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Sample records for superconducting transition point

  1. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified.

  2. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  3. Superconductivity Bordering Rashba Type Topological Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M. L.; Sun, F.; Xing, L. Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Feng, S. M.; Kong, P. P.; Li, W. M.; Wang, X. C.; Zhu, J. L.; Long, Y. W.; Bai, H. Y.; Gu, C. Z.; Yu, R. C.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Zhao, Y. S.; Mao, H. K.; Jin, C. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Strong spin orbital interaction (SOI) can induce unique quantum phenomena such as topological insulators, the Rashba effect, or p-wave superconductivity. Combining these three quantum phenomena into a single compound has important scientific implications. Here we report experimental observations of consecutive quantum phase transitions from a Rashba type topological trivial phase to topological insulator state then further proceeding to superconductivity in a SOI compound BiTeI tuned via pressures. The electrical resistivity measurement with V shape change signals the transition from a Rashba type topological trivial to a topological insulator phase at 2 GPa, which is caused by an energy gap close then reopen with band inverse. Superconducting transition appears at 8 GPa with a critical temperature TC of 5.3 K. Structure refinements indicate that the consecutive phase transitions are correlated to the changes in the Bi-Te bond and bond angle as function of pressures. The Hall Effect measurements reveal an intimate relationship between superconductivity and the unusual change in carrier density that points to possible unconventional superconductivity.

  4. Superconductivity Bordering Rashba Type Topological Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, M. L.; Sun, F.; Xing, L. Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Feng, S. M.; Kong, P. P.; Li, W. M.; Wang, X. C.; Zhu, J. L.; Long, Y. W.; Bai, H. Y.; Gu, C. Z.; Yu, R. C.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Zhao, Y. S.; Mao, H. K.; Jin, C. Q.

    2017-01-04

    Strong spin orbital interaction (SOI) can induce unique quantum phenomena such as topological insulators, the Rashba effect, or p-wave superconductivity. Combining these three quantum phenomena into a single compound has important scientific implications. Here we report experimental observations of consecutive quantum phase transitions from a Rashba type topological trivial phase to topological insulator state then further proceeding to superconductivity in a SOI compound BiTeI tuned via pressures. The electrical resistivity measurement with V shape change signals the transition from a Rashba type topological trivial to a topological insulator phase at 2 GPa, which is caused by an energy gap close then reopen with band inverse. Superconducting transition appears at 8 GPa with a critical temperature TC of 5.3 K. Structure refinements indicate that the consecutive phase transitions are correlated to the changes in the Bi–Te bond and bond angle as function of pressures. The Hall Effect measurements reveal an intimate relationship between superconductivity and the unusual change in carrier density that points to possible unconventional superconductivity.

  5. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-03-04

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.

  7. Transitivity on Weierstrass points

    CERN Document Server

    Laing, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    We look for Riemann surfaces whose automorphism group acts transitively on the Weierstrass points. We concentrate on hyperelliptic surfaces, surfaces with PSL(2, q) as automorphism group, Platonic surfaces and Fermat curves.

  8. Superconducting phase transition in STM tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.

  9. Geometrical Dynamics in a Transitioning Superconducting Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claycomb J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical works have concentrated on calculating the Casimir effect in curved spacetime. In this paper we outline the forward problem of metrical variation due to the Casimir effect for spherical geometries. We consider a scalar quantum field inside a hollow superconducting sphere. Metric equations are developed describing the evolution of the scalar curvature after the sphere transitions to the normal state.

  10. Odd-Parity Superconductivity and the Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, A. D.; Yates, S. J. C.; Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.

    2007-05-01

    The study of the emergence of superconductivity close to quantum critical points affords a powerful means to identify the mechanism that drives the formation of unconventional superconductivity in heavy fermion materials. The recent discovery of superconducting states close to quantum critical points in ferromagnets UGe2 and URhGe is reviewed in this light. For URhGe we examine whether the predominant type of magnetic excitations involved are longitudinal excitations, hitherto considered theoretically to be the most promising candidate to mediate equal-spin-paired superconductivity.

  11. Characterizing the Superconducting-to-Normal Transition in Mo/Au Transition-Edge Sensor Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Brown, Ari. -D.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing arrays of Mo/Au bilayer transition-edge sensors (TES's) for applications in future X-ray astronomy missions such as NASA's Constellation-X. The physical properties of the superconducting-to-normal transition in our TES bilayers, while often reproducible and characterized, are not well understood. The addition of normal metal features on top of the bilayer are found to change the shape and temperature of the transition, and they typically reduce the unexplained 'excess' noise. In order to understand and potentially optimize the properties of the transition, we have been studying the temperature, widths and current dependence of these transitions. We report on the characterization of devices both deposited on silicon substrates and suspended on thin silicon nitride membranes. This includes key device parameters such as the logarithmic resistance sensitivity with temperature alpha, and the logarithmic resistance sensitivity with current beta, of the phase-transition. We investigate alpha and beta as a function of current, both at fixed and varying bias points in the transition. Using Ginzburg-Landau theory for the current dependence of the superconducting transition temperature, we investigate the relationship between alpha and beta and compare our measured and theoretical estimates.

  12. Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2017-05-01

    Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin mn>1mn>mn>2mn>12 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting TcTc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above TcTc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a “nodal-antinodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with “bad metal” phenomenology.

  13. Superconductivity Series in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Ionic Gating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wu; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Suzuki, Ryuji; Yoshida, Masaro; Miyazaki, Jun; Inoue, Naoko; Saito, Yu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Functionalities of two-dimensional (2D) crystals based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have now stemmed from simple field effect transistors (FETs) to a variety of electronic and opto-valleytronic devices, and even to superconductivity. Among them, superconductivity is the

  14. Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D. E-mail: dbraithwaite@cea.fr; Faak, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J

    2001-05-01

    Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at P{sub C}=28 kbar and UGe{sub 2} an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above P{sub C}=16 kbar. In CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the superconductivity domain is centered on P{sub C}. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Neel temperatures. In UGe{sub 2} superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature T{sub S}, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border (P

  15. Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J.

    2001-05-01

    Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd 2Si 2, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at PC=28 kbar and UGe 2 an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above PC=16 kbar. In CePd 2Si 2 the superconductivity domain is centered on PC. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Néel temperatures. In UGe 2 superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature TS, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border ( P< PC). Another characteristic temperature TX is detected by resistivity; the zigzag uranium chain of the lattice may favor a supplementary nesting in the majority spin band.

  16. The insulating-to-superconducting transition in europium high-temperature superconducting ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, R

    1997-01-01

    Experiment resistivity data on high-temperature superconducting ceramics of fully oxygenated EuBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 sub - sub x Co sub x O sub y show that the insulating-to-superconducting transitions take place at liquid-helium temperature, provided that the cobalt fraction x exceeds 0.3. The resistivity follows a simple power-law dependence rho propor to T sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 , attributed to electron-electron interactions. A model based upon intrinsic Josephson tunnelling junctions is suggested to explain the transition from insulating to superconducting states. (author)

  17. Unexpected Nonlinear Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John

    2016-01-01

    When a normal metal transitions into the superconducting state the DC resistance drops from a finite value to zero over some finite transition width in temperature, current, and magnetic field. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) operate within this transition region and uses resistive changes to measure deposited thermal energy. This resistive transition is not perfectly smooth and a wide range of TES designs and materials show sub-structure in the resistive transition (as seen in smooth nonmonotonic behavior, jump discontinuities, and hysteresis in the devices current-voltage relation and derivatives of the resistance with respect to temperature, bias current, and magnetic field). TES technology has advanced to the point where for many applications this structure is the limiting factor in performance and optimization consists of finding operating points away from these structures. For example, operating at or near this structure can lead to nonlinearity in the detectors response and gain scale, limit the spectral range of the detector by limiting the usable resistive range, and degrade energy resolution. The origin of much of this substructure is unknown. This presentation investigates a number of possible sources in turn. First we model the TES as a superconducting weak-link and solve for the characteristic differential equations current and voltage time dependence. We find:(1) measured DC biased current-voltage relationship is the time-average of a much higher frequency limit cycle solution.(2) We calculate the fundamental frequency and estimate the power radiated from the TES treating the bias leads as an antennae.(3) The solution for a set of circuit parameters becomes multivalued leading to current transitions between levels.(4)The circuit parameters can change the measure resistance and mask the true critical current. As a consequence the TES resistance surface is not just a function of temperature, current, and magnetic field but is also a

  18. Microscopic theory of superconductivity near a Lifshitz transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vivek; Maier, Thomas; Scalapino, Doug

    Observation of robust superconductivity in some of the iron based superconductors in the vicinity of a Lifshitz point has attracted many theoretical and experimental studies. The majority of these studies have been phenomenological. Here we discuss a microscopic treatment of the pairing mechanism for a bilayer Hubbard model, which goes through a Lifshitz transition. We study pairing driven by spin-fluctuations by solving the strong coupling Eliashberg equations and make a systematic comparison of the results with non-perturbative dynamical cluster quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our findings are quite general and we will discuss their application to some of the iron based superconductors. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  19. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in homogeneously disordered superconducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, E. J.; Levchenko, A.; Protopopov, I. V.; Gornyi, I. V.; Burmistrov, I. S.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a theory for the vortex-unbinding transition in homogeneously disordered superconducting films. This theory incorporates the effects of quantum, mesoscopic, and thermal fluctuations stemming from length scales ranging from the superconducting coherence length down to the Fermi wavelength. In particular, we extend the renormalization group treatment of the diffusive nonlinear sigma model to the superconducting side of the transition. Furthermore, we explore the mesoscopic fluctuations of parameters in the Ginzburg-Landau functional. Using the developed theory, we determine the dependence of essential observables (including the vortex-unbinding temperature, the superconducting density, as well as the temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conductivity) on microscopic characteristics such as the disorder-induced scattering rate and bare interaction couplings.

  20. Acute enhancement of the upper critical field for superconductivity approaching a quantum critical point in URhGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.; Huxley, A.

    2007-07-01

    When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28T.

  1. Acute enhancement of the upper critical field for superconductivity approaching a quantum critical point in URhGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, F.; Huxley, A. [CEA, SPSMS, DRFMC, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Levy, F.; Sheikin, I. [CNRS, GHMFL, F-38042 Grenoble, (France); Huxley, A. [Univ Edinburgh, Scottish Univ Phys Alliance, Sch Phys, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5 K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28 T. (authors)

  2. High-field superconductivity at an electronic topological transition in URhGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, E. A.; Barraclough, J. M.; Wang, W.; Kamenev, K. V.; Huxley, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of superconductivity at high magnetic fields in URhGe is regarded as a paradigm for new state formation approaching a quantum critical point. Until now, a divergence of the quasiparticle mass at the metamagnetic transition was considered essential for superconductivity to survive at magnetic fields above 30T. Here we report the observation of quantum oscillations in URhGe revealing a tiny pocket of heavy quasiparticles that shrinks continuously with increasing magnetic field, and finally disappears at a topological Fermi surface transition close to or at the metamagnetic field. The quasiparticle mass decreases and remains finite, implying that the Fermi velocity vanishes due to the collapse of the Fermi wavevector. This offers a novel explanation for the re-emergence of superconductivity at extreme magnetic fields and makes URhGe the first proven example of a material where magnetic field-tuning of the Fermi surface, rather than quantum criticality alone, governs quantum phase formation.

  3. Odd-parity superconductivity in bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuharu; Yanase, Youichi

    2017-08-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) causes spin-valley locking, giving rise to unconventional optical, transport, and superconducting properties. In this paper, we propose exotic superconductivity in bilayer group-IV TMDCs by symmetry control. The sublattice-dependent "hidden" spin-orbit coupling arising from local inversion symmetry breaking in the crystal structure may stabilize the odd-parity superconductivity by purely s -wave local pairing interaction. The stability of the odd-parity superconducting state depends on the bilayer stacking. The 2 Hb stacking in MoX2 and WX2 (X =S ,Se) favors the odd-parity superconductivity due to interlayer quantum interference. On the other hand, the odd-parity superconductivity is suppressed by the 2 Ha stacking of NbSe2. Calculating the phase diagram of the tight-binding model derived from first-principles band calculations, we conclude that the intercalated bilayer MoS2 and WS2 are candidates for a new class of odd-parity superconductors by spin-orbit coupling.

  4. A criterion for the nature of the superconducting transition in strongly interacting field theories : Holographic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Kim, Youngman; Ko, Yumi

    2011-01-01

    It is beyond the present techniques based on perturbation theory to reveal the nature of phase transitions in strongly interacting field theories. Recently, the holographic approach has provided us with an effective dual description, mapping strongly coupled conformal field theories to classical gravity theories. Resorting to the holographic superconductor model, we propose a general criterion for the nature of the superconducting phase transition based on effective interactions between vortices. We find "tricritical" points in terms of the chemical potential for U(1) charges and an effective Ginzburg-Landau parameter, where vortices do not interact to separate the second order (repulsive) from the first order (attractive) transitions. We interpret the first order transition as the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, arguing that it is relevant to superconducting instabilities around quantum criticality.

  5. Standard tri-point transition function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuquan

    2005-01-01

    It is usually difficult to express a family of tri-point transition function (TTF)by a transition matrix as Markov processes with one parameter. In this paper, we define three kinds of connection matrixes on the states of standard tri-point transition function (STTF) and study their essential character, give a constructive method on the constantvalue standard tri-point transition function and a general expression of the state-symmetric standard tri-point transition function by a sequence of the transition matrixes of special and simple Markov processes with one parameter.

  6. Quantum phase transition in ultra small doubly connected superconducting cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, I.; Koret, R.; Shtrikman, H.; Tsukernik, A.; Karpovski, M.; Palevski, A.

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic energy of Cooper pairs, in doubly connected superconducting cylinders, is a function of the applied flux and the ratio between the diameter of the cylinder and the zero temperature coherence length d/ ξ(0). If d >ξ(0) the known Little-Parks oscillations are observed. On the other hand if d ξ(0), we observed the LP oscillations. In the Al cylinders we did not observe a transition to the superconducting state due to the proximity effect, resulted from an Au layer coating the Al. However, we did observe Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (h/2e) oscillations in these cylinders.

  7. Superconductivity of very thin films: The superconductor–insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Nelson, J.; Goldman, A.M., E-mail: goldman@physics.umn.edu

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • This manuscript reviews work on the superconductor–insulator transitions of investigated in metallic film, cuprates and metallic interfaces. • Superconductor–insulator transitions are examples of quantum phase transitions. • The systems discussed serve as model systems for behaviors found in more complex systems of contemporary interest. • The concept of a quantum phase transition is an important paradigm in condensed matter physics. • The review also includes discussions of open issues. - Abstract: The study of thin superconducting films has been an important component of the science of superconductivity for more than six decades. It played a major role in the development of currently accepted views of the macroscopic and microscopic nature of the superconducting state. In recent years the focus of research in the field has shifted to the study of ultrathin films and surface and interface layers. This has permitted the exploration of one of the important topics of condensed matter physics, the superconductor–insulator transition. This review will discuss this phenomenon as realized in the study of metallic films, cuprates, and metallic interfaces. These are in effect model systems for behaviors that may be found in more complex systems of contemporary interest.

  8. Superconductivity Series in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Ionic Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wu; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Suzuki, Ryuji; Yoshida, Masaro; Miyazaki, Jun; Inoue, Naoko; Saito, Yu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-03

    Functionalities of two-dimensional (2D) crystals based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have now stemmed from simple field effect transistors (FETs) to a variety of electronic and opto-valleytronic devices, and even to superconductivity. Among them, superconductivity is the least studied property in TMDs due to methodological difficulty accessing it in different TMD species. Here, we report the systematic study of superconductivity in MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 by ionic gating in different regimes. Electrostatic gating using ionic liquid was able to induce superconductivity in MoSe2 but not in MoTe2 because of inefficient electron accumulation limited by electronic band alignment. Alternative gating using KClO4/polyethylene glycol enabled a crossover from surface doping to bulk doping, which induced superconductivities in MoTe2 and WS2 electrochemically. These new varieties greatly enriched the TMD superconductor families and unveiled critical methodology to expand the capability of ionic gating to other materials.

  9. First-order superconducting transition in the inter-band model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes da Silva, M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1975 - Centro, Manaus, AM 69020-120 (Brazil); Dinóla Neto, F., E-mail: dinola@ufam.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padilha, I.T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Física, 3000, Japiim, 69077-00 Manaus, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Continentino, M.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The comprehension about the theoretical features of superconductivity is an interesting and fundamental topic in condensed matter physics. Several theoretical proposals were considered to describe the new classes of superconducting compounds and alloys. In this work we propose to study a non-conventional superconducting system where the Cooper pairs are formed by fermions from different bands described via two band model with hybridization. In this inter-band scenario we find a first-order phase transition at low temperatures and we observe a tricritical point in the phase diagram. In our description, the control parameter is the hybridization that can be tuned by external pressure. This fact indicates the possibility to observe discontinuities in the SC gap amplitude through applying pressure on the system.

  10. Longitudinal Proximity Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Chervenak, James A.; Clem, John R.

    2010-01-29

    We have found experimentally that the critical current of a square thin-film superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) depends exponentially upon the side length L and the square root of the temperature T, a behavior that has a natural theoretical explanation in terms of longitudinal proximity effects if the TES is regarded as a weak link between superconducting leads. As a consequence, the effective transition temperature T{sub c} of the TES is current dependent and at fixed current scales as 1/L{sup 2}. We have also found that the critical current can show clear Fraunhofer-like oscillations in an applied magnetic field, similar to those found in Josephson junctions. We have observed the longitudinal proximity effect in these devices over extraordinarily long lengths up to 290 {micro}m, 1450 times the mean-free path.

  11. Longitudinal Proximity Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Chervenak, James A.; Clem, John R.

    2010-01-01

    We have found experimentally that the critical current of a square thin-film superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) depends exponentially upon the side length L and the square root of the temperature T, a behavior that has a natural theoretical explanation in terms of longitudinal proximity effects if the TES is regarded as a weak link between superconducting leads. As a consequence, the effective transition temperature T(sub c) of the TES is current-dependent and at fixed current scales as 1/L(sup 2). We also have found that the critical current can show clear Fraunhofer-like oscillations in an applied magnetic field, similar to those found in Josephson junctions. We have observed the longitudinal proximity effect in these devices over extraordinarily long lengths up to 290 micrometers, 1450 times the mean-free path.

  12. Unconventional superconductivity from magnetism in transition-metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Dykstra, C.; Governale, M.; Zülicke, U.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate proximity-induced superconductivity in monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the presence of an externally generated exchange field. A variety of superconducting order parameters is found to emerge from the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity, covering the entire spectrum of possibilities to be symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to the valley and spin degrees of freedom, as well as even or odd in frequency. More specifically, when a conventional s -wave superconductor with singlet Cooper pairs is tunnel-coupled to the TMD layer, both spin-singlet and triplet pairings between electrons from the same and opposite valleys arise due to the combined effects of intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and a magnetic-substrate-induced exchange field. As a key finding, we reveal the existence of an exotic even-frequency triplet pairing between equal-spin electrons from different valleys, which arises whenever the spin orientations in the two valleys are noncollinear. All types of superconducting order turn out to be highly tunable via straightforward manipulation of the external exchange field.

  13. Quantum phase transition in ultra small doubly connected superconducting cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternfeld, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)], E-mail: itayst@post.tau.ac.il; Koret, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shtrikman, H. [Department of Condensed Matter, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Tsukernik, A. [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Karpovski, M.; Palevski, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    The kinetic energy of Cooper pairs, in doubly connected superconducting cylinders, is a function of the applied flux and the ratio between the diameter of the cylinder and the zero temperature coherence length d/{xi}(0). If d >{xi}(0) the known Little-Parks oscillations are observed. On the other hand if d <{xi}(0), the superconducting state is energetically not favored around odd multiples of half flux quanta even at T{approx}0, resulting in the so called destructive regime [Y. Liu, et al., Science 294 (2001) 2332]. We developed a novel technique to fabricate superconducting doubly connected nanocylinders with both diameter and thickness less than 100 nm, and performed magnetoresistance measurements on such Nb and Al cylinders. In the Nb cylinders, where d >{xi}(0), we observed the LP oscillations. In the Al cylinders we did not observe a transition to the superconducting state due to the proximity effect, resulted from an Au layer coating the Al. However, we did observe Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (h/2e) oscillations in these cylinders.

  14. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z F; Smidman, M; Jiao, L; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H Q

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology.

  15. Multiple quantum phase transitions and superconductivity in Ce-based heavy fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z. F.; Smidman, M.; Jiao, L.; Lu, Xin; Yuan, H. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Heavy fermions have served as prototype examples of strongly-correlated electron systems. The occurrence of unconventional superconductivity in close proximity to the electronic instabilities associated with various degrees of freedom points to an intricate relationship between superconductivity and other electronic states, which is unique but also shares some common features with high temperature superconductivity. The magnetic order in heavy fermion compounds can be continuously suppressed by tuning external parameters to a quantum critical point, and the role of quantum criticality in determining the properties of heavy fermion systems is an important unresolved issue. Here we review the recent progress of studies on Ce based heavy fermion superconductors, with an emphasis on the superconductivity emerging on the edge of magnetic and charge instabilities as well as the quantum phase transitions which occur by tuning different parameters, such as pressure, magnetic field and doping. We discuss systems where multiple quantum critical points occur and whether they can be classified in a unified manner, in particular in terms of the evolution of the Fermi surface topology.

  16. Quantum phase transition in a multiconnected superconducting Jaynes-Cummings lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kangjun; Tian, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The connectivity and tunability of superconducting qubits and resonators provide us with an appealing platform to study the many-body physics of microwave excitations. Here we present a multiconnected Jaynes-Cummings lattice model which is symmetric with respect to the nonlocal qubit-resonator couplings. Our calculation shows that this model exhibits a Mott insulator-superfluid-Mott insulator phase transition at commensurate fillings, featured by symmetric quantum critical points. Phase diagrams in the grand canonical ensemble are also derived, which confirm the incompressibility of the Mott insulator phase. Different from a general-purposed quantum computer, it only requires two operations to demonstrate this phase transition: the preparation and the detection of commensurate many-body ground state. We discuss the realization of these operations in a superconducting circuit.

  17. Duality picture of Superconductor-insulator transitions on Superconducting nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrical transport properties of niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) nanowire with four-terminal geometries to clarify the superconducting phase slip phenomena and superconducting-insulator transitions (SIT) for one-dimensional superconductors. We fabricated various nanowires with different widths and lengths from epitaxial NbTiN films using the electron beam lithography method. The temperature dependence of resistance R(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc was analyzed using thermal activation phase slip (TAPS) and quantum phase slip (QPS) theories. Although the accuracy of experimental data at low temperatures can deviate when using the TAPS model, the QPS model thoroughly represents the R(T) characteristic with resistive tail at low temperatures. From the analyses of data on Tc, we found that NbTiN nanowires exhibit SIT because of the change in the ratio of kinetic inductance energy and QPS amplitude energy with respect to the flux-charge duality theory.

  18. Duality picture of Superconductor-insulator transitions on Superconducting nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrical transport properties of niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) nanowire with four-terminal geometries to clarify the superconducting phase slip phenomena and superconducting-insulator transitions (SIT) for one-dimensional superconductors. We fabricated various nanowires with different widths and lengths from epitaxial NbTiN films using the electron beam lithography method. The temperature dependence of resistance R(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc was analyzed using thermal activation phase slip (TAPS) and quantum phase slip (QPS) theories. Although the accuracy of experimental data at low temperatures can deviate when using the TAPS model, the QPS model thoroughly represents the R(T) characteristic with resistive tail at low temperatures. From the analyses of data on Tc, we found that NbTiN nanowires exhibit SIT because of the change in the ratio of kinetic inductance energy and QPS amplitude energy with respect to the flux-charge duality theory. PMID:27311595

  19. Duality picture of Superconductor-insulator transitions on Superconducting nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrical transport properties of niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) nanowire with four-terminal geometries to clarify the superconducting phase slip phenomena and superconducting-insulator transitions (SIT) for one-dimensional superconductors. We fabricated various nanowires with different widths and lengths from epitaxial NbTiN films using the electron beam lithography method. The temperature dependence of resistance R(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc was analyzed using thermal activation phase slip (TAPS) and quantum phase slip (QPS) theories. Although the accuracy of experimental data at low temperatures can deviate when using the TAPS model, the QPS model thoroughly represents the R(T) characteristic with resistive tail at low temperatures. From the analyses of data on Tc, we found that NbTiN nanowires exhibit SIT because of the change in the ratio of kinetic inductance energy and QPS amplitude energy with respect to the flux-charge duality theory.

  20. Transition between different quantum states in a mesoscopic system: The superconducting ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horane, E.M. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Castro, J.I. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Facultad Filosofia Humanidades y Artes, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina); Buscaglia, G.C.; Lopez, A. [Instituto Balseiro, and Centro Atomico Bariloche, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a superconducting ring, both analytically and numerically, relying upon the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We find that modulated solutions for the order parameter play a role in describing the thermodynamic transitions between consecutive modes of uniform order parameter, associated with different quantum numbers. Exact expressions for these solutions are given in terms of elliptic functions. We identify the family of energy extrema which, being saddle points of the energy in the functional space of the distributions of the order parameter, represent the energy barrier to be overcome for transitions between different solutions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  2. Critical point in the superconducting phase diagram of UPt/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselbach, K.; Taillefer, L.; Flouquet, J.

    1989-07-03

    We report on detailed measurements of the specific heat of UPt/sub 3/, performed on a high-quality single crystal in a magnetic field perpendicular to the /ital c/ axis, at temperatures down to 100 mK. Two distinct phase transitions at zero field are seen to converge at a critical point, near /ital H/=5 kOe, which coincides with the sharp break in the /ital H//sub /ital c/2/ curve. Beyond that point, there is evidence for only one phase. Combining these thermodynamic results with ultrasonic attenuation and /ital H//sub /ital c/2/ data, an /ital H/-/ital T/ diagram is constructed which consists of a ''polycritical'' point and several superconducting phases.

  3. Phase transition time delays in irradiated superheated superconducting granules

    CERN Document Server

    Abplanalp, M; Czapek, G; Diggelmann, U; Furlan, M; Gabutti, A; Janos, S; Moser, U; Pozzi, R; Pretzl, Klaus P; Schmiemann, K; Perret-Gallix, D; Van den Brandt, B; Konter, J A; Mango, S

    1994-01-01

    The time difference between a particle interaction in a Superheated Superconducting Granule (SSG) and the resulting phase transition signal has been explored. Detectors containing Zn and Sn SSG were irradiated with neutrons and protons to study the heating mechanism taking place in nuclear recoil and ionizing events. Scattered neutrons have been detected by a scintillator hodoscope behind the SSG with a recoil energy measurement resolution of 10\\% and an interaction time resolution of 1ns. The fast transition of the metastable granules allowed to determine the elapsed time between an energy deposition and the phase transition signal. In the case of Sn granules, the results show that the time distributions are narrow and independent of the deposited energy in nuclear recoil and ionizing events. In Zn, however, the time distributions are much broader and depend on the energy deposition in the granule.

  4. Anisotropy of the superconducting transition temperature under uniaxial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Lin, H. Q.; Yin, W. G.; Gong, C. D.; Habermeier, H.-U.

    2001-12-01

    The superconducting transition temperature Tc is calculated as a function of uniaxial pressure along the a, b, c directions for optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ on the basis of a hole dispersion of the anisotropic t-J model. There is a good qualitative agreement with experiments. We show that the uniaxial pressure effect on Tc in the ab plane is due to the anisotropies of the hole dispersion and the in-plane pairing interaction, whereas the reduction of Tc under uniaxial compression along the c axis mainly results from the pressure-induced increase of hole concentration of the CuO2 plane.

  5. Disorder-induced inhomogeneities of the superconducting state close to the superconductor-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacépé, B; Chapelier, C; Baturina, T I; Vinokur, V M; Baklanov, M R; Sanquer, M

    2008-10-10

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy at very low temperatures on homogeneously disordered superconducting titanium nitride thin films reveals strong spatial inhomogeneities of the superconducting gap Delta in the density of states. Upon increasing disorder, we observe suppression of the superconducting critical temperature Tc towards zero, enhancement of spatial fluctuations in Delta, and growth of the Delta/Tc ratio. These findings suggest that local superconductivity survives across the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition.

  6. Proximity Effects and Nonequilibrium Superconductivity in Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Robinson, Ian K.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Chervenak, James A.; Bandler, Simon R.; Eckart, Megan E.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that normal-metal/superconductor (N/S) bilayer TESs (superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors) exhibit weak-link behavior.l Here we extend our understanding to include TESs with added noise-mitigating normal-metal structures (N structures). We find TESs with added Au structures also exhibit weak-link behavior as evidenced by exponential temperature dependence of the critical current and Josephson-like oscillations of the critical current with applied magnetic field. We explain our results in terms of an effect converse to the longitudinal proximity effect (LoPE) 1, the lateral inverse proximity effect (LaiPE), for which the order parameter in the N/S bilayer is reduced due to the neighboring N structures. Resistance and critical current measurements are presented as a function of temperature and magnetic field taken on square Mol Au bilayer TESs with lengths ranging from 8 to 130 {\\mu}m with and without added N structures. We observe the inverse proximity effect on the bilayer over in-plane distances many tens of microns and find the transition shifts to lower temperatures scale approximately as the inverse square of the in- plane N-structure separation distance, without appreciable broadening of the transition width. We also present evidence for nonequilbrium superconductivity and estimate a quasiparticle lifetime of 1.8 \\times 10-10 s for the bilayer. The LoPE model is also used to explain the increased conductivity at temperatures above the bilayer's steep resistive transition.

  7. End point of the electroweak phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J; Aoki, Y; Ukawa, A

    1999-01-01

    We study the hot electroweak phase transition (EWPT) by 4-dimensional lattice simulations on lattices with symmetric and asymmetric lattice spacings and give the phase diagram. A continuum extrapolation is done. We find first order phase transition for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. Above this end point a rapid cross-over occurs. Our result agrees with that of the dimensional reduction approach. It also indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) may be included perturbatively. We get for the SM end point $72.4 the SM.

  8. Measurement of improved pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, S.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a technique for making electrical transport measurements in a diamond anvil cell at liquid helium temperature having in situ pressure measurement option, permitting accurate pressure determination at any low temperature during the resistance measurement scan. In general, for four-probe resistivity measurements on a polycrystalline sample, four fine gold wires are kept in contact with the sample with the help of the compression from the soft solid (usually alkali halides such as NaCl, KCl, etc.) acting as a pressure-transmitting medium. The actual pressure on the sample is underestimated if not measured from a ruby sphere placed adjacent to the sample and at that very low temperature. Here, we demonstrate the technique with a quasi-four-probe resistance measurement on an Fe-based superconductor in the temperature range 1.2-300 K and pressures up to 8 GPa to find an improved pressure dependence of the superconducting transition temperature.

