These cavities were closed with a flat niobium plate with tantalum impurities below 1000 ppm and an unloaded electrical quality factors of the order of 10 5 have been obtained. AC conductivity of the order of 10 12 S/m has been found for niobium cavities when matching experimental results with computational simulations. These values for the Q-factor would allow the detector to reach the quantum limit of sensitivity of ∼ 10 −22 Hz −1/2 in the near future, making it possible to search for gravitational waves around 3.2 kHz. The experimental tests were performed at the laboratories of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and at the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv - CTA)

  8. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on SOI for near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojan, Philipp; Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Hofherr, Matthias; Doerner, Steffen; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Semenov, Alexey [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are promising devices for photon detectors with high count rates, low dark count rates and low dead times. At wavelengths beyond the visible range, the detection efficiency of today's SNSPDs drops significantly. Moreover, the low absorption in ultra-thin detector films is a limiting factor over the entire spectral range. Solving this problem requires approaches for an enhancement of the absorption range in feeding the light to the detector element. A possibility to obtain a better absorption is the use of multilayer substrate materials for photonic waveguide structures. We present results on development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors made from niobium nitride on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) multilayer substrates. Optical and superconducting properties of SNSPDs on SOI will be discussed and compared with the characteristics of detectors on common substrates.

  9. Fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors for quantum correlation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Gorska, M.; Reiger, E.; Dorenbos, S.; Zwiller, V.; Milostnaya, I.; Minaeva, O.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated fiber-coupled superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), designed for quantum-correlationtype experiments. The SSPDs are nanostructured (~100-nm wide and 4-nm thick) NbN superconducting meandering stripes, operated in the 2 to 4.2 K temperature range, and known for ultrafast

  10. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  11. Recent results and prospects on superheated superconducting granules detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-11-01

    The basic properties of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors are reviewed. Recent results are presented and discussed. Granule samples of different sizes (10 μm -8 Ω.cm -6 Ω.cm) exhibit encouraging sensitivity to low energy β and γ sources (down to 55 Fe 6 KeV γ'S). All tests were performed with real-time read-out electronics, detecting single granule flips under the action of individual particles. Sensitivity is shown to depend on normal state resistivity. Irradiation of very large tin granules (45 μm ≤ Φ ≤ 400 μm) with α particles ( 241 Am, E ≅ 5.5 MeV) shows evidence for local heating, where the observed energy threshold is far below the one predicted by equilibrium thermodynamical calculations. Tests made at lower temperatures (T ≥ 450 mK) show the absence of avalanche effect (seen by other authors in different conditions) for several samples of tin granules. A theoretical discussion of the avalanche effect is presented. The understanding of the role of heat exchanges in the composite medium leads to the concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' and opens the way to drastic improvements of SSG performance for particle detection. Such a phenomenon should be obtained by a better thermal matching between dielectric and granules, working at temperatures where the released latent heat is slightly positive. Estimates of the behavior of the detector at very low T are also given, where a thin layer of normal electrons near the surface is shown to contribute to the heat capacity of a superheated granule. We discuss the main points to be studied in the near future, and give a brief evaluation of the present status of feasibility investigation for several proposed experiments (solar neutrinos, monopoles, dark matter, double β,...). An updated working program for SSG development is proposed

  12. Principles of superheated superconducting granules as a detector for dark matter and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.

    1993-01-01

    The interest in superconducting devices for particle detection is based on the very small quantum energies involved as compared to conventional ionization and semiconductor detectors. The use of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) as a particle detector is reviewed. Physical properties and experimental applications of SSG are discussed. The dynamic responses of the phase transition of superheated superconducting Sn, In, Al and Zn single granules (20-50μm in diameter) due to an applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating threshold are presented. A status report on further experimental development is given. (orig.)

  13. Model for cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proebst, F.; Frank, M.; Cooper, S.; Colling, P.; Dummer, D.; Ferger, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    1994-09-01

    We present data on a detector composed of an 18 g Si crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer which could be operated over a wide temperature range. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) has been obtained for 60 keV photons. The signals consist of two components: A fast one and a slow one, with decay times of 1.5 ms and 30-60 ms, respectively. In this paper we present a simple model which takes thermal and non-thermal phonon processes into account and provides a description of the observed temperature dependence of the pulse shape. The fast component, which completely dominates the signal at low temperatures, is due to high-frequency non-thermal phonons being absorbed in the thermometer. Thermalization of these phonons then leads to a temperature rise of the absorber, which causes the slow thermal component. At the highest operating temperatures (T∼80 mK) the amplitude of the slow component is roughly as expected from the heat capacity of the absorber. The strong suppression of the slow component at low temperatures is explained mostly as a consequence of the weak thermal coupling between electrons and phonons in the thermometer at low temperatures. (orig.)

  14. Influence of material and geometry on the performance of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Henrich, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors offer the capability to detect electromagnetic waves on a single photon level in a wavelength range that far exceeds that of alternative detector types. However, above a certain threshold wavelength, the efficiency of those detectors decreases stronlgy, leading to a poor performance in the far-infrared range. Influences on this threshold are studied and approaches for improvement are verified experimentally by measurement of the device performance.

  15. Test of a superheated superconducting granule detector with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a Superheated Superconducting Granule (SSG) detector development for neutrinos and dark matter. An aluminum SSG detector was exposed to a 70MeV neutron beam to test the detector sensitivity to nuclear recoils. The neutron scattering angels were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The proved sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils above 10keV is encouraging for possible applications of SSG as a dark matter detector. (orig.)

  16. Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...

  17. A superconducting detector for X and gamma imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of certain superconducting materials enables metastable states of magnetization to be obtained which can be destroyed by an external perturbation. It is this property of small semiconducting grains that is exploited in the realization of a flat matrix screen for X and gamma ray detection. This solid state matrix screen, which is made of tin grains and superconducting pins provides a directly digitized image suitable for medical and industrial application [fr

  18. Technologies pioneered by LHC. Superconducting magnet and radiation-tolerant tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Unno, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    In the LHC project of proton-proton collisions exploring the energy frontier, superconducting magnets and radiation-tolerant tracking detector play fundamental roles as key technologies. The superconducting magnets contribute to bending and focusing particle beam by using high magnetic field created with the NbTi superconductor cooled to the superfluid temperature of He (1.9 K). In order to overcome the unprecedented radiation damage and to capture the particles emerging with high energy and high density, the large area and highly radiation-tolerant silicon semiconductor tracking detector has been developed for the LHC experiment. (author)

  19. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Robert M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime

  20. Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

  1. Photon-assisted Tunneling In Double-barrier Superconducting Tunnel-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierichs, M. M. T. M.; Dieleman, P.; Wezelman, J. J.; Honingh, C. E.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Double-barrier Nb/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3/Nb tunnel junctions are used as mixing elements in a 345 GHz waveguide mixer. Noise temperatures (double side band) down to 720 K at 3.0 K are obtained without the need to apply a magnetic field to suppress the Josephson current. It is shown that the composite

  2. Cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Bucci, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Buehler, M.; Cooper, S.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Forster, G.; Gabutti, A.; Hoehne, J.; Igalson, J.; Kellner, E.; Loidl, M.; Meier, O.; Nagel, U.; Proebst, F.; Rulofs, A.; Schanda, U.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Stolovich, A.; Zerle, L.

    1996-01-01

    A tungsten superconducting phase transition thermometer on a 32 g sapphire crystal has given an energy resolution of 100 eV (FWHM) for 1.5 keV X-rays, increasing to 440 eV at 14 keV. A possibility to obtain similar resolution in much larger crystals by using Al films as phonon collectors is presented. (orig.)

  3. A high efficiency superconducting nanowire single electron detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosticher, M.; Ladan, F.R.; Maneval, J.P.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zwiller, V.; Lupa?cu, A.; Nogues, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of single electrons using a Nb0.7Ti0.3N superconducting wire deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. While it is known that this device is sensitive to single photons, we show that it also detects single electrons with kilo-electron-volt energy emitted from the cathode of

  4. Pulse laser irradiation into superconducting MgB2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Miki, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Shimakage, Hisashi; Wang, Zhen; Okayasu, Satoru; Katagiri, Masaki; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu

    2005-01-01

    We performed 20-ps pulse laser irradiation experiments on a MgB 2 neutron detector to know a thermal-relaxation process for designing a MgB 2 neutron detector. The membrane-type structured MgB 2 device was fabricated to minimize the heat capacity of sensing part of a detector as well as to enhance its sensitivity. We successfully observed a thermal-relaxation signal resulting from pulse laser irradiation by developing a detection circuit. The response time was faster than 1 μs, meaning that the detector would be capable of counting neutrons at a rate of more than 10 6 events per second

  5. New developments on transition radiation detectors using superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.C.L.

    1977-01-01

    By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system

  6. Superconducting resonator used as a beam phase detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sharamentov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam-bunch arrival time has been measured for the first time by operating superconducting cavities, normally part of the linac accelerator array, in a bunch-detecting mode. The very high Q of the superconducting cavities provides high sensitivity and allows for phase-detecting low-current beams. In detecting mode, the resonator is operated at a very low field level comparable to the field induced by the bunched beam. Because of this, the rf field in the cavity is a superposition of a “pure” (or reference rf and the beam-induced signal. A new method of circular phase rotation (CPR, allowing extraction of the beam phase information from the composite rf field was developed. Arrival time phase determination with CPR is better than 1° (at 48 MHz for a beam current of 100 nA. The electronics design is described and experimental data are presented.

  7. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  8. Real-time imaging systems for superconducting nanowire single-photon detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofherr, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Superconducting nanowire singe-photon detectors (SNSPD) are promising detectors in the field of applications, where single-photon resolution is required like in quantum optics, spectroscopy or astronomy. These cryogenic detectors gain from a broad spectrum in the optical and infrared range and deliver low dark counts and low jitter. This work provides a piece of deeper physical understanding of detector functionality in combination with highly engineered readout development. A detailed analysis focuses on the intrinsic detection mechanism of SNSPDs related to the detection in the infrared regime and the evolution of dark counts. With this fundamental knowledge, the next step is the development of a multi-pixel readout at cryogenic conditions. It is demonstrated, how two auspicious multi-pixel readout concepts can be realized, which enables statistical framing like in imaging applications using RSFQ electronics with fast framing rates and the readout of a detector array with continuous real-time single-photon resolution.

  9. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  10. Quench detector and analyser for a UNK superconducting string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augueres, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Molinie, F.; Sellier, J.C.; Andriichine, A.; Prima, M.; Vassiliev, L.; Yerachin, A.

    1992-01-01

    In a close collaboration between physicists and engineers from IHEP and CEN Saclay, a system for quench detection on a UNK superconducting string (from 4 to 100 magnets) has been designed and is now under construction at Saclay; this system also enables the data analysis in normal conditions or in case of a quench. The paper describes the architectural design of the system, the hardware (microprocessors are used for the whole system) and the software. Emphasis will be put on the main problems of construction friability, quench detection at a low level and in a very short time, high voltages, data transmission on long distances and integration in the general system of the accelerator

  11. Ultrathin NbN film superconducting single-photon detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, K; Korneev, A; Minaeva, O; Divochiy, A; Tarkhov, M; Ryabchun, S; Seleznev, V; Kaurova, N; Voronov, B; Gol'tsman, G; Polonsky, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication process of the 2 x 2 superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) array. The SSPD array is made from ultrathin NbN film and is operated at liquid helium temperatures. Each detector is a nanowire-based structure patterned by electron beam lithography process. The advances in fabrication technology allowed us to produce highly uniform strips and preserve superconducting properties of the unpatterned film. SSPD exhibit up to 30% quantum efficiency in near infrared and up to 1% at 5-μm wavelength. Due to 120 MHz counting rate and 18 ps jitter, the time-domain multiplexing read-out is proposed for large scale SSPD arrays. Single-pixel SSPD has already found a practical application in non-invasive testing of semiconductor very-large scale integrated circuits. The SSPD significantly outperformed traditional single-photon counting avalanche diodes

  12. Superconducting NbN detectors for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Alexei; Richter, Heiko; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm [DLR, Instiute of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institute of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, University of Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We present development of a special type of hot-electron bolometers that is designed to optimally detect pulsed synchrotron radiation in the terahertz frequency range. The enlarged log-spiral antenna makes it possible to sense the low-frequency part of the spectrum in coherent and non-coherent regime. The device follows the layout of a typical HEB mixer. The radiation is coupled quasioptically with the 6-mm elliptical silicon lens. The bolometer has the noise equivalent power 2 nW per square root Hz and responds to a few picoseconds long radiation pulse with the electric pulse having full width at half maximum of 160 ps. We present results obtained with this type of detector at different synchrotron facilities and discuss possible improvements of the detector performance.

  13. An x-ray detector using superconducting aluminum tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, W.C.; Bland, R.W.; Carpenter, J.W.; Johnson, R.T.; Laws, K.E.; Lockhart, J.; Lee, J.S.; Watson, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    We report on tests of a prototype detector for 6-keV X-rays, using series arrays of tunnel junction. Tests with higher-energy particles indicate an energy resolution of 4 keV, at 0.3K and with a warm pre-amp. At lower temperatures and with a cooled FET, the resolution should approach 100 eV

  14. Future IBM-BNL large-area superconducting inductive monopole detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermon, S.; Chi, C.C.; Tsuei, C.C.; Chaudhari, P.; Ketchen, M.; Tesche, C.D.; Prodell, A.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of massive moving magnetic monopoles would have extremely important implications for grand unification theories and cosmological models for the creation of the universe. Among detection methods, the superconducting induction technique is unique in that it directly and unambiguously measures the sole property of the monopole of which the authors are certain--its magnetic charge--the detector response being independent of all other characteristics such as the monopole mass, its velocity, the presence of a companion electric charge, or the detailed nature of its interaction with matter. Described herein are plans for constructing an induction detector sufficiently large to reach the Parker bound in several years of operation

  15. On the definition of timing parameters of a superconducting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevich, A.F.; Fannibo, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    By means of experimental simulation of particle passage through the superconductor intended for radiation detection, the problem of calculation of heat propagation in the superconductor from the particle track is solved. As a superconductor detector the thin wire of NbTi alloy of 10 μm diameter and 4-5 mm length is used. The particle passage through the superconductor is simulated by an instantaneous heat source which arises in a sample at lighting by short light flash the superconductor surface. The ruby laser serves as a light source. Light pulse duration is 100 ns. Light energy is absorbed in a layer of 10 -5 cm thickness at the 10 -3 cm wire diameter. Heat propagation from superconductor surface leads to the sample resistance change. Experimental and calculation dependences of detector resistance time change are given. It has been found that detector resistance change occurs with a certain delay relative to the light pulse initiation. The duration of this delay and the signal form withim 10% remain unchanged at the variation of light flash intensity by four orders which indicates a weak dependence of temperature conductivity coefficient on temperature. The coefficient determining the superconductor heat propagation time has been calculated on the experimental data base. The calculation agrees well with the experiment at the temperature conductivity coefficient value being 0.25 cm 2 /s. The knowledge of this value allows calculation of the thermal effect caused by the charged particle passage through the NbTi base superconductor. The results of calculation of temperature increase in NbTi at critical temperature during the 5.3 MeV α particle passage through the superconductor are presented [ru

  16. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  17. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  18. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  19. Simulation of backgrounds in detectors and energy deposition in superconducting magnets at μ+μ- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.

    1996-01-01

    A calculational approach is described to study beam induced radiation effects in detector and storage ring components at high-energy high-luminosity μ + μ - colliders. The details of the corresponding physics process simulations used in the MARS code are given. Contributions of electromagnetic showers, synchrotron radiation, hadrons and daughter muons to the background rates in a generic detector for a 2 x 2 TeV μ + μ - collider are investigated. Four configurations of the inner triplet and a detector are examined for two sources: muon decays and beam halo interactions in the lattice elements. The beam induced power density in superconducting magnets is calculated and ways to reduce it are proposed

  20. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  1. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  2. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  3. A calorimetric particle detector using an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Dummer, D.; Cooper, S.; Igalson, J.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a calorimetric particles detector consisting of an 18.3 g silicon crystal and an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer. The cryogenic calorimeter and the associated apparatus are described in detail. The pulses from irradiation with an α-particle source have a large unexpected overshoot in addition to the component expected from a naive thermal model. The pulse height spectrum displays an energy resolution of 1 percent FWHM at 6 MeV and good linearity. The noise, electrothermal feedback, and position dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  4. A 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction soft X-ray detector for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Green, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    We are operating a superconducting tunnel junction detector for high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. We have recently upgraded the instrument from 9 to 36 pixels for increased sensitivity. We have also acquired a new digital signal readout to increase the total count rate capabilities to ∼10 6 counts/s while maintaining a high peak-to-background ratio. We report on the performance of the spectrometer, and discuss speciation measurements of chromium in welding aerosols as a typical application of the instrument in environmental science

  5. A 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction soft X-ray detector for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Drury, Owen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cramer, Stephen P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Green, Peter G. [University of California Davis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are operating a superconducting tunnel junction detector for high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. We have recently upgraded the instrument from 9 to 36 pixels for increased sensitivity. We have also acquired a new digital signal readout to increase the total count rate capabilities to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s while maintaining a high peak-to-background ratio. We report on the performance of the spectrometer, and discuss speciation measurements of chromium in welding aerosols as a typical application of the instrument in environmental science.

  6. Digital Data Acquisition System for experiments with segmented detectors at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta, K., E-mail: starosta@sfu.c [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Vaman, C.; Miller, D.; Voss, P.; Bazin, D.; Glasmacher, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Crawford, H.; Mantica, P. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tan, H.; Hennig, W.; Walby, M.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Harris, J.; Breus, D.; Grudberg, P.; Warburton, W.K. [XIA LLC, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States)

    2009-11-11

    A 624-channel Digital Data Acquisition System capable of instrumenting the Segmented Germanium Array at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory has been implemented using Pixie-16 Digital Gamma Finder modules by XIA LLC. The system opens an opportunity for determination of the first interaction position of a gamma ray in a SeGA detector from implementation of gamma-ray tracking. This will translate into a significantly improved determination of angle of emission, and in consequence much better Doppler corrections for experiments with fast beams. For stopped-beam experiments the system provides means for zero dead time measurements of rare decays, which occur on time scales of microseconds.

  7. Digital Data Acquisition System for experiments with segmented detectors at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosta, K.; Vaman, C.; Miller, D.; Voss, P.; Bazin, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Crawford, H.; Mantica, P.; Tan, H.; Hennig, W.; Walby, M.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Harris, J.; Breus, D.; Grudberg, P.; Warburton, W.K.

    2009-01-01

    A 624-channel Digital Data Acquisition System capable of instrumenting the Segmented Germanium Array at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory has been implemented using Pixie-16 Digital Gamma Finder modules by XIA LLC. The system opens an opportunity for determination of the first interaction position of a γ ray in a SeGA detector from implementation of γ-ray tracking. This will translate into a significantly improved determination of angle of emission, and in consequence much better Doppler corrections for experiments with fast beams. For stopped-beam experiments the system provides means for zero dead time measurements of rare decays, which occur on time scales of microseconds.

  8. Digital Data Acquisition System for experiments with segmented detectors at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, K.; Vaman, C.; Miller, D.; Voss, P.; Bazin, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Crawford, H.; Mantica, P.; Tan, H.; Hennig, W.; Walby, M.; Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Harris, J.; Breus, D.; Grudberg, P.; Warburton, W. K.

    2009-11-01

    A 624-channel Digital Data Acquisition System capable of instrumenting the Segmented Germanium Array at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory has been implemented using Pixie-16 Digital Gamma Finder modules by XIA LLC. The system opens an opportunity for determination of the first interaction position of a γ ray in a SeGA detector from implementation of γ-ray tracking. This will translate into a significantly improved determination of angle of emission, and in consequence much better Doppler corrections for experiments with fast beams. For stopped-beam experiments the system provides means for zero dead time measurements of rare decays, which occur on time scales of microseconds.

  9. Diffusion Behaviour in Superconducting Ti/Au bilayers for SAFARI TES Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, N. J.; Khosropanah, P.; van der Kuur, J.; Ridder, M. L.

    2014-08-01

    Controlling the critical temperature () of Ti/Au bilayers is vital in the development of practical TES detectors. Previously empirical studies have been done on aging effects in Ti/Au and other superconducting bilayers but no link with theory has been made. Here we attempt to explain the change in with a diffusion mechanism. The change in has been measured for a set of Ti/Au bilayer samples that have been given a variety of bake-out treatments, where we found a trend that can be partly explained by an inter-diffusion mechanism. With an empirical model based on diffusion a safe zone can be defined as a region of bake-out treatments, where the is not affected beyond the requirements. This will shine light on the bake-out and the storage condition boundaries of these detectors.

  10. Fluctuations and dark count rates in superconducting NbN single-photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Andreas; Semenov, Alexei; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Il'in, Kostya; Siegel, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We measured the temperature- and current-dependence of dark count rates of a superconducting singlephoton detector. The detector's key element is a 84 nm wide meander strip line fabricated from a 5 nm thick NbN film. Due to its reduced dimensions various types of fluctuations can cause temporal and localized transitions into a resistive state leading to dark count events. Adopting a recent refinement of the hotspot model we achieve a satisfying description of the experimental dark count rates taking into account fluctuations of the Cooper-pair density and current-assisted unbinding of vortex-antivortex pairs. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  12. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  13. Superconducting Magnet with the Minimum Steel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mentink, M.; Da Silva, H. Pais; Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Berriaud, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T in combination with two superconducting dipole and two conventional toroid magnets is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 23.468 m long has seven 3.35 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 22.6 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and the 0.7 m thick nose disk and four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks each side. The maximum outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length is 62.6 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity about \\pm 2.7. The superconducting dipole magnets allow measuring the charged particle momenta in the pseudora...

  14. Microfiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector for near-infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lixing; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Yingxin; Hou, Xintong; Fang, Wei; Li, Hao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Tong, Limin; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-12-11

    High-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have facilitated numerous experiments and applications, particularly in the fields of modern quantum optics and quantum communication. Two kinds of optical coupling methods have thus far been developed for SNSPDs: one produces standard fiber-coupled SNSPDs in which the fibers vertically illuminate the meandered nanowires; the other produces waveguide-coupled SNSPDs in which nanowires are fabricated on the surface of a waveguide that guides photons, and the fibers are coupled to the waveguide. In this paper, we report on first experimental demonstration of a new type of SNSPD that is coupled with a microfiber (MF). Photons are guided by the MF and are evanescently absorbed by the nanowires of the SNSPD when the MF is placed on top of superconducting NbN nanowires. Room-temperature optical experiments indicated that this device has a coupling efficiency of up to 90% when a 1.3 μm-diameter MF is used for light with wavelength of 1550 nm. We were also able to demonstrate that our MF-coupled detector achieved system detection efficiencies of 50% and 20% at incident wavelengths of 1064 and 1550 nm, respectively, for a 2 μm-diameter MF at 2.2K. We expect that MF-coupled SNSPDs may show both high efficiency and broadband characteristics upon optimization and will be used for various novel applications, such as micro/nano-fiber optics.

  15. Development of microwave-multiplexed superconductive detectors for the HOLMES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, A.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D. A.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Maino, M.; Mates, J. A. B.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C. D.; Swetz, D. S.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed design of large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. HOLMES is a new experiment to directly measure the neutrino mass with a sensitivity as low as 2eV. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the electron capture (EC) decay of 163 Ho. In its final configuration, HOLMES will deploy 1000 detectors of low temperature microcalorimeters with implanted 163 Ho nuclei. The baseline sensors for HOLMES are Mo/Cu TESs (Transition Edge Sensors) on SiNx membrane with gold absorbers. The readout is based on the use of rf-SQUIDs as input devices with flux ramp modulation for linearization purposes; the rf-SQUID is then coupled to a superconducting lambda/4-wave resonator in the GHz range, and the modulated signal is finally read out using the homodyne technique. The TES detectors have been designed with the aim of achieving an energy resolution of a few eV at the spectrum endpoint and a time resolution of a few micro-seconds, in order to minimize pile-up artifacts.

  16. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  17. Design report for a cryostable 3m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.; Leung, E.; Mruzek, M.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.; Yamada, R.

    1981-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed td study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 4 m long and 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired Δp/sub T//p/sub T/ less than or equal to 15% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200μ resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. This field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10 6 A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe a design for a cryostable superconducting solenoid intended to meet the requirements of the Fermilab ies TDF

  18. A review of superheated superconducting granules as a detector for dark matter, solar neutrinos, monopoles and double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzl, K.P.

    1987-11-01

    The use of superheated superconducting granules as a particle detector is reviewed. Their application for the detection of dark matter, solar neutrinos, monopoles, and double beta decay is described. A status report on the experimental development of these devices is given. (orig.)

  19. Development of Ta-based Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Detectors for Fluorescence XAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.; Hall, J.; Cantor, R.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) soft X-ray detectors for chemical analysis of dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our 36-pixel Nb-based STJ spectrometer covers a solid angle (Omega)/4π ∼ 10 -3 , offers an energy resolution of ∼10-20 eV FWHM for energies up to ∼1 keV, and can be operated at total count rates of ∼10 6 counts/s. For increased quantum efficiency and cleaner response function, we have now started the development of Ta-based STJ detector arrays. Initial devices modeled after our Nb-based STJs have an energy resolution below 10 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and pulse rise time discrimination can be used to improve their response function for energies up to several keV. We discuss the performance of the Ta-STJs and outline steps towards the next-generation of large STJ detector arrays with higher sensitivity.

  20. Optimal design of superconducting fault detector for superconductor triggered fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, S.-W.; Kim, H.-R.; Hyun, O.-B.; Sim, J.; Park, K.B.; Lee, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and tested a superconducting fault detector (SFD) for a 22.9 kV superconductor triggered fault current limiters (STFCLs) using Au/YBCO thin films. The SFD is to detect a fault and commutate the current from the primary path to the secondary path of the STFCL. First, quench characteristics of the Au/YBCO thin films were investigated for various faults having different fault duration. The rated voltage of the Au/YBCO thin films was determined from the results, considering the stability of the Au/YBCO elements. Second, the recovery time to superconductivity after quench was measured in each fault case. In addition, the dependence of the recovery characteristics on numbers and dimension of Au/YBCO elements were investigated. Based on the results, a SFD was designed, fabricated and tested. The SFD successfully detected a fault current and carried out the line commutation. Its recovery time was confirmed to be less than 0.5 s, satisfying the reclosing scheme in the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO)'s power grid

  1. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  2. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  3. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  4. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  5. High density processing electronics for superconducting tunnel junction x-ray detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K., E-mail: bill@xia.com [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Harris, J.T. [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are excellent soft x-ray (100–2000 eV) detectors, particularly for synchrotron applications, because of their ability to obtain energy resolutions below 10 eV at count rates approaching 10 kcps. In order to achieve useful solid detection angles with these very small detectors, they are typically deployed in large arrays – currently with 100+ elements, but with 1000 elements being contemplated. In this paper we review a 5-year effort to develop compact, computer controlled low-noise processing electronics for STJ detector arrays, focusing on the major issues encountered and our solutions to them. Of particular interest are our preamplifier design, which can set the STJ operating points under computer control and achieve 2.7 eV energy resolution; our low noise power supply, which produces only 2 nV/√Hz noise at the preamplifier's critical cascode node; our digital processing card that digitizes and digitally processes 32 channels; and an STJ I–V curve scanning algorithm that computes noise as a function of offset voltage, allowing an optimum operating point to be easily selected. With 32 preamplifiers laid out on a custom 3U EuroCard, and the 32 channel digital card in a 3U PXI card format, electronics for a 128 channel array occupy only two small chassis, each the size of a National Instruments 5-slot PXI crate, and allow full array control with simple extensions of existing beam line data collection packages.

  6. Conceptual design report for a superconducting coil suitable for use in the large solenoid detector at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Krebs, H.J.; Kephart, R.D.; Theriot, D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a large superconducting solenoid suitable for a magnetic detector at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was done at Fermilab. The magnet will provide a magnetic field of 1.7 T over a volume 8 m in diameter by 16 m long. The particle-physics calorimetry will be inside the field volume and so the coil will be bath cooled and cryostable; the vessels will be stainless steel. Predictability of performance and the ability to safely negotiate all probable failure modes, including a quench, are important items of the design philosophy. Our conceptual design of the magnet and calorimeter has convinced us that this magnet is a reasonable extrapolation of present technology and is therefore feasible. The principal difficulties anticipated are those associated with the very large physical dimensions and stored energy of the magnet. 5 figs

  7. Performance and Characterization of a Modular Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector System for Space-to-Earth Optical Communications Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Space-to-ground photon-counting optical communication links supporting high data rates over large distances require enhanced ground receiver sensitivity in order to reduce the mass and power burden on the spacecraft transmitter. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been demonstrated to offer superior performance in detection efficiency, timing resolution, and count rates over semiconductor photodetectors, and are a suitable technology for high photon efficiency links. Recently photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires have become commercially available, and we have assessed the characteristics and performance of one such commercial system as a candidate for potential utilization in ground receiver designs. The SNSPD system features independent channels which can be added modularly, and we analyze the scalability of the system to support different data rates, as well as consider coupling concepts and issues as the number of channels increases.

  8. Observation of meander pattern in signals from superconducting MgB{sub 2} detector by scanning pulsed laser imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Takekazu, E-mail: ishida@center.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yagi, Ikutaro; Yoshioka, Naohito; Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yotsuya, Tsutomu [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, 2-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Shimakage, Hisashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Miki, Shigehito [Kansai Advanced Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka-cho, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2429 (Japan); Wang, Zhen [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kansai Advanced Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka-cho, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2429 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We fabricate a superconducting MgB{sub 2} meander detector as a solid-state neutron detector. ► MgB{sub 2} detector uses XYZ stage, optical fiber and focused lens to scan as a microscope. ► The 6 μm line-and-space in meandering pattern can be resolved in signals against pulsed laser. -- Abstract: Superconducting MgB{sub 2} meander detector has been imaged by scanning a spot of 1.5-μm focused pulsed laser. The superconducting detector using high-quality {sup 10}B-enriched MgB{sub 2} thin films at higher operating temperatures has been fabricated to utilize a resistance change induced by the nuclear energy of {sup 10}B and neutron. The MgB{sub 2} detector consists of a 200-nm-thick MgB{sub 2} thin-film meander line, a 300-nm-thick SiO protective layer, and 150-nm-thick Nb electrodes with 1-μm MgB{sub 2} wires. The devices were placed in a 4 K refrigerator to control at a certain temperature below T{sub c}. A scanning laser spot can be used by the combination of the XYZ piezo-drive stage and an optical fibre with an aspheric focused lens. The measurement system is fully controlled by LabVIEW based software. We succeeded in observing a line-and-space image of a meandering pattern by analysing response signals.

  9. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  10. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion

  11. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  12. Multi-channeled NbN superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) system with NbN meander nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Miki, Shigehito; Wang Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting single photon detector (SSPD) is promising candidate of the detector in a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, because of its low dark count and high speed repetition rate. We have developed the SSPD system cooled by a GM cryocooler. In this system, and the work surface can be cooled 2.95 K and up to 6 SSPDs can be installed. The active areas of SSPDs are 10x10 μm 2 or 20x20 μm 2 , and the system detection efficiency at dark count rate of 100 Hz reached 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  13. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  14. Detection of nuclear recoils in prototype dark matter detectors, made from Al, Sn and Zn superheated superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abplanalp, M.; Van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector for cold dark matter and neutrinos. The response of SSG devices to nuclear recoils has been explored irradiating SSG detectors with a 70 MeV neutron beam. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of Sn, Al and Zn SSG detectors to nuclear recoil energies down to a few keV. The detector consisted of a hollow teflon cylinder (0.1 cm 3 inner volume) filled with tiny superconducting metastable granules embedded in a dielectric medium. The nuclear recoil energies deposited in the SSG were determined measuring the neutron scattering angles with a neutron hodoscope. Coincidences in time between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. In this paper the results of the neutron irradiation experiments at different SSG intrinsic thresholds are discussed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that SSG are sensitive to recoil energies down to similar 1 keV. The limited angular resolution of the neutron hodoscope prevented us from measuring the SSG sensitivity to even lower recoil energies. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of high temperature superconductive thermal bridges for space borne cryogenic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites are used to monitor the conditions in the earth's upper atmosphere. In these systems, the electronic links connecting the cryogenically cooled infrared detectors to the significantly warmer amplification electronics act as thermal bridges and, consequently, the mission lifetimes of the satellites are limited due to cryogenic evaporation. High-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials have been proposed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley's Research Center (NASA-LaRC) as an alternative to the currently used manganin wires for electrical connection. The potential for using HTS films as thermal bridges has provided the motivation for the design and the analysis of a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the performance of this superconductive technology in the space environment. The initial efforts were focused on the preliminary design of the experimental system which allows for the quantitative comparison of superconductive leads with manganin leads, and on the thermal conduction modeling of the proposed system. Most of the HTS materials were indicated to be potential replacements for the manganin wires. In the continuation of this multi-year research, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the sources of heat transfer on the thermal bridges that have been neglected in the preliminary conductive model and then to develop a methodology for the estimation of the thermal conductivities of the HTS thermal bridges in space. The Joule heating created by the electrical current through the manganin wires was incorporated as a volumetric heat source into the manganin conductive model. The radiative heat source on the HTS thermal bridges was determined by performing a separate radiant interchange analysis within a high-T(sub c) superconductor housing area. Both heat sources indicated no significant contribution on the cryogenic heat load, which validates the results obtained in the preliminary conduction

  16. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  17. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  18. Coherent Anti-Stokes and Coherent Stokes in Raman Scattering by Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector for Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.

  19. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo0.75Ge0.25 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo 0.75 Ge 0.25 thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  1. A Review of Some Superconducting Technologies for AtLAST: Parametric Amplifiers, Kinetic Inductance Detectors, and On-Chip Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    2018-01-01

    The current state of the art for some superconducting technologies will be reviewed in the context of a future single-dish submillimeter telescope called AtLAST. The technologies reviews include: 1) Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), which have now been demonstrated in large-format kilo-pixel arrays with photon background-limited sensitivity suitable for large field of view cameras for wide-field imaging. 2) Parametric amplifiers - specifically the Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance (TKIP) amplifier - which has enormous potential to increase sensitivity, bandwidth, and mapping speed of heterodyne receivers, and 3) On-chip spectrometers, which combined with sensitive direct detectors such as KIDs or TESs could be used as Multi-Object Spectrometers on the AtLAST focal plane, and could provide low-medium resolution spectroscopy of 100 objects at a time in each field of view.