  9. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Devin H; de Almeida, Marcelo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this "detection loophole" by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented $\\sim$62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  10. On the superconducting phase transitions of UPt sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillefer, L.; Behnia, K.; Hasselbach, K.; Flouquet, J. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Hayden, S.M.; Vettier, C. (Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1990-12-01

    The possible role of antiferromagnetic order in causing a multiplicity of superconducting phase transitions in UPt{sub 3} is investigated. Two results are presented which shed light on this question. First, a small hydrostatic pressure is found to have a significant effect on both (1) the neutron scattering intensity of the antiferromagnetic Bragg peak, which is more than halved by 2 kbar, and (2) the H{sub c2}(T) curve, from which the kink - regarded as a signature of phase multiplicity - disappears above 1.5 kbar. Secondly, the kink in H{sub c2}(T) is observed for all field directions within the basal plane. This evidence is discussed in connection with current theories. (orig.).

  11. Electrical Characteristics of Superconducting Ti Transition Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhong, J. Q.; Miao, W.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Yao, Q. J.; Shi, S. C.; Chen, T. J.; Wang, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    We have designed and fabricated superconducting Ti transition edge sensors (TES) with different microbridge lengths varying from 1 to 6 \\upmu m. The current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated Ti TESs are measured at different bath temperatures using a commercial SQUID amplifier. The thermal conductance ( G) is found to be about 300 pW/K for a 2.6-\\upmu m-long device. In addition, the effective response time measured with a current pulse signal is about 3 \\upmu s, and decreases with increasing the bias voltage because of negative electro-thermal feedback. The obtained electrical noise equivalent power from the measured current noise is about 4 × 10^{-17} W/Hz^{0.5}, which is sufficiently low for TeSIA instrument.

  12. Pressure dependence of structural phase transition and superconducting transition in CsI

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmala-Louis, C

    2003-01-01

    The self-consistent band structure calculation for CsI performed both in CsCl and HCP structures using the TB-LMTO method is reported. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and the phase-transition pressure at which the compound undergoes structural phase transition from CsCl to HCP are predicted from the total-energy calculations. The band structure, density of states (DOS), electronic charge distributions, metallization and superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of CsI are obtained as a function of pressure for both the CsCl and HCP structures. It is found that the charge transfer from s and p states to d state causes metallization and superconductivity in CsI. The highest T sub c estimated is 2.11 K and the corresponding pressure is 1.8 Mbar. This value is in agreement with the recent experimental observation. The experimental trend - ''metallization and superconductivity is rather insensitive to the crystal structure of CsI'' - is also confirmed in our work. (Abstract Copyright [2003], ...

  13. Cavity-assisted dynamical quantum phase transition in superconducting quantum simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin

    Coupling a quantum many-body system to a cavity can create bifurcation points in the phase diagram, where the many-body system switches between different phases. Here I will discuss the dynamical quantum phase transitions at the bifurcation points of a one-dimensional transverse field Ising model coupled to a cavity. The Ising model can be emulated with various types of superconducting qubits connected in a chain. With a time-dependent Bogoliubov method, we show that an infinitesimal quench of the driving field can cause gradual evolution of the transverse field on the Ising spins to pass through the quantum critical point. Our calculation shows that the cavity-induced nonlinearity plays an important role in the dynamics of this system. Quasiparticles can be excited in the Ising chain during this process, which results in the deviation of the system from its adiabatic ground state. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number 0956064.

  14. Current Redistribution around the Superconducting-to-normal Transition in Superconducting Nb-Ti Rutherford Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; ten Kate, H H J

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient thermal-electromagnetic stability against external heat sources is an essential design criterion for superconducting Rutherford cables, especially if operated close to the critical current. Due to the complex phenomena contributing to stability such as helium cooling, inter-strand current and heat transfer, its level is difficult to quantify. In order to improve our understanding, many stability tests were performed on different cable samples, each incorporating several point-like heaters. The current redistribution around the heat front is measured after inducing a local normal zone in one strand of the cable. By using voltage taps, expansion of the normal zone is monitored in the initially quenched strand as well as in adjacent strands. An array of Hall probes positioned at the cable edge is used to scan the selffield generated by the cable by which it becomes possible to estimate the inter-strand current transfer. In this paper it is demonstrated that two different stability regimes can be disti...

  15. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  16. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  17. Point-contact spectroscopy of superconducting URu sub 2 Si sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J.R. (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)); Lejay, P. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, C.N.R.S., Boite Postal 166X, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX (France))

    1992-09-01

    We present point-contact measurements of the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion superconductor URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Our data in the superconducting state agree remarkably well with the theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK), and are consistent with a gap with {ital d}-wave symmetry. In the normal state a gap'' in the conductance develops as the temperature is lowered below the Neel temperature. The persistence of this gap into the superconducting state supports the view that magnetically correlated electrons participate in the superconductivity.

  18. Electric control of superconducting transition through a spin-orbit coupled interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouassou, Jabir Ali; di Bernardo, Angelo; Robinson, Jason W. A.; Linder, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate theoretically all-electric control of the superconducting transition temperature using a device comprised of a conventional superconductor, a ferromagnetic insulator, and semiconducting layers with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. By using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we show that the transition temperature of such a device can be controlled by electric gating which alters the ratio of Rashba to Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The results offer a new pathway to control superconductivity in spintronic devices.

  19. Electric control of superconducting transition through a spin-orbit coupled interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouassou, Jabir Ali; Di Bernardo, Angelo; Robinson, Jason W. A.; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically all-electric control of the superconducting transition temperature using a device comprised of a conventional superconductor, a ferromagnetic insulator, and semiconducting layers with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. By using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we show that the transition temperature of such a device can be controlled by electric gating which alters the ratio of Rashba to Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The results offer a new pathway to control superconductivity in spintronic devices. PMID:27426887

  20. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  1. Nonempirical Calculation of Superconducting Transition Temperatures in Light-Element Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Ryotaro; Koretsune, Takashi; Sakai, Shiro; Akashi, Ryosuke; Nomura, Yusuke; Sano, Wataru

    2017-01-06

    Recent progress in the fully nonempirical calculation of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc ) is reviewed. Especially, this study focuses on three representative light-element high-Tc superconductors, i.e., elemental Li, sulfur hydrides, and alkali-doped fullerides. Here, it is discussed how crucial it is to develop the beyond Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) methods. For Li, a scheme of superconducting density functional theory for the plasmon mechanism is formulated and it is found that Tc is dramatically enhanced by considering the frequency dependence of the screened Coulomb interaction. For sulfur hydrides, it is essential to go beyond not only the static approximation for the screened Coulomb interaction, but also the constant density-of-states approximation for electrons, the harmonic approximation for phonons, and the Migdal approximation for the electron-phonon vertex, all of which have been employed in the standard ME calculation. It is also shown that the feedback effect in the self-consistent calculation of the self-energy and the zero point motion considerably affect the calculation of Tc . For alkali-doped fullerides, the interplay between electron-phonon coupling and electron correlations becomes more nontrivial. It has been demonstrated that the combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory with the ab initio downfolding scheme for electron-phonon coupled systems works successfully. This study not only reproduces the experimental phase diagram but also obtains a unified view of the high-Tc superconductivity and the Mott-Hubbard transition in the fullerides. The results for these high-Tc superconductors will provide a firm ground for future materials design of new superconductors.

  2. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  3. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  4. Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  5. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, He; Zhang, Xin; Qiao, Li

    2016-12-01

    A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  6. Influence of Superconductivity on Crystal Electric Field Transitions in La1-xTbxAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feile, R.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1981-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from the crystal electric field transitions in La1-xTbxAl2 single crystals has revealed an abrupt increase in the lifetimes of these transitions when the system becomes superconducting. An increase in the integrated intensities is also observed. The lifetime effects...

  7. Subharmonic energy-gap structure and heating effects in superconducting niobium point contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, K.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1989-01-01

    We present experimental data of the temperature-dependent subharmonic energy-gap structure (SGS) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves of superconducting niobium point contacts. The observed SGS is modified by heating effects. We construct a model of the quasiparticle conductance of metallic...

  8. Superconducting transition edge sensors and methods for design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for forming sensors using transition edge sensors (TES) and sensors therefrom are described. The method includes forming a plurality of sensor arrays includes at least one TES device. The TES device includes a TES device body, a first superconducting lead contacting a first portion of the TES device body, and a second superconducting lead contacting of a second portion of the TES device body, where the first and second superconducting leads separated on the TES device body by a lead spacing. The lead spacing can be selected to be different for at least two of the plurality of sensor arrays. The method also includes determining a transition temperature for each of the plurality of sensor arrays and generating a signal responsive to detecting a change in the electrical characteristics of one of the plurality of sensor arrays meeting a transition temperature criterion.

  9. Critical analysis of soft point contact Andreev reflection spectra between superconducting films and pressed In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pradnya; Chauhan, Prashant; Muthurajan, H.; Bose, Sangita

    2017-04-01

    We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making ‘soft-contacts’ between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that large contact resistance with low transparency ballistic contacts in the PCAR regime are required to obtain reliable spectroscopic data. One limitation of the technique arises for low contact resistance junctions where the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) reduces the value of the superconducting energy gap.

  10. Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity.

  11. Spiral magnetic order and pressure-induced superconductivity in transition metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Feng, Yejun; Cheng, J.-G.; Wu, W.; Luo, J. L.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic and superconducting ground states can compete, cooperate and coexist. MnP provides a compelling and potentially generalizable example of a material where superconductivity and magnetism may be intertwined. Using a synchrotron-based non-resonant X-ray magnetic diffraction technique, we reveal a spiral spin order in MnP and trace its pressure evolution towards superconducting order via measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Judging from the magnetostriction, ordered moments vanish at the quantum phase transition as pressure increases the electron kinetic energy. Spins remain local in the disordered phase, and the promotion of superconductivity is likely to emerge from an enhanced coupling to residual spiral spin fluctuations and their concomitant suppression of phonon-mediated superconductivity. As the pitch of the spiral order varies across the 3d transition metal compounds in the MnP family, the magnetic ground state switches between antiferromagnet and ferromagnet, providing an additional tuning parameter in probing spin-fluctuation-induced superconductivity. PMID:27708255

  12. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  13. Competition of superconductivity with the structural transition in M o3S b7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, G. Z.; Cheng, J.-G.; Yan, J.-Q.; Sun, J. P.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Okada, T.; Zhou, Q.; Parker, D. S.; Sales, B. C.; Uwatoko, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Prior to the superconducting transition at Tc≈2.3 K , M o3S b7 undergoes a symmetry-lowering, cubic-to-tetragonal structural transition at Ts=53 K . We have monitored the pressure dependence of these two transitions by measuring the resistivity of M o3S b7 single crystals under various hydrostatic pressures up to 15 GPa. The application of external pressure enhances Tc but suppresses Ts until Pc≈10 GPa , above which a pressure-induced first-order structural transition takes place and is manifested by the phase coexistence in the pressure range 8 ≤P ≤12 GPa . The cubic phase above 12 GPa is also found to be superconducting with a higher Tc≈6 K that decreases slightly with further increasing pressure. The variations with pressure of Tc and Ts satisfy the Bilbro-McMillan equation, i.e. Tc nTs 1 -n= constant, thus suggesting the competition of superconductivity with the structural transition that has been proposed to be accompanied with a spin-gap formation at Ts. Our first-principles calculations suggest the importance of magnetism that competes with the superconductivity in M o3S b7 .

  14. Point contact tunneling spectroscopy apparatus for large scale mapping of surface superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.

  15. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  16. Scaling Laws for Thin Films near the Superconducting-to-Insulating Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We propose a Lagrangian function, which combines Landau-Ginzburg term and Chern-Simons term, for describing the competition between disorder and superconductivity. To describe the normal-to-superconducting transition in the thin superconducting films, we apply Wilson’s renormalization group methods into this Lagrangian function. Finally, we obtain a scaling law between critical temperature (Tc), film thickness (d), sheet resistance of the film at the normal state (Rs), and number density of the electrons at the normal state (N). Such a scaling law is in agreement with recent experimental investigations [Ivry, Y. et al., Physical Review B 90, 214515 (2014)]. Our finding may have potential benefits for improving transition temperature Tc.

  17. Changes in the excitations related to the superconducting transition in V3Si

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Yethiraj

    2008-11-01

    In earlier studies of phonons in V3Si, a gradual softening of the (ℎ ℎ 0) branch was observed and attributed to the martensitic transition in this compound, which precedes the onset of superconductivity by a few degrees K. In this work, the temperature dependence of the transverse acoustic branch along the ℎ ℎ 0 direction was studied in greater detail and it is shown that while the TA ℎ ℎ 0 mode starts to soften at relatively high temperatures (> 200 K), an anomalous inelastic peak, which is somewhat localized in q, occurs just below c. The intensity of this mode correlates extremely well with the onset of the superconducting phase and varies as the order parameter with temperature and applied field. The similarities in the phonon softening and Fermi surface anisotropy between this compound and the rare-earth nickel borocarbides suggests the existence of a common mechanism for the superconducting transition.

  18. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Stradi, Benito A.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point ...

  19. Multiband nodeless superconductivity near the charge-density-wave quantum critical point in ZrTe3-x Sex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔珊; 何兰坡; 洪晓晨; 朱相德; Cedomir Petrovic; 李世燕

    2016-01-01

    It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk supercon-ductivity in ZrTe3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe3−x Sex near x≈0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe3−x Sex single crystals (x=0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear termκ0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependence ofκ0/T manifests a multigap behavior. These results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe3−x Sex , which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP.

  20. Strong Coupling Superconductivity in the Vicinity of the Structural Quantum Critical Point in (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))₃Rh₄Sn₁₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wing Chi; Cheung, Yiu Wing; Saines, Paul J; Imai, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Michioka, Chishiro; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Goh, Swee K

    2015-11-13

    The family of the superconducting quasiskutterudites (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) features a structural quantum critical point at x(c)=0.9, around which a dome-shaped variation of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) is found. Using specific heat, we probe the normal and the superconducting states of the entire series straddling the quantum critical point. Our analysis indicates a significant lowering of the effective Debye temperature on approaching x(c), which we interpret as a result of phonon softening accompanying the structural instability. Furthermore, a remarkably large enhancement of 2Δ/k(B)T(c) and ΔC/γT(c) beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer values is found in the vicinity of the structural quantum critical point. The phase diagram of (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) thus provides a model system to study the interplay between structural quantum criticality and strong electron-phonon coupling superconductivity.

  1. Polymorphism control of superconductivity and magnetism in Cs(3)C(60) close to the Mott transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexey Y; Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Jeglic, Peter; Arcon, Denis; Potocnik, Anton; Baker, Peter J; Ohishi, Yasuo; McDonald, Martin T; Tzirakis, Manolis D; McLennan, Alec; Darling, George R; Takata, Masaki; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Prassides, Kosmas

    2010-07-08

    The crystal structure of a solid controls the interactions between the electronically active units and thus its electronic properties. In the high-temperature superconducting copper oxides, only one spatial arrangement of the electronically active Cu(2+) units-a two-dimensional square lattice-is available to study the competition between the cooperative electronic states of magnetic order and superconductivity. Crystals of the spherical molecular C(60)(3-) anion support both superconductivity and magnetism but can consist of fundamentally distinct three-dimensional arrangements of the anions. Superconductivity in the A(3)C(60) (A = alkali metal) fullerides has been exclusively associated with face-centred cubic (f.c.c.) packing of C(60)(3-) (refs 2, 3), but recently the most expanded (and thus having the highest superconducting transition temperature, T(c); ref. 4) composition Cs(3)C(60) has been isolated as a body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) packing, which supports both superconductivity and magnetic order. Here we isolate the f.c.c. polymorph of Cs(3)C(60) to show how the spatial arrangement of the electronically active units controls the competing superconducting and magnetic electronic ground states. Unlike all the other f.c.c. A(3)C(60) fullerides, f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) is not a superconductor but a magnetic insulator at ambient pressure, and becomes superconducting under pressure. The magnetic ordering occurs at an order of magnitude lower temperature in the geometrically frustrated f.c.c. polymorph (Néel temperature T(N) = 2.2 K) than in the b.c.c.-based packing (T(N) = 46 K). The different lattice packings of C(60)(3-) change T(c) from 38 K in b.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) to 35 K in f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) (the highest found in the f.c.c. A(3)C(60) family). The existence of two superconducting packings of the same electronically active unit reveals that T(c) scales universally in a structure-independent dome-like relationship with proximity to the Mott metal-insulator transition

  2. Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Heiss, W D; Rotter, I

    1998-01-01

    Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.

  3. Superconducting transition of FeSe /SrTi O3 induced by adsorption of semiconducting organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiaqi; Liu, Jian; Liu, Bing; Huang, Xiaochun; Zhu, Qing; Zhu, Xuetao; Sun, Jiatao; Meng, Sheng; Wang, Weihua; Guo, Jiandong

    2017-05-01

    We prepared superconducting and nonsuperconducting FeSe films on SrTi O3(001 ) substrates (FeSe/STO) and investigated the superconducting transition induced by charge transfer between organic molecules and FeSe layers by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. At low coverage, donor- and acceptor-type molecules adsorbed preferentially on the nonsuperconducting and superconducting FeSe layers, respectively. Superconductivity was induced by donor molecules on nonsuperconducting FeSe layer, while the superconductivity was suppressed near acceptor molecules. The corresponding evolutions of electronic states and work function were also resolved by scanning tunneling microscopy. These results illustrate the important role played by local electron concentration in the superconducting transition of FeSe/STO.

  4. A Simple System to Measure Superconducting Transition Temperature at High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; ZHAI Guang-Jie; JIN Chang-Qing

    2009-01-01

    A simple hydride system is fabricated to measure the superconducting transition temperature Tc under high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The system is designed with centrosymetric coils around the diamond that makes it easy to keep balance between the pick-up coil and the inductance coil, while the superconducting states can be modulated with a low-frequency small external magnetic field. Using the device we successfully obtain the Tc evolution as a function of applied pressure up to 10 GPa for YBa2 Cu3O6+δ superconductor single crystal.

  5. Doping effects of transition metals on superconducting properties of (Ca,RE)FeAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakita, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Hiraku; Okada, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Sala, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    At the previous March Meeting, we reported new iron based superconductors (Ca,RE)FeAs2 (Ca112) (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd)[ 1 , 2 ]. Superconducting transition was observed in all samples except for Ce-doped sample, and Tc of La-doped sample exceeded 30 K. In this study, we have synthesized transition metals (TM=Mn, Co, Ni) co-doped Ca112 samples. Mn co-doping suppressed superconductivity. On the contrary, enhancement of Tc with sharp superconducting transitions was observed in most of the Co or Ni co-doped samples. Tc of Co co-doped samples decreased with a decrease in ionic radii of RE3+ from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd, though Eu doped sample showed exceptionally low Tc = 21 K. Jc value of La and Co co-doped sample estimated from magnetization measurement is approximately 2.0 x 104 Acm-2at 2 K suggesting bulk superconductivity.

  6. Spin-precession-assisted supercurrent in a superconducting quantum point contact coupled to a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, C.; Belzig, W.; Fogelström, M.

    2012-08-01

    The supercurrent through a quantum point contact coupled to a nanomagnet strongly depends on the dynamics of the nanomagnet's spin. We employ a fully microscopic model to calculate the transport properties of a junction coupled to a spin whose dynamics is modeled as Larmor precession brought about by an external magnetic field and find that the dynamics affects the charge and spin currents by inducing transitions between the continuum states outside the superconducting gap region and the Andreev levels. This redistribution of the quasiparticles leads to a nonequilibrium population of the Andreev levels and an enhancement of the supercurrent which is visible as a modified current-phase relation as well as a nonmonotonous critical current as function of temperature. The nonmonotonous behavior is accompanied by a corresponding change in spin-transfer torques acting on the precessing spin and leads to the possibility of using temperature as a means to tune the back-action on the spin.

  7. Enhancing the Superconducting Transition Temperature of BaSi2 by Structural Tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Livas, José A.; Debord, Régis; Botti, Silvana; San Miguel, Alfonso; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Pailhès, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of the superconducting phase of the layered binary silicide BaSi2. Compared with the AlB2 structure of graphite or diboridelike superconductors, in the hexagonal structure of binary silicides the sp3 arrangement of silicon atoms leads to corrugated sheets. Through a high-pressure synthesis procedure we are able to modify the buckling of these sheets, enhancing the superconducting transition temperature from 6 to 8.9 K when the silicon planes flatten out. By performing ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory we explain how the electronic and phonon properties are strongly affected by changes in the buckling. This mechanism is likely present in other intercalated layered superconductors, opening the way to the tuning of superconductivity through the control of internal structural parameters.

  8. Anisotropy in the thermal expansion of heavy-fermion UPt sub 3 at the superconducting transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A. de; Menovsky, A.A.; Franse, J.J.M. (Natuurkundig Laboratorium, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands (NL)); Hasselbach, K.; Lacerda, A.; Taillefer, L.; Haen, P.; Flouquet, J. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Boite Postale 166X, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France (FR))

    1990-04-01

    We have measured the coefficients of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}{sub {parallel}} and {alpha}{sub {perpendicular}}) of two single-crystalline samples of heavy-fermion UPt{sub 3} down to temperatures well below the superconducting transition ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}{approx equal}0.5 K). The thermal expansion is strongly anisotropic at {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, where only {alpha}{sub parrallel} has a discontinuity. This implies that {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is suppressed for a uniaxial stress along the hexagonal axis only. In the superconducting phase {alpha}{sub {parallel}} and {alpha}{sub {perpendicular}} vary approximately quadratically, with temperature, as does the specific heat. The Grueneisen parameter shows a large drop at {ital T}{sub {ital c}}; from 69 in the normal phase to {minus}10 in the superconducting phase.

  9. Superconductivity near a Quantum-Critical Point: The Special Role of the First Matsubara Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Abanov, Artem; Altshuler, Boris L; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Chubukov, Andrey V

    2016-10-07

    Near a quantum-critical point in a metal strong fermion-fermion interaction mediated by a soft collective boson gives rise to incoherent, non-Fermi liquid behavior. It also often gives rise to superconductivity which masks the non-Fermi liquid behavior. We analyze the interplay between the tendency to pairing and fermionic incoherence for a set of quantum-critical models with effective dynamical interaction between low-energy fermions. We argue that superconducting T_{c} is nonzero even for strong incoherence and/or weak interaction due to the fact that the self-energy from dynamic critical fluctuations vanishes for the two lowest fermionic Matsubara frequencies ω_{m}=±πT. We obtain the analytic formula for T_{c}, which reproduces well earlier numerical results for the electron-phonon model at vanishing Debye frequency.

  10. Classification of magnetic inhomogeneities and 0 -π transitions in superconducting-magnetic hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas E.; Richie-Halford, Adam; Bill, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We present a comparative study of pair correlations and currents through superconducting-magnetic hybrid systems with a particular emphasis on the tunable Bloch domain wall of an exchange spring. This study of the Gor'kov functions contrasts magnetic systems with domain walls that change at discrete points in the magnetic region with those that change continuously throughout. We present results for misaligned homogeneous magnetic multilayers, including spin valves, for discrete domain walls, as well as exchange springs and helical domain walls—such as Holmium—for the continuous case. Introducing a rotating basis to disentangle the role of singlet and triplet correlations, we demonstrate that substantial amounts of (so-called short-range) singlet correlations are generated throughout the magnetic system in a continuous domain wall via the cascade effect. We propose a classification of 0 -π transitions of the Josephson current into three types, according to the predominant pair correlations symmetries involved in the current. Properties of exchange springs for an experimental study of the proposed effects are discussed. The interplay between components of the Gor'kov function that are parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetization lead to a novel prediction about their role in a proximity system with a progressively twisting helix that is experimentally measurable.

  11. Improvement of the phase transition homogeneity of superheated superconducting tin granules

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Czapek, G; Ebert, T R; Hasenbalg, F; Hauser, M G; Janos, S; Kainer, K U; Knoop, K M; Moser, U; Palmieri, V G; Pretzl, Klaus P; Sahli, B; Sgobba, Stefano; Vollenberg, W; Wyss, C

    2000-01-01

    A considerably improved phase transition homogeneity was observed with superheated superconducting Sn spheres as a result of laser melting and fast cooling. These spheres exhibited a very homogeneous phase transition behaviour independent of the orientation of the spheres with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Compared to previously untreated Sn spheres the spread of the phase transition boundaries was reduced by almost an order of magnitude. In addition, we studied mass production of Sn structures using vacuum evaporation and deposition. First encouraging results are reported. (7 refs).

  12. Improvement of the phase transition homogeneity of superheated superconducting tin granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, S.; Casalbuoni, S. E-mail: sara@lhc.lhep.unibe.ch; Czapek, G.; Ebert, T.; Hasenbalg, F.; Hauser, M.; Janos, S.; Kainer, K.U.; Knoop, K.M.; Moser, U.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pretzl, K.; Sahli, B.; Sgobba, S.; Vollenberg, W.; Wyss, Ch.P

    2000-04-07

    A considerably improved phase transition homogeneity was observed with superheated superconducting Sn spheres as a result of laser melting and fast cooling. These spheres exhibited a very homogeneous phase transition behaviour independent of the orientation of the spheres with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Compared to previously untreated Sn spheres the spread of the phase transition boundaries was reduced by almost an order of magnitude. In addition, we studied mass production of Sn structures using vacuum evaporation and deposition. First encouraging results are reported.

  13. Structure and superconducting transition in splat-cooled U–T alloys (T = Mo, Pd, Pt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H., E-mail: tarnawsk@up.krakow.pl [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Paukov, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Sowa, S.; Krupska, M. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Tkach, I.; Havela, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Splat-cooled U–6 at.% Mo, U–5 at.% Pd, U–5 at.% Pt alloys become superconducting below 1 K. • U–5 at.% Pd and U–5 at.% Pt reveal only one resistivity jump at T{sub c}. • Two distinguishable resistivity drops were observed for U–6 at.% Mo. • A broad maximum was observed at T{sub c} in the specific heat. • Those splats consist of two phases having orthorhombic α- and cubic γ-U structure. - Abstract: U–T (T = Mo, Pd, Pt) alloys were prepared by splat cooling technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The resistivity and specific heat measurements were performed down to 0.3 K to study their superconductivity. The superconducting transition in the alloy with 6 at.% Mo (U–6%Mo) revealed by a smooth decrease below 1.5 K and a sharp drop at 0.6 K in the resistivity, while a single sharp drop was revealed at T{sub c} ≈ 0.8 K for those with 5 at.% Pd and Pt doping (U–5%Pd and U–5%Pt). With applying magnetic fields, the resistivity drops move to lower temperatures. The superconductivity transitions were revealed by only one broad peak at T{sub c} in the C(T) curves.

  14. Explore Stochastic Instabilities of Periodic Points by Transition Path Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Lin, Ling; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    We consider the noise-induced transitions from a linearly stable periodic orbit consisting of T periodic points in randomly perturbed discrete logistic map. Traditional large deviation theory and asymptotic analysis at small noise limit cannot distinguish the quantitative difference in noise-induced stochastic instabilities among the T periodic points. To attack this problem, we generalize the transition path theory to the discrete-time continuous-space stochastic process. In our first criterion to quantify the relative instability among T periodic points, we use the distribution of the last passage location related to the transitions from the whole periodic orbit to a prescribed disjoint set. This distribution is related to individual contributions to the transition rate from each periodic points. The second criterion is based on the competency of the transition paths associated with each periodic point. Both criteria utilize the reactive probability current in the transition path theory. Our numerical results for the logistic map reveal the transition mechanism of escaping from the stable periodic orbit and identify which periodic point is more prone to lose stability so as to make successful transitions under random perturbations.

  15. Fabrication of superconducting transition edge sensor based on Mo and Au bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Minhee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)]. E-mail: yunmh@engr.pitt.edu; Bock, James [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Keynon, Mattew [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kuo, C.-L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leduc, Henry [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Turner, Anthony [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kim, Moon J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083-0688 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We report fabricated antenna-coupled superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) for millimeter-wave polarimetry. Superconducting microwave components for an antenna-coupled focal plane will be described in this work. We use low-loss Nb/SiO/Nb transmission line as base materials as a start, although changes in the dielectric may be possible to reduce loss further. Additionally, we have fabricated single- and double-element antennas, filters and detectors. We use TES bilayers consisting of Mo/Au thin films and Nb electrical contacts on a low-stress Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} membrane. In this work, we report transition temperature as a function of Mo thicknesses and Au film composition.

  16. Calculated Changes in the Elastic Properties of MgCNi3 at the Superconducting Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abd-Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the elastic properties of MgCNi3 at the superconducting transition ( using various thermodynamic and acoustic data. From the calculations, a step discontinuity of 8 ppm in the bulk modulus, 7 ppm in the Young’s modulus, and 3 ppm in the longitudinal sound velocity ( is expected at . The step discontinuities at the transition temperature indicated the importance of lattice changes to the superconducting mechanism of MgCNi3. The Debye temperature was calculated to be 460 K. The electron-phonon coupling constants calculated in the weak and strong coupling limits of the BCS theory and the van Hove scenario showed that MgCNi3 is a moderately strong coupled superconductor.

  17. Effect of point defects and disorder on structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulouse, J.

    1997-06-01

    Since the beginning in 1986, the object of this project has been Structural Phase Transitions (SPT) in real as opposed to ideal materials. The first stage of the study has been centered around the role of Point Defects in SPT`s. Our intent was to use the previous knowledge we had acquired in the study of point defects in non-transforming insulators and apply it to the study of point defects in insulators undergoing phase transitions. In non-transforming insulators, point defects, in low concentrations, marginally affect the bulk properties of the host. It is nevertheless possible by resonance or relaxation methods to study the point defects themselves via their local motion. In transforming solids, however, close to a phase transition, atomic motions become correlated over very large distances; there, even point defects far removed from one another can undergo correlated motions which may strongly affect the transition behavior of the host. Near a structural transition, the elastic properties win be most strongly affected so as to either raise or decrease the transition temperature, prevent the transition from taking place altogether, or simply modify its nature and the microstructure or domain structure of the resulting phase. One of the well known practical examples is calcium-stabilized zirconia in which the high temperature cubic phase is stabilized at room temperature with greatly improved mechanical properties.

  18. Enhanced Superconductivity in Close Proximity to the Structural Phase Transition of Sr1-xBaxNi2P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazutaka; Kitahama, Yutaka; Iba, Keita; Takasuga, Masaya; Nohara, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    The structural evolution and superconductivity of a 122-type solid solution Sr1-xBaxNi2P2 were studied. We found that an orthorhombic-tetragonal structural phase transition takes place at x = 0.5, and is characterized by the P-P dimers breaking. The superconducting transition temperature exhibited its highest value of 2.85 K at x = 0.4.

  19. Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices via Raman Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical scheme is proposed to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with SQUIDs (superconducting quantum-interference devices) in cavity via Raman transition. The scheme only requires a quantized cavity field and classical microwave pulses. In this scheme, no transfer of quantum information between the SQUIDs and the cavity is required, the cavity field is only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed.

  20. Superconductivity in HfTe5 across weak to strong topological insulator transition induced via pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Long, Y J; Zhao, L X; Nie, S M; Zhang, S J; Weng, Y X; Jin, M L; Li, W M; Liu, Q Q; Long, Y W; Yu, R C; Gu, C Z; Sun, F; Yang, W G; Mao, H K; Feng, X L; Li, Q; Zheng, W T; Weng, H M; Dai, X; Fang, Z; Chen, G F; Jin, C Q

    2017-03-16

    Recently, theoretical studies show that layered HfTe5 is at the boundary of weak &strong topological insulator (TI) and might crossover to a Dirac semimetal state by changing lattice parameters. The topological properties of 3D stacked HfTe5 are expected hence to be sensitive to pressures tuning. Here, we report pressure induced phase evolution in both electronic &crystal structures for HfTe5 with a culmination of pressure induced superconductivity. Our experiments indicated that the temperature for anomaly resistance peak (Tp) due to Lifshitz transition decreases first before climbs up to a maximum with pressure while the Tp minimum corresponds to the transition from a weak TI to strong TI. The HfTe5 crystal becomes superconductive above ~5.5 GPa where the Tp reaches maximum. The highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc) around 5 K was achieved at 20 GPa. Crystal structure studies indicate that HfTe5 transforms from a Cmcm phase across a monoclinic C2/m phase then to a P-1 phase with increasing pressure. Based on transport, structure studies a comprehensive phase diagram of HfTe5 is constructed as function of pressure. The work provides valuable experimental insights into the evolution on how to proceed from a weak TI precursor across a strong TI to superconductors.

  1. Depth to Transition--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  2. Breakdown of the Migdal approximation at Lifshitz transitions with giant zero-point motion in the H3S superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlborg, Thomas; Bianconi, Antonio

    2016-04-20

    While 203 K high temperature superconductivity in H3S has been interpreted by BCS theory in the dirty limit here we focus on the effects of hydrogen zero-point-motion and the multiband electronic structure relevant for multigap superconductivity near Lifshitz transitions. We describe how the topology of the Fermi surfaces evolves with pressure giving different Lifshitz-transitions. A neck-disrupting Lifshitz-transition (type 2) occurs where the van Hove singularity, vHs, crosses the chemical potential at 210 GPa and new small 2D Fermi surface portions appear with slow Fermi velocity where the Migdal-approximation becomes questionable. We show that the neglected hydrogen zero-point motion ZPM, plays a key role at Lifshitz transitions. It induces an energy shift of about 600 meV of the vHs. The other Lifshitz-transition (of type 1) for the appearing of a new Fermi surface occurs at 130 GPa where new Fermi surfaces appear at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone here the Migdal-approximation breaks down and the zero-point-motion induces large fluctuations. The maximum Tc = 203 K occurs at 160 GPa where EF/ω0 = 1 in the small Fermi surface pocket at Γ. A Feshbach-like resonance between a possible BEC-BCS condensate at Γ and the BCS condensate in different k-space spots is proposed.

  3. Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, A

    2007-06-15

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.

  4. Second Law Violation By Magneto-Caloric Effect Adiabatic Phase Transition of Type I Superconductive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Keefe

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The nature of the thermodynamic behavior of Type I superconductor particles, having a cross section less than the Ginzburg-Landau temperature dependent coherence length is discussed for magnetic field induced adiabatic phase transitions from the superconductive state to the normal state. Argument is advanced supporting the view that when the adiabatic magneto-caloric process is applied to particles, the phase transition is characterized by a decrease in entropy in violation of traditional formulations of the Second Law, evidenced by attainment of a final process temperature below that which would result from an adiabatic magneto-caloric process applied to bulk dimensioned specimens.

  5. Comment on "First-principles calculation of the superconducting transition in MgB2 within the anisotropic Eliashberg formalism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazin, I.I.; Andersen, O.K.; Jepsen, O.; Golubov, A.A.; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.

    2004-01-01

    Choi et al. [Phys. Rev. B 66, 020513 (2002)] recently presented first-principles calculations of the electron-phonon coupling and superconductivity in MgB2, emphasizing the importance of anisotropy and anharmonicity. We point out that (1) variation of the superconducting gap inside the sigma or the

  6. Tricritical point of a ferromagnetic transition in UGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabeya, N; Iijima, R; Osaki, E; Ban, S; Imura, K; Deguchi, K; Sato, N K [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Aso, N [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Homma, Y; Shiokawa, Y, E-mail: kabeya.noriyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.j [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki 331-1313 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements of the superconducting ferromagnet UGe{sub 2} under pressure were carried out. The temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient shows a peak at the Curie temperature. When pressure is varied, the peak exhibits a maximum in the vicinity of a tricritical point (TCP), which separates the second-order phase transition from the first-order transition. From results of these measurements, we first construct the magnetic phase diagram including the TCP (P{sub TCP} {approx} 12.5 kbar). We also show that two lines characterizing the metamagnetism and the magnetic susceptibility emerge from the TCP. We argue that these magnetic properties in the vicinity of the TCP can be understood within a phenomenological frame of spin fluctuations.

  7. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  8. A ferroelectric quantum phase transition inside the superconducting dome of Sr1-xCaxTiO3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischau, Carl Willem; Lin, Xiao; Grams, Christoph P.; Finck, Dennis; Harms, Steffen; Engelmayer, Johannes; Lorenz, Thomas; Gallais, Yann; Fauqué, Benoît; Hemberger, Joachim; Behnia, Kamran

    2017-07-01

    SrTiO3, a quantum paraelectric, becomes a metal with a superconducting instability after removal of an extremely small number of oxygen atoms. It turns into a ferroelectric upon substitution of a tiny fraction of strontium atoms with calcium. The two orders may be accidental neighbours or intimately connected, as in the picture of quantum critical ferroelectricity. Here, we show that in Sr1-xCaxTiO3-δ (0.002 content, a quantum phase transition destroys the ferroelectric order. We detect an upturn in the normal-state scattering and a significant modification of the superconducting dome in the vicinity of this quantum phase transition. The enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature with calcium substitution documents the role played by ferroelectric vicinity in the precocious emergence of superconductivity in this system, restricting possible theoretical scenarios for pairing.

  9. Mesoscopic superconductivity and high spin polarization coexisting at metallic point contacts on Weyl semimetal TaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Leena; Gayen, Sirshendu; Das, Shekhar; Kumar, Ritesh; Süß, Vicky; Felser, Claudia; Shekhar, Chandra; Sheet, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    A Weyl semimetal is a topologically non-trivial phase of matter that hosts mass-less Weyl fermions, the particles that remained elusive for more than 80 years since their theoretical discovery. The Weyl semimetals exhibit unique transport properties and remarkably high surface spin polarization. Here we show that a mesoscopic superconducting phase with critical temperature Tc=7 K can be realized by forming metallic point contacts with silver (Ag) on single crystals of TaAs, while neither Ag nor TaAs are superconductors. Andreev reflection spectroscopy of such point contacts reveals a superconducting gap of 1.2 meV that coexists with a high transport spin polarization of 60% indicating a highly spin-polarized supercurrent flowing through the point contacts on TaAs. Therefore, apart from the discovery of a novel mesoscopic superconducting phase, our results also show that the point contacts on Weyl semimetals are potentially important for applications in spintronics.

  10. Variation in superconducting transition temperature due to tetragonal domains in two-dimensionally doped SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noad, Hilary; Spanton, Eric M.; Nowack, Katja C.; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Minu; Merz, Tyler A.; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Vailionis, Arturas; Hwang, Harold Y.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-11-01

    Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature Tc≳ 10 % higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on twin boundaries; therefore, we propose that the orientation of the tetragonal unit cell with respect to the doped plane affects Tc. Our results suggest that the anisotropic dielectric properties of SrTiO3 are important for its superconductivity and need to be considered in any theory of the mechanism of the superconductivity.

  11. Phase transition and superconductivity of SrFe2As2 under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Montgomery, Jeffrey M [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Yogesh [University of Alabama, Birmingham; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Sefat, A. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    High pressure x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance measurements have been carried out on SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} to a pressure of 23 GPa and temperature of 10 K using a synchrotron source and designer diamond anvils. At ambient temperature, a phase transition from the tetragonal phase to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 10 GPa under non-hydrostatic conditions. The experimental relation that T-CT transition pressure for 122 Fe-based superconductors is dependent on ambient pressure volume is affirmed. The superconducting transition temperature is observed at 32 K at 1.3 GPa and decreases rapidly with a further increase of pressure in the region where the T-CT transition occurs. Our results suggest that T{sub C} falls below 10 K in the pressure range of 10-18 GPa where the CT phase is expected to be stable.

  12. Supercurrent-induced skyrmion dynamics and tunable Weyl points in chiral magnet with superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies show superconductivity provides new perspectives on spintronics. We study a heterostructure composed of an s -wave superconductor and a cubic chiral magnet that stabilizes a topological spin texture, a skyrmion. We propose a supercurrent-induced spin torque, which originates from the spin-orbit coupling, and we show that the spin torque can drive a skyrmion in an efficient way that reduces Joule heating. We also study the band structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles and show the existence of Weyl points, whose positions can be controlled by the magnetization. This results in an effective magnetic field acting on the Weyl quasiparticles in the presence spin textures. Furthermore, the tilt of the Weyl cones can also be tuned by the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, and we propose a possible realization of type-II Weyl points.

  13. Enhanced superconductivity accompanying a Lifshitz transition in electron-doped FeSe monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Han, Z.-Q.; Peng, X.-L.; Richard, P.; Qian, T.; Wu, X.-X.; Qiu, M.-W.; Wang, S. C.; Hu, J. P.; Sun, Y.-J.; Ding, H.

    2017-04-01

    The origin of enhanced superconductivity over 50 K in the recently discovered FeSe monolayer films grown on SrTiO3 (STO), as compared to 8 K in bulk FeSe, is intensely debated. As with the ferrochalcogenides AxFe2-ySe2 and potassium-doped FeSe, which also have a relatively high-superconducting critical temperature (Tc), the Fermi surface (FS) of the FeSe/STO monolayer films is free of hole-like FS, suggesting that a Lifshitz transition by which these hole FSs vanish may help increasing Tc. However, the fundamental reasons explaining this increase of Tc remain unclear. Here we report a 15 K jump of Tc accompanying a second Lifshitz transition characterized by the emergence of an electron pocket at the Brillouin zone centre, which is triggered by high-electron doping following in situ deposition of potassium on FeSe/STO monolayer films. Our results suggest that the pairing interactions are orbital dependent in generating enhanced superconductivity in FeSe.

  14. Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in FeSe0.3Te0.7 thin films and electric-field modulation of superconducting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhu; Mei, Chenguang; Wei, Linlin; Sun, Zhangao; Wu, Shilong; Huang, Haoliang; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Chang; Feng, Yang; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yalin; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-09-18

    We report the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe0.3Te0.7 (FST) thin films with different thicknesses grown on ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 substrates. It was shown that the FST films undergo biaxial tensile strains which are fully relaxed for films with thicknesses above 200 nm. Electrical transport measurements reveal that the ultrathin films exhibit an insulating behavior and superconductivity appears for thicker films with Tc saturated above 200 nm. The current-voltage curves around the superconducting transition follow the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition behavior and the resistance-temperature curves can be described by the Halperin-Nelson relation, revealing quasi-two-dimensional phase fluctuation in FST thin films. The Ginzburg number decreases with increasing film thickness indicating the decrease of the strength of thermal fluctuations. Upon applying electric field to the heterostructure, Tc of FST thin film increases due to the reduction of the tensile strain in FST. This work sheds light on the superconductivity, strain effect as well as electric-field modulation of superconductivity in FST films.

  15. Multi critical point structure for chiral phase transition induce by charge neutrality and vector interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The combined effect of the repulsive vector interaction and the positive electric chemical potential on the chiral phase transition is investigated by considering neutral color superconductivity. Under the charge-neutrality constraint, the chiral condensate, diquark condensate and quark number densities are obtained in two-plus-one-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the so called Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft term. We demonstrate that multiple chiral critical-point structures always exist in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the self-consistent mean-field approximation, and that the number of chiral critical points can vary from zero to four, which is dependent on the magnitudes of vector interaction and the diquark coupling.

  16. First-order transition switch-off of superconductivity in UGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabeya, N., E-mail: kabeya.noriyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.j [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Iijima, R.; Osaki, E.; Ban, S.; Imura, K.; Deguchi, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Aso, N. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan); Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki 331-1313 (Japan); Sato, N.K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The ac magnetic susceptibility, the thermal expansion and the magnetostriction were measured using a single crystalline sample of UGe{sub 2} under pressure. We find that as the field exceeds a transition field, where the system transforms from a high pressure phase (P>P{sub X}) into a low pressure phase (Psuperconductivity steeply collapses within a transient region arising from the pressure inhomogeneity. We also estimate an accurate value of P{sub X} in zero temperature limit and a pressure distribution around it. Using thus estimated quantity, we argue that the superconductivity (in zero magnetic field) below the critical pressure is not intrinsic but extrinsic due to the pressure inhomogeneity.

  17. A power-adjustable superconducting terahertz source utilizing electrical triggering phase transitions in vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L. Y.; Zhou, X. J.; Yang, Z. B.; Zhang, H. L.; Sun, H. C.; Cao, H. X.; Dai, P. H.; Li, J.; Hatano, T.; Wang, H. B.; Wen, Q. Y.; Wu, P. H.

    2016-12-01

    We report a practical superconducting terahertz (THz) source, comprising a stack of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) and a vanadium dioxide (VO2) tunable attenuator with coplanar interdigital contacts. The electrical triggering phase transitions are observed not only at room temperature, but also at low temperatures, which provides a proof of the electrical triggering. Applying this, the VO2 attenuator is implemented for the independent regulations on the emission powers from the IJJ THz emitter, remaining frequencies and temperatures unchanged. The attenuation can be tuned smoothly and continuously within a couple of volts among which the maximum is, respectively, -5.6 dB at 20 K or -4.3 dB at 25 K. Such a power-adjustable radiation source, including the VO2 attenuator, can further expand its practicability in cryogenic THz systems, like superconducting THz spectrometers.

  18. Optimizing the superconducting transition temperature and upper critical field of Sn1-xInxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Shi, X. Y.; Xu, Z. J.; Zhang, C.; Tranquada, J. M.; Li, Q.; Gu, G. D.

    2013-07-01

    Sn1-xInxTe is a possible candidate for topological superconductivity. Previous work has shown that substitution of In for Sn in the topological crystalline insulator SnTe results in superconductivity, with the transition temperature, Tc, growing with In concentration. We have performed a systematic investigation of Sn1-xInxTe for a broad range of x, synthesizing single crystals (by a modified floating-zone method) as well as polycrystalline samples. The samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and magnetization. For the single crystals, the maximum Tc is obtained at x=0.45 with a value of 4.5 K, as determined by the onset of diamagnetism.

  19. Superconducting Pairing Correlations near a Kondo-destruction Quantum Critical Point in Cluster Impurity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ang; Pixley, Jedediah; Si, Qimiao

    Heavy fermion metals represent a canonical system to study superconductivity driven by quantum criticality. We are particularly motivated by the properties of CeRhIn5, which shows the characteristic features of a Kondo destruction quantum critical point (QCP) in its normal state, and has one of the highest Tc's among the heavy fermion superconductors. As a first step to study this problem within a cluster-EDMFT approach, we analyze a four-site Anderson impurity model with the antiferromagnetic spin component of the cluster coupled to a sub-Ohmic bosonic bath. We find a QCP that belongs to the same universality class as the single-site Bose-Fermi Anderson model. Together with previous work on a two-site model, our result suggests that the Kondo destruction QCP is robust as cluster size increases. More importantly, we are able to calculate the d-wave pairing susceptibility, which we find to be enhanced near the QCP. Using this model as the effective cluster model of the periodic Anderson model, we are also able to study the superconducting pairing near the Kondo-destruction QCP of the lattice model; preliminary results will be presented.

  20. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E. P.; Sharma, Neha; Harimohan, V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples.

  1. First-order superconducting phase transition in CeCoIn5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A; Movshovich, R; Oeschler, N; Gegenwart, P; Steglich, F; Thompson, J D; Pagliuso, P G; Sarrao, J L

    2002-09-23

    The superconducting phase transition in heavy fermion CeCoIn5 (T(c)=2.3 K in zero field) becomes first order when the magnetic field H parallel [001] is greater than 4.7 T, and the transition temperature is below T0 approximately 0.31T(c). The change from second order at lower fields is reflected in strong sharpening of both specific heat and thermal expansion anomalies associated with the phase transition, a strong magnetocaloric effect, and a steplike change in the sample volume. This effect is due to Pauli limiting in a type-II superconductor, and was predicted theoretically in the mid-1960s.

  2. Superconductivity on the verge of electronic topological transition in Fe based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Haranath; Sen, Smritijit

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive first principles study on the electronic topological transition in a number of 122 family of Fe based superconductors is presented. Doping as well as temperature driven Lifshitz transitions are predicted from ab-initio simulations in a variety of Fe based superconductors that are consistent with experimental findings. In all the studied compounds the Lifshitz transitions are consistently found to take place at a doping concentration just around where superconductivity is known to acquire the highest Tc and magnetism disappears. This indicates the intriguing heed to the inter-relationship between superconductivity and Lifshitz transition in Fe-based 122 materials. Systematically, the Lifshitz transition occurs (above certain threshold doping) in some of the electronic Fermi surfaces for hole doped 122 compounds, whereas in hole Fermi surfaces for electron as well as iso-electronic doped 122 compounds. Temperature driven Lifshitz transition is found to occur in the iso-electronic Ru-doped BaFe2As2 compounds. A systematic study of Fermi surface area e.g., variations of (i) areas of each individual Fermi surfaces, (ii) sum total areas of all the electron Fermi Surfaces, (iii) sum total areas of all the hole Fermi Surfaces, (iv) sum total areas of all the five Fermi Surfaces, (v) difference of all hole and all electron Fermi surface areas as a function of doping is a rare wealth of information that can be verified by the de Haas-van Alphen and allied effects (i.e. , Shubnikov-de Haas effect) are presented. Fermi surface area are found to carry sensitivity of topological modifications more acutely than the band structures and can be used as a better experimental tool to identify ETT/LT.

  3. Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, K. D.; Niemack, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Cho, H. M.; Doriese, W. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.

    2010-03-01

    Multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers have recently enabled the deployment of kilopixel arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors on a variety of receivers for astrophysics. Existing multiplexing techniques for TES arrays, however, have constraints due to aliasing of SQUID noise, the size of the required filtering elements, or the complexity of the room-temperature electronics that make it difficult to scale to much larger arrays. We have developed a Walsh code-division SQUID multiplexer that has the potential to enable the multiplexing of larger arrays or pixels with faster thermal response times. The multiplexer uses superconducting switches to modulate the polarity of coupling between N individual TES detectors and a single output SQUID channel. The polarities of the detector signals are switched in the pattern of an N × N Walsh matrix, so a frame composed of N orthogonal samples can be used to reconstruct the detector signals without degradation. We present an analysis of the circuit architecture and preliminary results.

  4. Effect of bond length and radius on superconducting transition temperature for FeAs-based superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By comparing the data of lattice parameters of more than 50 new FeAs-based high temperature superconductors in two syetems, the effect of bondlength on superconducting transition temperature (T C ) was found that, for both FeAs superconductor systems with similar ionic radii of cation A, the bond length L As-A between Arsenic atom and its nearest neighbor cation at the A site is in an inverse proportion to T C , i.e. the larger the bond length L As-A , the lower the T C . In addition, we also found a noticeable effect of ionic radius on T C , in which deviation from the tendency line of bond length vs. T C decreases with the increasing ionic radius. Both bond length-T C and ionic radii-T C relations indicate that the interaction of cation A and As ion have significant effect on superconductivity. The analysis on the electronic structure indicates that there exists the proximity of the secondary-outer p-orbit of the cation A and the 4s orbit of the As ion, both in energy space and in real space. Some high frequency individual vibrating modes would be established through exchange coupling on their inner orbits. It is worth of mention that the superconducting condensation is influenced by the interaction between the cation A and the As atoms.

  5. Parameter scaling in the decoherent quantum-classical transition for chaotic rf superconducting quantum interference devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ting; Yu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigated the quantum-classical transition in rf-superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems coupled to a dissipative environment. It is found that chaos emerges and the degree of chaos, the maximal Lyapunov exponent lambda(m), exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the coupling strength D. By measuring the proximity of quantum and classical evolution with the uncertainty of dynamics, we show that the uncertainty is a monotonic function of lambda(m)/D. In addition, the scaling holds in SQUID systems to a relatively smaller variant Planck's over [symbol: see text], suggesting the universality for this scaling.

  6. Superfluid density and superconducting transition temperature in Bi-based cuprate single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparov, L.; Tanner, D.; Berger, H.; Forro, L.; Margaritondo, G.

    2000-03-01

    We present temperature-dependent reflectance measurements for Bi-based cuprate single crystals in the frequency range from 100 to 40,000 cm-1 (0.012--5 eV). The optical conductivity is obtained by Kramers-Kronig analysis. We compare differently doped Bi-2212 (particularly in the underdoped regime) as well as Pr-doped Bi-2212 crystals by analyzing optical conductivity in the framework of a two-fluid approach. This approach allows us to study correlations between superfluid density and superconducting transition temperature of these materials.

  7. Effect of Indium on the Superconducting Transition Temperature of Tin Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda

    2013-03-01

    Indium-doped tin telluride is one of the most appealing topological superconductors. We have grown a series of Sn1-xInxTe crystals with different indium concentrations (0.1 <=x <=1.0). The results show indium doping improves the superconducting transition temperature significantly and is highly related to the indium concentration. The maximum Tc of indium-doped tin telluride polycrystalline is 4.5K for x =0.4. Single crystals of Sn1-xInxTe were also grown by the floating zone method, and their magnetic properties were characterized.

  8. Feedhorn-Coupled Transition-Edge Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmayr, J.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Cho, H.-M.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Grace, E.; Halverson, N.; Henderson, S. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NIST produces large-format, dual-polarization-sensitive detector arrays for a broad range of frequencies (30-1400 GHz). Such arrays enable a host of astrophysical measurements. Detectors optimized for cosmic microwave background observations are monolithic, polarization-sensitive arrays based on feedhorn and planar Nb antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting (TES) bolometers. Recent designs achieve multiband, polarimetric sensing within each spatial pixel. In this proceeding, we describe our multichroic, feedhorn-coupled design; demonstrate performance at 70-380 GHz; and comment on current developments for implementation of these detector arrays in the advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope receiver

  9. New superconductivity dome in LaFeAsO1- x F x far away from magnetism and accompanied by structural transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-12-01

    We report on the discovery and novel physics of a new superconductivity dome in LaFeAsO1- x F x with high-doping rate (0.25 ≤ x≤0.75) synthesized by using the high-pressure technique. The maximal critical temperature T c = 30 K peaked at x opt = 0.5 ˜0.55, which is even higher than that at x≤ 0.2. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we find that the new superconducting dome is far away from a magnetically ordered phase without low-energy magnetic fluctuations. Instead, NMR and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that a C4 rotation symmetry-breaking structural transition takes place for x> 0.5 above T c . The electrical resistivity shows a temperature-linear behavior around the doping level where the crystal transition temperature extrapolate to zero and T c is the maximal, suggesting the importance of quantum fluctuations associated with the structural transition. Our results point to a new paradigm of high temperature superconductivity.

  10. New superconductivity dome in LaFeAsO{sub 1−x}F{sub x} far away from magnetism and accompanied by structural transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J., E-mail: yangjie@iphy.ac.cn; Zheng, Guo-qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics (China)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the discovery and novel physics of a new superconductivity dome in LaFeAsO{sub 1−x}F{sub x} with high-doping rate (0.25 ≤x≤0.75) synthesized by using the high-pressure technique. The maximal critical temperature T{sub c} = 30 K peaked at x{sub opt} = 0.5 ∼0.55, which is even higher than that at x≤ 0.2. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we find that the new superconducting dome is far away from a magnetically ordered phase without low-energy magnetic fluctuations. Instead, NMR and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that a C4 rotation symmetry-breaking structural transition takes place for x> 0.5 above T{sub c}. The electrical resistivity shows a temperature-linear behavior around the doping level where the crystal transition temperature extrapolate to zero and T{sub c} is the maximal, suggesting the importance of quantum fluctuations associated with the structural transition. Our results point to a new paradigm of high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Evidence for a Lifshitz transition in electron-doped iron arsenic superconductors at the onset of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Kondo, T.; Fernandes, R.M.; Palczewski, Ari D.; Mun, Eun Deok; Ni, Ni; Thaler, Alexander N.; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Schmalian, Jorg; Bud-ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; and Kaminski, A.

    2010-05-02

    The iron arsenic high-temperature superconductors exhibit particularly rich phase diagrams. In the AE(Fe{sub 1-x}T{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} family (known as '122', with AE being Ca, Sr or Ba and T being a transition metal), the simultaneous structural/magnetic phase transition that occurs at elevated temperature in the undoped material splits and is suppressed by carrier doping. A superconducting region appears as likely in the orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic (AFM) state as in the tetragonal/paramagnetic state. An important question then is what determines the critical doping at which superconductivity emerges, as the AFM order is fully suppressed only close to optimal doping. Here we report evidence from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that marked changes in the Fermi surface coincide with the onset of superconductivity in electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}. The presence of the AFM order leads to a reconstruction of the electronic structure, most significantly the appearance of the petal-like hole pockets at the Fermi level. These hole pockets vanish - that is, undergo a Lifshitz transition - as the cobalt concentration is increased sufficiently to support superconductivity. Superconductivity and magnetism are competing states in this system: when petal-like hole pockets are present, superconductivity is fully suppressed, whereas in their absence the two states can coexist.

  12. Superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy tips in a magnetic field: Geometry-controlled order of the phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Matthias, E-mail: m.eltschka@fkf.mpg.de; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kondrashov, Oleg V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Skvortsov, Mikhail A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 143026 Moscow (Russian Federation); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-09-21

    The properties of geometrically confined superconductors significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. Here, we demonstrate the geometrical impact for superconducting scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips, where the confinement ranges from the atomic to the mesoscopic scale. To this end, we compare the experimentally determined magnetic field dependence for several vanadium tips to microscopic calculations based on the Usadel equation. For our theoretical model of a superconducting cone, we find a direct correlation between the geometry and the order of the superconducting phase transition. Increasing the opening angle of the cone changes the phase transition from first to second order. Comparing our experimental findings to the theory reveals first and second order quantum phase transitions in the vanadium STM tips. In addition, the theory also explains experimentally observed broadening effects by the specific tip geometry.

  13. Nontrivial Critical Fixed Point for Replica-Symmetry-Breaking Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Patrick; Yaida, Sho

    2017-05-01

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to hierarchical is one of the richest features of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon—the Gardner transition—has recently been predicted for structural glasses. The existence of these replica-symmetry-breaking phase transitions has, however, long been questioned below their upper critical dimension, du=6 . Here, we obtain evidence for the existence of these transitions in d point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we corroborate the result by resumming the perturbative series with inputs from a three-loop calculation and an analysis of its large-order behavior. Our study offers a resolution of the long-lasting controversy surrounding phase transitions in finite-dimensional disordered systems.

  14. Slope Transit Time (STT): A Pulse Transit Time Proxy requiring Only a Single Signal Fiducial Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    A novel pulse transit time proxy measurement, slope transit time (STT), is proposed in this letter. STT is based on geometrical considerations of the arriving photoplethysmographic cardiac waveform and its computation requires only the measurement of a single point on each cardiac beat arriving at the peripheral site. This novel transit time is explained conceptually and its implementation illustrated through its application to signals from respiratory effort, Müller maneuver, and obstructive sleep apnea trials.

  15. Electric field-induced superconducting transition of insulating FeSe thin film at 35 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Kota; Sato, Hikaru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-04-12

    It is thought that strong electron correlation in an insulating parent phase would enhance a critical temperature (Tc) of superconductivity in a doped phase via enhancement of the binding energy of a Cooper pair as known in high-Tc cuprates. To induce a superconductor transition in an insulating phase, injection of a high density of carriers is needed (e.g., by impurity doping). An electric double-layer transistor (EDLT) with an ionic liquid gate insulator enables such a field-induced transition to be investigated and is expected to result in a high Tc because it is free from deterioration in structure and carrier transport that are in general caused by conventional carrier doping (e.g., chemical substitution). Here, for insulating epitaxial thin films (∼10 nm thick) of FeSe, we report a high Tc of 35 K, which is 4× higher than that of bulk FeSe, using an EDLT under application of a gate bias of +5.5 V. Hall effect measurements under the gate bias suggest that highly accumulated electron carrier in the channel, whose area density is estimated to be 1.4 × 10(15) cm(-2) (the average volume density of 1.7 × 10(21) cm(-3)), is the origin of the high-Tc superconductivity. This result demonstrates that EDLTs are useful tools to explore the ultimate Tc for insulating parent materials.

  16. Screening-Dependent Study of Superconductivity in 3d-Transition Metals Binary Alloys Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we report the screening-dependent study of the superconducting state parameters (SSPs), viz. electron-phonon coupling strength A, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature Tc, isotope effect exponent a, and effective interaction strength NoV of 3d-band transition metals binary alloys superconductors have been made extensively in the present work using a model potential formalism and employing the pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model for the first time. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaxu-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) are used in the present investigation to study the screening influence on the aforesaid properties. The present results of the SSPs obtained from H-screening are found in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data wherever exist.

  17. Relaxation transition due to different cooling processes in a superconducting levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You-He; Zhang, Xing-Yi; Zhou, Jun

    2008-06-01

    We present an experimental study of relaxation of vertical and horizontal force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system, with different initial cooling process after fixing the levitated body in an expected position statically. In the experiment, the bulk YBaCuO cylinder superconductor and the permanent magnet disk are employed. For a selected levitation height (LH) and a lateral displacement (LD) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the vertical and horizontal forces are strongly dependent on the initial cooling height (CH). With CH decreasing, the transition of the lateral force from repulsion to attraction is found as well as the changing characteristics with time from decrease to increase. Additionally, when LH is fixed at the CH, the transition phenomenon is also observed in the levitation force behavior and their relaxation under different LDs.