  2. Superconducting single X-ray photon detector based on W0.8Si0.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a superconducting single X-ray photon detector based on W0.8Si0.2, and we characterized its basic detection performance for keV-photons at different temperatures. The detector has a critical temperature of 4.97 K, and it is able to be operated up to 4.8 K, just below the critical temperature. The detector starts to react to X-ray photons at relatively low bias currents, less than 1% of Ic at T = 1.8 K, and it shows a saturated count rate dependence on bias current at all temperatures, indicating that the optimum internal quantum efficiency can always be reached. Dark counts are negligible up to the highest investigated bias currents (99% of Ic and operating temperature (4.8 K. The latching effect affects the detector performance at all temperatures due to the fast recovery of the bias current; however, further modifications of the device geometry are expected to reduce the tendency for latching.

  3. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  4. The feasibility of low-mass conductors for toroidal superconducting magnets for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luton, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    An earlier study by Luton and Bonanos concluded that the design and fabrication of superconducting toroidal bending magnets would require a major effort but would be feasible. This study is an extension to examine the feasibility of low-mass conductors for such use. It included a literature search, consultations, with conductor manufacturers, and design calculations, but no experimental work. An unoptimized sample design that used a residual resistivity ratio for aluminum of 1360 and a current density of 3.5 kA/cm 2 over the uninsulated conductor for a 4.5-T toroid with 1 GJ of stored energy obtained a hot-spot temperature of 120 K with a maximum dump voltage of 3.6 kV and 24% of the initial current inductively transferred into the shorted aluminum structure. The stability margin was 200 mJ/cm 3 of cable space. Limiting the quench pressure to 360 atm to give conservative stresses in the sheath and assuming that the whole flow path quenched immediately resulted in helium taps that could be a kilometer apart if the flow friction factor were the same as that experienced in the Westinghouse (W) Large Coil Task (LCT) coil. This indicates that the 520-m conductor length of each of the 72 individual coil segments of a toroid would be a single flow path. If some practical uncertainties can be favorably resolved by producing and testing sample conductors, the use of a conductor with clad-aluminum stabilizer and extruded aluminum-alloy sheath should be feasible and economical. 9 refs., 3 figs

  5. Report of the DOE Office of Energy Research review committee on the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration of the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    At the request of Dr. James F. Decker, Deputy Director of DOE's Office of Energy Research, a technical review committee was assembled to perform a peer review of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) from October 26 to October 30, 1992, at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). The Energy Research Review Committee (ERC) evaluated the technical feasibility, the estimated cost, the proposed construction schedule, and the management arrangements for the SDC detector as documented in the SDC Technical Design Report, SDC Project Cost/Schedule Summary Book, SDC draft Project Management Plan, and other materials prepared for and presented to the Committee by the SDC management. The SDC detector is one of two major detector facilities anticipated at the SSC. The SDC project will be carried out by a worldwide collaboration of almost 1000 scientists, engineers, and managers from over 100 universities, national laboratories, and industries. The SDC will construct a state-of-the-art, general-purpose detector weighing over 26,000 tons and the size of an eight-story building, to perform a broad class of high energy physics experiments at the SSC beginning in the fall of 1999. The design of the SSC detector emphasizes tracking in a strong solenoidal magnetic field to measure charged-particle momenta and to assist in providing good electron and muon identification; identification of neutrinos and other penetrating particles using a hermetic calorimeter; studies of jets of hadrons using both calorimeter and tracking systems; and studies of short-lived particles, such as B mesons, and pattern recognition within complex events using a silicon-based vertex tracking system. These capabilities are the result of the intensive research, development, and design activities undertaken since 1989 by this very large and capable collaboration

  6. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaygorsky, J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States); Słysz, W., E-mail: wslysz@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, PL-02 668 Warsaw (Poland); Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sobolewski, Roman [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). • A better understanding of the origin of dark counts generated by the detector. • A promise of PNR functionality in SSPD measurements. - Abstract: We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  7. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired δp/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200μ resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10 6 A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A

  8. Report of the Task Force on detector Research and Development for the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    This report contains a: Report of the working group on tracking devices; report of the working group on calorimetry; report of the working group on muon, electron and hadron identification; report of the working group on electronics, triggering, data acquisition and computing; report of the working group on superconducting magnets; and report of the working group on Monte Carlo development.

  9. Search for a flux of cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles with an eight-channel superconducting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.E.; Cabrera, B.; Taber, M.A.; Gardner, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A superconducting detector for cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles originally designed with a cross section of 1.5 m 2 (averaged over 4π solid angle) for double-coincident events was active from 5 May 1987 to 5 August 1988. The detector consists of eight independent inductive gradiometers located on the surface of an octagonal prism. The conductor is niobium-titanium foil and the current sensors are rf SQUID's. The signal-to-noise ratio for a single Dirac charge is greater than 50 in a 0.05-Hz bandwidth, and low-noise data was obtained over 547 days of continuous cryogenic operation. Of this time, we obtained ∼50% live time. Open circuits in portions of two gradiometers and occasional coupling of disturbances in adjacent gradiometers reduce the active sensing area to 1.1 m 2 . A closed-cycle helium liquefier eliminates helium transfers and increases the stability of the data. Anticoincidence instrumentation includes strain gauges, a flux-gate magnetometer, an ultrasonic motion detector, and a wideband rms rf voltmeter. The exposure to date represents a limit on the flux of cosmic-ray magnetic monopoles of 7.2x10 -13 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 at a 90% confidence level, eliminating most of the phase space for monopole plasma oscillation theories

  10. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  11. Ultrathin NbN Films for Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slysz, W.; Guziewicz, M.; Borysiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present our research on fabrication and structural and transport characterization of ultrathin superconducting NbN layers deposited on both single-crystal Al 2 O 3 and Si wafers, and SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 buffer layers grown directly on Si wafers. The thicknesses of our films varied from 6 nm to 50 nm and they were grown using reactive RF magnetron sputtering on substrates maintained at the temperature 850 o C. We have performed extensive morphology characterization of our films using the X-ray diffraction method and atomic force microscopy, and related the results to the type of the substrate used for the film deposition. Our transport measurements showed that even the thinnest, 6 nm thick NbN films had the superconducting critical temperature of 10-12 K, which was increased to 14 K for thicker films. (author)

  12. Large-area NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detectors with saturated detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Grein, Matthew E.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; McCaughan, Adam; Najafi, Faraz; Berggren, Karl K.; Marsili, Francesco; Dauler, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting circuits comprising SNSPDs placed in parallel—superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors, or SNAPs—have previously been demonstrated to improve the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the critical current. In this work, we employ a 2-SNAP superconducting circuit with narrow (40 nm) niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires to improve the system detection efficiency to near-IR photons while maintaining high SNR. Additionally, while previous 2-SNAP demonstrations have added external choke inductance to stabilize the avalanching photocurrent, we show that the external inductance can be entirely folded into the active area by cascading 2-SNAP devices in series to produce a greatly increased active area. We fabricated series-2-SNAP (s2-SNAP) circuits with a nanowire length of 20 μm with cascades of 2-SNAPs providing the choke inductance necessary for SNAP operation. We observed that (1) the detection efficiency saturated at high bias currents, and (2) the 40 nm 2-SNAP circuit critical current was approximately twice that for a 40 nm non-SNAP configuration.

  13. Superconducting Thin-Film Interconnects for Cryogenic Photon Detector Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced imaging spectrometers for x-ray astronomy will require significant improvements in the high density interconnects between the detector arrays and the first...

  14. Exploring the performance of thin-film superconducting multilayers as kinetic inductance detectors for low-frequency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songyuan; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.; Thomas, C. N.

    2018-01-01

    We have solved numerically the diffusive Usadel equations that describe the spatially varying superconducting proximity effect in Ti-Al thin-film bi- and trilayers with thickness values that are suitable for kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) to operate as photon detectors with detection thresholds in the frequency range of 50-90 GHz. Using Nam’s extension of the Mattis-Bardeen calculation of the superconductor complex conductivity, we show how to calculate the surface impedance for the spatially varying case, and hence the surface impedance quality factor. In addition, we calculate energy-and spatially-averaged quasiparticle lifetimes at temperatures well-below the transition temperature and compare to calculation in Al. Our results for the pair-breaking threshold demonstrate differences between bilayers and trilayers with the same total film thicknesses. We also predict high quality factors and long multilayer-averaged quasiparticle recombination times compared to thin-film Al. Our calculations give a route for designing KIDs to operate in this scientifically-important frequency regime.

  15. Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.

  16. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.

  17. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  18. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.; Niedermayr, T.; Cunningham, M.F.; Van den Berg, M.L.; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 24 hours hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  19. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Cunningham, M F; Berg, M L; Ullom, J N; Loshak, A; Funk, T; Cramer, S P; Batteux, J D; See, E; Frank, M; Labov, S E

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  20. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E

    2001-07-21

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  1. Progress in the design of a superconducting toroidal magnet for the ATLAS detector on LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baze, J.M.; Berriaud, C.; Cure, C.

    1996-01-01

    The toroidal system consists of three air core superconducting toroids. The barrel toroid covers the central region over a length of 26 m with an inner bore of 9.4 m and an outer diameter of 19.5 m. The two end cap toroids are inserted in the barrel at each end over a length of 5.6 m with an inner bore of 1.26 m. Each toroid consists of eight flat coils assembled around the beam axis and carrying 3 MAt each. The present paper describes the barrel toroid. Features of the design which are presented include the electromagnetic design, field and forces calculations, the basic concept of indirectly cooled aluminium conductor and monolithic fully impregnated winding, the description of the alu-alloy mechanical structure, the thermal analysis and the quench protection. Cryogenics principles, cryostat and toroid assembly procedures are summarized. Unsymmetric loadings, fault sensing and stability are discussed, in relation with the requirements of transparency

  2. Phonon-mediated superconducting transition-edge sensor X-ray detectors for use in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Steven W.; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Brink, Paul L.; Cabrera, Blas; Castle, Joseph P.; Morse, Kathleen; Stern, Robert A.; Tomada, Astrid

    2004-09-01

    Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are generating a great deal of interest in the areas of x-ray astrophysics and space science, particularly to develop them as large-array, imaging x-ray spectrometers. We are developing a novel concept that is based on position-sensitive macro-pixels placing TESs on the backside of a silicon or germanium absorber. Each x-ray absorbed will be position (X/δX and Y/δY ~ 100) and energy (E/δE ~ 1000) resolved via four distributed TES readouts. In the future, combining such macropixels with advances in multiplexing could lead to 30 by 30 arrays of close-packed macro-pixels equivalent to imaging instruments of 10 megapixels or more. We report on our progress to date and discuss its application to a plausible solar satellite mission and plans for future development.

  3. Superconducting single-photon detectors designed for operation at 1.55-μm telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milostnaya, I; Korneev, A; Rubtsova, I; Seleznev, V; Minaeva, O; Chulkova, G; Okunev, O; Voronov, B; Smirnov, K; Gol'tsman, G; Slysz, W; Wegrzecki, M; Guziewicz, M; Bar, J; Gorska, M; Pearlman, A; Kitaygorsky, J; Cross, A; Sobolewski, Roman

    2006-01-01

    We report on our progress in development of superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), specifically designed for secure high-speed quantum communications. The SSPDs consist of NbN-based meander nanostructures and operate at liquid helium temperatures. In general, our devices are capable of GHz-rate photon counting in a spectral range from visible light to mid-infrared. The device jitter is 18 ps and dark counts can reach negligibly small levels. The quantum efficiency (QE) of our best SSPDs for visible-light photons approaches a saturation level of ∼30-40%, which is limited by the NbN film absorption. For the infrared range (1.55μm), QE is ∼6% at 4.2 K, but it can be significantly improved by reduction of the operation temperature to the 2-K level, when QE reaches ∼20% for 1.55-μm photons. In order to further enhance the SSPD efficiency at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, we have integrated our detectors with optical cavities, aiming to increase the effective interaction of the photon with the superconducting meander and, therefore, increase the QE. A successful effort was made to fabricate an advanced SSPD structure with an optical microcavity optimized for absorption of 1.55 μm photons. The design consisted of a quarter-wave dielectric layer, combined with a metallic mirror. Early tests performed on relatively low-QE devices integrated with microcavities, showed that the QE value at the resonator maximum (1.55-μm wavelength) was of the factor 3-to-4 higher than that for a nonresonant SSPD. Independently, we have successfully coupled our SSPDs to single-mode optical fibers. The completed receivers, inserted into a liquid-helium transport dewar, reached ∼1% system QE for 1.55 μm photons. The SSPD receivers that are fiber-coupled and, simultaneously, integrated with resonators are expected to be the ultimate photon counters for optical quantum communications

  4. Development of a Cryogenic Radiation Detector for Mapping Radio Frequency Superconducting Cavity Field Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Dotson, Danny W

    2005-01-01

    There is a relationship between field emissions in a Super Conducting RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-rays). External (room temperature) detectors are shielded from the onset of low energy X-rays by the vacuum and cryogenic stainless steel module walls. An internal measuring system for mapping field emissions would assist scientists and engineers in perfecting surface deposition and acid washing module surfaces. Two measurement systems are undergoing cryogenic testing at JLab. One is an active CsI photodiode array and the second is an X-ray film camera. The CsI array has operated sucessfully in a cavity in liquid Helium but saturated at higher power due to scattering in the cavity. A shield with an aperature similar to the X-ray film detector is being designed for the next series of tests which will be completed before PAC-05.

  5. Development of superconducting tunnel junction as photon counting detector in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorel, C.

    2004-12-01

    This work describes the development of S/Al-AlOx-Al/S Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJ) to count photons for astronomical applications in the near-infrared. The incoming light energy is converted into excited charges in a superconducting layer (S, either Nb or Ta) with a population proportional to the deposited energy. The photon energy can thus be evaluated by integrating the tunnel current induced in a voltage biased junction at a very low temperature (100 mK). The performance of STJ for light detection is discussed in the first chapter and compared with the best performances obtained with other techniques based on either superconductors. At the beginning of the thesis, a previous manufacturing process made it possible to obtain good quality Nb based junctions and preliminary results for photon counting. The objective of the thesis was to replace Nb as absorber with Ta, an intrinsically more sensitive material, and secondly to develop a new and more efficient manufacturing process. We first focused on the optimization of the Tantalum thin film quality. Structural analysis showed that these films can be grown epitaxially by magnetron sputtering onto an R-plane sapphire substrate heated to 600 Celsius degrees and covered by a thin Nb buffer layer. Electrical transport measurement from room to low temperatures gave excellent Relative Resistive Ratios of about 50 corresponding to mean free path of the order of 100 nm. Then, we conceived an original manufacturing process batch on 3 inch diameter sapphire substrate with five mask levels. These masks made it possible to produce single pixel STJ of different sizes (from 25*25 to 50*50 square microns) and shapes. We also produced multiple junctions onto a common absorber as well as 9-pixel arrays. Thanks to the development of this process we obtained a very large percentage of quality junctions (>90%) with excellent measured normal resistances of a few micro-ohm cm 2 and low leakage currents of the order of one n

  6. Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Mária; Sipos, Áron; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Use of a superconductive gradiometer in an ultrasensitive electromagnetic metal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czipott, P.V.; Podney, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a new instrument that we call an electromagnetic gradiometer. It uses a SQUID sensor as the receiver in an active, electromagnetic detector of nonferrous as well as ferrous objects. The gradiometer pickup loops sit in the center of magnet coils that generate a time-varying magnetic field inducing eddy currents in conductive bodies. The gradiometer measures the secondary magnetic field of the eddy currents. The SQUID's sensitivity at frequencies below 1 kHz makes electromagnetic metal detectors practical in the marine environment, where the electrical conductivity of seawater precludes conventional systems. The authors describe a prototype system that attains a detection range of 10 m in seawater for targets 50 cm in diameter. It operates at frequencies from 1 Hz to a few hundred Hz. Uses of the electromagnetic gradiometer include locating naval mines and undersea treasure. The system's response to seawater enables application to airborne electromagnetic bathymetry. On land, its sensitivity to crustal conductivity contrasts suits it to mineral exploration

  8. Using phonon pulses to characterise superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Boyd, P.; Wigmore, J.K.; Poelaert, A.; Peacock, A.; Hartog, R. den

    2000-01-01

    Nanosecond phonon pulse experiments have been used to determine fundamental parameters of STJs relevant to their use as X-ray photon detectors. A non-equilibrium distribution of phonons is used to generate an excess non-equilibrium quasi-particle (qp) density in the STJ base electrode. The time dependence of the subsequent current signal is given by the sum of two exponential contributions which depend solely on the qp loss rates and tunnel rates for the top and base electrode of the device. Hence, four fundamental STJ parameters can be determined from measurements of the exponential time constants and pre-exponential current amplitudes. The technique outlined here is demonstrated by data taken on a high-quality 50 μmx50 μm niobium-based STJ

  9. Low-Loss, Low-Noise, Crystalline Silicon Dielectric for Superconducting Microstrip and Kinetic Inductance Detector Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of technology to use crystalline dielectrics in superconducting spectroscopic sensors operating in the infrared/sub-millimeter wavelength range. The...