  18. Frustration in Vicinity of Transition Point of Ising Spin Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ryoji

    2013-09-01

    We conjecture the existence of a relationship between frustration and the transition point at zero temperature of Ising spin glasses. The relation reveals that, in several Ising spin glass models, the concentration of ferromagnetic bonds is close to the critical concentration at zero temperature when the output of a function about frustration is equal to unity. The function is the derivative of the average number of frustrated plaquettes with respect to the average number of antiferromagnetic bonds. This relation is conjectured in Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices, hierarchical lattices, and three-body Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices. In addition, the same argument in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick model yields a point that is identical to the replica-symmetric solution of the transition point at zero temperature.

  19. In-situ electron paramagnetic resonance studies of paramagnetic point defects in superconducting microwave resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengke; Kopas, Cameron; Wagner, Brian; Queen, Daniel; Newman, N.

    2016-09-01

    The physical nature and concentration of paramagnetic point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators have been determined using in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To perform this work, the quality factor of parallel plate and stripline resonators was measured as a function of the magnitude of a magnetic-field applied parallel to the electrode surfaces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film electrodes proved to be a preferred choice over Nb and MgB2 because they are readily available and have a small surface resistance (Rs) up to high temperatures (˜77 K) and magnetic fields (i.e., dielectric, Co2+-doped Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, are shown to have losses dominated by d-electron spin-excitations in exchange-coupled Co2+ point-defect clusters, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. A significant enhanced microwave loss in stripline and parallel plate resonators is found to correlate with the presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ dopants in Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics and dangling bond states in amorphous Si thin films, although the identification of the dominant loss mechanism(s) in these dielectrics requires further investigation.

  20. Jamming Transition of Point-to-Point Traffic Through Cooperative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through cooperative mechanisms using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized cooperative mechanisms which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle ...

  1. Pressure-induced unconventional superconductivity near a quantum critical point in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Tabuchi, T; Zheng Guoqing [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Wang, X F; Chen, X H [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-05-15

    {sup 75}As-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements are performed on CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} under pressure. At P = 4.7 and 10.8 kbar, the temperature dependencies of nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T{sub 1}) measured in the tetragonal phase show no coherence peak just below T{sub c}(P) and decrease with decreasing temperature. The superconductivity is gapless at P = 4.7 kbar but evolves to that with multiple gaps at P = 10.8 kbar. We find that the superconductivity appears near a quantum critical point under pressures in the range 4.7 kbar {<=} P {<=} 10.8 kbar. Both electron correlation and superconductivity disappear in the collapsed tetragonal phase. A systematic study under pressure indicates that electron correlations play a vital role in forming Cooper pairs in this compound.

  2. Upper critical fields and superconducting transition temperatures of some zirconium-base amorphous transition-metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkut, M. G.; Hake, R. R.

    1983-08-01

    Superconducting upper critical fields Hc2(T), transition temperatures Tc and normal-state electrical resistivities ρn have been measured in the amorphous transition-metal alloy series Zr1-xCox, Zr1-xNix, (Zr1-xTix)0.78Ni0.22, and (Zr1-xNbx)0.78Ni0.22. Structural integrity of these melt-spun alloys is indicated by x-ray, density, bend-ductility, normal-state electrical resistivity, superconducting transition width, and mixed-state flux-pinning measurements. The specimens display Tc=2.1-3.8 K, ρn=159-190 μΩ cm, and |(dHc2dT)Tc|=28-36 kG/K. These imply electron mean free paths l~2-6 Å, zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence distances ξG0~50-70 Å, penetration depths λG0~(7-10)×103 Å, and extremely high dirtiness parameters ξ0l~300-1300. All alloys display Hc2(T) curves with negative curvature and (with two exceptions) fair agreement with the standard dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) for physically reasonable values of spin-orbit-coupling induced, electron-spin-flip scattering time τso. This is in contrast to the anomalously elevated Hc2(T) behavior which is nearly linear in T that is observed by some, and the unphysically low-τso fits to WHHM theory obtained by others, for various amorphous alloys. Current ideas that such anomalies may be due to alloy inhomogeneity are supported by present results on two specimens for which relatively low-τso fits of Hc2(T) to WHHM theory are coupled with superconductive evidence for inhomogeneity: relatively broad transitions at Tc and Hc2 current-density-dependent transitions at Hc2 and (in one specimen) a J-dependent, high-H (>Hc2), resistive "beak effect." In the Zr1-xCox and Zr1-xNix series, Tc decreases linearly with x (and with unfilled-shell average electron-to-atom ratio in the range 5.05previous results for these systems and contrary to the Tc vs behavior of both amorphous and crystalline transition-metal alloys formed between near neighbors in the Periodic Table. Upper

  3. Anomalous pressure dependence of the superconducting transition temperature of beta-pyrochlore AOs2O6 oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T; Takeshita, N; Terakura, C; Takagi, H; Tokura, Y; Yonezawa, S; Muraoka, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2005-10-14

    High-pressure effects on the superconducting transitions of beta-pyrochlore oxide superconductors AOs(2)O(6) (A = Cs,Rb,K) are studied by measuring resistivity under high pressures up to 10 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T(c) first increases with increasing pressure in every compound and then exhibits a broad maximum at 7.6 K (6 GPa), 8.2 K (2 GPa), and 10 K (0.6 GPa) for A = Cs, Rb, and K, respectively. Finally, the superconductivity is suppressed completely at a critical pressure near 7 GPa and 6 GPa for A = Rb and K and probably above 10 GPa for A = Cs. Characteristic changes in the coefficient A of the T(2) term in resistivity and residual resistivity are observed, both of which are synchronized with the corresponding change in T(c).

  4. Novel Lifshitz point for chiral transition in the magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Tatsumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized Ginzburg–Landau theory, chiral phase transition is discussed in the presence of magnetic field. Considering the chiral density wave we show that chiral anomaly gives rise to an inhomogeneous chiral phase for nonzero quark-number chemical potential. Novel Lifshitz point appears on the vanishing chemical potential line, which may be directly explored by the lattice QCD simulation.

  5. Quantum critical point for stripe order: An organizing principle of cuprate superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada); Taillefer, Louis, E-mail: Louis.Taillefer@USherbrooke.ca [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    A spin density-wave quantum critical point (QCP) is the central organizing principle of organic, iron-pnictide, heavy-fermion and electron-doped cuprate superconductors. It accounts for the superconducting T{sub c} dome, the non-Fermi-liquid resistivity, and the Fermi-surface reconstruction. Outside the magnetically ordered phase above the QCP, scattering and pairing decrease in parallel as the system moves away from the QCP. Here we argue that a similar scenario, based on a stripe-order QCP, is a central organizing principle of hole-doped cuprate superconductors. Key properties of La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} are naturally unified, including stripe order itself, its QCP, Fermi-surface reconstruction, the linear-T resistivity, and the nematic character of the pseudogap phase.

  6. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state.

  7. New paramagnetic peculiarity of the superconductive transition detected by a highly sensitive OFC magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel G.; Kiss, Takanobu; Ohyama, Tomokazu; Inoue, Masayoshi; Movsisyan, Artur A.; Shirinyan, Hovsep G.; Gevorgyan, Vardan S.; Matsushita, Teruo; Takeo, Masakatsu

    2001-12-01

    The improved `LC-resonator' technique (the open-flat coil magnetometer), based on a low-power stable-frequency tunnel diode oscillator with a single-layer open-faced coil, is very sensitive to changes of position. About 1 Å absolute and better than 10-6 relative resolution can be reached in distance change measurements. It is an excellent MHz-range scientific instrument with which one may study weakly expressed fine peculiarities of the superconductive state in small-volume thin plate-like high-Tc superconductors (HTS). It enables changes to be detected of about 1 pH of the HTS film's magnetic inductance (changes of ~1-3 Å of the magnetic penetration depth, λ) with very high (~10-6) relative resolution. Owing to the pick-up coil's flat design, relatively low operation frequency and high relative resolution, the present method has advantages over others. It is essential for non-destructive studies of thin flat HTS materials (with a small signal) especially near Tc (at the beginning of the formation of `Cooper' pairs). Mainly as the result of these advantages a new `paramagnetic' peculiarity of the superconductive transition has been detected in Y-Ba-Cu-O film, which precedes the well known `diamagnetic' ejection. A possible explanation of the observed effect is given, and the influence of some external physical parameters on the effect is revealed and discussed.

  8. Operation Tests for SN Transition Superconducting Fault Current Limiter in the Power System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Torii, Shinji; Kumano, Teruhisa; Sakaki, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kenji

    One of important problems to be solved in Japanese trunk transmission systems is the reduction of short circuit capacity. As this countermeasure, double buses are split into two buses in some substations. In recent years, dispersed generators are introduced in lower voltage classes due to the introduction of the electricity deregulation. In such a distribution system as many dispersed generators are introduced, it is a possibility that the fault current becomes beyond the breaking capacity at the occurrence of short circuit. Introduction of superconducting fault current limiters into a power system is very effective as one of the means to solve the above-mentioned problem, and we have studied on the effective introduction method of them and setting method of their parameters. This paper describes the results of the operation tests for SN transition type of a superconducting fault current limiter using 3 phases of FCL modules against various kinds of system faults or inrush current in the Power System Simulator installed at CRIEPI.

  9. Introducing Barium in Transition Metal Oxide Frameworks: Impact upon Superconductivity, Magnetism, Multiferroism and Oxygen Diffusion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveau, Bernard

    2016-11-25

    The role of barium in the structural chemistry of some transition metal oxides of the series "Cu, Mn, Fe,Co" is reviewed, based on its size effect and its particular chemical bonding. Its impact upon various properties, superconductivity, magnetism, multiferroism, oxygen storage is emphasized.

  10. Anisotropic Field Dependence of the Superconducting Transition in the Magnetic Molecular Superconductor κ-(BETS)2FeBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shuhei; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Angle-resolved heat capacity measurements of a π-d interacting system of κ-(BETS)2FeBr4 [BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene] with in-plane magnetic fields are performed. We observed a thermal anomaly in association with the superconducting transition of the π electrons in the π-d compound for the first time. By pursuing a systematic change in the thermal anomaly, we found that the thermodynamic feature of the superconducting state shows large anisotropy against in-plane magnetic fields. When the field is applied parallel to the c-axis, the thermal anomaly remains up to 2.6 T with a distinct peak structure. On the other hand, it is suppressed in synchrony with the decrease of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, when the field is applied parallel to the a-axis. Our thermodynamic results indicate that the effect of the π-d interaction appears even when the π electrons are itinerant and that the anisotropic field-direction dependence of the superconducting transition originates from the correlation between superconductivity and magnetism.

  11. Superconductivity up to 30 K in the vicinity of the quantum critical point in BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Shuai; Xing Hui; Xuan Guofang; Wang Cao; Ren Zhi; Dai Jianhui; Xu Zhu' an; Cao Guanghan [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Chunmu, E-mail: ghcao@zju.edu.c [Test and Analysis Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-09-23

    We report bulk superconductivity induced by an isovalent doping of phosphorus in BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}. The P-for-As substitution results in shrinkage of the lattice, especially for the FeAs block layers. The resistivity anomaly associated with the spin-density-wave (SDW) transition in the undoped compound is gradually suppressed by the P doping. Superconductivity with a maximum T{sub c} of 30 K emerges at x = 0.32, coinciding with a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP) which is shown by the disappearance of SDW order and the linear temperature-dependent resistivity in the normal state. The T{sub c} values were found to decrease with further P doping and no superconductivity was observed down to 2 K for x>=0.77. The appearance of superconductivity in the vicinity of QCP hints at the superconductivity mechanism in iron-based arsenides. (fast track communication)

  12. 1D goes 2D: A Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting arrays of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    We report superconducting resistive transition characteristics for array(s) of coupled 4-Angstrom single wall carbon nanotubes embedded in aluminophosphate-five zeolite. The transition was observed to initiate at 15 K with a slow resistance decrease switching to a sharp, order of magnitude drop between 7.5 and 6.0 K with strong (anisotropic) magnetic field dependence. Both the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition that establishes quasi long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes, leading to an inhomogeneous system comprising 3D superconducting regions connected by weak links. Global coherence is established at below 5 K with the appearance of a well-defined supercurrent gap/low resistance region at 2 K. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Estimate bond angle dependence of superconducting transition temperature in NaFeAs with the first principle methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tieyu; Huang, Haitao; Peng, Biaolin; Zheng, Renkui; Lam, Chi-Hang; Tang, Tao; Wang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The change of superconducting transition temperature (Tc) with bond angle in iron-pnictides was investigated by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory. A Green's function method was adopted to estimate the maximum eigenvalue of Eliashberg equation (an indicator of Tc) for NaFeAs with different bond angles. Through calculations the band structure of NaFeAs was obtained. It was found that hole pockets could form at the center of the first Brillion zone in the band structure, which confirmed the existence of superconductivity in NaFeAs. The upper limit of the Fe-As-Fe bond angle for superconductivity was found to be 121° and the highest Tc would occur at the angle of 108°.

  14. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  15. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); CERN, Theory Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); New York University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York, NY (United States); Gomez, Cesar [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs. (orig.)

  16. Black Holes as Critical Point of Quantum Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  17. Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-02-01

    We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.

  18. Simultaneous suppression of superconductivity and structural phase transition under pressure in Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2 -xIrxAs2)5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Araki, Shingo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Kazunori; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Kudo, Kazutaka; Nohara, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    We measured the pressure dependence of in-plane resistivity ρa b in the recently discovered iron-based superconductor Ca10(Ir4As8) (Fe2-xIrxAs2) 5 , which shows a unique structural phase transition in the absence of magnetic ordering, with a superconducting transition temperature Tc=16 K and a structural phase transition temperature Ts≃100 K at ambient pressure. Tc and Ts are suppressed on applying pressure and disappear at approximately 0.5 GPa, suggesting a relationship between superconductivity and structure. Ca10(Ir4As8) (Fe2-xIrxAs2) 5 is a rather rare example in which the superconductivity appears only in a low-temperature ordered phase. The fact that the change in the crystal structure is directly linked with superconductivity suggests that the crystal structure as well as magnetism are important factors governing superconductivity in iron pnictides.

  19. Simulations of the L-H transition on experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Jan [Department Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    We have simulated the L-H transition on the EAST tokamak [Baonian Wan, EAST and HT-7 Teams, and International Collaborators, “Recent experiments in the EAST and HT-7 superconducting tokamaks,” Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)] using a predictive transport code where ion and electron temperatures, electron density, and poloidal and toroidal momenta are simulated self consistently. This is, as far as we know, the first theory based simulation of an L-H transition including the whole radius and not making any assumptions about where the barrier should be formed. Another remarkable feature is that we get H-mode gradients in agreement with the α – α{sub d} diagram of Rogers et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4396 (1998)]. Then, the feedback loop emerging from the simulations means that the L-H power threshold increases with the temperature at the separatrix. This is a main feature of the C-mod experiments [Hubbard et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056109 (2007)]. This is also why the power threshold depends on the direction of the grad B drift in the scrape off layer and also why the power threshold increases with the magnetic field. A further significant general H-mode feature is that the density is much flatter in H-mode than in L-mode.

  20. Frustrated Ferromagnetic Spin Chain near the Transition Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ren-Gui

    2011-01-01

    @@ The one-dimensional quantum spin-1/2 model with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction is considered.The Hamiltonian is firstly rewritten in a form with rotated spin operators,then bosonized by using the linear spin wave approximation and then treated by using the Green function approach.An integral expression of the quantum correction to the classical ground state energy is derived.The critical behavior of the ground state energy in the vicinity of the transition point from the ferromagnetic to the singlet ground state is analyzed by numerical calculation and the result is-8γ2.%The one-dimensional quantum spin-1/2 model with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction is considered. The Hamiltonian is firstly rewritten in a form with rotated spin operators, then bosonized by using the linear spin wave approximation and then treated by using the Green function approach. An integral expression of the quantum correction to the classical ground state energy is derived. The critical behavior of the ground state energy in the vicinity of the transition point from the ferromagnetic to the singlet ground state is analyzed by numerical calculation and the result is -8r2.

  1. Superconductivity around quantum critical point in P-doped iron arsenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Guanghan, E-mail: ghcao@zju.edu.c [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang Shuai; Wang Cao; Li Yuke; Ren Zhi; Tao Qian; Dai Jianhui; Xu Zhuan [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-12-15

    We demonstrate that, by the P/As substitution-without doping of charge carriers-in a FeAs-layer-based parent compound, superconductivity can be universally introduced. The maximum superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} achieves 30 K. The P doping in LnFeAsO system (Ln = La and Sm) produces superconductivity below 11 K. The normal-state resistivity obeys linear temperature dependence and the normal-state Hall coefficient shows strong temperature dependence. These non-Fermi liquid behaviors suggest magnetic quantum criticality. The maximum T{sub c} values in different systems correlates strongly with the diagonal bondangle of Fe-As-Fe, implying the important role of the next-nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange coupling in iron pnictide superconductors.

  2. Superconducting transition in ruthenocuprate RuSr2GdCu2O8 viewed from the studies of the imaginary part of ac susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, I.; Drobac, D.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Prester, M.

    2002-12-01

    We have measured two structurally similar superconducting systems, RuSr2GdCu2O8 and GdBa2Cu3O7 by means of high-resolution ac susceptibility. The real and the imaginary part of ac susceptibility of both bulk-ceramic and powdered samples have been studied down to the very small magnetic-field levels. We show that there are significant differences in the evolution of superconductivity in the two studied superconducting systems. In particular, we show that the superconducting transition in the grains in RuSr2GdCu2O8 system is masked with intrinsic magnetism of complex origin.

  3. Phase Diagram Of UGe2: The Magnetic Transition within the Ferromagnetic Phase and the Superconducting Transition; the Effect of Magnetic Field on the Ambient-Pressure Ferromagnetic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. E.; Bouquet, F.; Fisher, R. A.; Hardy, F.; Oeschler, N.; Lashley, J. C.; Flouquet, J.; Huxley, A.

    2007-03-01

    Superconductivity in UGe2 occurs near 1.2 GPa at the 0-K termination of the phase boundary (Tx, Px) of a magnetic transition that occurs within the ferromagnetic phase. Ambient-pressure specific-heat measurements show a hysteretic transition at Tx(0) ˜ 22 K, reminiscent of the CDW/SDW transition in α-U, and consistent with the suggestion that the transition in UGe2 is also a CDW/SDW transition. The magnetic field dependence of the specific heat, at ambient pressure, demonstrates the presence of structure in the electron density of states and an unusual nature of the ferromagnetic ordering at the Curie temperature. Specific-heat measurements to 1.8 GPa give an estimate of the latent heat of the transition and determine the phase boundary for 1 <= T <= 11 K. Contrary to expectations, the onset temperature of the superconducting transition is independent of pressure in the region in which it was observed, 1.08 <= P <= 1.35 GPa.

  4. Jamming Transition of Point-to-Point Traffic Through Cooperative Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jun; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through cooperative mechanisms using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized cooperative mechanisms which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of cooperation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns o...

  5. Topological Quantum Phase Transition and Superconductivity Induced by Pressure in the Bismuth Tellurohalide BiTeI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanpeng; Shi, Wujun; Naumov, Pavel G; Kumar, Nitesh; Sankar, Raman; Schnelle, Walter; Shekhar, Chandra; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A

    2017-03-06

    A pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition has been theoretically predicted for the semiconductor bismuth tellurohalide BiTeI with giant Rashba spin splitting. In this work, evolution of the electrical transport properties in BiTeI and BiTeBr is investigated under high pressure. The pressure-dependent resistivity in a wide temperature range passes through a minimum at around 3 GPa, indicating the predicted topological quantum phase transition in BiTeI. Superconductivity is observed in both BiTeI and BiTeBr, while resistivity at higher temperatures still exhibits semiconducting behavior. Theoretical calculations suggest that superconductivity may develop from the multivalley semiconductor phase. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc , increases with applied pressure and reaches a maximum value of 5.2 K at 23.5 GPa for BiTeI (4.8 K at 31.7 GPa for BiTeBr), followed by a slow decrease. The results demonstrate that BiTeX (X = I, Br) compounds with nontrivial topology of electronic states display new ground states upon compression.

  6. Structural/magnetic phase transitions and superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xTMx)2As2 (TM=Co, Ni, Cu, Co/Cu, Rh and Pd) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Ni [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1911, superconductivity has been one of the most actively studied fields in condensed matter physics and has attracted immense experimental and theoretical effort. At this point in time, with more and more superconductors discovered in elements, alloys, intermetallic compounds and oxides, it is becoming clear that superconductivity is actually not so rare in nature. Almost half of the elements in the periodic table and hundreds of compounds have been found to be superconducting. Fig. 1.1 shows the milestones in discovering higher Tc superconductors. Among the elemental superconductors, Niobium has the highest superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of 9.5 K. This record held for more than ten years, until the discovery of niobium nitride which superconducts below 16 K. It took another thirty years for Tc to increase from 16 K in niobium nitride to 23 K in niobium germanium.

  7. Few-photon color imaging using energy-dispersive superconducting transition-edge sensor spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kazuki; Numata, Takayuki; Hattori, Kaori; Fukuda, Daiji

    2017-01-01

    Highly sensitive spectral imaging is increasingly being demanded in bioanalysis research and industry to obtain the maximum information possible from molecules of different colors. We introduce an application of the superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) technique to highly sensitive spectral imaging. A TES is an energy-dispersive photodetector that can distinguish the wavelength of each incident photon. Its effective spectral range is from the visible to the infrared (IR), up to 2800 nm, which is beyond the capabilities of other photodetectors. TES was employed in this study in a fiber-coupled optical scanning microscopy system, and a test sample of a three-color ink pattern was observed. A red–green–blue (RGB) image and a near-IR image were successfully obtained in the few-incident-photon regime, whereas only a black and white image could be obtained using a photomultiplier tube. Spectral data were also obtained from a selected focal area out of the entire image. The results of this study show that TES is feasible for use as an energy-dispersive photon-counting detector in spectral imaging applications. PMID:28374801

  8. Impact of pseudogap on photoinduced superconducting phase transition in underdoped Bi2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Y., E-mail: toda@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Mertelj, T.; Kusar, P. [Complex Matter Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Kurosawa, T.; Oda, M.; Ido, M. [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Mihailovic, D. [Complex Matter Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • QP dynamics of UD-Bi2212 in the photoinduced phase transition was investigated by pump-probe spectroscopy. • The pump fluence dependence of the QP dynamics shows a delay of the SC recovery. • The observed delay time is comparable to a recovery time of PG, suggesting a role of PG responsible for the SC formation. -- Abstract: We report nonequilibrium quasiparticle (QP) dynamics in underdoped Bi2212 crystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy, which allows to analyze the dynamics associated with the superconducting (SC) and psuedogap (PG) QPs independently. In the saturation condition of the SC component, where the SC condensate is fully destroyed within the photoexcited volume, we found a delay of the SC state recovery associated with a transient normal state. The delay increases linearly with increasing the pump fluence. The QP dynamics also shows a contribution of the PG component, whose magnitude at the start of the SC state recovery was almost constant at various pump fluences, suggesting a critical level of PG order before the SC condensate can recover.

  9. Few-photon color imaging using energy-dispersive superconducting transition-edge sensor spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kazuki; Numata, Takayuki; Hattori, Kaori; Fukuda, Daiji

    2017-04-04

    Highly sensitive spectral imaging is increasingly being demanded in bioanalysis research and industry to obtain the maximum information possible from molecules of different colors. We introduce an application of the superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) technique to highly sensitive spectral imaging. A TES is an energy-dispersive photodetector that can distinguish the wavelength of each incident photon. Its effective spectral range is from the visible to the infrared (IR), up to 2800 nm, which is beyond the capabilities of other photodetectors. TES was employed in this study in a fiber-coupled optical scanning microscopy system, and a test sample of a three-color ink pattern was observed. A red-green-blue (RGB) image and a near-IR image were successfully obtained in the few-incident-photon regime, whereas only a black and white image could be obtained using a photomultiplier tube. Spectral data were also obtained from a selected focal area out of the entire image. The results of this study show that TES is feasible for use as an energy-dispersive photon-counting detector in spectral imaging applications.

  10. Critical point drying: contamination in transitional fluid supply cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, K D; Rosowski, J R; Cohen, A L

    1980-01-01

    We call attention to the occurrence of an oily residue in the CPD bomb after critical point drying, as well as the presence of rust, dirt, and an oily residue in CO2 and Freon supply cylinders. Bottled gas is often tested for purity once after manufacturing and then is pumped and stored, perhaps several times, before the consumer's cylinders are filled. The cylinders may be in use for over 40 years, and may never be chemically cleaned, although they are hydrostatically pressure tested every five years, with the date of each test stamped on the cylinder. To the bottled gas industry we recommend regular inspection of tanks for bottom contamination, and vacuum and chemical cleaning when contamination is found. To users of bottled gas for critical point drying, we recommend becoming aware of the procedures of cylinder inspection, cleaning, and circulation among users. We suggest reporting to the gas supplier any contamination produced by inadvertently backfilling the supply cylinder. Although a common awareness of the problem of supply cylinder residues should lead to failures, the best assurance of clean, oil-free, dry liquid CO2 and other transitional fluids may be in the development of in-line filters which would remove particles, oil and moisture between the supply cylinder and the CPD bomb. We also suggest the use of gas grades higher than commercial, such as welding anhydrous (CO2) or specialty gases.

  11. Topological quantum phase transition and superconductivity induced by pressure in the bismuth tellurohalide BiTeI

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Yanpeng; Shi, Wujun; Naumov, Pavel G.; Kumar, Nitesh; Sankar, Raman; Schnelle, Walter; Shekhar, Chandra; Chou, F. C.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Medvedev, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    A pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition has been theoretically predicted for the semiconductor BiTeI with giant Rashba spin splitting. In this work, the evolution of the electrical transport properties in BiTeI and BiTeBr is investigated under high pressure. The pressure-dependent resistivity in a wide temperature range passes through a minimum at around 3 GPa, indicating the predicted transition in BiTeI. Superconductivity is observed in both BiTeI and BiTeBr while the resist...

  12. Orbital fluctuation theory in iron-based superconductors: s-wave superconductivity, structure transition, and impurity-induced nematic order

    OpenAIRE

    Kontani, H.; Inoue, Y.; Saito, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Onari, S.

    2012-01-01

    The main features in iron-based superconductors would be (i) the orthorhombic transition accompanied by remarkable softening of shear modulus, (ii) high-Tc superconductivity close to the orthorhombic phase, and (iii) nematic transition in the tetragonal phase. In this paper, we present a unified explanation for them, based on the orbital fluctuation theory, considering both the e-ph and the Coulomb interaction. It is found that a small e-ph coupling constant ($\\lambda ~ 0.2$) is enough to pro...

  13. Microwave properties of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films measured by the power transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Bhasin, K. B.; Heinen, V. O.; Warner, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The microwave response of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting thin films deposited on LaAlO3, MgO, YSZ, and LaGaO3 substrates are studied. It is found that the microwave transmission properties are very weakly dependent on temperature in the normal state but change drastically upon transition to the superconducting state. In particular, the transmission decreases and there is a negative phase shift with respect to the phase at room temperature when the sample is cooled through its transition temperature. The magnetic penetration depth for all the films was determined from the surface reactance of the films. The microwave complex conductivity is determined in both the normal and the superconducting state. It is observed that both sigma1 and sigma2 increase in transition to the superconducting state. The surface resistivity is calculated for all the films.

  14. Variation in superconducting transition temperature due to tetragonal domains in two-dimensionally doped SrTiO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, Hilary; Spanton, Eric M.; Nowack, Katja C.; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Minu; Merz, Tyler A.; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Vailionis, Arturas; Hwang, Harold Y.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-11-28

    Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature T-c greater than or similar to 10% higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on twin boundaries; therefore, we propose that the orientation of the tetragonal unit cell with respect to the doped plane affects T-c. Our results suggest that the anisotropic dielectric properties of SrTiO3 are important for its superconductivity and need to be considered in any theory of the mechanism of the superconductivity.

  15. Metal-Insulator Transition and Superconductivity in Spinel-Type System Cu 1-xZnxIr 2S 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Furubayashi, Takao; Cao, Guanghan; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Kamimura, Akira; Hirata, Kazuto; Matsumoto, Takehiko

    1999-08-01

    The thiospinel compoundCuIr2S4 exhibits the metal-insulator (M-I) transitionaccompanied by the structural transition. In this work, compounds ofCu1-xZnxIr2S4 in the composition range 0≤x≤0.5 were synthesized to examine the effects of excess electronssupplied by replacing Cu with Zn. The samples were investigated bymeasurements of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistance and magneticsusceptibility. The M-I transition temperature T MIdecreases with increasing x. Results are discussed on the basis ofthe model of charge ordering for the insulating state. It was foundthat the samples with x≥0.3 show no M-I transition and exhibitsuperconductivity. The transition temperature T C is 2.8 Kfor x= 0.3 and 2.2 K for x= 0.5. The ground state of the systemchanges from insulating to superconducting with increasing Zncontent.

  16. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  17. Schauder-Tychonoff Fixed-Point Theorem in Theory of Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Gil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of mild solutions to the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau ((TDGL, for short equations on an unbounded interval. The rapidity of the growth of those solutions is characterized. We investigate the local and global attractivity of solutions of TDGL equations and we describe their asymptotic behaviour. The TDGL equations model the state of a superconducting sample in a magnetic field near critical temperature. This paper is based on the theory of Banach space, Fréchet space, and Sobolew space.

  18. Point contact characteristics of NbSe{sub 3} in the superconducting state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional, Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Briggs, A.; Monceau, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, BP 166X, Grenoble (France)

    2001-07-23

    A study of the electronic properties of NbSe{sub 3} using NbSe{sub 3}-NbSe{sub 3} junctions has been made. Structures in the current against voltage curves and in the differential resistance against voltage curves were observed and studied as functions of temperature between 8 K and 0.4 K and magnetic field up to 1 T. Analysis of the data shows that the pressure applied at the contact is sufficient to make NbSe{sub 3} superconducting. (author)

  19. Evidence of a structural phase transition in superconducting SmFeAsO1-xFx from 19F NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M.; Ghoshray, K.; Mazumdar, C.; Poddar, A.; Ghoshray, A.; Berardan, D.; Dragoe, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report resistivity, magnetization and 19F NMR results in a polycrystalline sample of SmFeAsO0.86F0.14. The resistivity and magnetization data show a sharp drop at 48 K indicating a superconducting transition. The nuclear spin-lattice rate (1/T1) and spin-spin relaxation rate (1/T2) clearly show the existence of a structural phase transition near 163 K in the sample, which also undergoes a superconducting transition. This finding creates interest in exploring whether this is unique for Sm based systems or is also present in other rare-earth based 1111 superconductors.

  20. Singular point detection algorithm based on the transition line of the fingerprint orientation image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathekga, ME

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for identifying and locating singular points on a fingerprint image is presented. This algorithm is based on properties of the fingerprint orientation image, including a feature defined as a transition line. The transition line...

  1. Study of the L–I–H transition with a new dual gas puff imaging system in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Shao, L.M.; Liu, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The intermediate oscillatory phase during the L–H transition, termed the I-phase, is studied in the EAST superconducting tokamak using a newly developed dual gas puff imaging (GPI) system near the L–H transition power threshold. The experimental observations suggest that the oscillatory behaviour...

  2. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Hofstadter's Butterfly and Phase Transition of Checkerboard Superconducting Network in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jing-Min; Tian, Li-Jim

    2010-03-01

    We study the magnetic effect of the checkerboard superconducting wire network. Based on the de Gennes-Alexader theory, we obtain difference equations for superconducting order parameter in the wire network. Through solving these difference equations, we obtain the eigenvalues, linked to the coherence length, as a function of magnetic field. The diagram of eigenvalues shows a fractal structure, being so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. We also calculate and discuss the dependence of the transition temperature of the checkerboard superconducting wire network on the applied magnetic field, which is related to up-edge of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum.

  3. Resistivity and anomalous superconducting transition in Ti/sub 1-x/Fe/sub x/ alloys (0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prekul, A.F.; Shcherbakov, A.S.; Volkenshtein, N.V.

    1976-11-01

    It has been established that in the region of ..beta..-solid solutions Ti--Fe alloys simultaneously display superconductivity and a nonmetallic type of temperature dependence of their resistivity. The alloys are found to be divided distinctly into two groups, with low- and high-temperature minima on the rho (T) curve. Both groups of alloys exhibit anomalously wide resistive transitions into the superconducting state.

  4. Magnetic field induced phase branches of the superconducting transition in two-dimensional square Π-loop arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dang-Ting; Tian Ye; Chen Geng-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of explicit forms of free energy density for each possible arrangement of magnetization fluxes in large-scale two-dimensional (2D) square Π-loop arrays given by Li et al [2007 Chin.Phys.16 1450],the field-cooled superconducting phase transition is further investigated by analysing the free energy of the arrays with a simplified symmetrical model.Our analytical result is exactly the same as that obtained in Li's paper by means of numerical calculations.It is shown that the phase transition splits into two branches with either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic flux ordering,which depends periodically on the strength of external magnetic flux φe through each loop and monotonically on the screen parameter β of the loops in the arrays.In principle,the diagram of the phase branches is similar to that of its one-dimensional counterpart.The influence of thermal fluctuation on the flux ordering during the transition from normal to superconducting states of the Π-loop arrays is also discussed.

  5. Unified picture of the doping dependence of superconducting transition temperatures in alkali metal/ammonia intercalated FeSe

    OpenAIRE

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Valenti, Roser

    2014-01-01

    In the recently synthesized Li$_x$(NH$_2$)$_y$(NH$_3$)$_z$Fe$_2$Se$_2$ family of iron chalcogenides a molecular spacer consisting of lithium ions, lithium amide and ammonia separates layers of FeSe. It has been shown that upon variation of the chemical composition of the spacer layer, superconducting transition temperatures can reach $T_c\\sim 44 \\mathrm{K}$, but the relative importance of the layer separation and effective doping to the $T_c$ enhancement is currently unclear. Using state of t...

  6. Variation of critical point of aging transition in a networked oscillators system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen; Zhang, Xiyun; Hu, Xin; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study the variation of critical point in aging transition in a networked system consisting of both active and inactive oscillators. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the critical point of aging transition actually is determined by the (normalized) cross links between active and inactive subpopulations of oscillators. This reveals how specific configuration of active and inactive oscillators in the network can lead to the variation of transition point. In particular, we investigate how different strategies of targeted inactivation influence the transition point based on the theory. Our results theoretically explain why the low-degree nodes are crucial regarding dynamical robustness in such systems.

  7. Superconductivity in compensated and uncompensated semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Youichi; Yorozu, Naoyuki

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the localization and superconductivity in heavily doped semiconductors. The crossover from the superconductivity in the host band to that in the impurity band is described on the basis of the disordered three-dimensional attractive Hubbard model for binary alloys. The microscopic inhomogeneity and the thermal superconducting fluctuation are taken into account using the self-consistent 1-loop order theory. The superconductor-insulator transition accompanies the crossover from the host band to the impurity band. We point out an enhancement of the critical temperature Tc around the crossover. Further localization of electron wave functions leads to the localization of Cooper pairs and induces the pseudogap. We find that both the doping compensation by additional donors and the carrier increase by additional acceptors suppress the superconductivity. A theoretical interpretation is proposed for the superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, SiC, and Si.

  8. Superconductivity in compensated and uncompensated semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanase and Naoyuki Yorozu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the localization and superconductivity in heavily doped semiconductors. The crossover from the superconductivity in the host band to that in the impurity band is described on the basis of the disordered three-dimensional attractive Hubbard model for binary alloys. The microscopic inhomogeneity and the thermal superconducting fluctuation are taken into account using the self-consistent 1-loop order theory. The superconductor-insulator transition accompanies the crossover from the host band to the impurity band. We point out an enhancement of the critical temperature Tc around the crossover. Further localization of electron wave functions leads to the localization of Cooper pairs and induces the pseudogap. We find that both the doping compensation by additional donors and the carrier increase by additional acceptors suppress the superconductivity. A theoretical interpretation is proposed for the superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, SiC, and Si.

  9. Renormalization-group study of a superconducting phase transition: Asymptotic behavior of higher expansion orders and results of three-loop calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagov, G. A.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Nalimov, M. Yu.

    2014-11-01

    We use quantum-field renormalization group methods to study the phase transition in an equilibrium system of nonrelativistic Fermi particles with the "density-density" interaction in the formalism of temperature Green's functions. We especially attend to the case of particles with spins greater than 1/2 or fermionic fields with additional indices for some reason. In the vicinity of the phase transition point, we reduce this model to a ϕ 4 -type theory with a matrix complex skew-symmetric field. We define a family of instantons of this model and investigate the asymptotic behavior of quantum field expansions in this model. We calculate the β-functions of the renormalization group equation through the third order in the ( 4 ∈)-scheme. In the physical space dimensions D = 2, 3, we resum solutions of the renormalization group equation on trajectories of invariant charges. Our results confirm the previously proposed suggestion that in the system under consideration, there is a first-order phase transition into a superconducting state that occurs at a higher temperature than the classical theory predicts.

  10. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  11. Pressure effect on the superconductivity and the metal-insulator transition in Cu sub 1 sub sub - sub x Zn sub x Ir sub 2 S sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, G; Kitazawa, H; Isobe, M; Matsumoto, T

    2002-01-01

    The variations of the superconducting transition temperature T sub c and the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature T sub M sub I were investigated as a function of pressure in the superconducting Cu sub 1 sub sub - sub x Zn sub x Ir sub 2 S sub 4 (0.3 <= x <= 0.5) system. The experiment was performed by measuring the temperature dependence of resistance under the pressures up to 1.5 GPa. It is shown that the external pressure destroys the superconductivity, and gives rise to the MI transitions. The result is discussed in terms of the stabilization of the insulating phase at high pressures and the phase separation associated with the charge segregation. It is proposed that the BCS Cooper pairs compete with the proposed bipolarons under certain pressures.

  12. First-order transition in the magnetic vortex matter in superconducting MgB2 tuned by disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T; Marlaud, R; Marcenat, C; Cercellier, H; Konczykowski, M; van der Beek, C J; Mosser, V; Lee, H S; Lee, S I

    2010-07-23

    The field-driven transition from an ordered Bragg glass to a disordered vortex phase in single-crystalline MgB2 is tuned by an increasing density of point defects, introduced by electron irradiation. The discontinuity observed in magnetization attests to the first-order nature of the transition. The temperature and defect density dependences of the transition field point to vortex pinning mediated by fluctuations in the quasiparticle mean free path, and reveal the mechanism of the transition in the absence of complicating factors such as layeredness or thermal fluctuations.

  13. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  14. Computational Intelligence Approach for Estimating Superconducting Transition Temperature of Disordered MgB2 Superconductors Using Room Temperature Resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoreed O. Owolabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doping and fabrication conditions bring about disorder in MgB2 superconductor and further influence its room temperature resistivity as well as its superconducting transition temperature (TC. Existence of a model that directly estimates TC of any doped MgB2 superconductor from the room temperature resistivity would have immense significance since room temperature resistivity is easily measured using conventional resistivity measuring instrument and the experimental measurement of TC wastes valuable resources and is confined to low temperature regime. This work develops a model, superconducting transition temperature estimator (STTE, that directly estimates TC of disordered MgB2 superconductors using room temperature resistivity as input to the model. STTE was developed through training and testing support vector regression (SVR with ten experimental values of room temperature resistivity and their corresponding TC using the best performance parameters obtained through test-set cross validation optimization technique. The developed STTE was used to estimate TC of different disordered MgB2 superconductors and the obtained results show excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. STTE can therefore be incorporated into resistivity measuring instruments for quick and direct estimation of TC of disordered MgB2 superconductors with high degree of accuracy.

  15. First- and second-order transitions for a superconducting cylinder in a magnetic field obtained from a self-consistent solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkov, G. F.

    2001-06-01

    Based on self-consistent solution of nonlinear GL equations, the phase boundary is found, which divides the regions of first- and second-order phase transitions to normal state of a superconducting cylinder of radius R, placed in magnetic field and remaining in the state of fixed vorticity m. This boundary is a complicated function of the parameters (m,R,{kappa}) ({kappa} is the GL parameter), which does not coincide with the simple phase boundary {kappa}=1/{radical}2, dividing the regions of first- and second-order phase transitions in infinite (open) superconducting systems.

  16. Highly responsive ground state of PbTaSe2: Structural phase transition and evolution of superconductivity under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Deng, Yuhang; Besser, Matthew F.; Sun, Kewei; Zhou, Lin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Yuan, Zhujun; Zhang, Chenglong; Schilling, James S.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Jia, Shuang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2017-06-01

    Transport and magnetic studies of PbTaSe2 under pressure suggest the existence of two superconducting phases with the low temperature phase boundary at ˜0.25 GPa that is defined by a very sharp, first order, phase transition. The first order phase transition line can be followed via pressure dependent resistivity measurements, and is found to be near 0.12 GPa near room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures confirm that this first order phase transition is structural and occurs at ambient pressure near ˜425 K. The new, high temperature/high pressure phase has a similar crystal structure and slightly lower unit cell volume relative to the ambient pressure, room temperature structure. Based on first-principles calculations this structure is suggested to be obtained by shifting the Pb atoms from the 1 a to 1 e Wyckoff position without changing the positions of Ta and Se atoms. PbTaSe2 has an exceptionally pressure sensitive, structural phase transition with Δ Ts/Δ P ≈-1400 K/GPa near room temperature, and ≈-1700 K/GPa near 4 K. This first order transition causes a ˜1 K (˜25 % ) steplike decrease in Tc as pressure is increased through 0.25 GPa.

  17. Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1 the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2 the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998, pp. 143-148. Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964, pp. A1599-A1604.

  18. Superconductive transition and the intergrain effects of mixture ceramic systems synthesized using Citrate pyrolysis precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, M; Kitada, R; Shima, T; Nishio, K [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, 606-8585 (Japan); Deguchi, H [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Tecnnology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Koyama, K [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Matsuura, M, E-mail: hag@kit.ac.j [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    Superconductive characteristics of Pr{sub 2}Ba{sub 4}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 15-delta} (Pr247) ceramics with crystalline phase inhomogeneity for the stacking structures is examined experimentally, using reference observations for multi-phased ceramic sample consists simply of PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} (Pr124) and PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-delta} (Pr123). After reduction treatment by vacuum-heating, the reference multiphased sample shows onset of abrupt electric resistivity dropping and also weak Meissner magnetization below approx20 K. The results suggest that superconductivity at CuO double chains in Pr124 grains is caused by charge transfer from neighbouring Pr123 grains. Such a charge transfer effect is thought to occur also in Pr247 sample including phase inhomogeneity.

  19. Superconducting transitions in amorphous molybdenum-germanium ultrathin films and multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this work was to clarify the role of enhanced Coulomb interactions in the destruction of superconductivity in disordered systems of reduced dimensions. Through a systematic study of the critical temperatures in single film sandwich and multilayer structures, the author has examined the role of dimensionality in the reduction of {Tc} in disordered superconductors. The author has observed a continuous crossover from two to three dimensional behavior as electron diffusion between individual superconducting layers in the multilayer becomes possible. This demonstrates unambiguously that the reduction in {Tc} is an artistic 2D effect and is not simply due to interface or proximity effects, as has often been assumed in the past. Multilayers were fabricated by sequential cosputtering of alternate layers of superconducting and nonsuperconducting amorphous Mo-Ge alloys. The effects of screening at short length scales in these films are probed via a systematic variation of both the distance between superconducting layers and the conductivity of the nonsuperconducting layers in a multilayer structure. As the conductivity of the nonsuperconducting layer increases, electron diffusion becomes more three dimensional. However this increased conductivity also introduces a reduction in {Tc} due to the proximity effect. This has been accounted for by comparing the T, of the multilayers with a corresponding NISIN single layer sandwich structure, designed to have an identical proximity effect reduction of {Tc}, in addition to compensating for any effect of the SIN interface itself. X-ray diffraction measurements and cross-sectional TEM micrographs confirm that the layers are structurally well defined, uniform, and continuous.

  20. Unified understanding of superconductivity and Mott transition in alkali-doped fullerides from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-08-01

    Alkali-doped fullerides A 3C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs) are surprising materials where conventional phonon-mediated superconductivity and unconventional Mott physics meet, leading to a remarkable phase diagram as a function of volume per C60 molecule. We address these materials with a state-of-the-art calculation, where we construct a realistic low-energy model from first principles without using a priori information other than the crystal structure and solve it with an accurate many-body theory. Remarkably, our scheme comprehensively reproduces the experimental phase diagram including the low-spin Mott-insulating phase next to the superconducting phase. More remarkably, the critical temperatures T c's calculated from first principles quantitatively reproduce the experimental values. The driving force behind the surprising phase diagram of A 3C60 is a subtle competition between Hund's coupling and Jahn-Teller phonons, which leads to an effectively inverted Hund's coupling. Our results establish that the fullerides are the first members of a novel class of molecular superconductors in which the multiorbital electronic correlations and phonons cooperate to reach high T c s-wave superconductivity.

  1. Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8+. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA)); Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A. (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA))

    1991-04-22

    Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of single-crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} was observed by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As the sample goes superconducting, not only is there spectral weight transfer from the gap region to the pileup peak as in BCS theory, but along the {Gamma}-{ital {bar M}} direction there is also some spectral weight transfer from higher binding energies in the form of a dip. In addition, we note that at the superconducting transition there is a decrease (increase) in the occupied spectral weight for the spectra taken along {Gamma}-{ital {bar M}} ({Gamma}-{ital X}).

  2. Possible weakly first-order superconducting transition induced by magnetic excitations in the YBCO system: A fluctuation conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hneda, Marlon Luiz; da Silva Berchon, Luciano; Pureur, Paulo; das Neves Vieira, Valdemar; Jaeckel, Sandra Teixeira; Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Menegotto Costa, Rosângela

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuation conductivity is experimentally studied in the genuine critical region near the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7 - δ, YBa2Cu2.985Fe0.015O7 - δ and Y0.95Ca0.05Ba2Cu3O7 - δ single crystal samples. Two fluctuation regimes where the electrical conductivity diverges as a power-law of the reduced temperature were systematically observed. In the first regime, farther from the critical temperature Tc, the transition behaves as predicted by the thermodynamics of the three dimensional-XY (3D-XY) universality class characteristic of a second-order phase transition. In the asymptotic regime closer to Tc a power-law regime characterized by a much smaller exponent is observed. The smallest value ever reported for the fluctuation conductivity exponent in the high-Tc superconductors is obtained for the Fe- and Ca-doped systems. We suggest that the regime beyond 3D-XY is a crossover towards a weakly first-order transition induced by internal magnetic excitations.

  3. High Coverage Point to Point Transit (HCPPT): A New Design Concept and Simulation-Evaluation of Operational Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation research proposes the development and evaluation of a new concept for high coverage point-to-point transit systems (HCPPT). Overall, three major contributions can be identified as the core of this research: the proposed scheme design, the development of sophisticated routing rules that can be updated in real-time to implement and optimize the operation of such a design, and the implementation of a multi-purpose simulation platform in order to simulate and evaluate such a des...

  4. Transition at the deliquesce point in single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    ., 1997] a stepwise change in salt state is explained by the diffusion of hydrated Na+ and Cl- ions as hydration of surface ions weakens ionic bond strength to the point where they become mobile. According to [Peters & Ewing, 1997] is NaCl added thin film water at RH above 40 % and they measured...

  5. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature Tc in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron-phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the Tc through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, Tc can be strongly enhanced. The increase in Tc with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on Tc in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  6. The phase transition and classification of critical points in the multistability chemical reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunhuaZHANG; FugenWU; ChunyanWU; FaOU

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phase transition and classification of critical points in multistability chemical reaction systems. Referring to the spirit of Landau's theory of phase transitions, this paper deals with the varied transitions and critical phenomena in multistable chemical systems. It is demonstrated that the higher the order of the multistability,the wider the variety of phase transitions will be. A classification scheme of critical points according to the stability criterion and the thermodynamic potential continuity is suggested.It is useful for us to study critical phenomena especially in the non-equilibrium systems including the multi-stable chemical ones.

  7. Intrinsic superconductivity in ABA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the phonon-mediated superconductivity in light doped ABA-stacked trilayer graphene system by means of two theoretical models. We find superconducting transition temperature TC can be greatly enlarged by tuning the Fermi energy away from neutral point. Utilizing realistic parameters, we find Tc is approximately 1 K even under weak doping condition EF = 0.1 eV. Specifically, we give out the analytical expression for superconductivity gap △ and superconducting transition temperature Tc for negative-U Hubbard model. Further, we consider the thermal fluctuation and calculate the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature TBKT. Besides, we consider a two-band BCS model in comparision with the negative-U Hubbard model. The results for both models are qualitatively consistent. Our study provides a promising possibility for realizing intrinsic superconductivity in multilayer graphene systems.

  8. Observation of nonuniform current transport in epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} film near the superconducting transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.B.; Price, M.B.; Young, J.L.; Kwon, C.; Haugan, Timothy J.; Barnes, Paul N

    2004-06-15

    We have studied the local transport properties in an epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) film on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) using variable temperature scanning laser microscope (VTSLM) near the superconducting transition. A map of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}{sup *}) is generated from a series of VTSLM images. The map of T{sub c}{sup *} indicates there are inhomogeneities in the film large enough to create nonuniform current flow near the superconducting transition. The evaluated T{sub c}{sup *} varies between 90.3 and 91.0 K in the film. Even though such change in T{sub c}{sup *} is not large enough to be detected by other localized compositional and structural characterization techniques, this along with an area of lower T{sub c}{sup *} and/or higher resistance affects current flow near the superconducting transition temperature as shown in VTSLM images. This inhomogeneity may be caused by slight variations of the stoichiometry and/or oxidation of the YBCO film.

  9. Fermi points and topological quantum phase transitions in a multi-band superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, T O; Sacramento, P D; Continentino, M A

    2015-10-28

    The importance of models with an exact solution for the study of materials with non-trivial topological properties has been extensively demonstrated. The Kitaev model plays a guiding role in the search for Majorana modes in condensed matter systems. Also, the sp-chain with an anti-symmetric mixing among the s and p bands is a paradigmatic example of a topological insulator with well understood properties. Interestingly, these models share the same universality class for their topological quantum phase transitions. In this work we study a two-band model of spinless fermions with attractive inter-band interactions. We obtain its zero temperature phase diagram, which presents a rich variety of phases including a Weyl superconductor and a topological insulator. The transition from the topological to the trivial superconducting phase has critical exponents different from those of Kitaev's model.

  10. Effect of stoichiometry on the superconducting transition temperature in single crystalline 2H-NbS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Hailong; Wu, Yueshen; Xing, Hui; Wang, Shun; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Single crystals of 2H-NbS2 are prepared by chemical vapor transport method under varying conditions. The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of the as-grown single crystals is observed to change from 10 to 60, while the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) remain around 6.2 K. Changes in stoichiometry were obtained by annealing in different conditions, resulting in sulfur deficient 2H-NbS2-y single crystals. Both Tc and RRR of the annealed samples are found to drop drastically when y increases from 0.05 to 0.10, which is argued to be the effect of enhanced electron scattering caused by the decreased interlayer coupling evidenced by the increase of the c-axis lattice constant after annealing, possibly due to Nb intercalation between layers.

  11. Reinvestigation of superconducting phase diagram of UGe{sub 2} by AC magnetic susceptibility experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, S. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)]. E-mail: f060214d@mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Deguchi, K. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Aso, N. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Oarai Branch, Inst. for Mater. Research, University of Tohoku, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Oarai Branch, Inst. for Mater. Research, University of Tohoku, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Sato, N.K. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We report a superconducting phase diagram of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2} investigated by AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. In contrast to previous phase diagrams, we found that the superconducting transition temperature and volume fraction show a 'M-shaped' structure as a function of pressure. From this observation, we suggest that both of two critical points will play a crucial role in the occurrence of superconductivity in UGe{sub 2}.

  12. Energy Deposition and DPA in the Superconducting Links for the HILUMI LHC Project at the LHC Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092158; Broggi, Francesco; Santini, C; Ballarino, Amalia; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the LHC machine, the powering of the LHC magnets foresees the removal of the power converters and distribution feedboxes from the tunnel and its location at the surface[1]. The Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) connecting lines in the tunnel will be exposed to the debris from 7+7 TeV p-p interaction. The Superconducting (SC) Links will arrive from the surface to the tunnel near the separation dipole, at about 80 m from the Interaction Point at IP1 and IP5. The Connection Box (where the cables of the SC Links are connected to the NbTi bus bar) will be close to the beam pipe. The debris and its effect on the MgB2 SC links in the connection box (energy deposition and displacement per atom) are presented. The effect of thermal neutrons on the Boron consumption and the contribution of the lithium nucleus and the alpha particle on the DPA are evaluated. The results are normalized to an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, value that represents the LHC High Luminosity lifetime. The dose de...

  13. Probing chiral superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 underneath the surface by point contact measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Luo, Jiawei; Lou, Weijian; Ortmann, J. E.; Mao, Z. Q.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Jian

    2017-05-01

    Sr2RuO4 (SRO) is the prime candidate for a chiral p-wave superconductor with critical temperature {T}{{c}}({SRO})˜ 1.5 K. Chiral domains with opposite chiralities {p}x+/- {{{i}}{p}}y have been proposed, but are yet to be confirmed. We measure the field dependence of the point contact (PC) resistance between a tungsten tip and an SRO-Ru eutectic crystal, where micrometer-sized Ru inclusions are embedded in SRO with an atomically sharp interface. Ruthenium is an s-wave superconductor with {T}{{c}}({Ru})˜ 0.5 K; flux pinned near the Ru inclusions can suppress its superconductivity, as reflected in the PC resistance and spectra. This flux pinning effect originates from SRO underneath the surface and is very strong once flux is introduced. To fully remove flux pinning, one needs to thermally cycle the sample above T c(SRO) or apply alternating fields with decreasing amplitude. With alternating fields, the observed hysteresis in magnetoresistance can be explained by domain dynamics, providing support for the existence of chiral domains. The origin of the strong pinning could be the chiral domains themselves.

  14. First application of superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters to hadronic-atom x-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, S; Curceanu, C; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Gard, J; Gustafsson, F P; Hashimoto, T; Hayano, R S; Hirenzaki, S; Hays-Wehle, J P; Hilton, G C; Ikeno, N; Iliescu, M; Ishimoto, S; Itahashi, K; Iwasaki, M; Koike, T; Kuwabara, K; Ma, Y; Marton, J; Noda, H; O'Neil, G C; Outa, H; Reintsema, C D; Sato, M; Schmidt, D R; Shi, H; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, T; Swetz, D S; Tatsuno, H; Uhlig, J; Ullom, J N; Widmann, E; Yamada, S; Yamagata-Sekihara, J; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution pionic-atom x-ray spectroscopy was performed with an x-ray spectrometer based on a 240-pixel array of superconducting transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeters at the piM1 beam line of the Paul Scherrer Institute. X-rays emitted by pionic carbon via the 4f->3d transition and the parallel 4d->3p transition were observed with a full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 6.8 eV at 6.4 keV. Measured x-ray energies are consistent with calculated electromagnetic values which considered the strong-interaction effect assessed via the Seki-Masutani potential for the 3p energy level, and favor the electronic population of two filled 1s electrons in the K-shell. Absolute energy calibration with an uncertainty of 0.1 eV was demonstrated under a high-rate hadron beam condition of 1.45 MHz. This is the first application of a TES spectrometer to hadronic-atom x-ray spectroscopy and is an important milestone towards next-generation high-resolution kaonic-atom x-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Color confinement and dual superconductivity of the vacuum. IV

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C

    2005-01-01

    A scaling analysis is made of the order parameter describing monopole condensation at the deconfining transition of N_f=2 QCD around the chiral point. In accordance with scaling properties of the specific heat, studied in a previous paper, scaling is consistent with a first order transition. The status of dual superconductivity of the vacuum as a mechanism of color confinement is reviewed.

  16. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  17. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  18. On the base size of a transitive group with solvable point stabilizer

    CERN Document Server

    Evgeny, Vdovin

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the base size of a transitive group $G$ with solvable point stabilizer is not greater than $k$ provided the same statement holds for every group of $G$-induced automorphisms of each nonabelian composition factor of $G$.

  19. The thermodynamics and transport properties of transition metals in critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Khomkin, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    A new method for calculating the critical point parameters (density, temperature, pressure and electrical conductivity) and binodal of vapor-liquid (dielectric-metal) phase transition is proposed. It is based on the assumption that cohesion, which determines the main properties of solid state, also determines the properties in the vicinity of the critical point. Comparison with experimental and theoretical data available for transition metals is made.

  20. Partial Dynamical Symmetry at Critical-Points of Quantum Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2007-01-01

    We show that partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) can occur at critical-points of quantum phase transitions, in which case, underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of PDS are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape-phases in nuclei.

  1. Localized superconductivity in the quantum-critical region of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition in TiN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturina, T I; Mironov, A Yu; Vinokur, V M; Baklanov, M R; Strunk, C

    2007-12-21

    We investigate low-temperature transport properties of thin TiN superconducting films in the vicinity of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition. In a zero magnetic field, we find an extremely sharp separation between superconducting and insulating phases, evidencing a direct superconductor-insulator transition without an intermediate metallic phase. At moderate temperatures, in the insulating films we reveal thermally activated conductivity with the magnetic field-dependent activation energy. At very low temperatures, we observe a zero-conductivity state, which is destroyed at some depinning threshold voltage V{T}. These findings indicate the formation of a distinct collective state of the localized Cooper pairs in the critical region at both sides of the transition.

  2. Observation of multiple superconducting gaps in Fe1+yTe1-xSex via a nano-scale approach to point-contact spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Haibing; De, Debtanu; Wu, Zheng; Diaz-Pinto, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    We report a distinct experimental approach to point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy with diagnostic capability via a unique design of nano-scale normal metal/superconductor devices with excellent thermo-mechanical stability, and have employed this method to unveil the existence of two superconducting energy gaps in iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe1-xSex which is crucial for understanding its pairing mechanism. This work opens up new opportunities to study gap structures in superconductors an...

  3. Electronic Correlations, Jahn-Teller Distortions and Mott Transition to Superconductivity in Alkali-C60 Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alloul H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery in 1991 of high temperature superconductivity (SC in A3C60 compounds, where A is an alkali ion, has been rapidly ascribed to a BCS mechanism, in which the pairing is mediated by on ball optical phonon modes. While this has lead to consider that electronic correlations were not important in these compounds, further studies of various AnC60 with n=1, 2, 4 allowed to evidence that their electronic properties cannot be explained by a simple progressive band filling of the C60 six-fold degenerate t1u molecular level. This could only be ascribed to the simultaneous influence of electron correlations and Jahn-Teller Distortions (JTD of the C60 ball, which energetically favour evenly charged C60 molecules. This is underlined by the recent discovery of two expanded fulleride Cs3C60 isomeric phases which are Mott insulators at ambient pressure. Both phases undergo a pressure induced first order Mott transition to SC with a (p, T phase diagram displaying a dome shaped SC, a common situation encountered nowadays in correlated electron systems. NMR experiments allowed us to study the magnetic properties of the Mott phases and to evidence clear deviations from BCS expectations near the Mott transition. So, although SC involves an electron-phonon mechanism, the incidence of electron correlations has an importance on the electronic properties, as had been anticipated from DMFT calculations.

  4. Surface hot-film method for the measurement of transition, separation and reattachment points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akihiko; Stack, John P.; Lin, John C.; Valarezo, Walter O.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time method of determining positions of laminar-to-turbulent transition region, separation and reattachment points and stagnation points using an array of simultaneously operated surface-mounted hot-film sensors has been developed and applied to a wind-tunnel test of a multielement airfoil model. Determination of various types of transitions and flow directions in various regimes of flows seen on multielement airfoils are possible without precise sensor calibration or laborious post-test data analysis. The results agree with established method and theoretical methods, but determination of turbulent reattachment points are not yet satisfactory.

  5. 1D to 3D dimensional crossover in the superconducting transition of the quasi-one-dimensional carbide superconductor Sc3CoC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingquan; Wong, Chi Ho; Shi, Dian; Tse, Pok Lam; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Eickerling, Georg; Scherer, Wolfgang; Sheng, Ping; Lortz, Rolf

    2015-02-25

    The transition metal carbide superconductor Sc(3)CoC(4) may represent a new benchmark system of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) superconducting behavior. We investigate the superconducting transition of a high-quality single crystalline sample by electrical transport experiments. Our data show that the superconductor goes through a complex dimensional crossover below the onset T(c) of 4.5 K. First, a quasi-1D fluctuating superconducting state with finite resistance forms in the [CoC(4)](∞) ribbons which are embedded in a Sc matrix in this material. At lower temperature, the transversal Josephson or proximity coupling of neighboring ribbons establishes a 3D bulk superconducting state. This dimensional crossover is very similar to Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6), which for a long time has been regarded as the most appropriate model system of a quasi-1D superconductor. Sc(3)CoC(4) appears to be even more in the 1D limit than Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6).

  6. Size dependence of phase transition temperatures of ferromagnetic ,ferroelectric and superconductive nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Xing-you; JIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the miniaturization of devices,size and interface effects become increasingly important for the properties and performances of nanomaterials.Here,we present a thermodynamic approach to the mechanism behind size-induced unusual behavior in the phase stabilities of ferromagnetic(FM),antiferromagnetic(AFM),ferroelectric (FE),and superconductive(SC)nanocrystals,which are different dramatically from their bulk counterparts.This method is based on the Lindemann criterion for melting,Mott's expression for the vibrational melting entropy,and the Shi model for the size-dependent melting temperature.Simple and unified functions,without any adjustable parameter,are established for the size and interface dependences of thermal and phase stabilities of FM,AFM,FE and SC nanocrystals.According to these analytic functions,as the size of nanocrystals is reduced,the thermal and phasestabilities may strengthen or weaken,depending on the confluence of the.surface/volume ratio of nanocrystals and the FM(AFM,FE or SC)/substrate interface situations.The validity of this model is confirmed by a large number of experimental results.This theory will be significant for the choice of materials and the design of devices for practicalapplication.