  10. Effect of the wire geometry and an externally applied magnetic field on the detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusche, Robert; Semenov, Alexey; Huebers, Heinz-Willhelm [DLR, Institut fuer Planetenforschung, Berlin (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Korneeva, Yuliya; Trifonov, Andrey; Korneev, Alexander; Goltsman, Gregory [Moscow State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The interest in single-photon detectors in the near-infrared wavelength regime for applications, e.g. in quantum cryptography has immensely increased in the last years. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) already show quite reasonable detection efficiencies in the NIR which can even be further improved. Novel theoretical approaches including vortex-assisted photon counting state that the detection efficiency in the long wavelength region can be enhanced by the detector geometry and an applied magnetic field. We present spectral measurements in the wavelength range from 350-2500 nm of the detection efficiency of meander-type TaN and NbN SNSPD with varying nanowire line width from 80 to 250 nm. Due to the used experimental setup we can accurately normalize the measured spectra and are able to extract the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) of our detectors. The results clearly indicate an improvement of the IDE depending on the wire width according to the theoretic models. Furthermore we experimentally found that the smallest detectable photon-flux can be increased by applying a small magnetic field to the detectors.

  11. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, L., E-mail: l.gottardi@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M.P.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Jackson, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kiviranta, M. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kuur, J. van der; Weers, H. van [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3–12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  12. Superconducting quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, V.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews recent accomplishments, presents new results and discusses possible future developments of superconducting quantum electronics and high T c superconductivity. The three main parts of the book deal with fundamentals, sensitive detectors, and precision metrology. New results reported include: correct equivalent circuits modelling superconducting electronic devices; exact solution of the Mattis-Bardeen equations describing various experiments for thin films; complete theoretical description and experimental results for a new broad band spectrum analyzer; a new Josephson junction potentiometer allowing tracing of unknown voltage ratios back to well-known frequency ratios; and fast superconducting SQUID shift registers enabling the production of calculable noise power spectra in the microwave region

  13. Micro-pulse polarization lidar at 1.5  μm using a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiawei; Xia, Haiyun; Shangguan, Mingjia; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Manyi; Wang, Chong; Shang, Xiang; Lin, Shengfu; Liu, Jianjiang

    2017-11-01

    An all-fiber, eye-safe and micro-pulse polarization lidar is demonstrated with a polarization-maintaining structure, incorporating a single superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) at 1.5 μm. The time-division multiplexing technique is used to achieve a calibration-free optical layout. A single piece of detector is used to detect the backscatter signals at two orthogonal states in an alternative sequence. Thus, regular calibration of the two detectors in traditional polarization lidars is avoided. The signal-to-noise ratio of the lidar is guaranteed by using an SNSPD, providing high detection efficiency and low dark count noise. The linear depolarization ratio (LDR) of the urban aerosol is observed horizontally over 48 h in Hefei [N31°50'37'', E117°15'54''], when a heavy air pollution is spreading from the north to the central east of China. Phenomena of LDR bursts are detected at a location where a building is under construction. The lidar results show good agreement with the data detected from a sun photometer, a 532 nm visibility lidar, and the weather forecast information.

  14. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  15. Time-dependent flux from pulsed neutrons revealed by superconducting Nb current-biased kinetic inductance detector with "1"0B converter operated at 4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Narukami, Yoshito; Shishido, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Naohito; Ishida, Takekazu; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new superconducting detector for a neutron based on Nb superconductor meanderline with a "1"0B conversion layer. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meanderline, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response. The thickness of Nb meanderlines is 40 nm and widths are 3 μm, 1 μm, and 0.6 μm. The CB-KIDs are fabricated at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm and the total area of CB-KIDs covers 8 mm × 8 mm. The chip was cooled to a temperature lower than 4 K below the transition temperature of Nb using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons at the material life science experimental facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) center. The response time of CB-KIDs is about a few tens ns. We have also obtained the time dependence of neutron flux generated from pulsed neutrons using a CB-KID. Experimental results were in good agreement with the simulated results. (author)

  16. Large superconducting detector magnets with ultra thin coils for use in high energy accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    The development of a new class of large superconducting solenoid magnets is described. High energy physics on colliding beam machines sometimes require the use of thin coil solenoid magnets. The development of these magnets has proceeded with the substitution of light materials for heavy materials and by increasing the current density in the coils. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has developed a radical approach to the problem by having the coil operate at very high current densities. This approach and its implications are described in detail

  17. Superconducting active impedance converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures

  18. A superconducting tunneling junction (STJ) detector for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy at 50 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, Ivan; Ruescher, Jan-Hendrik; Martins, Michael; Viefhaus, Jens; Wurth, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an important technique at synchrotrons nowadays that allows to investigate electronic and magnetic properties in an element specific way. The investigation of non-conductive, soft organic or buried materials can't be carried out in total electron yield. In these cases an efficient fluorescence detector is needed to perform XAS measurements in partial fluorescence yield (PFY). The STJ detector is capable of count rates as high as 10 kcps per 100 μm"2 pixel size with an energy resolution of approximately 50 eV for 1.5 keV photons. The STJ is furthermore integrated into a 50 mK cryostat for XAS measurements at the P04 beamline at Petra III, DESY. We will present first measurements on a model system.

  19. Cryogen-free cryostat for large-scale arrays of superconducting tunnel junction ion detectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, A.; Ohkubo, M.; Chen, Y. E.; Ukibe, M.; Kasai, S.; Fujioka, K.

    2006-04-01

    Nb-based superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors have a fast time resolution of a few 100 ns and high operating temperature of 0.3 K. These advantages expand their applicable fields to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In order to enlarge effective detection area, we have built arrays based on hundreds of large STJ elements. To realize the fast readout and no-cross talk, coaxial cables made of low-thermal conductivity materials were investigated. From results of thermal conduction measurements, we chose thin coaxial cables with a diameter of 0.33 mm, consisting of CuNi center/outer conductors and Teflon insulator for the wiring between 0.3 K- 3He pot of the sorption pump and 3 K-2nd stage of GM cooler. Even after the installation of coaxial cables and a cold snout to the cryogen-free cryostat, we could keep arrays at 0.3 K for about a week, and reduction of the holding time at 0.3 K and temperature rise at 3He pot due to the installation were small, ˜0.5 day and 10 mK, respectively.

  20. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  1. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  2. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  3. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  4. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  5. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.

    2008-01-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  6. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  7. Superconducting magnets for a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a muon collider will be dependent on the use of superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets for the μ - μ + collider will be found in the following locations: the π - π + capture system, the muon phase rotation system, the muon cooling system, the recirculating acceleration system, the collider ring, and the collider detector system. This report describes superconducting magnets for each of these sections except the detector. In addition to superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities will be found in the recirculating accelerator sections and the collider ring. The use of superconducting magnets is dictated by the need for high magnetic fields in order to reduce the length of various machine components. The performance of all of the superconducting magnets will be affected the energy deposited from muon decay products. (orig.)

  8. Applied superconductivity. Handbook on devices and applications. Vol. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Paul (ed.) [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, AG Tieftemperaturphysik

    2015-07-01

    The both volumes contain the following 12 chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. Superconducting Materials; 3. Technology, Preparation, and Characterization (bulk materials, thin films, multilayers, wires, tapes; cooling); 4, Superconducting Magnets; 5. Power Applications (superconducting cables, superconducting current leads, fault current limiters, transformers, SMES and flywheels; rotating machines; SmartGrids); 6. Superconductive Passive Devices (superconducting microwave components; cavities for accelerators; superconducting pickup coils; magnetic shields); 7. Applications in Quantum Metrology (superconducting hot electron bolometers; transition edge sensors; SIS Mixers; superconducting photon detectors; applications at Terahertz frequency; detector readout); 8. Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors; 9. Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs); 10. Superconductor Digital Electronics; 11. Other Applications (Josephson arrays as radiation sources. Tunable microwave devices) and 12. Summary and Outlook (of the superconducting devices).

  9. Applied superconductivity. Handbook on devices and applications. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The both volumes contain the following 12 chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. Superconducting Materials; 3. Technology, Preparation, and Characterization (bulk materials, thin films, multilayers, wires, tapes; cooling); 4, Superconducting Magnets; 5. Power Applications (superconducting cables, superconducting current leads, fault current limiters, transformers, SMES and flywheels; rotating machines; SmartGrids); 6. Superconductive Passive Devices (superconducting microwave components; cavities for accelerators; superconducting pickup coils; magnetic shields); 7. Applications in Quantum Metrology (superconducting hot electron bolometers; transition edge sensors; SIS Mixers; superconducting photon detectors; applications at Terahertz frequency; detector readout); 8. Superconducting Radiation and Particle Detectors; 9. Superconducting Quantum Interference (SQUIDs); 10. Superconductor Digital Electronics; 11. Other Applications (Josephson arrays as radiation sources. Tunable microwave devices) and 12. Summary and Outlook (of the superconducting devices).

  10. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  11. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  12. Superconducting magnets advanced in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Superconducting magnet technology for particle detectors has been advanced to provide large-scale magnetic fields in particle physics experiments. The technology has been progressed to meet physics goals and the detector requirement of having maximum magnetic field with minimum material and space. This paper includes an overview of the advances of particle detector magnets and discusses key technologies

  13. Superconductivity at the industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Lebrun, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity is 100 years old but theoretical works are still necessary: the BCS theory does not apply to the new families of high temperature superconducting materials discovered after 1986. In 2001 it was discovered that MgB 2 is superconducting at 39 K, this critical temperature is not the highest but MgB 2 is easy to produce and cheap. Today's highest critical temperature under atmospheric pressure is that of the HgTlBaCaCuO compound: 138 K. The complexity and the cost of cryogenic systems restrain the applications of superconductivity. The author reviews the applications of superconducting in medical imaging, particle detectors, and in the safety systems of power networks. (A.C.)

  14. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  15. Quasiparticle dynamics in aluminium superconducting microwave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the intrinsic limits of superconducting microresonator detectors. In a superconductor at low temperature, most of the electrons are paired into so called Cooper pairs, which cause the well-known electrical conduction without resistance. Superconducting microwave resonators have

  16. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  17. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  18. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  19. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 4. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Burrows, Philip; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi [eds.

    2013-10-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The Si Vertex detectors, the main tracker, calorimetry, muon detectors, the superconducting spectrometer magnet, the detector electronics and data acquisition, simulation and reconstruction, benchmarking, costs. (HSI)

  20. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  1. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics

  2. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics. (LEW)

  3. A superconducting nanowire can be modeled by using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl K.; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Abebe, Nathnael; Chen, Minjie; Ravindran, Prasana; McCaughan, Adam; Bardin, Joseph C.

    2018-05-01

    Modeling of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors typically requires custom simulations or finite-element analysis in one or two dimensions. Here, we demonstrate two simplified one-dimensional SPICE models of a superconducting nanowire that can quickly and efficiently describe the electrical characteristics of a superconducting nanowire. These models may be of particular use in understanding alternative architectures for nanowire detectors and readouts.

  4. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  5. Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of superconducting electronics in research and industry. Examples will show how science benefits from the development and how superconducting devices have found their way into industry and to some commercial products. Impact in terms of enabling new research in other fields (e.g. radio astronomy, medicine), in industry (certification, safety, metrology, etc) and in terms of market will be addressed. From the examples, two fields will be emphasized: superconducting detectors for astronomy and the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) employed for different applications

  6. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  7. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  9. The role of engineered materials in superconducting tunnel junction X-ray detectors - Suppression of quasiparticle recombination losses via a phononic band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippert, Edward D.; Ketterson, John B.; Chen, Jun; Song, Shenian; Lomatch, Susanne; Maglic, Stevan R.; Thomas, Christopher; Cheida, M. A.; Ulmer, Melville P.

    1992-01-01

    An engineered structure is proposed that can alleviate quasi-particle recombination losses via the existence of a phononic band gap that overlaps the 2-Delta energy of phonons produced during recombination of quasi-particles. Attention is given to a 1D Kronig-Penny model for phonons normally incident to the layers of a multilayered superconducting tunnel junction as an idealized example. A device with a high density of Bragg resonances is identified as desirable; both Nb/Si and NbN/SiN superlattices have been produced, with the latter having generally superior performance.

  10. Effect of the wire width and magnetic field on the detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors; Einfluss von Geometrie und magnetischem Feld auf die Effizienz supraleitender Nanodraht-Einzelphotonendetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusche, Robert

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this thesis is to a gain deeper understanding of the single photon detection process in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs). A detailed knowledge of the physical principles and mechanisms which the detection process is based on helps to improve specific detector parameters and hence the suitability of such detectors for various applications. Several theoretical models of the detection process have been compared to the results of measurements of photon and dark count rates in meander-type TaN- and NbN-SNSPDs with different wire-widths in a broad range of wavelengths, transport currents and magnetic fields. In the first part of the thesis, measurements of the photon and dark count rates of TaN- and NbN-SNSPDs with varying wire width are described. For each meander spectra of the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) were derived. The IDE represents the probability that the SNSPD generates a measurable voltage pulse upon absorption of a photon. The recorded IDE spectra have shown a characteristic cut-off wavelength up to which photons were detected with a probability of 100 per cent. Furthermore it was found that the cut-off wavelengths increases linearly with the increase in the inverse wire width. This observation is best explained by the refined hot spot model. The second part of the thesis describes the influence of magnetic field on the photon and dark count rates of NbN-SNSPDs. In order to apply magnetic fields to the meanders a continuous-flow inset for mobile 4He storage dewars was constructed. It was shown for the first time, that the photon count rate exhibits a magnetic field dependence. Furthermore it could be shown that the measured dependence of the photon and dark count rate on the magnetic field is in good agreement with the theoretical model of vortex-assisted photon detection in narrow superconducting lines. Hence, within this thesis it could be confirmed that magnetic vortices are involved in the single photon

  11. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  12. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  13. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  14. Superconducted tour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.

  15. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  16. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  17. A scalable parallel open architecture data acquisition system for low to high rate experiments, test beams and all SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.; Booth, A.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C.; Lockyer, N.; VanBerg, R.

    1989-12-01

    A new era of high-energy physics research is beginning requiring accelerators with much higher luminosities and interaction rates in order to discover new elementary particles. As a consequences, both orders of magnitude higher data rates from the detector and online processing power, well beyond the capabilities of current high energy physics data acquisition systems, are required. This paper describes a new data acquisition system architecture which draws heavily from the communications industry, is totally parallel (i.e., without any bottlenecks), is capable of data rates of hundreds of GigaBytes per second from the detector and into an array of online processors (i.e., processor farm), and uses an open systems architecture to guarantee compatibility with future commercially available online processor farms. The main features of the system architecture are standard interface ICs to detector subsystems wherever possible, fiber optic digital data transmission from the near-detector electronics, a self-routing parallel event builder, and the use of industry-supported and high-level language programmable processors in the proposed BCD system for both triggers and online filters. A brief status report of an ongoing project at Fermilab to build the self-routing parallel event builder will also be given in the paper. 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  19. Development of superconducting tunnel junction as photon counting detector in astronomy; Developpement de jonctions supraconductrices a effet tunnel pour le comptage de photons en astronomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorel, C

    2004-12-15

    This work describes the development of S/Al-AlOx-Al/S Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJ) to count photons for astronomical applications in the near-infrared. The incoming light energy is converted into excited charges in a superconducting layer (S, either Nb or Ta) with a population proportional to the deposited energy. The photon energy can thus be evaluated by integrating the tunnel current induced in a voltage biased junction at a very low temperature (100 mK). The performance of STJ for light detection is discussed in the first chapter and compared with the best performances obtained with other techniques based on either superconductors. At the beginning of the thesis, a previous manufacturing process made it possible to obtain good quality Nb based junctions and preliminary results for photon counting. The objective of the thesis was to replace Nb as absorber with Ta, an intrinsically more sensitive material, and secondly to develop a new and more efficient manufacturing process. We first focused on the optimization of the Tantalum thin film quality. Structural analysis showed that these films can be grown epitaxially by magnetron sputtering onto an R-plane sapphire substrate heated to 600 Celsius degrees and covered by a thin Nb buffer layer. Electrical transport measurement from room to low temperatures gave excellent Relative Resistive Ratios of about 50 corresponding to mean free path of the order of 100 nm. Then, we conceived an original manufacturing process batch on 3 inch diameter sapphire substrate with five mask levels. These masks made it possible to produce single pixel STJ of different sizes (from 25*25 to 50*50 square microns) and shapes. We also produced multiple junctions onto a common absorber as well as 9-pixel arrays. Thanks to the development of this process we obtained a very large percentage of quality junctions (>90%) with excellent measured normal resistances of a few micro-ohm cm{sup 2} and low leakage currents of the order of one

  20. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  1. Cryogenic detectors for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive introduction to cryogenic detector developments for particle physics is presented, covering conventional detectors cooled to low temperature (scintillators and semiconductors), superconductive and thermal sensitive devices, as well as the basics of cold electronics. After giving a critical overview of current work, we elaborate on possible new ways for further improvements and briefly evaluate the feasibility of the main proposed applications

  2. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  3. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  4. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  5. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  6. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  7. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  8. Theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up to the 1987 results on high temperature superconductivity. Contents: Phenomenological Theory of Superconductivity; Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity; Theory of Superconducting Alloys; Superconductors in a Magnetic Field; Superconductivity and Magnetic Order; Superconductivity in Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems; and Non-Conventional Superconductivity

  9. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  10. Quench detection on a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ru-Yu; Spirn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We study quench detection in superconducting accelerator cavities cooled with He-II. A rigorous mathematical formula is derived to localize the quench position from dynamical data over a finite time interval at a second sound detector.