  7. A nontrivial critical fixed point for replica-symmetry-breaking transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to fractal is the richest feature of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon--the Gardner transition--has recently been predicted for structural glasses. However, the existence of these phase transitions has been called into question below the upper critical dimension d_u=6. Here, we obtain evidence for these transitions in dimensions dpoint. Because this fixed point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we further corroborate the result with a nonperturbative renormalization group treatment.

  8. Co-existence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in f-electron metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    In itinerant ferromagnets a strong spin polarisation might be expected to suppress any possibility of spin-singlet superconductivity. However spin triplet superconductivity may still occur if there is an appropriate pairing interaction and the material is sufficiently clean. The experimental evidence that a bulk superconducting state is indeed realised in two different f-electron ferromagnets will be reviewed, along with the special factors that might favour such a state. For UGe_2, samples that satisfy the clean limit condition are easily prepared. The superconducting transition temperature is however closely correlated with the proximity to a critical point for a magnetic transition within the ferromagnetic state, which is achieved only at high pressure. The same factors, perhaps related to Fermi surface nesting, which give rise to this complex magnetic behaviour, therefore appear to be implicated in the superconducting pairing. Superconductivity in ferromagnetic URhGe occurs at zero pressure, which has facilitated extensive magnetisation and heat-capacity studies. These confirm both the bulk nature of the two transitions and the co-existence of the two orders (ferromagnetism and superconductivity). Further, as expected for non s-wave pairing, it is found that only samples with a sufficiently low residual resistivity show superconductivity. In contrast to UGe_2, the magnetic state in URhGe behaves in accordance with the simplest version of the Moriya-Lonzarich theory. This, as well as the recent report that that the cubic itinerant ferromagnet ZrZn2 shows a low temperature transition, interpreted as an incomplete transition to superconductivity, suggest that superconductivity could occur more commonly in clean ferromagnets. The observed superconducting properties of UGe2 and URhGe appear to be consistent with a particular symmetry of the order parameter in these lower symmetry materials. Their lower symmetries also lead to several advantages relating to the

  9. Superconducting Coset Topological Fluids in Josephson Junction Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M C; Trugenberger, C A; Sodano, Pasquale; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the superconducting ground state of planar Josephson junction arrays is a P- and T-invariant coset topological quantum fluid whose topological order is characterized by the degeneracy 2 on the torus. This new mechanism for planar superconductivity is the P- and T-invariant analogue of Laughlin's quantum Hall fluids. The T=0 insulator-superconductor quantum transition is a quantum critical point characterized by gauge fields and deconfined degrees of freedom. Experiments on toroidal Josephson junction arrays could provide the first direct evidence for topological order and superconducting quantum fluids.

  10. Z(5): critical point symmetry for the prolate to oblate nuclear shape phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Lenis, D.; Petrellis, D.; Terziev, P.A

    2004-05-27

    A critical point symmetry for the prolate to oblate shape phase transition is introduced, starting from the Bohr Hamiltonian and approximately separating variables for {gamma}=30 deg. Parameter-free (up to overall scale factors) predictions for spectra and B(E2) transition rates are found to be in good agreement with experimental data for {sup 194}Pt, which is supposed to be located very close to the prolate to oblate critical point, as well as for its neighbours ({sup 192}Pt, {sup 196}Pt)

  11. Z(5): Critical point symmetry for the prolate to oblate nuclear shape phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, D; Petrellis, D; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A critical point symmetry for the prolate to oblate shape phase transition is introduced, starting from the Bohr Hamiltonian and approximately separating variables for $\\gamma=30^{\\rm o}$. Parameter-free (up to overall scale factors) predictions for spectra and B(E2) transition rates are found to be in good agreement with experimental data for 194-Pt, which is supposed to be located very close to the prolate to oblate critical point, as well as for its neighbours (192-Pt, 196-Pt).

  12. Ultrasonic signatures at the superconducting and the pseudogap phase boundaries in YBCO cuprates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehter, Arkady [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Betts, Jonathan B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakirev, Fedor F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McDonald, Ross David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Riggs, Scott C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramshaw, Brad [University of British Columbia, Canada; Liang, Ruixing [University of British Columbia, Canada; Hardy, Walter N. [University of British Columbia, Canada; Bonn, Doug A. [University of British Columbia, Canada

    2012-08-28

    A major issue in the understanding of cuprate superconductors is the nature of the metallic state from which high temperature superconductivity emerges. Central to this issue is the pseudogap region of the doping-temperature phase diagram that extends from room temperature to the superconducting transition. Although polarized neutron scattering studies hint at magnetic order associated with the pseudogap, there is no clear thermodynamic evidence for a phase boundary. Such evidence has a straightforward physical interpretation, however, it is difficult to obtain over a temperature range wide enough to encompass both the pseudogap and superconducting phases. We address this by measuring the elastic response of detwinned single crystals, an underdoped YBCO{sub 6.60} with superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 61.6K and a slightly overdoped YBCO{sub 6.98} with T{sub c} = 88.0K. We observe a discontinuity in the elastic moduli across the superconducting transition. Its magnitude requires that pair formation is coincident with superconducting coherence (the onset of the Meissner effect). For both crystals the elastic response reveals a phase transition at the pseudogap boundary. In slightly overdoped YBCO that transition is 20K below T{sub c}, extending the pseudogap phase boundary inside the superconducting dome. This supports a description of the metallic state in cuprates where a pseudogap phase boundary evolves into a quantum critical point masked by the superconducting dome.

  13. Field-induced transition from chiral spin-triplet to mixed-parity Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alfonso; Cuoco, Mario; Noce, Canio; Gentile, Paola; Annunziata, Gaetano

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the response to a magnetic field of a two-dimensional spin-triplet superconductor with chiral order parameter when triplet pairing is closely competing with the singlet one. The study is performed via numerical solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, assuming that the translational symmetry is broken in one direction by the presence of an interface beyond which superconducting pairing is not effective. We show that as the intensity of the magnetic field is increased above a threshold value, the system undergoes a transition to a spatially inhomogeneous state of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) type where chirality disappears and a singlet-triplet mixing takes place along the direction perpendicular to the interface. Subdominant singlet components are found to accompany the triplet dominant ones in both phases. They develop close to the interface at low fields, then turning continuously into oscillating long-range ones as the field is increased. A similar behavior is found for the magnetization. It nucleates at the interface in the chiral phase, then acquiring in the FFLO phase an oscillatory behavior reaching its maximum amplitude at the sites where the dominant triplet component has a node. At these sites, the local spin-resolved density of states exhibits strong resonances, associated with the formation of Andreev bound states, which tend to broaden and decay in intensity as increasingly high magnetic fields are considered.

  14. Thermodynamic signature of a magnetic-field-driven phase transition within the superconducting state of an underdoped cuprate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, J. B.; Vafek, O.; Betts, J. B.; Balakirev, F. F.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Boebinger, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    More than a quarter century after the discovery of the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) YBa2Cu3O6+δ (YBCO; ref. ), studies continue to uncover complexity in its phase diagram. In addition to HTS and the pseudogap, there is growing evidence for multiple phases with boundaries which are functions of temperature (T), doping (p) and magnetic field. Here we report the low-temperature electronic specific heat (Celec) of YBa2Cu3O6.43 and YBa2Cu3O6.47 (p = 0.076 and 0.084) up to a magnetic field (H) of 34.5 T, a poorly understood region of the underdoped H-T-p phase space. We observe two regimes in the low-temperature limit: below a characteristic magnetic field H' ~ 12-15 T, Celec/T obeys an expected H1/2 behaviour; however, near H' there is a sharp inflection followed by a linear-in-H behaviour. H' rests deep within the superconducting phase and, thus, the linear-in-H behaviour is observed in the zero-resistance regime. In the limit of zero temperature, Celec/T is proportional to the zero-energy electronic density of states. At one of our dopings, the inflection is sharp only at lowest temperatures, and we thus conclude that this inflection is evidence of a magnetic-field-driven quantum phase transition.

  15. Proposal for a GHz count rate near-IR single-photon detector based on a nanoscale superconducting transition edge sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Prober, Daniel E; 10.1117/12.883979

    2012-01-01

    We describe a superconducting transition edge sensor based on a nanoscale niobium detector element. This device is predicted to be capable of energy-resolved near-IR single-photon detection with a GHz count rate. The increased speed and sensitivity of this device compared to traditional transition edge sensors result from the very small electronic heat capacity of the nanoscale detector element. In the present work, we calculate the predicted thermal response time and energy resolution. We also discuss approaches for achieving efficient optical coupling to the sub-wavelength detector element using a resonant near-IR antenna.

  16. Successful transition to buprenorphine in a patient with methadone-induced torsades de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Jason Levi; Rosman, Jonathan; Do, Lien Thanh; Schweitzer, Paul; Hanon, Sam

    2008-11-01

    A 56-year-old-man presented with syncope and torsades de pointes secondary to methadone-induced QT prolongation. After transition from methadone to buprenorphine, a partial mu-opiate-receptor agonist and a kappa-opiate-receptor antagonist, the QT normalized and ventricular arrhythmias resolved. Buprenorphine should be used for opiate dependence and chronic pain in patients with methadone-induced QT prolongation and as first line therapy in patients with risk factors for torsades de pointes.

  17. Current driven transition from Abrikosov-Josephson to Josephson-like vortex in mesoscopic lateral S/S’/S superconducting weak links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Barone, C.; Pagano, S.; Gombos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S’/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S’. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S’ region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage. Our numerical simulations show that when a slow moving Abrikosov-Josephson vortex is driven by a strong constant current it becomes unstable with respect to a faster moving excitation: the Josephon-like vortex. Such a current-driven transition explains the structured dissipative branches that we observe in the voltage-current curve of the weak link. When vortex matter is strongly confined phenomena as magnetoresistance oscillations and reentrance of superconductivity can possibly occur. We experimentally observe these phenomena in our weak links. PMID:27752137

  18. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  19. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  20. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  1. Critical point for the canted antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition at charge neutrality in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, S.; Cobaleda, C.; Piot, B. A.; Bellani, V.; Diez, E.

    2014-09-01

    We report on magnetotransport measurements up to 30 T performed on a bilayer graphene Hall bar, enclosed by two thin hexagonal boron nitride flakes. In the quantum Hall regime, our high-mobility sample exhibits an insulating state at the neutrality point which evolves into a metallic phase when a strong in-plane field is applied, as expected for a transition from a canted antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic spin-ordered phase. We individuate a temperature-independent crossing in the four-terminal resistance as a function of the total magnetic field, corresponding to the critical point of the transition. We show that the critical field scales linearly with the perpendicular component of the field, as expected from the underlying competition between the Zeeman energy and interaction-induced anisotropies. A clear scaling of the resistance is also found and a universal behavior is proposed in the vicinity of the transition.

  2. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  3. Bloch-Zener oscillations across a merging transition of Dirac points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lih-King; Fuchs, Jean-Noël; Montambaux, Gilles

    2012-04-27

    Bloch oscillations are a powerful tool to investigate spectra with Dirac points. By varying band parameters, Dirac points can be manipulated and merged at a topological transition toward a gapped phase. Under a constant force, a Fermi sea initially in the lower band performs Bloch oscillations and may Zener tunnel to the upper band mostly at the location of the Dirac points. The tunneling probability is computed from the low-energy universal Hamiltonian describing the vicinity of the merging. The agreement with a recent experiment on cold atoms in an optical lattice is very good.

  4. Dynamic investigations on the influence of epitaxial strain on the superconducting transition in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehne, R; Okai, D; Doerr, K; Trommler, S; Herklotz, A; Holzapfel, B; Schultz, L [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: r.huehne@ifw-dresden.de

    2008-07-15

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) films have been prepared on piezoelectric (001) Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.72}Ti{sub 0.28}O{sub 3} (PMN-PT) substrates for dynamic investigations on the influence of strain on the superconducting transition temperature. The YBCO films deposited by off-axis pulsed laser deposition showed a perfect epitaxial growth on the piezocrystals but also significant surface roughness due to the miscut of the substrate. The in-plane lattice constant of the PMN-PT substrate was varied dynamically by the application of an electric field of {<=}10 kV cm{sup -1}. As a result, a reversible shift of the superconducting transition by about 0.1 K was found on an optimally doped YBCO film for an applied strain of 0.05%. The results show for the first time that this approach is suitable for studying the strain dependence of superconducting properties in detail.

  5. Gauge dependence of the critical dynamics at the superconducting phase transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dudka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical dynamics of superconductors in the charged regime is reconsidered within field-theory. For the dynamics, the Ginzburg-Landau model with complex order parameter coupled to the gauge field suggested earlier [Lannert et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 097004 (2004] is used. Assuming relaxational dynamics for both quantities, the renormalization group functions within one loop approximation are recalculated for different choices of the gauge. A gauge independent result for the divergence of the melectric conductivity is obtained only at the weak scaling fixed point unstable in one loop order where the timescales of the order parameter and the gauge field are different.

  6. A semi-Dirac point and an electromagnetic topological transition in a dielectric photonic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Accidental degeneracy in a photonic crystal consisting of a square array of elliptical dielectric cylinders leads to both a semi-Dirac point at the center of the Brillouin zone and an electromagnetic topological transition (ETT). A perturbation method is deduced to affirm the peculiar linear-parabolic dispersion near the semi-Dirac point. An effective medium theory is developed to explain the simultaneous semi-Dirac point and ETT and to show that the photonic crystal is either a zero-refractive-index material or an epsilon-near-zero material at the semi-Dirac point. Drastic changes in the wave manipulation properties at the semi-Dirac point, resulting from ETT, are described.©2014 Optical Society of America.

  7. Anomalous parity-time-symmetry transition away from an exceptional point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li

    2016-07-01

    Parity-time (PT ) symmetric systems have two distinguished phases, e.g., one with real-energy eigenvalues and the other with complex-conjugate eigenvalues. To enter one phase from the other, it is believed that the system must pass through an exceptional point, which is a non-Hermitian degenerate point with coalesced eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Here we reveal an anomalous PT transition that takes place away from an exceptional point in a nonlinear system: as the nonlinearity increases, the original linear system evolves along two distinct PT -symmetric trajectories, each of which can have an exceptional point. However, the two trajectories collide and vanish away from these exceptional points, after which the system is left with a PT -broken phase. We first illustrate this phenomenon using a coupled-mode theory and then exemplify it using paraxial wave propagation in a transverse periodic potential.

  8. Anomalous Parity-Time Symmetry Transition away from an Exceptional Point

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems have two distinguished phases, e.g., one with real energy eigenvalues and the other with complex conjugate eigenvalues. To enter one phase from the other, it is believed that the system must pass through an exceptional point, which is a non-Hermitian degenerate point with coalesced eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In this letter we reveal an anomalous PT transition that takes place away from an exceptional point in a nonlinear system: as the nonlinearity increases, the original linear system evolves along two distinct PT-symmetric trajectories, each of which can have an exceptional point. However, the two trajectories collide and vanish away from these exceptional points, after which the system is left with a PT-broken phase. We first illustrate this phenomenon using a coupled mode theory and then exemplify it using paraxial wave propagation in a transverse periodic potential.

  9. Delayed thermalization of X-rays absorbed in tin films far below the superconducting transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, C. K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Juda, M.; McCammon, D.; Zhang, J.

    1994-02-01

    As part of a program for developing high resolution X-ray detectors, we have deposited 4 μm thick Sn films on silicon calorimeters to serve as X ray absorbers. Thermistors in the silicon measured the temperature increase resulting from the thermalization of an X-ray photon. Silver-filled epoxy was placed on the Sn to establish a complete thermalization reference. The devices were operated near 0.1 K and below. Signal pulses resulting from the absorption of 6 keV photons in the Ag epoxy rose faster, peaked higher, and decayed to baseline more quickly than those resulting from absorption in the Sn. Taking the Ag pulse shape to be the impulse response of the detector, we deconvolved it from the average Sn pulse shape to obtain the thermalization function in the Sn. The result contained a slow component with a thermalization rate on the scale of several milliseconds. We consider this an indication of the quasiparticle recombination time in the Sn during the non-equilibrium condition following X-ray absorption. We were able to manipulate the thermalization by heating the device above the Sn transition temperature and varying the amount of magnetic field present upon cooling.

  10. Transport currents along c-axis and (a,b) planes in YBCO single domain materials. Critical current densities and normal-superconducting transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcar, L.; Bourgault, D.; Chaud, X.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [CNRS, Grenoble (France). EPM-Matformag; Belmont, O.; Barbut, J.M.; Barrault, M. [Schneider Electric SA, Usine A, Rue Volta, 38050 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Tixador, P. [CRTBT, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    1998-05-01

    High transport currents along the (a,b) planes and along the c-axis have been measured in pulsed current of different pseudo-frequencies. Self field losses and transport current of 8000 A (20000 A cm{sup -2}) have been measured in Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} bars textured by the melting zone technique. Critical currents as high as 500 A (90000 A cm{sup -2}) along the (a,b) planes or 3000 A (7500 A cm{sup -2}) along the c-axis have been measured. For both orientations, the transition from the normal state to the superconducting state has been observed. Electric field of 1000 V m{sup -1} and study of the superconducting state recovery are reported. (orig.) 6 refs.

  11. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  12. Particle number scale invariant feature of the states around the critical point of the first order nuclear shape phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HOU ZhanFeng; LIU YuXin

    2009-01-01

    We study systematically the evolutive behaviors of some energy ratios,E2 transition rate ratios and Isomer shift in the nuclear shape phase transitions.We find that the quantities sensitive to the phase transition and independent of free parameter(s) are approximately particle number N scale invariant around the critical point of the first order phase transition,similar to that in the second order phase transition.

  13. Superconducting quantum circuits theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiuhao

    Superconducting quantum circuit models are widely used to understand superconducting devices. This thesis consists of four studies wherein the superconducting quantum circuit is used to illustrate challenges related to quantum information encoding and processing, quantum simulation, quantum signal detection and amplification. The existence of scalar Aharanov-Bohm phase has been a controversial topic for decades. Scalar AB phase, defined as time integral of electric potential, gives rises to an extra phase factor in wavefunction. We proposed a superconducting quantum Faraday cage to detect temporal interference effect as a consequence of scalar AB phase. Using the superconducting quantum circuit model, the physical system is solved and resulting AB effect is predicted. Further discussion in this chapter shows that treating the experimental apparatus quantum mechanically, spatial scalar AB effect, proposed by Aharanov-Bohm, can't be observed. Either a decoherent interference apparatus is used to observe spatial scalar AB effect, or a quantum Faraday cage is used to observe temporal scalar AB effect. The second study involves protecting a quantum system from losing coherence, which is crucial to any practical quantum computation scheme. We present a theory to encode any qubit, especially superconducting qubits, into a universal quantum degeneracy point (UQDP) where low frequency noise is suppressed significantly. Numerical simulations for superconducting charge qubit using experimental parameters show that its coherence time is prolong by two orders of magnitude using our universal degeneracy point approach. With this improvement, a set of universal quantum gates can be performed at high fidelity without losing too much quantum coherence. Starting in 2004, the use of circuit QED has enabled the manipulation of superconducting qubits with photons. We applied quantum optical approach to model coupled resonators and obtained a four-wave mixing toolbox to operate photons

  14. Infinite randomness fixed point of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd; Müller, Markus; Sachdev, Subir

    2008-07-18

    We examine the influence of quenched disorder on the superconductor-metal transition, as described by a theory of overdamped Cooper pairs which repel each other. The self-consistent pairing eigenmodes of a quasi-one-dimensional wire are determined numerically. Our results support the recent proposal by Hoyos et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 230601 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.230601] that the transition is characterized by the same strong-disorder fixed point describing the onset of ferromagnetism in the random quantum Ising chain in a transverse field.

  15. Transition probability, dynamic regimes, and the critical point of financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinan; Chen, Ping

    2015-07-01

    An empirical and theoretical analysis of financial crises is conducted based on statistical mechanics in non-equilibrium physics. The transition probability provides a new tool for diagnosing a changing market. Both calm and turbulent markets can be described by the birth-death process for price movements driven by identical agents. The transition probability in a time window can be estimated from stock market indexes. Positive and negative feedback trading behaviors can be revealed by the upper and lower curves in transition probability. Three dynamic regimes are discovered from two time periods including linear, quasi-linear, and nonlinear patterns. There is a clear link between liberalization policy and market nonlinearity. Numerical estimation of a market turning point is close to the historical event of the US 2008 financial crisis.

  16. Challenges of managing medications for older people at transition points of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, pharmacists play a very important role in identifying and correcting medication discrepancies as older patients move across transition points of care. With increasing complexity of health care needs of older people, these discrepancies are likely to increase. The major concern with identifying and correcting medication discrepancies is that medication reconciliation is considered a retrospective problem--that is, dealing with medication discrepancies after they have occurred. It is argued here that a more proactive stance should be taken where doctors, nurses and pharmacists collectively work together to prevent medication discrepancies from happening in the first place. Improved involvement of patients and family members will help to facilitate better management of medications across transition points of care. Efficient use of information technology aids, such as electronic medication reconciliation tools, should also assist with organizational systems problems associated with the working culture, heavy workloads, and staff and skill mix of health professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Temperature Atomic Force Microscopy: the Electrostatic Casimir Force Across the Superconducting Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckle, Christopher Gregory

    Time Reversal can be used to time reverse and propagate the measured scattered wave- forms to a point in both time and space, ideally to a delta function delta( r⃗ )delta(t). This is commonly referred to as time reversal focusing and has led to time reversal being applied in a wide variety of fields such as medicine, communications, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and seismology. In practice, time reversal is not optimal for generating a delta function focus if certain conditions are not upheld. For time reversal to work perfectly, the following four conditions must be present: (1) one must record for an infinitely long period of time; (2) Green's functions must be assumed to contain infinite bandwidth; (3) attenuation must be absent within the medium; and (4) one must have full coverage of the wavefield. Due to the need for these conditions, much research is being carried out in order to enhance the time reversal process in practice. We introduce deconvolution, a simple and robust approach, in order to calculate an optimal signal for back propagation designed to give an improved focus. We demonstrate experimentally that deconvolution is able to dramatically improve the temporal focus com- pared to time reversal. Through a joint project with Los Alamos National Laboratory, we compared time reversal to deconvolution. The results showed that deconvolution was able to dramatically improve the temporal focus for a source and a receiver which were both located on the surface of our object. We then continued our experimental studies of deconvolution by doing a joint project with researcher Dr. Ernst Niederleithinger from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). For this experiment, we placed multiple sources within a concrete block and recorded the source wavefields on the surface with a single re- ceiver. This experiment was designed to further test the robust nature of deconvolution and compare its temporal focusing capability to that of time

  18. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase transition point

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase-transition point are analytically studied. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is derived for the envelope of these wave packets. A variety of novel phenomena known to exist in this envelope equation are shown to also exist in the full equation including wave blowup, periodic bound states and solitary wave solutions.

  20. Transition and Turning Points in Scholar Trajectories: Case Study with Six Lisbon Upper Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Analyses concerning success and failure during Upper Secondary usually do not rely upon individual longitudinal data as we do in the present paper. Neither do they generally use that kind of data when trying to assess two among the most important scholar turning points as the transition from the Lower Secondary and the entry into the University. In our perspective this represents an important caveat as success and failure being dynamic processes can only be correctly addressed with ...

  1. Time-Averaged Behaviour at the Critical Parameter Point of Transition to Spatiotemporal Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺凯芬

    2001-01-01

    A time-averaged behaviour is found to be important for investigating the critical behaviour in parameter space for the transition from temporal chaos to spatiotemporal chaos by using an energy representation. Considering any wave solution as a superposition of the steady wave with its perturbation wave, we find that when approaching the critical parameter point the averaged positive interaction energy for the k = 1 mode becomes competitive with the negative one, with the summation displaying a scaling behaviour of power law.

  2. The stationary phase point method for transitional scattering: diffractive radio scintillation for pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C M

    2007-01-01

    The stationary phase point (SPP) method in one-dimensional case is introduced to treat the diffractive scintillation. From weak scattering, where the SPP number N=1, to strong scattering (N$\\gg$1), via transitional scattering regime (N$\\sim$2,3), we find that the modulation index of intensity experiences the monotonically increasing from 0 to 1 with the scattering strength, characterized by the ratio of Fresnel scale $\\rf$ to diffractive scale $\\rdiff$.

  3. Superconductivity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorse, H.A.; Cook, D.B.; Zemansky, W.M.

    1950-06-01

    Numerous determinations of the zero-field transition temperature of lead have been made. All of these observations except that of Daunt were made by the direct measurement of electrical resistance. Daunt`s method involved the shielding effect of persistent currents in a hollow cylinder. In the authors work on columbium to be described in a forthcoming paper an a.c. induction method was used for the measurement of superconducting transitions. The superconductor was mounted as a cylindrical core of a coil which functioned as the secondary of a mutual inductance. The primary coil was actuated by an oscillator which provided a maximum a.c. field within the secondary of 1.5 oersteds at a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. The secondary e.m.f. which was dependent for its magnitude on the permeability of the core was amplified, rectifie, and observed on a recording potentiometer. During the application of this method to the study of columbium it appeared that a further check on the zero-field transition temperature of lead would be worth while especially if agreement between results for very pure samples could be obtained using this method. Such result would help in establishing the lead transition temperature as a reasonably reproducible reference point in the region between 4 deg and 10 deg K.

  4. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers using Bulk Absorbers Coupled to Mo/Cu Multilayer Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, D.T.; Loshak, A.; Van Den Berg, M.L.; Frank, M.; Barbee Jr., T.W.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-07-04

    In x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is desirable to have detectors with high energy resolution and high absorption efficiency. At LLNL, we have developed superconducting tunnel junction-based single photon x-ray detectors with thin film absorbers that have achieved these goals for photon energies up to 1 keV. However, for energies above 1 keV, the absorption efficiency of these thin-film detectors decreases drastically. We are developing the use of high-purity superconducting bulk materials as microcalorimeter absorbers for high-energy x-rays and gamma rays. The increase in absorber temperature due to incident photons is sensed by a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) composed of a Mo/Cu multilayer thin film. Films of Mo and Cu are mutually insoluble and therefore very stable and can be annealed. The multilayer structure allows scaling in thickness to optimize heat capacity and normal state resistance. We measured an energy resolution of 70 eV for 60 keV incident gamma-rays with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber. We present x-ray and gamma-ray results from this detector design with a Sn absorber. We also propose the use of an active negative feedback voltage bias to improve the performance of our detector and show preliminary results.

  5. Doping-induced change in the interlayer transport mechanism of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta} near the superconducting transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterwe, S O; Rydh, A; Krasnov, V M

    2008-08-22

    We perform a detailed study of temperature, bias, and doping dependence of interlayer transport in the layered high temperature superconductor Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta}. We observe that the shape of interlayer characteristics in underdoped crystals exhibits a remarkable crossover at the superconducting transition temperature: from thermal activation-type above T_{c} to almost T-independent quantum tunneling-type below T_{c}. Our data provide insight into the nature of interlayer transport and indicate that its mechanism changes with doping: from the conventional single quasiparticle tunneling in overdoped to a progressively increasing Cooper pair contribution in underdoped crystals.

  6. Quantitive analysis of lattice disorder and superconducting transition in exptaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.9} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauzzi, A.; Pavuna, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    The authors show that the average lattice disorder in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.9} films grown by ion-beam sputtering is homogeneous and can be quantified by introducing the lattice coherence length r{sub c} that is extracted from the width of X-ray diffraction rocking curves. The superconducting properties of the films are correlated with r{sub c}: T{sub c} decreases with increasing disorder for r{sub c}{approx_lt}10 nm, while the width of the resistive transition and the normal-state resistivity increase.

  7. Is There a Metamaterial Route to High Temperature Superconductivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting properties of a material such as electron-electron interactions and the critical temperature of superconducting transition can be expressed via the effective dielectric response function εeff (q,ω of the material. Such a description is valid on the spatial scales below the superconducting coherence length (the size of the Cooper pair, which equals ∼100 nm in a typical BCS superconductor. Searching for natural materials exhibiting larger electron-electron interactions constitutes a traditional approach to high temperature superconductivity research. Here we point out that recently developed field of electromagnetic metamaterials deals with somewhat related task of dielectric response engineering on sub-100 nm scale. We argue that the metamaterial approach to dielectric response engineering may considerably increase the critical temperature of a composite superconductor-dielectric metamaterial.

  8. Extreme magnetic anisotropy and multiple superconducting transition signatures in a [Nb(23 nm)/Ni(5 nm)] 5 multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, L. E.; Kryukov, S. A.; Joshi, Amish G.; Xu, Wentao; Bosomtwi, A.; Kirby, B. J.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.

    2008-04-01

    We have applied polarized neutron reflectometry, and novel SQUID and vibrating reed magnetometry to probe a [Nb(23 nm)/Ni(5 nm)]5 multilayer (ML) whose superconducting state magnetic anisotropy is dominated by confined (in-plane) supercurrents in DC magnetic fields, H, applied nearly parallel to the ML plane. The upper critical field exhibits abrupt shifts (0.1-0.6 K) in near-parallel fields, but is field-independent for μ0H < 0.8 T when the ML is exactly aligned with the DC field, indicating suppression of orbital pairbreaking and the possible presence of unconventional superconducting pairing states.

  9. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ``bad metals``, with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described.

  10. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  11. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Vojta, Matthias [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-11-02

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  12. Numerical renormalization group for impurity quantum phase transitions: structure of critical fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Bulla, Ralf; Vojta, Matthias

    2005-11-01

    The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.

  13. Line nodes, Dirac points, and Lifshitz transition in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun Yu; Hu, Nai Chao; Chen, You Jian; Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    Topological phase transitions, which have fascinated generations of physicists, are always demarcated by gap closures. In this work, we propose very simple two-dimensional photonic crystal lattices with gap closures, i.e., band degeneracies protected by nonsymmorphic symmetry. Our photonic structures are relatively easy to fabricate, consisting of two inequivalent dielectric cylinders per unit cell. Along high-symmetry directions, they exhibit line degeneracies protected by glide-reflection symmetry and time-reversal symmetry, which we explicitly demonstrate for p g ,p m g ,p g g , and p 4 g nonsymmorphic groups. They also exhibit point degeneracies (Dirac points) protected by a Z2 topological number associated only with crystalline symmetry. Strikingly, the robust protection of p g symmetry allows a Lifshitz transition to a type-II Dirac cone across a wide range of experimentally accessible parameters, thus providing a convenient route for realizing anomalous refraction. Further potential applications include a stoplight device based on electrically induced strain that dynamically switches the lattice symmetry from p g g to the higher p 4 g symmetry. This controls the coalescence of Dirac points and hence the group velocity within the crystal.

  14. Magnetization-orientation dependence of the superconducting transition in AF-F/S/F and S/F/F-AF type spin valve heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdravkov, Vladimir [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of the Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, MD 2028 Kishiniev (Moldova, Republic of); Lenk, Daniel; Kehrle, Jan; Obermeier, Guenter; Ullrich, Aladin; Mueller, Claus; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman; Sidorenko, Anatoli [D. Ghitsu Institute of the Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, MD 2028 Kishiniev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar [Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    In F/S/F spin valve core structures, i.e. Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59}/Nb/Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59} systems, deposited on an antiferromagnetic CoO{sub x} layer, or with such a layer on top, critical temperature oscillations and reentrant superconductivity are observed, which can be well described by the theory. Introducing a Co sub-layer yields exchange bias effects, which influence the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting transition. Aging effects are studied, which especially alter the transparency of the lower F/S interface, resulting in a change of the behavior of the transition temperature as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness from extinction, over reentrant, to oscillating. The results are discussed in comparison to the S/F/F-AF triplet spin valve effect in a Nb/Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59}/nc-Nb/Co/CoO{sub x} system, where nc-Nb acts as a normal conducting spacer to decouple the ferromagnetic layers.

  15. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  16. Spin-orbit-coupled superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Di; Liang, C-T

    2014-06-25

    Superconductivity and spin-orbit (SO) interaction have been two separate emerging fields until very recently that the correlation between them seemed to be observed. However, previous experiments concerning SO coupling are performed far beyond the superconducting state and thus a direct demonstration of how SO coupling affects superconductivity remains elusive. Here we investigate the SO coupling in the critical region of superconducting transition on Al nanofilms, in which the strength of disorder and spin relaxation by SO coupling are changed by varying the film thickness. At temperatures T sufficiently above the superconducting critical temperature T(c), clear signature of SO coupling reveals itself in showing a magneto-resistivity peak. When T superconductivity. By studying such magneto-resistivity peaks under different strength of spin relaxation, we highlight the important effects of SO interaction on superconductivity.

  17. Regularity and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between regular and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a first order quantum shape-phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. A classical analysis reveals a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases in a broad energy range. The dynamics is completely regular in the deformed phase while it becomes strongly chaotic in the spherical phase. A quantum analysis of the spectra separates the regular states from the irregular ones, assigns them to particular phases and discloses persisting regular rotational bands in the deformed region.

  18. Spinor Field at the Phase Transition Point of Reissner-Nordström de Sitter Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yan; Zhang, Li-Qing; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Qing-Chao

    2010-08-01

    The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon are solved in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space when it is at the phase transition point. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to approximate the modified tortoise coordinate hat{r}_{*} in order to get the inverse function r=r(hat{r}_{*}) and the potential V(hat{r}_{*}). Then we use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation numerically. We consider two cases, one is when the two horizons are lying close to each other, the other is when the two horizons are widely separated.

  19. Note on "Quantum superconducting criticality in graphene and topological insulators"

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bitan; Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    We correct our previous conclusion regarding the fate of a charged quantum critical point across the superconducting transition for two dimensional massless Dirac fermion. Within the leading order $\\epsilon$ expansion, we now find that the requisite number of four-component Dirac fermion flavors ($N_f$) for the continuous phase transition through a charged critical point is $N_f>18.2699$. For $N_f\\geq1/2$, the critical number of bosonic flavors for this transition is significantly reduced as compared to the value determined in the absence of the Dirac fermions in the theory.

  20. Sacral Theater, a code to simulate the propagation of the superconducting magnet LHC atlas barrel toroid transition; Sacral theater, un code pour simuler la propagation de la transition de l'aimant supraconducteur LHC atlas barrel toroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastineau, B

    2000-06-01

    Sacral Theater has been developed for the toroid magnet Atlas of the CERN LHC project. This three dimensional calculations code calculates the propagation of the transition of a superconducting coil in 25 m long hippodrome. Procedures to study low currents have been included. This work is a part of the magnet safety system because the coils protection is made by warmers activating the quench propagation in case of default detection. This allows the complete dissipation of storage energy that can reach 1080 MJ on Atlas. (N.C.)

  1. Complex superconductivity in the noncentrosymmetric compound Re6Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mojammel A.; Karki, A. B.; Samanta, T.; Browne, D.; Stadler, S.; Vekhter, I.; Pandey, Abhishek; Adams, P. W.; Young, D. P.; Teknowijoyo, S.; Cho, K.; Prozorov, R.; Graf, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    We report the electronic structure, synthesis, and measurements of the magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of the polycrystalline noncentrosymmetric compound Re6Zr . We observed a bulk superconducting transition at temperature Tc˜6.7 K, and measured the resistivity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and the London penetration depth below the transition, as well as performed doping and pressure studies. From these measurements we extracted the critical field and the superconducting parameters of Re6Zr . Our measurements indicate a relatively weak to moderate contribution from a triplet component to the order parameter, and favor a full superconducting gap, although we cannot exclude the existence of point nodes based on our data.

  2. PIV study of the wake of a model wind turbine transitioning between operating set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Dan; Cowen, Edwin (Todd)

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines are ideally operated at their most efficient tip speed ratio for a given wind speed. There is increasing interest, however, in operating turbines at other set points to increase the overall power production of a wind farm. Specifically, Goit and Meyers (2015) used LES to examine a wind farm optimized by unsteady operation of its turbines. In this study, the wake of a model wind turbine is measured in a water channel using PIV. We measure the wake response to a change in operational set point of the model turbine, e.g., from low to high tip speed ratio or vice versa, to examine how it might influence a downwind turbine. A modified torque transducer after Kang et al. (2010) is used to calibrate in situ voltage measurements of the model turbine's generator operating across a resistance to the torque on the generator. Changes in operational set point are made by changing the resistance or the flow speed, which change the rotation rate measured by an encoder. Single camera PIV on vertical planes reveals statistics of the wake at various distances downstream as the turbine transitions from one set point to another. From these measurements, we infer how the unsteady operation of a turbine may affect the performance of a downwind turbine as its incoming flow. National Science Foundation and the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future.

  3. Transit detection of a `starshade' at the inner lagrange point of an exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E.

    2017-08-01

    All water-covered rocky planets in the inner habitable zones of solar-type stars will inevitably experience a catastrophic runaway climate due to increasing stellar luminosity and limits to outgoing infrared radiation from wet greenhouse atmospheres. Reflectors or scatterers placed near Earth's inner Lagrange point (L_1) have been proposed as a "geoengineering' solution to anthropogenic climate change and an advanced version of this could modulate incident irradiation over many Gyr or `rescue' a planet from the interior of the habitable zone. The distance of the starshade from the planet that minimizes its mass is 1.6 times the Earth-L_1 distance. Such a starshade would have to be similar in size to the planet and the mutual occultations during planetary transits could produce a characteristic maximum at mid-transit in the light curve. Because of a fortuitous ratio of densities, Earth-size planets around G dwarf stars present the best opportunity to detect such an artefact. The signal would be persistent and is potentially detectable by a future space photometry mission to characterize transiting planets. The signal could be distinguished from natural phenomenon, i.e. starspots or cometary dust clouds, by its shape, persistence and transmission spectrum.

  4. The Razor's Edge of Collapse: The Transition Point from Lognormal to Powerlaw in Molecular Cloud PDFs

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Collins, David

    2016-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the transitional column density value ($s_t$) between the lognormal and power-law form of the probability distribution function (PDF) in star-forming molecular clouds. Our expression for $s_t$ depends on the mean column density, the variance of the lognormal portion of the PDF, and the slope of the power-law portion of the PDF. We show that $s_t$ can be related to physical quantities such as the sonic Mach number of the flow and the power-law index for a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. This implies that the transition point between the lognormal and power-law density/column density PDF represents the critical density where turbulent and thermal pressure balance, the so-called "post-shock density." We test our analytic prediction for the transition column density using dust PDF observations reported in the literature as well as numerical MHD simulations of self-gravitating supersonic turbulence with the Enzo code. We find excellent agreement between the analytic $s_t$ a...

  5. Matrix field theory: Applications to superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lubo

    In this thesis a systematic, functional matrix field theory is developed to describe both clean and disordered s-wave and d-wave superconductors and the quantum phase transitions associated with them. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part includes chapters 1 to 3. In chapter one a general physical introduction is given. In chapters two and three the theory is developed and used to compute the equation of state as well as the number-density susceptibility, spin-density susceptibility, the sound attenuation coefficient, and the electrical conductivity in both clean and disordered s-wave superconductors. The second part includes chapter four. In this chapter we use the theory to describe the disorder-induced metal - superconductor quantum phase transition. The key physical idea here is that in addition to the superconducting order-parameter fluctuations, there are also additional soft fermionic fluctuations that are important at the transition. We develop a local field theory for the coupled fields describing superconducting and soft fermionic fluctuations. Using simple renormalization group and scaling ideas, we exactly determine the critical behavior at this quantum phase transition. Our theory justifies previous approaches. The third part includes chapter five. In this chapter we study the analogous quantum phase transition in disordered d-wave superconductors. This theory should be related to high Tc superconductors. Surprisingly, we show that in both the underdoped and overdoped regions, the coupling of superconducting fluctuations to the soft disordered fermionic fluctuations is much weaker than that in the s-wave case. The net result is that the disordered quantum phase transition in this case is a strong coupling, or described by an infinite disordered fixed point, transition and cannot be described by the perturbative RG description that works so well in the s-wave case. The transition appears to be related to the one that occurs in

  6. Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Qi; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Sen, Arnab; Sandvik, Anders W.; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Recently, significant progress has been made in (2 +1 )-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP1 model (NCCP1 ) and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two flavors (N =2 ) of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP1 model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (X Y ) antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground state, while N =2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N =2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S =1 /2 J -Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum X Y model with additional multispin couplings) and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the X Y magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J -Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined quantum

  7. Rapid characterization of microscopic two-level systems using Landau-Zener transitions in a superconducting qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xinsheng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Yu, Haifeng, E-mail: hfyu@nju.edu.cn; Yu, Yang, E-mail: yuyang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Han, Siyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate a fast method to detect microscopic two-level systems in a superconducting phase qubit. By monitoring the population leak after sweeping the qubit bias flux, we are able to measure the two-level systems that are coupled with the qubit. Compared with the traditional method that detects two-level systems by energy spectroscopy, our method is faster and more sensitive. This method supplies a useful tool to investigate two-level systems in solid-state qubits.

  8. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança;

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical...... potential. It follows that a transition from one to the other phase occurs, passing through true minima with both a spin polarization and a color superconducting gap. It is shown that the quark spin polarized phase is realized at rather high density, while the two-flavor color superconducting phase...

  9. Probing electronic phase transitions with phonons via inelastic neutron scattering: superconductivity in borocarbides, charge and magnetic order in manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.

    2007-11-02

    The present thesis concentrates on the signatures of strong electron-phonon coupling in phonon properties measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on the triple-axis spectrometers 1T and DAS PUMA at the research reactors in Saclay (France) and Munich (Germany), respectively. The work is subdivided into two separate chapters: In the first part, we report measurements of the lattice dynamical properties, i.e. phonon frequency, linewidth and intensity, of the conventional, i.e. phonon-mediated, superconductor YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C of the rare-earth-borocarbide family. The detailed check of theoretical predictions for these properties, which were calculated in the theory group of our institute, was one major goal of this work. We measured phonons in the normal state, i.e. T>T{sub c}, for several high symmetry directions up to 70 meV. We were able to extract the full temperature dependence of the superconducting energy gap 2{delta}(T) from our phonon scans with such accuracy that even deviations from the weak coupling BCS behaviour could be clearly observed. By measuring phonons at different wave vectors we demonstrated that phonons are sensitive to the gap anisotropy under the precondition, that different phonons get their coupling strength from different parts of the Fermi surface. In the second part, we investigated the properties of Mn-O bond-stretching phonons in the bilayer manganite La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. At the doping level x=0.38 this compound has an ferromagnetic groundstate and exhibits the so-called colossal magnetoresistance effect in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T{sub C}. The atomic displacement patterns of the investigated phonons closely resemble possible Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra, which are introduced in this compound by the Jahn-Teller active Mn{sup 3+} ions. We observed strong renormalizations of the phonon frequencies and clear peaks of

  10. Microscopic Derivation of the Ginzburg-Landau Equations for the Periodic Anderson Model in the Coexistence Phase of Superconductivity and Antiferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Zlotnikov, A. O.

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of the periodic Anderson model, the microscopic Ginzburg-Landau equations for heavy-fermion superconductors in the coexistence phase of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism have been derived. The obtained expressions are valid in the vicinity of quantum critical point of heavy-fermion superconductors when the onset temperatures of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are sufficiently close to each other. It is shown that the formation of antiferromagnetic ordering causes a decrease of the critical temperature of superconducting transition and order parameter in the phase of coexisting superconductivity and antiferromagnetism.

  11. Mechanism of gas saturated oil viscosity anomaly near to phase transition point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, Baghir A.; Abbasov, Elkhan M.; Sisenbayeva, Marziya R.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents experimental studies of the phase behavior by the flash liberation test and of the viscosity of the live oil at different pressures. Unlike the typical studies at the pressure near the saturation pressure, the measurements were conducted at a relatively small pressure increment of 0.08-0.25 MPa. The viscosity anomaly was discovered experimentally near to the phase transition point in the range of the pressure levels P/Pb = 1-1.14 (Pb—bubble point pressure) and shows that it decreases about 70 times in comparison to the viscosity at the reservoir pressure. It was found that the bubble point pressure decreases significantly (up to 36%) with surfactant addition. Furthermore, the viscosity of the live oil at the surfactant concentration of 5 wt. % decreases almost 37 times in comparison to the viscosity at the reservoir pressure. The mechanism of observed effects was suggested based on the formation of the stable subcritical gas nuclei and associated slippage effect. The mechanism for the stabilization of the subcritical nuclei by the combined action of the surface and electrical forces, as well as the morphology of the formed nanobubbles, was considered. The model for determining the oil viscosity taking into account the slippage effect was suggested.

  12. Laser stimulated kinetics effects on the phase transition of the ferromagnetic/superconducting MgB{sub 2}/(CrO{sub 2}) bilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlZayed, N.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: ikityk@el.pcz.czest.pl [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Soltan, S. [Max Planck Institute, Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 11798 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Wojciechowski, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Lakshminarayana, G. [Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-7), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shahabuddin, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Dependence of resistance versus temperature for different power densities. The nonzero value is generated from the bottom CrO{sub 2} resistive layer. The onset transition temperature is our reference for the enhancement value. - Highlights: • Photoinduced enhancement of critical temperature in MgB{sub 2}–Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was found. • Crucail role of electron–phonon interacton was shown. • Optimal ratio fundamental/SHG intensities was varied within 4:1 and 6:1. - Abstract: Using bicolor laser treatment by Nd:YAG 20 ns laser (1064–532 nm) and 180 ns CO{sub 2} laser beams (10.6–5.3 μm) it was shown a possibility of critical temperature enhancement in ferromagnetic superconducting MgB{sub 2}/CrO{sub 2} bilayer films. The role of the phonon sub-system effectively interacting with 3d Cr originating localized trapping levels is discussed. The pump–probe laser kinetics for the probing second harmonic generation at 1064 nm is explored in details to show principal role of the localized trapping levels. The relaxation of the processes after the switching off the photo inducing beams show the disappearance of the enhanced superconductivity after the 20–30 s. The temperature dependence of the resistance show nonlinear dependence versus the pumping power and different optimal fundamental to writing power density beams ratio.

  13. Implementation of the superfluid helium phase transition using finite element modeling: Simulation of ransient heat transfer and He-I/He-II phase front movement in cooling channels of superconducting magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, E.R.; Verweij, A.P.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the thermal design of high magnetic field superconducting accelerator magnets, the emphasis is on the use of superfluid helium as a coolant and stabilizing medium. The very high effective thermal conductivity of helium below the lambda transition temperature significantly helps to extract heat fr

  14. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  15. Superconductivity in CVD diamond films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2009-06-24

    A beautiful jewel of diamond is insulator. However, boron doping can induce semiconductive, metallic and superconducting properties in diamond. When the boron concentration is tuned over 3 × 10(20) cm(-3), diamonds enter the metallic region and show superconductivity at low temperatures. The metal-insulator transition and superconductivity are analyzed using ARPES, XAS, NMR, IXS, transport and magnetic measurements and so on. This review elucidates the physical properties and mechanism of diamond superconductor as a special superconductivity that occurs in semiconductors.

  16. Superconducting transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  17. Tight Bounds for Mixing of the Swendsen-Wang Algorithm at the Potts Transition Point

    CERN Document Server

    Borgs, Christian; Tetali, Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We study two widely used algorithms for the Potts model on rectangular subsets of the hypercubic lattice Z^d - heat bath dynamics and the Swendsen-Wang algorithm - and prove that, under certain circumstances, the mixing in these algorithms is torpid or slow. In particular, we show that for heat bath dynamics throughout the region of phase coexistence, and for the Swendsen-Wang algorithm at the transition point, the mixing time in a box of side length L with periodic boundary conditions has upper and lower bounds which are exponential in L^{d-1}. This work provides the first upper bound of this form for the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and gives lower bounds for both algorithms which significantly improve the previous lower bounds that were exponential in L/(log L)^2.

  18. Phase identification and superconducting transitions in Sr-doped Pr{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4+{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, A. [Departameto de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallet-Regi, M. [Departameto de Quimica Inorganica y Bioinorganica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]|[Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Apdo. 155, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Gonazalez-Calbet, J.M. [Departameto de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]|[Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, RENFE-UCM, Apdo, 155, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-10-01

    Sr-doped Pr{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} samples have been prepared with accurate control of the oxygen content. The stability of both T{sup {prime}} and T{sup {asterisk}} phases is strongly dependent on Sr and oxygen content. An electron diffraction study indicates that, in some cases, anionic vacancies are ordered leading to a pseudo-tetragonal superlattice with unit cell parameters 2{radical}2{bold a}{sub t}{times}{bold c}{sub t}. Structural transitions and superconducting phases created by hole doping in such a system are also reported. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  19. First-principles study of the pressure and crystal-structure dependences of the superconducting transition temperature in compressed sulfur hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Tsuneyuki, Shinji; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) in sulfur hydrides H2S and H3S from first principles using the density functional theory for superconductors. At pressures of ≲150 GPa, the high values of Tc (≥130 K) observed in a recent experiment (A. P. Drozdov, M. I. Eremets, and I. A. Troyan, arXiv:1412.0460) are accurately reproduced by assuming that H2S decomposes into R 3 m H3S and S. For higher pressures, the calculated Tc's for I m 3 ¯m H3S are systematically higher than those for R 3 m H3S and the experimentally observed maximum value (190 K), which suggests the possibility of another higher-Tc phase. We also quantify the isotope effect from first principles and demonstrate that the isotope effect coefficient can be larger than the conventional value (0.5) when multiple structural phases energetically compete.

  20. All Metal Organic Deposited High-Tc Superconducting Transition Edge Bolometer on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Opata, Yuri Aparecido; Wulff, Anders Christian;

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconductive transition edge bolometer (TEB) fabricated on a Ce0.9La0.1O2−7 (CLO) buffered single crystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. Metal organic deposition was used for the fabrication of both the YBCO thin film as well...... as CLO buffer layer, while standard photolithography was applied for TEB preparation. YBCO thin film properties were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), AC susceptibility and resistance versus temperature measurements. Optical response of the TEB in terms...... of voltage amplitude and phase was analysed and measured through four-probe technique in a liquid nitrogen cooling system. An increase in voltage amplitude response was observed for the fabricated YBCO/CLO/YSZ bolometer compared to previously reported TEBs with similarly deposited YBCO thin film on a SrTiO3...

  1. Phase Transition in Gauge Theories, Monopoles and the Multiple Point Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, C. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.

    This review is devoted to the Multiple Point Principle (MPP), according to which several vacuum states with the same energy density exist in Nature. The MPP is implemented to the Standard Model (SM), Family replicated gauge group model (FRGGM) and phase transitions in gauge theories with/without monopoles. Using renormalization group equations for the SM, the effective potential in the two-loop approximation is investigated, and the existence of its postulated second minimum at the fundamental scale is confirmed. Phase transitions in the lattice gauge theories are reviewed. The lattice results for critical coupling constants are compared with those of the Higgs monopole model, in which the lattice artifact monopoles are replaced by the point-like Higgs scalar particles with magnetic charge. Considering our (3+1)-dimensional space-time as, in some way, discrete or imagining it as a lattice with a parameter a = λP, where λP is the Planck length, we have investigated the additional contributions of monopoles to the β-functions of renormalization group equations for running fine structure constants αi(μ) (i = 1, 2, 3 correspond to the U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups of the SM) in the FRGGM extended beyond the SM at high energies. It is shown that monopoles have Nfam times smaller magnetic charge in the FRGGM than in the SM (Nfam is a number of families in the FRGGM). We have estimated also the enlargement of a number of fermions in the FRGGM leading to the suppression of the asymptotic freedom in the non-Abelian theory. We have reviewed that, in contrast to the case of the Anti-grand-unified-theory (AGUT), there exists a possibility of unification of all gauge interactions (including gravity) near the Planck scale due to monopoles. The possibility of the [SU(5)]3 or [SO(10)]3 unification at the GUT-scale ~1018 GeV is briefly considered.

  2. Superconductivity and superconductive electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M. R.

    1990-12-01

    The Stanford Center for Research on Superconductivity and Superconductive Electronics is currently focused on developing techniques for producing increasingly improved films and multilayers of the high-temperature superconductors, studying their physical properties and using these films and multilayers in device physics studies. In general the thin film synthesis work leads the way. Once a given film or multilayer structure can be made reasonably routinely, the emphasis shifts to studying the physical properties and device physics of these structures and on to the next level of film quality or multilayer complexity. The most advanced thin films synthesis work in the past year has involved developing techniques to deposit a-axis and c-axis YBCO/PBCO superlattices and related structures. The in-situ feature is desirable because no solid state reactions with accompanying changes in volume, morphology, etc., that degrade the quality of the film involved.

  3. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition and correlation of FeAs coordination with the superconducting properties of 111-type Na(1-x)FeAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiancheng; Deng, Zheng; Lv, Yuxi; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Haozhe; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Mao, Hokwang; Shen, Guoyin; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Ren, Yang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lin, Zhijun; Zhao, Yusheng; Jin, Changqing

    2011-05-25

    The effect of pressure on the crystalline structure and superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) of the 111-type Na(1-x)FeAs system using in situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and diamond anvil cell techniques is studied. A pressure-induced tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition was found. The systematic evolution of the FeAs(4) tetrahedron as a function of pressure based on Rietveld refinements on the powder X-ray diffraction patterns was obtained. The nonmonotonic T(c)(P) behavior of Na(1-x)FeAs is found to correlate with the anomalies of the distance between the anion (As) and the iron layer as well as the bond angle of As-Fe-As for the two tetragonal phases. This behavior provides the key structural information in understanding the origin of the pressure dependence of T(c) for 111-type iron pnictide superconductors. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is also observed at 20 GPa.

  4. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Point of Departure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew; Latorella, Kara; Martin, John; Cerro, Jeff; Lepsch, Roger; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; McCleskey, Carey; Smitherman, David; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently developed point of departure design for a long duration, reusable Mars Transit Habitat, which was established during a 2016 NASA habitat design refinement activity supporting the definition of NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign. As part of its development of sustainable human Mars mission concepts achievable in the 2030s, the Evolvable Mars Campaign has identified desired durations and mass/dimensional limits for long duration Mars habitat designs to enable the currently assumed solar electric and chemical transportation architectures. The Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Activity brought together habitat subsystem design expertise from across NASA to develop an increased fidelity, consensus design for a transit habitat within these constraints. The resulting design and data (including a mass equipment list) contained in this paper are intended to help teams across the agency and potential commercial, academic, or international partners understand: 1) the current architecture/habitat guidelines and assumptions, 2) performance targets of such a habitat (particularly in mass, volume, and power), 3) the driving technology/capability developments and architectural solutions which are necessary for achieving these targets, and 4) mass reduction opportunities and research/design needs to inform the development of future research and proposals. Data presented includes: an overview of the habitat refinement activity including motivation and process when informative; full documentation of the baseline design guidelines and assumptions; detailed mass and volume breakdowns; a moderately detailed concept of operations; a preliminary interior layout design with rationale; a list of the required capabilities necessary to enable the desired mass; and identification of any worthwhile trades/analyses which could inform future habitat design efforts. As a whole, the data in the paper show that a transit habitat meeting the 43

  5. Phase transition in gauge theories, monopoles and the Multiple Point Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2005-01-01

    This review is devoted to the Multiple Point Principle (MPP), according to which several vacuum states with the same energy density exist in Nature. The MPP is implemented to the Standard Model (SM), Family replicated gauge group model (FRGGM) and phase transitions in gauge theories with/without monopoles. Lattice gauge theories are reviewed. The lattice results for critical coupling constants are compared with those of the Higgs Monopole Model (HMM), in which the lattice artifact monopoles are replaced by the point-like Higgs scalar particles with a magnetic charge. Considering our (3+1)-dimensional space-time as discrete, for example, as a lattice with a parameter a=\\lambda_P, equal to the Planck length, we have investigated the additional contributions of monopoles to beta-functions of renormalization group equations in the FRGGM extended beyond the SM at high (the Planck scale) energies. We have reviewed that, in contrast to the Anti-grand unified theory (AGUT), there exists a possibility of unification o...

  6. Field Dependence of π-Band Superconducting Gap in MgB2 Thin Films from Point-Contact Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan; XI Xiao-Xing; WANG Yong-Lei; SHAN Lei; JIA Ying; YANG Huan; WEN Hai-Hu; ZHUANG Cheng-Gang; LI Qi; CUI Yi

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of point-contact spectroscopy measurements on high-quality epitaxial MgB2 thin films with injected current along the c-axis. The temperature and field dependences of л-band properties with the field parallel to (H‖) or perpendicular to (H┴ ) the c-axis are investigated in detail. When a magnetic field is applied, either parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, the density of the quasiparticle state (DOS) of the л-band proliferates quickly with increasing field, while the gap amplitude of the л-band decreases slowly, which is different from the recent theoretical calculations, showing a field dependent competition between the interband scattering and the pair-breaking effects.

  7. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  8. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  9. Coexistence and interplay of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in URhGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, F [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH1211, Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Sheikin, I [GHMFL, CNRS BP166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Grenier, B [Universite Joseph Fourier and CEA, INAC/SPSMS/MDN, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Marcenat, C [CEA, INAC, SPSMS, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huxley, A [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, School of Physics, King' s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: florence.levy@physics.unige.ch

    2009-04-22

    As ferromagnetism and superconductivity are usually considered to be antagonistic, the discovery of their coexistence in UGe{sub 2}, URhGe, UIr and UCoGe has attracted a lot of interest. The mechanism to explain such a state has, however, not yet been fully elucidated. In these compounds superconductivity may be unconventional: Cooper pairs could be formed by electrons with parallel spins and magnetic fluctuations might be involved in the pairing mechanism. URhGe becomes ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 9.5 K, with a spontaneous moment aligned to the c-axis. For temperatures below 260 mK and fields lower than 2 T, superconductivity was first observed in 2001. Recently, we discovered a second pocket of superconductivity. This new pocket of superconductivity appears at higher fields applied close to the b-axis, enveloping a sudden magnetic moment rotation transition at H{sub R} = 12 T. Detailed studies of the field induced metamagnetic transition and superconductivity are presented. The possibility that magnetic fluctuations emerging from a quantum critical point provide the pairing mechanism for superconductivity is discussed.

  10. Coexistence and interplay of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in URhGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.; Grenier, B.; Marcenat, C.; Huxley, A.

    2009-04-01

    As ferromagnetism and superconductivity are usually considered to be antagonistic, the discovery of their coexistence in UGe2, URhGe, UIr and UCoGe has attracted a lot of interest. The mechanism to explain such a state has, however, not yet been fully elucidated. In these compounds superconductivity may be unconventional: Cooper pairs could be formed by electrons with parallel spins and magnetic fluctuations might be involved in the pairing mechanism. URhGe becomes ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 9.5 K, with a spontaneous moment aligned to the c-axis. For temperatures below 260 mK and fields lower than 2 T, superconductivity was first observed in 2001. Recently, we discovered a second pocket of superconductivity. This new pocket of superconductivity appears at higher fields applied close to the b-axis, enveloping a sudden magnetic moment rotation transition at HR = 12 T. Detailed studies of the field induced metamagnetic transition and superconductivity are presented. The possibility that magnetic fluctuations emerging from a quantum critical point provide the pairing mechanism for superconductivity is discussed.

  11. Coexistence and interplay of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in URhGe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, F; Sheikin, I; Grenier, B; Marcenat, C; Huxley, A

    2009-04-22

    As ferromagnetism and superconductivity are usually considered to be antagonistic, the discovery of their coexistence in UGe(2), URhGe, UIr and UCoGe has attracted a lot of interest. The mechanism to explain such a state has, however, not yet been fully elucidated. In these compounds superconductivity may be unconventional: Cooper pairs could be formed by electrons with parallel spins and magnetic fluctuations might be involved in the pairing mechanism. URhGe becomes ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 9.5 K, with a spontaneous moment aligned to the c-axis. For temperatures below 260 mK and fields lower than 2 T, superconductivity was first observed in 2001. Recently, we discovered a second pocket of superconductivity. This new pocket of superconductivity appears at higher fields applied close to the b-axis, enveloping a sudden magnetic moment rotation transition at H(R) = 12 T. Detailed studies of the field induced metamagnetic transition and superconductivity are presented. The possibility that magnetic fluctuations emerging from a quantum critical point provide the pairing mechanism for superconductivity is discussed.

  12. Suppression of the superconducting transition of RFeAsO1-xFx ( R=Tb , Dy, and Ho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jennifer A.; Penny, George B. S.; Marcinkova, Andrea; Bos, Jan-Willem G.; Sokolov, Dmitry A.; Kusmartseva, Anna; Huxley, Andrew D.; Attfield, J. Paul

    2009-08-01

    A suppression of superconductivity in the late rare-earth RFeAsO1-xFx materials is reported. The maximum critical temperature (Tc) decreases from 51 K for R=Tb to 36 K for HoFeAsO0.9F0.1 , which has been synthesized under 10 GPa pressure. This suppression is driven by a decrease in the Fe-As-Fe angle below an optimum value of 110.6° , as the angle decreases linearly with unit-cell volume (V) across the RFeAsO1-xFx series. A crossover in electronic structure around this optimum geometry is evidenced by a change in sign of the compositional dTc/dV , from negative values for previously reported large R materials to positive for HoFeAsO0.9F0.1 .