  11. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  12. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  13. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  14. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  15. Melt formed superconducting joint between superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.; Knudsen, B.A.; Rumaner, L.E.; Zaabala, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting joint between contiguous superconducting tapes having an inner laminate comprised of a parent-metal layer selected from the group niobium, tantalum, technetium, and vanadium, a superconductive intermetallic compound layer on the parent-metal layer, a reactive-metal layer that is capable of combining with the parent-metal and forming the superconductive intermetallic compound, the joint comprising: a continuous precipitate of the superconductive intermetallic compound fused to the tapes forming a continuous superconducting path between the tapes

  16. Detection of Resistive Transitions in LHC Superconducting Components

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R

    2001-01-01

    The LHC has entered the construction phase. It will incorporate a large number of superconducting components like magnets, current leads and busbars. All these components require protection means in case of a transition from the superconducting to the resistive state, the so-called quench. Key elements in the protection system are electronic quench detectors, which have to be able to identify a quench in any state of the powering cycle of the accelerator. According to the different properties and characteristics of the superconducting elements and circuits, a set of quench detectors adapted to their specific tasks has been developed.

  17. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  18. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  19. The state of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of applications based on the phenomena of superconductivity are reviewed. Superconducting materials, large scale applications, the Josephson effect and its applications, and superconductivity in instrumentation, are considered. The influence that superconductivity has had on modern theories of elementary particles, such as gauge symmetry breaking, is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  2. Reviews of large superconducting machines: Metallurgy, fabrication, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews large superconducting machines presently in place or in experiment. The ''Cello'' particle detector magnet for the positron-electron colliding beam facility PETRA at DESY in Hamburg is shown, and the Fermi Lab, and the Brookhaven ISABELLE also described. Electrodynamic levitation systems are specified, as researched and developed in Germany and Japan. Of superconducting coils for magnetic separation, a high gradient magnetic separator with superconducting magnet and steel wool, and a Jones type high gradient magnetic separator are schematicized. Turbogenerators with superconductor field winding are studied. Superconducting high power cables include the flexible coaxial cable core consisting of a perforated polyethylene tube and test cables at Siemens and at Brookhaven. Magnet systems for fusion reactors include tokamaks and tandem mirrors, and the toroidal coil experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described, among others. Superconducting magnets for MHD plants, and superconducting magnet energy storage (SME storage) are also discussed

  3. Waveguide superconducting single-photon autocorrelators for quantum photonic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, D.; Gaggero, A.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J.P.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.; Hasan, Z.U.; Hemmer, P.R.; Lee, H.; Santori, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel component for integrated quantum photonic applications, a waveguide single-photon autocorrelator. It is based on two superconducting nanowire detectors patterned onto the same GaAs ridge waveguide. Combining the electrical output of the two detectors in a correlation card enables

  4. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  5. Understanding and application of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung

    1997-02-01

    This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.

  6. The WASA detector at CELSIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilger, R.; Blom, M.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Bondar, A.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Chuvilo, I.; Clement, H.; Dunin, V.; Dyring, J.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Friden, C-J.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Jacewicz, M.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kilian, K.; Kimura, N.; Koch, I.; Kolachev, G.; Komogorov, M.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Kurdadze, L.; Kuzmin, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Martemyanov, A.; Martemyanov, B.; Morosov, B.; Moertsell, A.; Nawrot, A.; Oelert, W.; Oreshkin, S.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Przestrzelska, K.; Paetzold, J.; Reistad, D.; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Sandukovsky, V.; Schuberth, U.; Sefzick, T.; Sidorov, V.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Sukhanov, A.; Sundberg, P.; Tchernychev, V.; Tikhomirov, V.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Zabierowski, J.; Zernov, A.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    The assembly of the WASA 4π detector at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala is now completed. The superconducting solenoid, the vacuum chambers and all of the sensitive parts of the detector have been installed at the CELSIUS accelerator and storage ring. The pellet generator, providing internal hydrogen (and deuterium) targets, has been installed on top of WASA. The first test run together with the CELSIUS proton beam was carried through in May 1999

  7. The Physics of Superconducting Microwave Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiansong

    Over the past decade, low temperature detectors have brought astronomers revolutionary new observational capabilities and led to many great discoveries. Although a single low temperature detector has very impressive sensitivity, a large detector array would be much more powerful and are highly demanded for the study of more difficult and fundamental problems in astronomy. However, current detector technologies, such as transition edge sensors and superconducting tunnel junction detectors, are difficult to integrate into a large array. The microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) is a promising new detector technology invented at Caltech and JPL which provides both high sensitivity and an easy solution to the detector integration. It senses the change in the surface impedance of a superconductor as incoming photons break Cooper pairs, by using high-Q superconducting microwave resonators capacitively coupled to a common feedline. This architecture allows thousands of detectors to be easily integrated through passive frequency domain multiplexing. In this thesis, we explore the rich and interesting physics behind these superconducting microwave resonators. The first part of the thesis discusses the surface impedance of a superconductor, the kinetic inductance of a superconducting coplanar waveguide, and the circuit response of a resonator. These topics are related with the responsivity of MKIDs. The second part presents the study of the excess frequency noise that is universally observed in these resonators. The properties of the excess noise, including power, temperature, material, and geometry dependence, have been quantified. The noise source has been identified to be the two-level systems in the dielectric material on the surface of the resonator. A semi-empirical noise model has been developed to explain the power and geometry dependence of the noise, which is useful to predict the noise for a specified resonator geometry. The detailed physical noise

  8. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  9. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 19, 20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Heinen, Vernon O.

    1990-10-01

    Various papers on superconductivity applications for IR and microwave devices are presented. The individual topics addressed include: pulsed laser deposition of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films, patterning of high-Tc superconducting thin films on Si substrates, IR spectra and the energy gap in thin film YBa2Cu3O(7-delta), high-temperature superconducting thin film microwave circuits, novel filter implementation utilizing HTS materials, high-temperature superconductor antenna investigations, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors from Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films, Y-Ba-Cu0-O thin films as high-speed IR detectors, fabrication of a high-Tc superconducting bolometer, transition-edge microbolometer, photoresponse of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) granular and epitaxial superconducting thin films, fast IR response of YBCO thin films, kinetic inductance effects in high-Tc microstrip circuits at microwave frequencies.

  10. Superconducting magnets for particle large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, F.

    1994-01-01

    The different accelerator types (linear, circular) and the advantages of using superconductivity in particle accelerator are first reviewed. Characteristics of some large superconducting accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC CERN) are presented. The design features related to accelerator magnets are reviewed: magnet reproducibility, stability, field homogeneity, etc. and the selected design characteristics are discussed: manufacturing method, winding, shielding, cryostat. CEA involvement in this domain mainly addressing quadrupoles, is presented together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. Characteristics and design of detector magnets are also described. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  12. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  13. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-01-15

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.

  14. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  15. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS workshop on superconductivity and its application in electrical systems: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This workshop aims to provide an opportunity for young scientists and researchers to interact with eminent scientists and specialists working in frontier areas of science and technology of superconductivity, superconducting cable developments, superconducting magnets, superconducting radio frequency cavity for particle accelerators, power applications and detectors using superconductor. Superconductivity plays an important role in modern scientific applications starting from modern accelerators to medical diagnostics. It has great potential in future electrical systems to minimize losses and increase efficiency in the system. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent

  17. Detection of Resistive Transitions in LHC Superconducting Components

    OpenAIRE

    Denz, R; Rodríguez-Mateos, F

    2001-01-01

    The LHC has entered the construction phase. It will incorporate a large number of superconducting components like magnets, current leads and busbars. All these components require protection means in case of a transition from the superconducting to the resistive state, the so-called quench. Key elements in the protection system are electronic quench detectors, which have to be able to identify a quench in any state of the powering cycle of the accelerator. According to the different properties...

  18. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  19. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  20. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  2. Superconductivity application technologies. Superconducting quadrupole magnet and cooling system for KEK B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Sakurabata, Hiroaki; Seido, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Kozo.

    1997-01-01

    At present in National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), the construction of B factory is in progress. By colliding 8 GeV electrons and 3.5 GeV positrons, this facility generates large amounts of B mesons and anti-B mesons, and performs the elementary particle experiment of high accuracy. It is the collision type accelerator of asymmetric two-ring type comprising 8 GeV and 3.5 GeV rings. In the field of high energy physics, superconductivity technology has been put to practical use. As the objects of superconductivity technology, there are dipole magnet for bending beam, quadrupole magnet for adjusting beam, large solenoid magnet used for detector and so on. Superconducting magnets which are indispensable for high energy, superconducting wire material suitable to accelerators, and the liquid helium cooling system for maintaining superconducting magnets at 4.4 K are reported. The technologies of metallic conductors and making their coils have advanced rapidly, and also cooling technology has advanced, accordingly, superconductivity technology has reached the stage of practical use perfectly. (K.I.)

  3. CMS end-cap yoke at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke). This picture shows the first of three end-cap discs (red) seen through the outer cylinder of the vacuum tank which will house the superconducting coil.

  4. Neutron detection using a current biased kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, Hiroaki, E-mail: shishido@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Narukami, Yoshito [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [Materials and Life Science Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate neutron detection using a solid state superconducting current biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which consists of a superconducting Nb meander line of 1 μm width and 40 nm thickness. {sup 10}B-enriched neutron absorber layer of 150 nm thickness is placed on top of the CB-KID. Our neutron detectors are able to operate in a wide superconducting region in the bias current–temperature diagram. This is in sharp contrast with our preceding current-biased transition edge detector, which can operate only in a narrow range just below the superconducting critical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the signals remains of the order of a few tens of ns, which confirms the high speed operation of our detectors.

  5. Neutron detection using a current biased kinetic inductance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Takekazu; Narukami, Yoshito; Oikawa, Kenichi; Harada, Masahide; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Fujimaki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate neutron detection using a solid state superconducting current biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which consists of a superconducting Nb meander line of 1 μm width and 40 nm thickness. 10 B-enriched neutron absorber layer of 150 nm thickness is placed on top of the CB-KID. Our neutron detectors are able to operate in a wide superconducting region in the bias current–temperature diagram. This is in sharp contrast with our preceding current-biased transition edge detector, which can operate only in a narrow range just below the superconducting critical temperature. The full width at half maximum of the signals remains of the order of a few tens of ns, which confirms the high speed operation of our detectors

  6. Enhancement of superconducting critical current by injection of quasiparticles in superconductor semiconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Sørensen, C. B.

    2000-01-01

    We report new measurements on 3-terminal superconductor semiconductor injection devices, demonstrating enhancement of the supercurrent by injection from a superconducting injector electrode. Two other electrodes were used as detectors. Applying a small voltage to the injector, reduced the maximum...

  7. The D0 detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

  8. First runs with the ORPHEUS dark matter detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czapek, G; Hauser, M; Janos, S; Loaiza, P; Moser, U; Pretzl, K; Brandt, B V D; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Ebert, T; Kainer, K U; Knoop, K M

    2002-01-01

    The ORPHEUS dark matter experiment is completed at our shallow depth laboratory in Bern (70 m.w.e.). The detector relies on measuring the magnetic flux variation produced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) as they heat 30 mu m diameter superheated superconducting tin granules (SSG) and induce superconducting-to-normal phase transitions. In an initial phase, 0.45 kg of tin granules in a segmented detector volume have been used. Preliminary results of the experiment will be reported.

  9. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  10. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  11. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António; Sousa, Duarte M.; Fernão Pires, Vítor; Margato, Elmano

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  12. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  14. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators.

  15. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators

  16. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  17. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  18. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  19. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  20. Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康

    2000-01-01

    There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...

  1. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  2. Report of the general purpose detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Cool, R.; Hanson, G.; Koetz, U.; Kottahaus, R.; Loken, S.; Luke, D.; Rothenberg, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose detector for PEP is described. The main components of this detector are a l meter radius, 15 kilogauss superconducting solenoidal magnet with drift chambers to detect and measure the momentum of charged particles, a liquid argon neutral detector and hadron calorimeter, and a system of Cherenkov and time-of-flight counters for identification of charged hadrons. A major consideration in the design of this detector was that it be flexible: the magnet coil and drift chambers form a core around which various apparatus for specialized detection can be placed

  3. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  4. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  5. Superconductivity in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1976-01-01

    Physics, especially high energy physics and solid state physics was the first area in which superconducting magnets were used but in the long run, the most extensive application of superconductivity will probably be in energy technology. Superconducting power transmission cables, magnets for energy conversion in superconducting electrical machines, MHD-generators and fusion reactors and magnets for energy storage are being investigated. Magnets for fusion reactors will have particularly large physical dimensions, which means that much development effort is still needed, for there is no economic alternative. Superconducting surfaces in radio frequency cavities can give Q-values up to a factor of 10 6 higher than those of conventional resonators. Particle accelerators are the important application. And for telecommunication, simple coaxial superconducting radio frequency cables seem promising. The tunnel effect in superconducting junctions is now being developed commercially for sensitive magnetometers and may soon possibly feature in the memory cells of computer devices. Hence superconductivity can play an important role in the technological world, solving physical and technological problems and showing economic advantages as compared with possible conventional techniques, bearing also in mind the importance of reliability and safety. (author)

  6. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  7. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  8. Superconductivity in bad metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'' with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described

  9. Submicron superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of works concerning superconducting structures of submicron dimensions and a system of such structures is given. It is noted that usage of the above structures in superconducting microelectronics permits, first, to increase the element packing density, to decrease the signal transmission time, capacity, power dissipated in high-frequency applications. Secondly, negligible coherence length in transition metals, their alloys and high-temperature compounds also restrict the dimensions of superconducting weak couplings when the 'classical' Josephson effect is displayed. The most effective methods for production of submicron superconducting structures are the following: lithography, double scribering. Recently the systems of superconducting submicron elements are extensively studied. It is shown that such systems can be phased by magnetic field

  10. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  11. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  12. Superconductivity: materials and applications; La supraconductivite: materiaux et apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Kircher, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leveque, J. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN - UHP, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Tixador, P. [INP/Institut Neel, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  13. Quasiparticle dynamics in superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozorezov, A.G.; Brammertz, G.; Hijmering, R.A.; Wigmore, J.K.; Peacock, A.; Martin, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJs) used as single photon detectors possess extreme sensitivity and excellent resolving power. However, like many other cryogenic detectors they operate under extremely non-equilibrium conditions. In order to understand the physics of the non-equilibrium, non-stationary state, to interpret experimental data adequately, and to optimize the STJs unique performance, it is necessary to use a fully kinetic approach. We have developed the detailed theory of interactions between quasiparticles (qps) and the two types of phonons, sub-gap and pair-breaking, in STJ photon detectors. We discuss the results of extensive sets of experiments to study the non-equilibrium state in Al-based STJs. For the first time we are capable of explaining all available data systematically using a single set of parameters determined from STJ diagnostics and independent experiments

  14. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  15. Ultimate Performance of the ATLAS Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, R; Kawai, M; Kondo, Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kate, H ten; Kondo, T; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2007-01-01

    A 2 tesla, 7730 ampere, 39 MJ, 45 mm thin superconducting solenoid with a 2.3 meters warm bore and 5.3 meters length, is installed in the center of the ATLAS detector and successfully commissioned. The solenoid shares its cryostat with one of the detector's calorimeters and provides the magnetic field required for the inner detectors to accurately track collision products from the LHC at CERN. After several years of a stepwise construction and test program, the solenoid integration 100 meters underground in the ATLAS cavern is completed. Following the on-surface acceptance test, the solenoid is now operated with its final cryogenic, powering and control system. A re-validation of all essential operating parameters is completed. The performance and test results of underground operation are reported and compared to those previously measured.

  16. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.

    1977-01-01

    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  17. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  18. Superconducting materials and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  20. ESCAR superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Pope, W.L.; Green, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four superconducting dipoles, each about 1 meter long, provide the guide field for the Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring proton accelerator--storage ring. Injection of 50 MeV protons corresponds to a 3 kG central dipole field, and a peak proton energy of 4.2 GeV corresponds to a 46 kG central field. Thirty-two quadrupoles provide focusing. The 56 superconducting magnets are contained in 40 cryostats that are cryogenically connected in a novel series ''weir'' arrangement. A single 1500 W refrigeration plant is required. Design and testing of the magnet and cryostat system are described. (U.S.)

  1. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  2. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described

  3. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  4. Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr

  5. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  6. Nexan receives two CMS Awards of the Year 2002 for its work in superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Nexans has received one Crystal and one Gold CMS award for its contribution to the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector project. The CMS detector is designed to study the fundamental constituents of matter. The prizes recompense the excellent quality of Nexans' service in the supply of the necessary low-temperature superconducting cables sheathed in extruded aluminium.

  7. Data acquisition and online processing requirements for experimentation at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.; Barsotti, E.; Gaines, I.

    1990-01-01

    Differences in scale between data acquisition and online processing requirements for detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider and systems for existing large detectors will require new architectures and technological advances in these systems. Emerging technologies will be employed for data transfer, processing, and recording. (orig.)

  8. Data acquisition and online processing requirements for experimentation at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.; Barsotti, E.; Gaines, I.

    1989-07-01

    Differences in scale between data acquisition and online processing requirements for detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider and systems for existing large detectors will require new architectures and technological advances in these systems. Emerging technologies will be employed for data transfer, processing, and recording. 9 refs., 3 figs

  9. Physics case for a multiparticle detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Dag.

    1984-04-01

    This report is an examination of the physics which would be accessible to a large multiparticle detector system when used with heavy ion beams of 10 to 50 MeV/u from the Chalk River Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron Complex (TASCC)

  10. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  11. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  12. Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng

    1992-10-01

    The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed

  13. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  14. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  15. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...

  16. Superconductivity and its devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles

  17. Superconductivity: Heike's heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.

    2011-01-01

    A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.

  18. RADIOFREQUENCY SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency is already playing an important role in the beam acceleration system for the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and new such systems are being prepared for other major machines. Thus the fourth Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity, organized by KEK under the chairmanship of local specialist Yuzo Kojima and held just before the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, had much progress to review and even more to look forward to

  19. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  20. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  1. Superconductivity: A critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Nicola

    1997-01-01

    It is some forty years now that superconductivity has entered into the field of applied Physics. Countless applications have been proposed some of which have been successfully tested in the form of prototypes and relatively few have become widely used products. This article offers an objective examination of what applied superconductivity represents in the area of modern technology highlighting its exclusive advantages and its inevitable limitations

  2. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  3. Superconducting magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Expediency of usage and possibilities arising in application of superconducting devices in magnetic systems of accelerators and experimental nuclear-physical devices are studied. Parameters of specific devices are given. It is emphasized that at the existing level of technological possibilities, construction and usage of superconducting magnetic systems in experimental nuclear physics should be thought of as possible, from the engineering, and expedient, from the economical viewpoints [ru

  4. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  5. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  6. High-current applications of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: superconducting materials, design principles of superconducting magnets, magnets for research and engineering, superconductivity for power engineering, superconductivity in nuclear fusion technology, economical considerations

  7. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  8. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  9. Progress in cryogenic detectors for neutrinos, dark matter and rare processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the development status of low temperature calorimetric detectors and of detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions. Such cryogenic detectors, which operate in the millidegree range of temperatures, are under study in efforts to the search for dark matter candidates and rare events and might ultimately also be used to elucidate the evasive nature of the neutrinos. (orig.)

  10. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-15

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the {delta}{sup +} background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  11. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-01

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the Δ + background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  12. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  13. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-02-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment of the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed. 27 refs., 15 figs

  14. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-04-15

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared.

  15. Superconducting nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlushko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines

  16. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  17. Identification of microorganisms using superconducting tunnel junctions and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullom, J. N.; Frank, M.; Horn, J. M.; Labov, S. E.; Langry, K.; Benner, W. H.

    2000-04-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements of biological material ejected from bacterial spores following laser irradiation. Ion impacts are registered on a microchannel plate detector and on a Superconducting Tunnel Junction (STJ) detector. We compare mass spectra obtained with the two detectors. The STJ has better sensitivity to massive ions and also measures the energy of each ion. We show evidence that spores of different bacillus species produce distinctive mass spectra and associate the observed mass peaks with coat proteins.

  18. Identification of microorganisms using superconducting tunnel junctions and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Frank, M.; Horn, J.M.; Labov, S.E.; Langry, K.; Benner, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements of biological material ejected from bacterial spores following laser irradiation. Ion impacts are registered on a microchannel plate detector and on a Superconducting Tunnel Junction (STJ) detector. We compare mass spectra obtained with the two detectors. The STJ has better sensitivity to massive ions and also measures the energy of each ion. We show evidence that spores of different bacillus species produce distinctive mass spectra and associate the observed mass peaks with coat proteins

  19. A normal metal tunnel-junction heat diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornieri, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.fornieri@sns.it; Martínez-Pérez, María José; Giazotto, Francesco, E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-05-05

    We propose a low-temperature thermal rectifier consisting of a chain of three tunnel-coupled normal metal electrodes. We show that a large heat rectification is achievable if the thermal symmetry of the structure is broken and the central island can release energy to the phonon bath. The performance of the device is theoretically analyzed and, under the appropriate conditions, temperature differences up to ∼200 mK between the forward and reverse thermal bias configurations are obtained below 1 K, corresponding to a rectification ratio R∼2000. The simplicity intrinsic to its design joined with the insensitivity to magnetic fields make our device potentially attractive as a fundamental building block in solid-state thermal nanocircuits and in general-purpose cryogenic electronic applications requiring energy management.

  20. Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  1. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  2. Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

  3. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-06-27

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.

  4. ATLAS superconducting solenoid on-surface test

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, Roger J M Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Makida, Y; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Pavlov, O V; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is presently under construction as one of the five LHC experiment set-ups. It relies on a sophisticated magnet system for the momentum measurement of charged particle tracks. The superconducting solenoid is at the center of the detector, the magnet system part nearest to the proton-proton collision point. It is designed for a 2 Tesla strong axial magnetic field at the collision point, while its thin-walled construction of 0.66 radiation lengths avoids degradation of energy measurements in the outer calorimeters. The solenoid and calorimeter have been integrated in their common cryostat, cooled down and tested on-surface. We review the on-surface set-up and report the performance test results.

  5. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  6. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  7. On anyon superconductivity--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-H.; Wilczek, F.; Witten, E.; Halperin, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of a gas of fractional statistics particles in 2 + 1 dimensions. In the case of statistics very close to Fermi statistics (statistical parameter θ = π(1 - 1/n), for large n), the effect of the statistics is a weak attraction. Building upon earlier RPA calculation for the case n = 2, the authors argue that for large n perturbation theory is reliable and exhibits superfluidity (or superconductivity after coupling to electromagnetism). They describe the order parameter for this superconductng phase in terms of spontaneous breaking of commutativity of translations as opposed to the usual pairing order parameters. The vortices of the superconducting anyon gas are charged, and superconducting order parameters of the usual type vanish. They investigate the characteristic P and T violating phenomenology

  8. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  9. Superconducting linac booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Betigeri, M.G.; Pandey, M.K.; Pillay, R.G.; Kurup, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The report on superconducting LINAC booster, which is a joint project of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), brings out the work accomplished so far towards the development of the technology of superconducting LINAC to boost the energy of ions from the 14UD Pelletron. The LINAC is modular in construction with each module comprising of a helium cryostat housing four lead-plated quarter wave resonators. The resonators are superconducting for temperatures below 7.19K. An energy boost of 2 MeV/q per module is expected to be achieved. The first module and the post-tandem superbuncher have been fabricated and tested on the LINAC beam line. This report gives a summary of the technological achievements and also brings out the difficulties encountered during the R and D phase. (author)

  10. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  11. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  12. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  13. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  14. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  15. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  16. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  17. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  18. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  19. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  20. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    Segmuller, A., Cooper, E.I., Chisholm, M.F., Gupta, A. Shinde, S., and Laibowitz, R.B. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-T superconducting thin...M. F. Chisholm, A. Gupta, S. Shinde, and R. B. Laibowitz, " Lanthanum Gallate Substrates for Epitaxial High-T c Superconducting Thin Films," Appl...G. Forrester and J. Talvacchio, " Lanthanum Copper Oxide Buffer Layers for Growth of High-T c Superconductor Films," Disclosure No. RDS 90-065, filed

  1. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  2. Technology of RF superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams

  3. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  4. Proceedings of the international workshop on solenoidal detectors for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Fumio; Hasegawa, Katsuo

    1990-07-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the International Workshop on solenoidal detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Optically activated high Tc superconducting microbolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefremenko, V; Gordiyenko, E; Shustakova, G; Bader, S D; Karapetrov, G; Novosad, V

    2006-01-01

    A laser beam, precisely focused on the patterned superconducting structure, was used to nucleate a resistive area that is sensitive to external thermal effects. The electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y-Ba-Cu-O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) 3 millimeters long and 40 micrometers wide stripe and (ii) 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meander -like structure. It is shown experimentally that scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area and, therefore may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. For example, patterning the superconducting film into a meander structure is equivalent to a two-dimensional detector array. In additional to the simplicity of the detector fabrication sequence (one step mask transfer), a clear advantage of this approach is the simplicity of the read-out process: an image is formed by registering the signal with only two electrical terminals. The proposed approach can be extended for imaging over a wide spectral range

  6. Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.

  7. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in a ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontos, T.; Aprili, M.; Lesueur, J.; Genet, F.; Boursier, R.; Grison, X.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied a new superconducting state where the condensate wave function resulting from conventional pairing, is modified by an exchange field. Superconductivity is induced into a ferromagnetic thin film (F) by the proximity effect with a superconducting reservoir (S). We observed oscillations of the superconducting order parameter induced in F as a function of the distance from the S/F interface. They originate from the finite momentum transfer provided to Cooper pairs by the splitting of the spin up and down bands. We measured the superconducting density of states in F by tunneling spectroscopy and the Josephson critical current when F is coupled with a superconducting counter-electrode. Negative values of the superconducting order parameter are revealed by capsized tunneling spectra in F and a negative Josephson coupling (π-junction)

  8. Digital signal processors for cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Bechstein, Sylke; Hennig, Wolfgang; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer online filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. We discuss DSP performance with our 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Superconductivity and magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The background theory of superconducting behavior is reviewed. Three parameters that characterize superconducting materials with values of commercial materials as examples are discussed. More than 1000 compounds and alloy systems and 26 elements are known to exhibit superconducting properties under normal conditions at very low temperatures. A wide variety of crystal structures are represented among the known superconductors. The most important ones do seem to have cubic symmetry such as the body-centered cubic (NbZr and NbTi), face-centered cubic (NbN), and the A15 or β-tungsten structures (Nb 3 Sn), V 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, and V 3 Si). Attempts to understand some of the particular phenomena associated with superconductors as a necessary prelude to constructing superconducting magnets are discussed by the author. The origin of degradation is briefly discussed and methods to stabilize magnets are illustrated. The results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory design studies of toroidal magnet systems for fusion reactors are described

  10. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  11. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  12. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  13. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  15. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  16. Superconducting magnets 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design

  17. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  18. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When an electric field is applied, this electron can be lifted to this higher energy ... By such a virtual process two electrons .... using superconducting coils has come to be a reality. ... nance imaging techniques used in medical diagnostics. Com ...

  19. Superconducting magnets for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Hadron-Electron-Ring Accelerator (HERA) presently under construction at DESY, Hamburg, consists of an electron storage ring of 30 GeV and a proton storage ring of 820 GeV. Superconducting magnets are used for the proton ring. There are 416 superconducting bending magnets of 4.698 T central field and 8.824 m magnetic length, 224 superconducting quadrupoles of 91.2 T/m central gradient and many superconducting correction dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles. The main dipoles and quadrupoles consist of two-layer coils of 75 mm inner diameter clammed with aluminium (for the dipoles) or stainless steel laminations (for the quadrupoles). The collared coils are surrounded by a laminated cold iron yoke and supported inside a low loss cryostat. The protection system uses cold diodes to bypass the current around a quenching magnet. The magnets are cooled with one phase helium supplied by a 3 block central refrigeration system of 20 kW refrigeration power at 4.3 K. Two helium is returned through the magnets in good thermal contact with the one phase helium in the dipoles for temperature control. This paper describes the magnet system and gives the results obtained for prototype magnets

  20. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  1. Gossamer superconductivity, new paradigm?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hyekyung [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea); Haas, Stephan; Parker, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Maki, Kazumi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Dora, Balazs [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Virosztek, Attila [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent works on d-wave density wave (dDW) and gossamer superconductivity (i.e. d-wave superconductivity in the presence of dDW) in high-T{sub c} cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5}. a) We show that both the giant Nernst effect and the angle dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR) in the pseudogap phases of the cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5} are manifestations of dDW. b) The phase diagram of high-T{sub c} cuprates is understood in terms of mean field theory, which includes two order parameters {delta}{sub 1} and {delta}{sub 2}, where one order paremeter is from dDW and the other from d-wave superconductivity. c) In the optimally to the overdoped region we find the spatially periodic dDW, an analogue of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, becomes more stable. d) In the underdoped region where {delta}{sub 2}/{delta}{sub 1}<<1 the Uemera relation is obtained within the present model. We speculate that the gossamer superconductivity is at the heart of high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors, the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} and the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Superconductivity : Controlling magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu.

    Manipulation of the magnetic state in spin valve structures by superconductivity has now been achieved, opening a new route for the development of ultra-fast cryogenic memories. Spintronics is a rapidly developing field that allows insight into fundamental spin-dependent physical properties and the

  3. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses development in oxide materials with high superconducting transition temperature. Systems with Tc well above liquid nitrogen temperature are already a reality and higher Tc's are anticipated. The author discusses how the idea of a room-temperature superconductor appears to be a distinctly possible outcome of materials research

  4. Magnetic levitation and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, C.

    1989-01-01

    The paper explains the impressive advances made in the development of superconducting magnets, in cryogenic engineering, and in the development of drive and vehicle concepts in Japan in the period following termination of West German development work for the electrodynamical system (MLU 001, MLU 002). The potentials engineering due to the development of high-Tc superconductors are discussed. (orig./MM) [de

  5. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  6. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  7. System of cylindrical drift chambers in a superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.; Blumenfeld, B.J.; Dimcovski, Z.

    1978-01-01

    A superconducting solenoid at the CERN ISR was equipped with a system of high accuracy cylindrical drift chambers. This detector consists of eight layers of field shaped drift cells with a delay line opposite each sense wire to provide coupled two dimensional readout. The design, construction, and operation of this system are discussed. The resolution and performance of the delay lines and sense wires under ISR running conditions are shown

  8. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test

  9. Development of transition edge superconducting bolometers for the SAFARI Far-Infrared spectrometer on the SPICA space-borne telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Withington, S.; Bruijn, M.; De Korte, P.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the optimization of transition edge superconducting (TES) detectors for use in a far-infrared (FIR) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) mounted on a cryogenically cooled space-borne telescope (e.g. SPICA). The required noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors is approximately 10?19

  10. Crosstalk in a KID Array Caused by the Thickness Variation of Superconducting Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, A.; Boucher, C.; Coiffard, G.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Goupy, J.; Calvo, M.; Hoarau, C.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is focused on the improvement of the kinetic detectors used on NIKA2 instrument (New IRAM KID array 2). Based on the simulation and low temperature measurements, it aims at showing how the variations of the superconducting metal corrupt the frequency comb of the kinetic Inductance detectors (KID) in the frequency range (between 1 and 3 GHz), i.e., how the superconducting metal inhomogeneity induces the resonance-to-resonance cross-coupling which deteriorates the homogeneity of the resonance quality factor and the frequency resonance separation. Solutions are then proposed to fight against the effect of these metallic variations when designing the KID array.

  11. Reference Design of the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Feher, S; Brandt,, J; Cheban, S; Coleman, R; Dhanaraj, N; Fang, I; Lamm, M; Lombardo, V; Lopes, M; Miller, J; Ostojic, R ,; Orris, D; Page, T; Peterson, T; Tang, Z; Wands, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab has been approved by the Department of Energy to proceed developing the preliminary design. Integral to the success of Mu2e is the superconducting solenoid system. One of the three major solenoids is the Detector Solenoid that houses the stopping target and the detectors. The goal of the Detector Solenoid team is to produce detailed design specifications that are sufficient for vendors to produce the final design drawings, tooling and fabrication procedures and proceed to production. In this paper we summarize the Reference Design of the Detector Solenoid.

  12. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  13. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  14. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  15. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  16. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  17. Infrared Quenched Photoinduced Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, J. F.; Chew, D.; Guttierez-Solana, J.; Molina, G.; Savin, W.; Wilber, W.

    1996-03-01

    Persistant photoconductivity (PPC) and photoinduced superconductivity (PISC) in oxygen deficient YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x have received recent attention. It has been suggested that oxygen vacancy defects play an important role in the PISC/PPC mechanism.(J. F. Federici, D. Chew, B. Welker, W. Savin, J. Gutierrez-Solana, and T. Fink, Phys. Rev. B), December 1995 Supported by National Science Foundation In this model, defects trap photogenerated electrons so that electron-hole recombination can not occur thereby allowing photogenerated holes to contribute to the carrier density. Nominally, the photoinduced state is long-lived, persisting for days at low temperature. Experiment results will be presented demonstrating that the photoinduced superconductivity state can be quenched using infrared radiation. Implications for the validity of the PISC/PCC defect model will be discussed.

  18. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...

  19. Variable temperature superconducting microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Yeh, W. J.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed and tested a promising type of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, which can be used to detect vortex motion and can operate in magnetic fields over a large temperature range. The system utilizes a single-loop coupling transformer, consisting of a patterned high Tc superconducting thin film. At one end of the transformer, a 20 μm diam detecting loop is placed close to the sample. At the other end, a large loop is coupled to a NbTi coil, which is connected to a low Tc SQUID sensor. Transformers in a variety of sizes have been tested and calibrated. The results show that the system is capable of detecting the motion of a single vortex. We have used the microscope to study the behavior of moving vortices at various positions in a YBa2Cu3O7 thin film bridge.

  20. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  1. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  2. Superconductivity in Chevrel phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, O.; Seeber, B.

    1979-01-01

    In the last years several ternary superconductors have been discovered, which possess unusual physical properties. Among them the molybdenum chalcogenides, which are often called Chevrel phases, have a special position. Some of these compounds have very high critical fields, which is of special interest for a technical application. In these substances the coexistence of magnetic ordering and superconductivity has been found for the first time, too. Recently it has become possible to prepare new compounds, which are interesting for superconductivity, by the appropriate coalescence of Mo 6 clusters. In the case of Tl 2 Mo 6 Se 6 (Tsub(c) = 3K) this development leads to a quasi-one-dimensional metallic system. (orig.)

  3. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  4. Superconducting frustration bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A frustration bit element is proposed for a conventional superconducting circuit. • It is composed of π-junctions. • It mimics the multiband superconductor. - Abstract: A basic design is proposed for a classical bit element of a superconducting circuit that mimics a frustrated multiband superconductor and is composed of an array of π-Josephson junctions (π-junction). The phase shift of π provides the lowest energy for one π-junction, but neither a π nor a zero phase shift gives the lowest energy for an assembly of π-junctions. There are two chiral states that can be used to store one bit information. The energy scale for reading and writing to memory is of the same order as the junction energy, and is thus in the same order of the driving energy of the circuit. In addition, random access is also possible

  5. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalapino, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations

  6. Stabilized superconducting materials and fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.; Dance, J.M.; Etourneau, J.; Lozano, L.; Tressaud, A.; Tournier, R.; Sulpice, A.; Chaussy, J.; Lejay, P.

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting ceramics are fluorinated at a temperature ≤ 120 0 C. Are also claimed new superconducting materials with a fluorine concentration gradient decreasing from the surface to the core. Superconductivity is stabilized and/or improved [fr

  7. Superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Physics and Mathematics

    2011-07-01

    We review superconductivity in MgB{sub 2} in terms of crystal and electronic structure, electron-phonon coupling, two-gap superconductivity and application. Finally, we introduce the development of new superconducting materials in related compounds. (orig.)

  8. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  9. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenicke, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr 2 RuO 4 is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO 2 as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  10. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenicke, A F

    2008-01-25

    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  11. Superconduction at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    This general paper deals with the advantages which may result from the use of ceramic high-temperature superconductors. The use of these new superconductors for generators and electric motors for ship propulsion is regarded as a promising potential defense application. Furthermore, SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) can be used as a 'power compressor' for future high-performance weapon systems such as electromagnetic cannons, high-energy lasers, and high power microwaves. (MM) [de

  12. Advanced superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.

    1983-11-01

    The superconducting properties of various materials are reviewed in view of their use in high field magnets. The critical current densities above 12 T of conductors based on NbN or PbMo 6 S 8 are compared to those of the most advanced practical conductors based on alloyed by Nb 3 Sn. Different aspects of the mechanical reinforcement of high field conductors, rendered necessary by the strong Lorentz forces (e.g. in fusion magnets), are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  14. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddah, P.; Dande, Y.D.; Dasannacharya, B.A.; Malik, M.K.; Raghavan, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages of low power loss, high magnetic fields and compactness of size of superconducting magnets have generated world-wide interest in using them for MHD generators, Tokamak fusion reactors, energy storage systems etc. With a view to assess the feasibility of using the technology in power engineering in India, the status of the efforts in the country is reviewed and the areas of R and D required are indicated. 13 figures, 15 refs. (author)

  15. Superconducting linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider

  16. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S. Q.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kacmarik, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Szabo, P.; Yuan, H. F.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2017), s. 5358-5366 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanodiamond * superconductivity and ferromagnetism * spin fluctuations * giant positive magnetoresistance * anamalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties ) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  17. Superconducting cavities for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  18. Superconductivity is pair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenmayr, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Electric cables that routinely conduct electricity without loss - physicists have been motivated by this idea ever since superconductivity was discovered 100 years ago. Researchers working with Bernhard Keimer at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart and Frank Steglich at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden want to gain a detailed understanding of how unconventional superconductors lose their resistivity. (orig.)

  19. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  20. Cooldown of superconducting magnet strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, A.; Carcagno, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model for the cooldown of the superconducting magnet strings in the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) Facility at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory is presented. Numerical results are compared with experimental data from the ASST test runs. Agreement between the numerical predictions and experiments is very good over the entire range from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. The model can be readily adapted to predict the cooldown and warmup behavior of other superconducting magnets or cold masses

  1. Superconductivity in borides and carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    It was thought that intermetallic superconductors do not exhibit superconductivity at temperatures over 30 K because of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limit; therefore, researchers have been interested in high-T c cuprates. Our group discovered high-T c superconductivity in MgB 2 at 39 K in 2001. This discovery has initiated a substantial interest in the potential of high-T c superconductivity in intermetallic compounds that include 'light' elements (borides, carbides, etc.). (author)

  2. Superconducting energy storage magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Boom, R.W.; Young, W.C.; McIntosh, G.E.; Abdelsalam, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting magnet is described comprising: (a) a first, outer coil of one layer of conductor including at least a superconducting composite material; (b) a second, inner coil of one layer of conductor including at least a superconducting composite material. The second coil disposed adjacent to the first coil with each turn of the second inner coil at substantially the same level as a turn on the first coil; (c) an inner support structure between the first and second coils and engaged to the conductors thereof, including support rails associated with each turn of conductor in each coil and in contact therewith along its length at positions on the inwardly facing periphery of the conductor. The rail associated with each conductor is electrically isolated from other rails in the inner support structure. The magnetic field produced by a current flowing in the same direction through the conductors of the first and second coils produces a force on the conductors that are directed inwardly toward the inner support structure

  3. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  4. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  5. Photon detector for MEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10 13 . The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a μ → eγ decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm 2 , a directional resolution of 10 degrees, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e + e - pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm

  6. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  7. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P.M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC 6 and YbC 6 in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition

  8. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-04-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  9. The development of superconducting equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Hiue, H

    2003-01-01

    Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)

  10. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

  11. Superconducting Nonlinear Kinetic Inductance Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting quantum interference devices, or SQUIDs, are by far the most sensitive magnetometers available, but two issues limit their commercial potential:...

  12. Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   ‎ The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons ‎ . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.

  13. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  14. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  15. A Detector for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, T.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary design and development work on polarized detectors intended to enable Cosmic Microwave Background polarization measurements that will probe the first moments of the universe. The ultimate measurement will be challenging, requiring background-limited detectors and good control of systematic errors. Toward this end, we are integrating the beam control of HE-11 feedhorns with the sensitivity of transition-edge sensors. The coupling between these two devices is achieved via waveguide probe antennas and superconducting microstrip lines. This implementation allows band-pass filters to be incorporated on the detector chip. We believe that a large collection of single-mode polarized detectors will eventually be required for the reliable detection of the weak polarized signature that is expected to result from gravitational waves produced by cosmic inflation. This focal plane prototype is an important step along the path to this detection, resulting in a capability that will enable various future high performance instrument concepts.

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  17. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  18. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  19. Process for producing clad superconductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cass, R.B.; Ott, K.C.; Peterson, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for fabricating superconducting composite wire. It comprises placing a superconductive precursor admixture capable of undergoing self propagating combustion in stoichiometric amounts sufficient to form a superconductive product within an oxygen-porous metal tube; sealing one end of the tube; igniting the superconductive precursor admixture whereby the superconductive precursor admixture endburns along the length of the admixture; and cross-section reducing the tube at a rate substantially equal to the rate of burning of the superconductive precursor admixture and at a point substantially planar with the burnfront of the superconductive precursor mixture, whereby a clad superconductive product is formed in situ

  20. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X

    2016-01-21

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.

  1. Gravitational-wave detector realized by a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidoshiro, K.; Ando, M.; Takamori, A.; Okada, K.; Tsubono, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a new gravitational-wave detector based on superconducting magnetic levitation and results of its prototype test. Our detector is composed of the suspended test mass that is rotated by gravitational waves. Gravitational wave signals are readout by monitoring its angular motion. Superconducting magnetic levitation is used for the suspension of the test mass, since it has many advantages, such as zero mechanical loss and resonant frequency around its suspension axis in an ideal situation. For the study of actual performance of such gravitational-wave detector, a prototype detector has been developed. Using the prototype detector, the actual loss factor and resonant frequency are measured as 1.2 x 10 -8 Nms/rad and 5 mHz respectively. A detector noise is also evaluated. The current noise level is determined by the magnetic coupling with external magnetic field and mechanical coupling between translation and angular motion. The prototype detector has already one of the lowest noise levels for gravitational waves at 0.1 Hz among current gravitational-wave detectors. We have succeeded at the demonstration of the advantages of our torsion gravitational-wave detector.

  2. Fast cryogenic detectors for neutrinos and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We briefly review some recent developments on cryogenic detectors whose response is not entirely limited in speed by heat or phonon propagation through a macroscopic medium. Two subjects are dealt with: a) the use of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) for nucleus recoil detection (dedicated to low energy neutrinos and WIMP dark matter); b) a possible new generation of devices eventually able to perform particle identification (therefore improving background rejection), through simultaneous measurement of ionization and heat: luminescent bolometer, calorimetric ionization detector

  3. SSC detector solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, E.D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no need for the coil and cryostat to be ''thin'' in radiation lengths. An iron yoke will reduce the excitation required and will provide muon identification and a redundant momentum measurement of the muons. The authors have developed a conceptual design to meet these requirements. The magnet will use a copper-stabilized Nb-Ti conductor sized for a cryostable pool boiling heat flux --0.025 W/cm/sup 2/. A thermosiphon from a storage vessel above the cryostat will be used to prevent bubble stagnation in the liquid helium bath. The operating current, current density, coil subdivision and dump resistor have been chosen to guarantee that the coil will be undamaged should a quench occur. The axial electromagnetic force will be reacted by metallic support links; the stainless steel coil case will support the radial force. The 5000 metric tons of calorimetry will be supported from the iron yoke through a trussed cylindrical shell structure separate from the cryostat. The coil and case, radiation shield and stainless vacuum vessel would be fabricated and cryogenically tested as two 8-m sections. These would be lowered into the underground experimental hall and installed into the iron flux return yoke to provide the required 16-m length

  4. Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, P.

    1990-08-01

    At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.) [de

  5. Safety issues for superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Safety issues for future superconducting fusion magnet systems are examined. It is found that safety and failure experience with existing superconducting magnets is not very applicable to predictions as to the safety and reliability of fusion magnets. Such predictions will have to depend on analysis and judgement for many years to come, rather than on accumulated experience. A number of generic potential structural, thermal-hydraulic, and electrical safety problems are identified and analyzed. Prevention of quenches and non-uniform temperature distributions, if quenches should occur, is of great importance, since such events can trigger processes which lead to magnet damage or failure. Engineered safety features will be necessary for fusion magnets. Two of these, an energy dispersion system and external coil containment, appear capable of reducing the probability of coil disruption to very low levels. However, they do not prevent loss of function accidents which are of economic concern. Elaborate detector, temperature equalization, and energy removal systems will be required to minimize the chances of loss of function accidents

  6. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  7. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  8. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  9. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  10. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the...

  11. Superconducting magnet for 'ML-100'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, R; Fujinaga, T; Tada, N; Kimura, H

    1974-07-01

    A magneticaly levitated experimental vehicle (Ml-100) was designed and constructed in commemoration of the centenary of the Japanese National Railways. For magnetic levitation the vehicle is provided with two superconducting magnets. In the test operation of the vehicle, these superconducting magnets showed stable performance in levitating vehicle body.

  12. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  13. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  14. Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer (SQOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-05

    parts on optical signals and any quasiparticle loss caused by optical photons on microwave signals. Using a superconducting 3D cavity as the microwave...plasmonic and quasiparticle losses. 3. The electro-optic material should be easily integrable with superconducting circuits. A fully integrated

  15. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  16. the tj model and superconductivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Perhaps that in the reason why their explanations of the superconductivity have had limited scope . A proper theory and mechanism of superconductivity in the ceramic cuprates should take account of magnetism inherent in the compounds. For the (214) compound experiment have revealed strong antiferromagnetic (AF).

  17. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  18. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  19. A superconducting magnetic gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2016-01-01

    A comparison is made between a magnetic gear using permanent magnets and superconductors. The objective is to see if there are any fundamental reasons why superconducting magnets should not provide higher power densities than permanent magnets. The gear is based on the variable permeability design of Attilah and Howe (2001 IEEE Trans. Magn. 37 2844–46) in which a ring of permanent magnets surrounding a ring of permeable pole pieces with a different spacing gives an internal field component at the beat frequency. Superconductors can provide much larger fields and forces but will saturate the pole pieces. However the gear mechanism still operates, but in a different way. The magnetisation of the pole pieces is now constant but rotates with angle at the beat frequency. The result is a cylindrical Halbach array which produces an internal field with the same symmetry as in the linear regime, but has an analytic solution. In this paper a typical gear system is analysed with finite elements using FlexPDE. It is shown that the gear can work well into the saturation regime and that the Halbach array gives a good approximation to the results. Replacing the permanent magnets with superconducting tapes can give large increases in torque density, and for something like a wind turbine a combined gear and generator is possible. However there are major practical problems. Perhaps the most fundamental is the large high frequency field which is inevitably present and which will cause AC losses. Also large magnetic fields are required, with all the practical problems of high field superconducting magnets in rotating machines. Nevertheless there are ways of mitigating these difficulties and it seems worthwhile to explore the possibilities of this technology further. (paper)

  20. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  1. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  2. Review of superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for acceleration of ions with velocity β ∼ 1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions. (Author) 5 tabs., 6 figs., 29 refs

  3. Superconducting ac cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-11-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.

  4. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  5. Remarks on superconductive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Lopez, A.R.N.; Simonin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some remarks on the determination of the normal-superconductor phase boundary in random superconductive networks are made. A recently reported work by Soukoulis, Grest and Li which introduces weak links between nodes as these are removed in the site percolation problem is discussed. By the analysis of two simple geometries, it is shown that this procedure introduces spurious effects which mask the physical properties of the system. These affect in particular the field slope critical index and the sharpness of the normal-superconductor boundary. (Author)

  6. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  7. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, A C

    1978-01-01

    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  8. Ruthenates: simple superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulian, Armen M.; Wood, Kent S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose triplet superconductors, such as ruthenates, as a prospective material for qubit construction. The vectorial nature of the order parameter in triplet superconductors makes it conceptually very easy to imagine the performance of the qubits. The Cooper condensate of pairs in triplet superconductors has all the attributes of the Bose-Einstein condensates and should facilitate long decoherence times of these qubits versus other 'vectorial' schemes for qubits, such as small ferromagnets. There are other benefits, which the superconducting state provides for a requirement like entanglement between qubits via the proximity effect

  9. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  10. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  11. New theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.B.; Bell, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Based on three earlier papers which treat electromagnetic, elastogravitational, and radiant-nonradiant thermal phenomena in terms of six types of electric or nonelectric charges, the authors classify states of matter as hyperefficient, efficient, semiefficient, and hypoefficient in transmitting a particular type of charge, by means of a generalization of Ohm's law to two or three dimensions. Conventional states of matter (solid, liquid, gas, vacuum) are associated with torsional (gravitational) charges. Applications are made to electric superconductivity of crystals at elevated temperatures, and to frequency shift

  12. AGS superconducting bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.

    1976-01-01

    Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet

  13. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  14. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  15. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  16. Cryogenic gamma detectors enable direct detection of 236U and minor actinides for non-destructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel Velazquez; Jonathan Dreyer; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, Stephan; Saleem Salaymeh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) γ-ray detector with high energy resolution and low Compton background for nondestructive assay (NDA) of a uranium sample from reprocessed nuclear fuel. We show that TES γ-detectors can separate low-energy actinide γ-emissions from the background and nearby lines, even from minor isotopes whose signals are often obscured in NDA with conventional Ge detectors. Superconducting γ-detectors may therefore bridge the gap between high-accuracy destructive assay (DA) and easier-to-use NDA. (author)

  17. Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors for the Superconducting Magnets of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, MR; Sapinski, M; Kurfuerst, C; Griesmayer, E; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E

    2014-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor detectors close to the interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider are currently located outside the cryostat, far from the superconducting coils of the magnets. In addition to their sensitivity to lost beam particles, they also detect particles coming from the experimental collisions, which do not contribute significantly to the heat deposition in the superconducting coils. In the future, with beams of higher energy and brightness resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and dangerous quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. The system can be optimised by locating beam loss monitors as close as possible to the superconducting coils, inside the cold mass in a superfluid helium environment, at 1.9 K. The dose then measured by such Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitors would more precisely correspond to the real dose deposited in the coil. The candidates under investigation for such detectors are based on p+-n-n+ si...

  18. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  19. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems

  20. Progress on the superconducting magnet for the time projection chamber experiment (TPC) at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Burns, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will have a two meter inside diameter superconducting magnet which creatests a 1.5 T uniform solenoidal field for the TPC. The superconducting magnet coil, cryostat, cooling system, and the TPC gas pressure vessel (which operatests at 11 atm) were designed to be about two thirds of a radiation length thick. As a result, a high current density coil design was chosen. The magnet is cooled by forced flow two phase helium. The TPC magnet is the largest adiabatically stable superconducting magnet built to date. The paper presents the parameters of the TPC thin solenoid and its subsystems. Tests results from the Spring 1980 cryogenic tes are presented. The topics to be dealt with in the paper are cryogenic services and the tests of magnet subsystems such as the folded current leads. Large thin superconducting magnet technology will be important to large detectors to be used on LEP

  1. Modern high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Wu Chu

    1988-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, its unusual scientific challenge and great technological potential have been recognized. For the past three-quarters of a century, superconductivity has done well on the science front. This is because sueprconductivity is interesting not only just in its own right but also in its ability to act as a probe to many exciting nonsuperconducting phenomena. For instance, it has continued to provide bases for vigorous activities in condensed matter science. Among the more recent examples are heavy-fermion systems and organic superconductors. During this same period of time, superconductivity has also performed admirably in the applied area. Many ideas have been conceived and tested, making use of the unique characteristics of superconductivity - zero resistivity, quantum interference phenomena, and the Meissner effect. In fact, it was not until late January 1987 that it became possible to achieve superconductivity with the mere use of liquid nitrogen - which is plentiful, cheap, efficient, and easy to handle - following the discovery of supercondictivity above 90 K in Y-Ba-Cu-O, the first genuine quaternary superconductor. Superconductivity above 90 K poses scientific and technological challenges not previously encountered: no existing theories can adequately describe superconductivity above 40 K and no known techniques can economically process the materials for full-scale applications. In this paper, therefore, the author recalls a few events leading to the discovery of the new class of quaternary compounds with a superconducting transition temperature T c in the 90 K range, describes the current experimental status of high-temperature superconductivity and, finally, discusses the prospect of very-high-temperature superconductivity, i.e., with a T c substantially higher than 100 K. 97 refs., 7 figs

  2. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  3. Size and dimensionality effects in superconducting Mo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrega, L; Gil, O; Camon, A; Parra-BorderIas, M; Fernandez-MartInez, I; Costa-Kraemer, J L; Briones, F; Sese, J; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R

    2011-01-01

    Molybdenum is a low T c , type I superconductor whose fundamental properties are poorly known. Its importance as an essential constituent of new high performance radiation detectors, the so-called transition edge sensors (TESs) calls for better characterization of this superconductor, especially in thin film form. Here we report on a study of the basic superconducting features of Mo thin films as a function of their thickness. The resistivity is found to rise and the critical temperature decreases on decreasing film thickness, as expected. More relevant, the critical fields along and perpendicular to the film plane are markedly different, thickness dependent and much larger than the thermodynamic critical field of Mo bulk. These results are consistent with a picture of type II 2D superconducting films, and allow estimates of the fundamental superconducting lengths of Mo. The role of morphology in determining the 2D and type II character of the otherwise type I molybdenum is discussed. The possible consequences of this behaviour on the performance of radiation detectors are also addressed.

  4. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, S.; Blamire, M. G.; Buchholz, F.-Im.; Crété, D.-G.; Cristiano, R.; Febvre, P.; Fritzsch, L.; Herr, A.; Il'ichev, E.; Kohlmann, J.; Kunert, J.; Meyer, H.-G.; Niemeyer, J.; Ortlepp, T.; Rogalla, H.; Schurig, T.; Siegel, M.; Stolz, R.; Tarte, E.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Toepfer, H.; Villegier, J.-C.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Zorin, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    many other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by ‘transition-edge’ bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: Ultra-sensitive sensing and imaging

  5. European roadmap on superconductive electronics - status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Blamire, M.G.; Buchholz, F.-Im.; Crete, D.-G.; Cristiano, R.; Febvre, P.; Fritzsch, L.; Herr, A.; Il'ichev, E.; Kohlmann, J.; Kunert, J.; Meyer, H.-G.; Niemeyer, J.; Ortlepp, T.; Rogalla, H.; Schurig, T.

    2010-01-01

    other applications SQUIDs are used as sensors for magnetic heart and brain signals in medical applications, as sensor for geological surveying and food-processing and for non-destructive testing. As amplifiers of electrical signals, SQUIDs can nearly reach the theoretical limit given by Quantum Mechanics. A further important field of application is the detection of very weak signals by 'transition-edge' bolometers, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, and superconductive tunnel junctions. Their application as radiation detectors in a wide frequency range, from microwaves to X-rays is now standard. The very low losses of superconductors have led to commercial microwave filter designs that are now widely used in the USA in base stations for cellular phones and in military communication applications. The number of demonstrated applications is continuously increasing and there is no area in professional electronics, in which superconductive electronics cannot be applied and surpasses the performance of classical devices. Superconductive electronics has to be cooled to very low temperatures. Whereas this was a bottleneck in the past, cooling techniques have made a huge step forward in recent years: very compact systems with high reliability and a wide range of cooling power are available commercially, from microcoolers of match-box size with milli-Watt cooling power to high-reliability coolers of many Watts of cooling power for satellite applications. Superconductive electronics will not replace semiconductor electronics and similar room-temperature techniques in standard applications, but for those applications which require very high speed, low-power consumption, extreme sensitivity or extremely high precision, superconductive electronics is superior to all other available techniques. To strengthen the European competitiveness in superconductor electronics research projects have to be set-up in the following field: - Ultra-sensitive sensing and imaging

  6. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2011-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  7. Superconducting composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs [fr

  8. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  9. Lightweight superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most efficient and most lightweight means of converting high-temperature heat energy to electricity is a turboalternator set. Turboalternators are potentially important components of burst-mode power systems, either chemical or nuclear powered. Also, they are probable key components in future electric propulsion systems. Existing examples of multimegawatt turbomachines have been optimized for a variety of aerospace uses, ranging from aircraft propulsion to rocket engine fuel pump drives. There is no corresponding history of multimegawatt alternators built to aerospace standards of mass, performance, and reliability. This paper discusses one of the few such development efforts presently in progress, and gives an indication of possible future potential. In large power ratings, superconducting generators offer substantial power density, specific weight, and efficiency advantages over competing technologies. A program at GE has led to the construction of a lightweight high-voltage 20-MW generator with a superconducting field winding. The first part of this paper describes the design of the generator. The second projects the capabilities of the generator to other ratings

  10. Superconducting magnet for MAGLEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fumio; Miyairi,; Komei,; Goto, Fumihiko [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-07-25

    In the superconducting magnet for MAGLEV , the magnet itself travels. It is, therefore, important to know the dynamic behavior which accompanies the traveling; and for the designing of a superconducting magnet, analysis of mechanical characteristics as well as electromagnetic characteristics is required. This is a report on the recent analyzing technology of mechanical characteristics by CAE(Computer Aided Engineering). The analysis is conducted by an on-line system of finite element method. Most important for the analysis are that the analysis model is appropriate and that basic data coincide with the actual condition. Recent analysis results are as follows. Equivalent rigidity of coils can be calculated by an analysis model and the calculated value agrees with the experiment value. Structure of the internal drum can be optimized with the parameter of deformation or stress. Analysis result of a load supporting material agrees with the experiment value when a correction coefficient (0.5) is introduced to the elastic modulus of FRP. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Superconducting Magnets for Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, G.; Tortschanoff, T.

    1993-03-01

    This chapter describes the main features of superconducting magnets for high energy synchrotrons and colliders. It refers to magnets presently used and under development for the most advanced accelerators projects, both recently constructed or in the preparatory phase. These magnets, using the technology mainly based on the NbTi conductor, are described from the aspect of design, materials, construction and performance. The trend toward higher performance can be gauged from the doubling of design field in less than a decade from about 4 T for the Tevatron to 10 T for the LHC. Special properties of the superconducting accelerator magnets, such as their general layout and the need of extensive computational treatment, the limits of performance inherent to the available conductors, the requirements on the structural design are described. The contribution is completed by elaborating on persistent current effects, quench protection and the cryostat design. As examples the main magnets for HERA and SSC, as well as the twin-aperture magnets for LHC, are presented.

  12. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  13. Superconductivity and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1963-01-01

    For 50 years particle accelerators employing accelerating cavities and deflecting magnets have been developed at a prodigious rate. New accelerator concepts and hardware ensembles have yielded great improvements in performance and GeV/$. The great idea for collective acceleration resulting from intense auxiliary charged-particle beams or laser light may or may not be just around the corner. In its absence, superconductivity (SC) applied both to rf cavities and to magnets opened up the potential for very large accelerators without excessive energy consumption and with other economies, even with the cw operation desirable for colliding beams. HEP has aggressively pioneered this new technology: the Fermilab single ring 1 TeV accelerator - 2 TeV collider is near the testing stage. Brookhaven National Laboratory's high luminosity pp 2 ring 800 GeV CBA collider is well into construction. Other types of superconducting projects are in the planning stage with much background R and D accomplished. The next generation of hadron colliders under discussion involves perhaps a 20 TeV ring (or rings) with 40 TeV CM energy. This is a very large machine: even if the highest practical field B approx. 10T is used, the radius is 10x that of the Fermilab accelerator. An extreme effort to get maximum GeV/$ may be crucial even for serious consideration of funding

  14. Superconducting current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  17. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  18. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Topics discussed include thin-film technology, microwave transmission lines and resonators, microwave devices and circuits, infrared detectors and bolometers, and superconducting junctions. Papers are presented on possible enhancement in bolometric response using free-standing film of YBa2Cu3O(x), aging and surface instability in high-Tc superconductors, epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin films on LaAlO3 and their microwave device properties, the performance of stripline resonators using sputtered YBCO films, and a coplanar waveguide microwave filter of YBa2Cu3O7. Attention is also given to the performance characteristics of Y-Ba-Cu-O microwave superconducting detectors, high-Tc bolometer developments for planetary missions, infrared detectors from YBaCuO thin films, high-temperature superconductor junction technology, and submillimeter receiver components using superconducting tunnel junctions. (For individual items see A93-27244 to A93-27248)

  20. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the superconducting surface, reduces the magnetic-field gradients and dramatically lowers the trap depth. A novel numerical method for calculating magnetic fields in atom chips with superconducting microstructures has been developed. This numerical method overcomes the geometrical limitations of other calculation techniques and can solve superconducting microstructures of arbitrary geometry. The numerical method has been used to calculate the parameters of magnetic microtraps in computer-simulated chips containing thin-film wires. Simulations were carried out for both the superconducting and the normal-conducting state, and the differences between the two cases were analyzed. Computer simulations have been contrasted with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus generates a magnetic microtrap for ultracold Rubidium atoms near a superconducting Niobium wire of circular cross section. The design and construction of the apparatus has met the challenge of integrating the techniques for producing atomic quantum gases with the techniques for cooling solid bodies to cryogenic temperatures. By monitoring the position of the atom cloud, one can observe how the Meissner effect influences the magnetic microtrap. (orig.)

  1. Superconductivity in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekly, Z.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting magnets, coils or windings are the basis for a range of major applications in the energy area such as energy storage in superconducting coils, magnets for fusion research, and rotating machinery. Other major applications of superconductivity include high energy physics where 1000 superconducting magnets are operated continuously in the Tevatron at Fermilab in Illinois, over 12,000 superconducting magnets will be required for the superconducting Super Collider being build near Dallas. The largest commercial application of superconductors is in magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a new medical diagnostic imaging technique with about 2,000 systems installed worldwide. These form a sizable technology base on which to evaluate and push forward applications such as magneto hydrodynamic propulsion of seagoing vessels. The attractiveness of which depends ultimately on the characteristics of the superconducting magnet. The magnet itself is a combination of several technology areas - the conductors, magnetics, structures and cryogenics. This paper reviews state-of-the-art in each of the technology areas as they relate to superconductors

  2. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-04-30

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the superconducting surface, reduces the magnetic-field gradients and dramatically lowers the trap depth. A novel numerical method for calculating magnetic fields in atom chips with superconducting microstructures has been developed. This numerical method overcomes the geometrical limitations of other calculation techniques and can solve superconducting microstructures of arbitrary geometry. The numerical method has been used to calculate the parameters of magnetic microtraps in computer-simulated chips containing thin-film wires. Simulations were carried out for both the superconducting and the normal-conducting state, and the differences between the two cases were analyzed. Computer simulations have been contrasted with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus generates a magnetic microtrap for ultracold Rubidium atoms near a superconducting Niobium wire of circular cross section. The design and construction of the apparatus has met the challenge of integrating the techniques for producing atomic quantum gases with the techniques for cooling solid bodies to cryogenic temperatures. By monitoring the position of the atom cloud, one can observe how the Meissner effect influences the magnetic microtrap. (orig.)

  3. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  4. Design of FPGA-based radiation tolerant quench detectors for LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, J.; Skoczen, A.

    2017-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprises many superconducting circuits. Most elements of these circuits require active protection. The functionality of the quench detectors was initially implemented as microcontroller based equipment. After the initial stage of the LHC operation with beams the introduction of a new type of quench detector began. This article presents briefly the main ideas and architectures applied to the design and the validation of FPGA-based quench detectors.

  5. Design of FPGA-based radiation tolerant quench detectors for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckert, J.; Skoczen, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comprises many superconducting circuits. Most elements of these circuits require active protection. The functionality of the quench detectors was initially implemented as microcontroller based equipment. After the initial stage of the LHC operation with beams the introduction of a new type of quench detector began. This article presents briefly the main ideas and architectures applied to the design and the validation of FPGA-based quench detectors.

  6. Superconducting magnets in nuclear and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, J.; Parain, J.; Perot, J.; Lesmond, C.

    1976-01-01

    A few examples of superconducting magnets developped at Saclay for high energy physics are presented. The OGA doublet is a large acceptance optical system consisting of two quadrupoles with maximum field gradients of 35 and 23 teslas per meter giving an increase of the beam acceptance by a factor 4. The ALEC dipole is a synchrotron magnet with a length of 1.5 meter and a field of 5 teslas, operating in pulse made at a frequency of 0.1 Hertz and entirely constructed in industry. The ECO project is a demonstration of electrical energy saving by means of superconductors. It consists in the replacement of conventional copper of a classical beam transport magnet by superconducting windings. The use of superconductors for polarized target magnets allows a large variety of configurations to be obtained in order to satisfy the acceptance and space requirements to the detectors around the targets [fr

  7. Practical applications of superconducting technology; Chodendo gijutsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Urata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in superconducting technology recently. This paper describes the details and technical features of every cooling type of practical superconducting magnet (SCM), including the SCM for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SCM for semiconductor pulling devices, high-field SCM, SCM for magnetically confined plasma devices, and SCM for particle detectors. Commercial production of pool-boil-cooled SCMs has been realized by reducing helium evaporation and decreasing the frequency of helium pouring. The development of forced-cooled SCMs has made it possible to build large SCMs. Moreover, the development of the 4 K-GM refrigerator has enabled liquid-helium-free SCMs to be introduced. Since this type of SCM can be operated merely by turning on a switch, SCMs are expected to come into more widespread use. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. The CMS detector magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A

    2000-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general-purpose detector designed to run in mid-2005 at the highest luminosity at the LHC at CERN. Its distinctive features include a 6 m free bore diameter, 12.5 m long, 4 T superconducting solenoid enclosed inside a 10,000 tonne return yoke. The magnet will be assembled and tested on the surface by the end of 2003 before being transferred by heavy lifting means to a 90 m deep underground experimental area. The design and construction of the magnet is a `common project' of the CMS Collaboration. It is organized by a CERN based group with strong technical and contractual participation by CEA Saclay, ETH Zurich, Fermilab Batavia IL, INFN Geneva, ITEP Moscow, University of Wisconsin and CERN. The return yoke, 21 m long and 14 m in diameter, is equivalent to 1.5 m of saturated iron interleaved with four muon stations. The yoke and the vacuum tank are being manufactured. The indirectly-cooled, pure- aluminium-stabilized coil is made up from five modules internally wound with four ...

  9. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  10. Imaging detectors and electronics - A view of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth

    2004-01-01

    Imaging sensors and readout electronics have made tremendous strides in the past two decades. The application of modern semiconductor fabrication techniques and the introduction of customized monolithic integrated circuits have made large scale imaging systems routine in high energy physics. This technology is now finding its way into other areas, such as space missions, synchrotron light sources, and medical imaging. I review current developments and discuss the promise and limits of new technologies. Several detector systems are described as examples of future trends. The discussion emphasizes semiconductor detector systems, but I also include recent developments for large-scale superconducting detector arrays

  11. Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukanen, A; Leivo, M M; Rautiainen, A; Grönholm, M; Toivanen, H; Grönberg, L; Helistö, P; Mäyrä, A; Aikio, M; Luukanen, A; Grossman, E N

    2012-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ∼ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

  12. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  13. UNK superconducting dipole development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, A.I.; Andreev, N.I.; Balbekov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    For choozing the design of superconducting dipoles (SCD) for the IHEP UNK the test results for SCD with warm and cold iron are given. The main parameters of dipoles are presented. The SCD designs are described. At present works on SP magnet simulation for UNK are carried out in two directions. Tests are conducted on a rig with a chain of series dipoles with a warm magnetic screen. The purpose of these tests is to study heat exchange and hydraulics in magnets, energy and helium evacuation in emergency magnet transition into normal conditions, simulation of possible cooling and heating schemes. Another direction involves production of short and full-scale dipole models with cold iron and their testing on rigs. The final choice of the dipole design for commercial production is planned for 1987

  14. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  15. Superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  16. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1989-01-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high Tc materials on SMES is discussed

  17. Superconducting magnets for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    The application of superconducting magnet technology to high-energy accelerators has been studied at BNL for many years. Recently this effort has focused on the magnet system for the proposed Intersecting Storage Accelerator, ISABELLE. Several full-sized dipole and quadrupole magnets were fabricated and tested. A dipole was successfully operated using a high pressure forced circulation refrigeration system similar to that proposed for the accelerator. This magnet reached a maximum central field of 4.9 T, considerably above the design field of 3.9 T. A quadrupole of similar design was equally successful, achieving a gradient of 71 T/m compared to the design value of 53 T/m. A summary is given of the present status of the magnet development program, and the direction of future work is outlined

  18. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  19. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  20. Feedhorn-Coupled Transition-Edge Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmayr, J.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Cho, H.-M.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Grace, E.; Halverson, N.; Henderson, S. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NIST produces large-format, dual-polarization-sensitive detector arrays for a broad range of frequencies (30-1400 GHz). Such arrays enable a host of astrophysical measurements. Detectors optimized for cosmic microwave background observations are monolithic, polarization-sensitive arrays based on feedhorn and planar Nb antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting (TES) bolometers. Recent designs achieve multiband, polarimetric sensing within each spatial pixel. In this proceeding, we describe our multichroic, feedhorn-coupled design; demonstrate performance at 70-380 GHz; and comment on current developments for implementation of these detector arrays in the advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope receiver