  13. Pressure-induced superconductivity and structural transitions in Ba(Fe0.9Ru0.1)2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sefat, Athena S.; Weir, Samuel T.

    2014-03-01

    Electrical transport and structural characterizations of isoelectronically substituted Ba(Fe0.9Ru0.1)2As2 have been performed as a function of pressure up to ~30 GPa and temperature down to ~10 K using designer diamond anvil cell. Similar to undoped members of the AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) family, Ba(Fe0.9Ru0.1)2As2 shows anomalous a-lattice parameter expansion with increasing pressure and a concurrent ThCr2Si2 type isostructural (I4/mmm) phase transition from tetragonal (T) phase to a collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase occurring between 12 and 17 GPa where the a is maximum. Above 17 GPa, the material remains in the cT phase up to 30 GPa at 200 K. The resistance measurements show evidence of pressure-induced zero resistance that may be indicative of high-temperature superconductivity for pressures above 3.9 GPa. The onset of the resistive transition temperature decreases gradually with increasing pressure before completely disappearing for pressures above ~10.6 GPa near the T-cT transition. We have determined the crystal structure of the high-Tc phase of Ru-doped BaFe2As2 to remain as tetragonal (I4/mmm) by analyzing the X-ray diffraction pattern obtained at 10 K and 9.7 ± 0.7 GPa, as opposed to inferring the structural transition from electrical resistance measurement, as in a previous report [S.K. Kim, M.S. Torikachvili, E. Colombier, A. Thaler, S.L. Bud'ko, P.C. Canfield, Phys. Rev. B 84, 134525 (2011)].

  14. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  15. Line-transitive point-imprimitive linear spaces with Fang-Li parameter gcd(k,r) at most 10

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Haiyan; Zhou, Shenglin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a further contribution to the classification of line-transitive finite linear spaces. We prove that if S is a non-trivial finite linear space with the Fang-Li parameter gcd(k,r) is 9 or 10, the automorphism group G of S is line-transitive and point-imprimitive, then S is the Desarguesian projective plane PG(2,9).

  16. Spectral weight changes at the superconducting transition of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8+. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessau, D.S.; Shen, Z.X.; Wells, B.O.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Electronics Labs.); Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An overview of our gap studies in high-{Tc} superconductors is presented for the workshop on Fermiology of high-{Tc}'s. The work is centered on the study of single crystal Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. In a conventional BCS superconductor, a superconducting gap {Delta} is formed when the near Fermi edge electrons condense to form Cooper pairs at low temperatures. As the material goes superconducting the density of states is modified such that the spectral intensity in the region from the Fermi energy down to an energy {Delta} is transferred to a regions just below {Delta}. While this spectral weight transfer has in the past been studied with tunneling spectroscopy, the size of the gap as well as improvements in our instrument resolution allow us now to study it with photoelectron spectroscopy. We have found that as the sample goes superconducting, not only is there spectral weight transfer from the gap region as in BCS theory, but along the {Gamma}-M direction there is also some spectral weight transfer from higher binding energies resulting in a dspectral dip at about {minus}90 meV relative E{sub F}. The total spectral weight decreases along the {Gamma}-M direction, but actually increases along the {Gamma}-X direction. This temperature dependent spectral transfer is discussed in terms of (1) a two to three dimensional phase transition from RVB theory; (2) a manifestation of the electron-boson interaction in the form of {alpha}{sup 2}F oscillations; and (3) conformity with the theory of Van Hove singularities. The latter are particularly attractive in that there are several other observations possibly explained by them: (1) the observation that the magnitude of the gap is anisotropic in the a-b plane; (2) the observation that for overdoped samples the magnitude of D appears to fall off faster then {Tc}. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Realization of Multi-qubit GHZ States in Superconducting Quantum-interference Devices via Double Raman Transition%通过双Raman作用在超导量子干涉器件中实现多比特GHZ态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹志明; 刘晓东; 张立辉; 石文星; 李星

    2011-01-01

    Propose a scheme to realize multi-qubit GHZ states in superconducting quantum-interference devices(SQUIDs) via double Raman transition.In this scheme,the cavity field is only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay can be ignored.The GHZ states are realized by using only two basic states of the SQUID system and the relaxation of excited state of the system are avoided.Base on the points mentioned above,the scheme should be easily realized on experiment.%在腔中通过双Raman作用,在超导量子干涉器件中实现多比特GHZ(Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger)态的制备.在制备过程中,由于腔场只是被虚激发的,所以腔模的衰减可以忽略.GHZ态的实现只用到了超导系统的两个基态,有效地避免了超导系统激发态的弛豫.

  18. Simulation of flow-field interior dust removal system at a transit point and the overall technology of dust removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Shao-cheng; SHAO Liang-shan

    2008-01-01

    In order to make a reasonable dry-type dust removal plan of the coal transit spot in a coal washery, it is essential to install the dust removal fan and guide chute. By means of the numerical simulation, the pollution mechanism at a transit point and the flow-field interior dust removal system had been analyzed. The result shows that the dust pollution at transit spot is mainly cased by the joint effort of induced airflow and shock-wave. With the appropriate dust removal fan and the guide chute, will effectively eliminate the positive pressure by gave rise to by the impact of falling coal, also avoid the secondary pollution.

  19. Global and local superconductivity in boron-doped granular diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Turner, Stuart; Ekimov, Evgeny A; Vanacken, Johan; Timmermans, Matias; Samuely, Tomás; Sidorov, Vladimir A; Stishov, Sergei M; Lu, Yinggang; Deloof, Bart; Goderis, Bart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Van de Vondel, Joris; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2014-04-02

    Strong granularity-correlated and intragrain modulations of the superconducting order parameter are demonstrated in heavily boron-doped diamond situated not yet in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. These modulations at the superconducting state (SC) and at the global normal state (NS) above the resistive superconducting transition, reveal that local Cooper pairing sets in prior to the global phase coherence.

  20. Inflationary spectra from a near Ω -deformed spacetime transition point in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal an Ω -deformed spacetime structure, Ω ≔1 -2 ρ /ρc , where Ω 0 indicates a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the spacetime transition point, ρ =ρc/2 , but we find that it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large k modes at that time. However, if we loosen the condition and give the initial value slightly after Ω =0 , e.g., Ω ≃0.2 , the vacuum state can be well defined and, furthermore, the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that, if the energy density is not too small in relation to ρc/2 when the considered k mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blueshift. However, when compared to other observations, since the energy densities when the modes crossed the horizon were significantly smaller than ρc, the results we get agree with previous work in the literature and with the classical inflation theory.

  1. Polymer glass transition occurs at the marginal rigidity point with connectivity z* = 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappala, Anna; Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2016-09-21

    We re-examine the physical origin of the polymer glass transition from the point of view of marginal rigidity, which is achieved at a certain average number of mechanically active intermolecular contacts per monomer. In the case of polymer chains in a melt/poor solvent, each monomer has two neighbors bound by covalent bonds and also a number of central-force contacts modelled by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We find that when the average number of contacts per monomer (covalent and non-covalent) exceeds the critical value z* ≈ 4, the system becomes solid and the dynamics arrested - a state that we declare the glass. Coarse-grained Brownian dynamics simulations show that at sufficient strength of LJ attraction (which effectively represents the depth of quenching, or the quality of solvent) the polymer globule indeed crosses the threshold of z*, and becomes a glass with a finite zero-frequency shear modulus, G∝ (z-z*). We verify this by showing the distinction between the 'liquid' polymer droplet at z z*, which changes shape and adopts the spherical conformation in equilibrium, and the glassy 'solid' droplet at z > z*, which retains its shape frozen at the moment of z* crossover. These results provide a robust microscopic criterion to tell the liquid apart from the glass for the linear polymers.

  2. Inflationary spectra from near $\\Omega$-deformed space-time transition point in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal a $\\Omega$ -deformed space-time structure, $\\Omega:=1-2\\rho/\\rho_c$, where $\\Omega0$ means a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the space-time transition point, $\\rho=\\rho_c/2$, but we find it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large $k$-modes at that time. However if we loose the condition and give the initial value near after $\\Omega=0$, e.g. $\\Omega\\simeq 0.2$, the vacuum state can be well defined and furthermore the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that if the energy density is not too small compared with $\\rho_c/2$ when the considered $k$-mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blue shift. But when co...

  3. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  4. Superconductivity in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Jinguang; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Kong, Panpan; Lin, Fukun; Jin, Changqing; Wang, Nanlin; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Luo, Jianlin

    2014-11-19

    One of the common features of unconventional superconducting systems such as the heavy-fermion, high transition-temperature cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors is that the superconductivity emerges in the vicinity of long-range antiferromagnetically ordered state. In addition to doping charge carriers, the application of external pressure is an effective and clean approach to induce unconventional superconductivity near a magnetic quantum critical point. Here we report on the discovery of superconductivity on the verge of antiferromagnetic order in CrAs via the application of external pressure. Bulk superconductivity with Tc≈2 K emerges at the critical pressure Pc≈8 kbar, where the first-order antiferromagnetic transition at T(N)≈265 K under ambient pressure is completely suppressed. The close proximity of superconductivity to an antiferromagnetic order suggests an unconventional pairing mechanism for CrAs. The present finding opens a new avenue for searching novel superconductors in the Cr and other transition metal-based systems.

  5. p-wave triggered superconductivity in single-layer graphene on an electron-doped oxide superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Bernardo, A.; Millo, O.; Barbone, M.; Alpern, H.; Kalcheim, Y.; Sassi, U.; Ott, A. K.; de Fazio, D.; Yoon, D.; Amado, M.; Ferrari, A. C.; Linder, J.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.

  6. p-wave triggered superconductivity in single-layer graphene on an electron-doped oxide superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, A; Millo, O; Barbone, M; Alpern, H; Kalcheim, Y; Sassi, U; Ott, A K; De Fazio, D; Yoon, D; Amado, M; Ferrari, A C; Linder, J; Robinson, J W A

    2017-01-19

    Electron pairing in the vast majority of superconductors follows the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, which describes the condensation of electrons into pairs with antiparallel spins in a singlet state with an s-wave symmetry. Unconventional superconductivity was predicted in single-layer graphene (SLG), with the electrons pairing with a p-wave or chiral d-wave symmetry, depending on the position of the Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point. By placing SLG on an electron-doped (non-chiral) d-wave superconductor and performing local scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, here we show evidence for a p-wave triggered superconducting density of states in SLG. The realization of unconventional superconductivity in SLG offers an exciting new route for the development of p-wave superconductivity using two-dimensional materials with transition temperatures above 4.2 K.

  7. Pressure-induced phase transitions and correlation between structure and superconductivity in iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinggeng; Liu, Haozhe; Ehm, Lars; Dong, Dawei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingqing; Hu, Wanzheng; Wang, Nanlin; Jin, Changqing

    2013-07-15

    High-pressure angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments on iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs were performed up to 54.9 GPa at room temperature. A tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition starts at about 13.9 GPa, and a new high-pressure phase has been found above 33.8 GPa. At pressures above 19.9 GPa, Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs completely transforms to a high-pressure tetragonal phase, which remains in the same tetragonal structure with a larger a-axis and smaller c-axis than those of the low-pressure tetragonal phase. The structure analysis shows a discontinuity in the pressure dependences of the Fe-As and Ce-(O, F) bond distances, as well as the As-Fe-As and Ce-(O, F)-Ce bond angles in the transition region, which correlates with the change in T(c) of this compound upon compression. The isostructural phase transition in Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs leads to a drastic drop in the superconducting transition temperature T(c) and restricts the superconductivity at low temperature. For the 1111-type iron-based superconductors, the structure evolution and following superconductivity changes under compression are related to the radius of lanthanide cations in the charge reservoir layer.

  8. Unexpected superconductivity at nanoscale junctions made on the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.6Sn0.4Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shekhar; Aggarwal, Leena; Roychowdhury, Subhajit; Aslam, Mohammad; Gayen, Sirshendu; Biswas, Kanishka; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Discovery of exotic phases of matter from the topologically non-trivial systems not only makes the research on topological materials more interesting but also enriches our understanding of the fascinating physics of such materials. Pb0.6Sn0.4Te was recently shown to be a topological crystalline insulator. Here, we show that by forming a mesoscopic point-contact using a normal non-superconducting elemental metal on the surface of Pb0.6Sn0.4Te, a superconducting phase is created locally in a confined region under the point-contact. This happens when the bulk of the sample remains to be non-superconducting, and the superconducting phase emerges as a nano-droplet under the point-contact. The superconducting phase shows a high transition temperature Tc that varies for different point-contacts and falls in a range between 3.7 K and 6.5 K. Therefore, this Letter presents the discovery of a superconducting phase on the surface of a topological crystalline insulator, and the discovery is expected to shed light on the mechanism of induced superconductivity in topologically non-trivial systems in general.

  9. Temperature dependence of the flux line lattice transition into square symmetry in superconducting LuNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, M.R.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Kogan, V.G.;

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the H parallel to c flux line lattice structural phase transition from square to hexagonal symmetry, in the tetragonal superconductor LuNi2B2C (T-c = 16.6 K). At temperatures below 10 K the transition onset field, H-2(T), is only weakly temperature...... dependent. Above 10 K, H-2(T) rises sharply, bending away from the upper critical field. This contradicts theoretical predictions of H-2(T) merging with the upper critical field and suggests that just below the H-c2(T) curve the flux line lattice might be hexagonal....

  10. Resilience of Greek Youth at an Educational Transition Point: The Role of Locus of Control and Coping Strategies as Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontopoulou, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    Variable--and person--focused approaches were applied to study the resilient outcomes of 326 Greek male and female 1st year university students at a major educational transition point. Results indicated that resilience was related to both cognitive and behavioural psychosocial resources in late adolescence. Locus of control emerged as an important…

  11. Nonequilibrium phase transitions and a nonequilibrium critical point from anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2012-09-21

    We find novel phase transitions and critical phenomena that occur only outside the linear-response regime of current-driven nonequilibrium states. We consider the strongly interacting (3+1)-dimensional N = 4 large-N(c) SU(N(c)) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a single flavor of fundamental N = 2 hypermultiplet as a microscopic theory. We compute its nonlinear nonballistic quark-charge conductivity by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We find that the system exhibits a novel nonequilibrium first-order phase transition where the conductivity jumps and the sign of the differential conductivity flips at finite current density. A nonequilibrium critical point is discovered at the end point of the first-order regime. We propose a nonequilibrium steady-state analogue of thermodynamic potential in terms of the gravity-dual theory in order to define the transition point. Nonequilibrium analogues of critical exponents are proposed as well. The critical behavior of the conductivity is numerically confirmed on the basis of these proposals. The present work provides a new example of nonequilibrium phase transitions and nonequilibrium critical points.

  12. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P. S.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-11-11

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.

  13. Theory of the dynamics of first-order phase transitions: unstable fixed points, exponents, and dynamical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fan; Chen, Qizhou

    2005-10-21

    Phase transitions are of great importance in a diversity of fields. They are usually classified into continuous phase transitions and first-order phase transitions (FOPTs). Whereas the former has a well-developed theoretical framework of the renormalization-group (RG) theory, no general theory has yet been developed for the latter that appear far more frequently. Focusing on the dynamics of a generic FOPT in the phi4 model below its critical point, we show by a field-theoretic RG method that it is governed by an unexpected unstable fixed point of the corresponding phi3 model. Accordingly, it exhibits a distinct scaling and universality behavior with unstable exponents different from the critical ones.

  14. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  15. Segregation of antiferromagnetism and high-temperature superconductivity in Ca1-xLaxFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shanta R.; Drye, T.; Goh, S. K.; Klintberg, L. E.; Silver, J. M.; Grosche, F. M.; Sutherland, M.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Luke, G. M.; Pratt, D. K.; Lynn, J. W.; Paglione, J.

    2014-04-01

    We report the effect of applied pressures on magnetic and superconducting order in single crystals of the aliovalent La-doped iron pnictide material Ca1-xLaxFe2As2. Using electrical transport, elastic neutron scattering, and resonant tunnel diode oscillator measurements on samples under both quasihydrostatic and hydrostatic pressure conditions, we report a series of phase diagrams spanning the range of substitution concentrations for both antiferromagnetic and superconducting ground states that include pressure-tuning through the antiferromagnetic (AFM) superconducting critical point. Our results indicate that the observed superconducting phase with a maximum transition temperature of Tc=47 K is intrinsic to these materials, appearing only upon suppression of magnetic order by pressure-tuning through the AFM critical point. Thus, the superconducting phase appears to exist exclusively in juxtaposition to the antiferromagnetic phase in a manner similar to the oxygen- and fluorine-based iron-pnictide superconductors with the highest transition temperatures reported to date. Unlike the lower-Tc systems, in which superconductivity and magnetism usually coexist, the tendency for the highest-Tc systems to show noncoexistence provides an important insight into the distinct transition temperature limits in different members of the iron-based superconductor family.

  16. Enhancement of superconductivity near the pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition in the BiS₂-based superconductors LnO₀.₅F₀.₅BiS₂ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowiec, C T; White, B D; Jeon, I; Yazici, D; Huang, K; Maple, M B

    2013-10-23

    Measurements of electrical resistivity were performed between 3 and 300 K at various pressures up to 2.8 GPa on the BiS2-based superconductors LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=Pr, Nd). At lower pressures, PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2 exhibit superconductivity with critical temperatures Tc of 3.5 and 3.9 K, respectively. As pressure is increased, both compounds undergo a transition at a pressure Pt from a low Tc superconducting phase to a high Tc superconducting phase in which Tc reaches maximum values of 7.6 and 6.4 K for PrO0.5F0.5BiS2 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, respectively. The pressure-induced transition is characterized by a rapid increase in Tc within a small range in pressure of ∼0.3 GPa for both compounds. In the normal state of PrO0.5F0.5BiS2, the transition pressure Pt correlates with the pressure where the suppression of semiconducting behaviour saturates. In the normal state of NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, Pt is coincident with a semiconductor-metal transition. This behaviour is similar to the results recently reported for the LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce) compounds. We observe that Pt and the size of the jump in Tc between the two superconducting phases both scale with the lanthanide element in LnO0.5F0.5BiS2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd).

  17. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  18. Critical point phase transition for finite temperature 3-flavor QCD with nonperturbatively O (a ) improved Wilson fermions at Nt=10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Yong; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira

    2017-08-01

    We study the finite temperature phase structure for three-flavor QCD with a focus on locating the critical point, which separates the crossover and the first order phase transition region in the chiral regime of the Columbia plot. In this study, we employ the Iwasaki gauge action and the nonperturvatively O (a ) improved Wilson-Clover fermion action. We discuss the finite size scaling analysis, including the mixing of magnetizationlike and energylike observables. We carry out the continuum extrapolation of the critical point using newly generated data at the Nt=8 , 10 and estimate the upper bound of the critical pseudoscalar meson mass mPS ,E≲170 MeV and the critical temperature TE=134 (3 ) MeV . Our estimate of the upper bound is derived from the existence of the critical point as an edge of the first order phase transition while that of the staggered-type fermions with smearing is based on its absence.

  19. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  20. Search for superconductivity in micrometeorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénon, S; Ramírez, J G; Basaran, Ali C; Wampler, J; Thiemens, M; Taylor, S; Schuller, Ivan K

    2014-12-05

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures.

  1. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  2. Enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 by a strain-induced bond-stretching mode softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyakov, A V; Redwing, J M; Raghavan, S; Vaithyanathan, V; Schlom, D G; Xu, S Y; Li, Qi; Tenne, D A; Soukiassian, A; Xi, X X; Johannes, M D; Kasinathan, D; Pickett, W E; Wu, J S; Spence, J C H

    2004-10-01

    We report a systematic increase of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) with a biaxial tensile strain in MgB2 films to well beyond the bulk value. The tensile strain increases with the MgB2 film thickness, caused primarily by the coalescence of initially nucleated discrete islands (the Volmer-Weber growth mode.) The T(c) increase was observed in epitaxial films on SiC and sapphire substrates, although the T(c) values were different for the two substrates due to different lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. We identified, by first-principles calculations, the underlying mechanism for the T(c) increase to be the softening of the bond-stretching E(2g) phonon mode, and we confirmed this conclusion by Raman scattering measurements. The result suggests that the E(2g) phonon softening is a possible avenue to achieve even higher T(c) in MgB2-related material systems.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic, Superconducting, and other Phase Transitions in novel F-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures - Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maple, Brian; Jeffires, Jason

    2006-07-28

    This grant, entitled “Experimental investigation of magnetic, superconducting and other phase transitions in novel f-electron materials at ultrahigh pressures,” spanned the funding period from May 1st, 2003 until April 30th, 2006. The major goal of this grant was to develop and utilize an ultrahigh pressure facility—capable of achieving very low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and extreme pressures as well as providing electrical resistivity, ac susceptibility, and magnetization measurement capabilities under pressure—for the exploration of magnetic, electronic, and structural phases and any corresponding interactions between these states in novel f-electron materials. Realizing this goal required the acquisition, development, fabrication, and implementation of essential equipment, apparatuses, and techniques. The following sections of this report detail the establishment of an ultrahigh pressure facility (Section 1) and measurements performed during the funding period (Section 2), as well as summarize the research project (Section 3), project participants and their levels of support (Section 4), and publications and presentations (Section 5).

  4. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  5. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  6. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  7. Phases of higher spin black holes: Hawking-Page, transitions between black holes and a critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Bañados, Máximo; Faraggi, Alberto; Reyes, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic phase diagram of three-dimensional $sl(N;\\mathbb{R})$ higher spin black holes. By analyzing the semi-classical partition function we uncover a rich structure that includes Hawking-Page transitions to the AdS$_3$ vacuum, first order phase transitions among black hole states, and a second order critical point. Our analysis is explicit for $N=4$ but we extrapolate some of our conclusions to arbitrary $N$. In particular, we argue that even $N$ is stable in the ensemble under consideration but odd $N$ is not.

  8. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  9. Stationary-point approach to the phase transition of the classical XY chain with power-law interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The stationary points of the potential energy function V of the classical XY chain with power-law pair interactions (i.e., interactions decaying like r{-α} with the distance) are analyzed. For a class of "spinwave-type" stationary points, the asymptotic behavior of the Hessian determinant of V is computed analytically in the limit of large system size. The computation is based on the Toeplitz property of the Hessian and makes use of a Szegö-type theorem. The results serve to illustrate a recently discovered relation between phase transitions and the properties of stationary points of classical many-body potentials. In agreement with this relation, the exact phase transition potential energy of the model can be read off from the behavior of the Hessian determinant for exponents α between zero and one. For α between one and two, the phase transition is not manifest in the behavior of the determinant, and it might be necessary to consider larger classes of stationary points.

  10. Superconductivity in highly disordered dense carbon disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ranga P; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Kim, Minseob; Muramatsu, Takaki; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Sinogeikin, Stanislav

    2013-07-16

    High pressure plays an increasingly important role in both understanding superconductivity and the development of new superconducting materials. New superconductors were found in metallic and metal oxide systems at high pressure. However, because of the filled close-shell configuration, the superconductivity in molecular systems has been limited to charge-transferred salts and metal-doped carbon species with relatively low superconducting transition temperatures. Here, we report the low-temperature superconducting phase observed in diamagnetic carbon disulfide under high pressure. The superconductivity arises from a highly disordered extended state (CS4 phase or phase III[CS4]) at ~6.2 K over a broad pressure range from 50 to 172 GPa. Based on the X-ray scattering data, we suggest that the local structural change from a tetrahedral to an octahedral configuration is responsible for the observed superconductivity.

  11. Superconducting properties of “111” type LiFeAs iron arsenide single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    LiFeAs single crystal has been grown with superconducting transition temperature Tc comparable to that of polycrystals.A magnetic transition is found at about 160 K,which suggests the correlation of superconductivity with spin wave density.

  12. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  13. A hidden pseudogap under the 'dome' of superconductivity in electron-doped high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alff, L; Krockenberger, Y; Welter, B; Schonecke, M; Gross, R; Manske, D; Naito, M

    2003-04-17

    The ground state of superconductors is characterized by the long-range order of condensed Cooper pairs: this is the only order present in conventional superconductors. The high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductors, in contrast, exhibit more complex phase behaviour, which might indicate the presence of other competing ground states. For example, the pseudogap--a suppression of the accessible electronic states at the Fermi level in the normal state of high-T(c) superconductors-has been interpreted as either a precursor to superconductivity or as tracer of a nearby ground state that can be separated from the superconducting state by a quantum critical point. Here we report the existence of a second order parameter hidden within the superconducting phase of the underdoped (electron-doped) high-T(c) superconductor Pr2-xCe(x)CuO4-y and the newly synthesized electron-doped material La2-xCe(x)CuO4-y (ref. 8). The existence of a pseudogap when superconductivity is suppressed excludes precursor superconductivity as its origin. Our observation is consistent with the presence of a (quantum) phase transition at T = 0, which may be a key to understanding high-T(c) superconductivity. This supports the picture that the physics of high-T(c) superconductors is determined by the interplay between competing and coexisting ground states.

  14. Charge ordering phenomena and superconductivity in underdoped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassini, Leonardo [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl E23 fuer Technische Physik

    2008-01-16

    In this thesis electronic properties of two prototypical copper-oxygen superconductors were studied with Raman scattering. The underdoped regime including the onset point of superconductivity p{sub sc1} was investigated. Evidence of quasi one-dimensional (1D) dynamical stripes was found. The 1D structures have a universal preferential orientation along the diagonals of the CuO{sub 2} planes below p{sub sc1}. At p{sub sc1}, lattice and electron dynamics change discontinuously. The results show that charge ordering drives the transition at p{sub sc1} and that the maximal transition temperature to superconductivity at optimal doping T{sub c}{sup MAX} depends on the type of ordering at p{sub sc1}. (orig.)

  15. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2 +1 flavor QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a )-improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical endline is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multiparameter, multiensemble reweighting method to calculate observables off the SU(3)-symmetric point, at the temporal size NT=6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm . We confirm that the slope of the critical endline takes the value of -2 , and find that the second derivative is positive, at the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point on the Columbia plot parametrized with the strange quark mass ms and degenerated up-down quark mass ml.

  16. Simulation of flow-field interior dust removal system at a transit point and the overall technology of dust removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Shao-cheng; SHAO Liang-shan

    2008-01-01

    In order to make a reasonable dry-type dust removal plan of the coal transit spot in a coal washery,it is essential to install the dust removal fan and guide chute.Bymeans of the numerical simulation,the pollution mechanism at a transit point and the flow-field interior dust removal system had been analyzed.The result shows that the dustpollution at transit spot is mainly cased by the joint effort of induced airflow andshock-wave.With the appropriate dust removal fan and the guide chute,will effectively eliminate the positive pressure by gave rise to by the impact of falling coal,also avoid the secondary pollution.

  17. Metal-Insulator Transition and Superconductivity in Y1-xPr(Ce)xBa2Cu3O7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩汝珊; 苏肇冰; 王玉鹏

    1994-01-01

    To interpret the metal-insulator transition and depression of Tc induced by Pr-and Ce-doping in YBa2Cu3O7, we propose a model of mixed local hole states which describe a strong admixture of 4f1 state with states of 4f2 plus a hole in the CuO2 planes for Y1-x-Prx-07 and 4f0 state with states of 4f1 plus a hole in Y1-xCex-O7. Our model resolves the controversy between the magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. As a natural consequence, most of the experimental results on Y1-xPrx-O7 can be explained and certain properties of Y1-xCex-O7 are predicted. The critical doping density of Pr will take the value of xc ≈0.5.

  18. Coexistence of order and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, M

    2011-01-01

    We study the interplay between ordered and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a generic first-order quantum phase transition in the interacting boson model of nuclei. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases. While the dynamics in the deformed phase is robustly regular, the spherical phase shows strongly chaotic behavior in the same energy intervals. The effect of collective rotations on the dynamics is investigated.

  19. Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiy.lysenko@upr.edu; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Aparicio, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico-Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732 (United States); Sepúlveda, Nelson [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.

  20. Superconductivity and crystal structural origins of the metal-insulator transition in Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 tetragonal tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiaznyi, Taras; Sakurai, Hiroya; Isobe, Masaaki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Forbes, Scott; Mozharivskyj, Yurij; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Luke, Graeme M.; Gurak, Mary; Clarke, David R.

    2015-12-01

    Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 solid solution with 0 ≤ x ≤6 forms the filled tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure. The Ba-end member crystallizes in the highest symmetry P 4 /m b m space group (a =b =12.5842 (18 )Å and c =3.9995 (8 )Å ) and so do all the compositions with 0 ≤ x ≤5 . The Sr-end member of the solid solution crystallizes in the tentatively assigned A m a m space group (a *=17.506 (4 )Å , b *=34.932 (7 )Å , and c *=7.7777 (2 )Å ). The latter space group is related to the parent P 4 /m b m TTB structure as a * ≈ √{2 }a ,b * ≈2 √{2 }a ,c *=2 c . Low-temperature specific heat measurements indicate that the Ba-rich compositions with x ≤2 are conventional BCS superconductors with TC ≤1.6 K and superconducting energy gaps of ≤0.38 meV. The values of the TC in the cation-filled Nb-based TTBs reported here are comparable with those of the unfilled KxWO3 and NaxWO3 TTBs having large alkali ion deficiency. As the unit cell volume decreases with increasing x , an unexpected metal-insulator transition (MIT) in Ba6 -xSrxNb10O30 occurs at x ≥3 . We discuss the possible origins of the MIT in terms of the carrier concentration, symmetry break, and Anderson localization.

  1. I. Low frequency noise in metal films at the superconducting transition. II. Resistance of superconductor - normal metal- superconductor sandwiches and the quasiparticle relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, T.Y.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of the noise power spectra of tin and lead films at the superconducting transition in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 5k Hz are reported. Two types of samples were made. Type A were evaporated directly onto glass substrate, while Type B were evaporated onto glass or sapphire substrate with a 50A aluminum underlay. The results were consistent with a thermal diffusion model which attributes the noise to the intrinsic temperature fluctuation in the metal film driven with a random energy flux source. In both types of metal films, the noise power was found to be proportional to (V-bar)/sup 2/ ..beta../sup 2//..cap omega.., where V-bar was the mean voltage across the sample, ..beta.. was the temperature coefficient of resistance and ..cap omega.. was the volume of the sample. Correlation of noises in two regions of the metal film a distance d apart was detected at frequencies less than or = D/..pi..d/sup 2/. A possible explanation of the noises using quantitative boundary conditions and implications of this work for device applications are discussed. Theoretical and experimental investigation are reported on the resistance of superconductor-normal metal-superconductor sandwiches near T/sub c/. The increase in SNS resistance is attributed to the penetration of normal electric current in the superconductor. It is proved from first principles that an electric field can exist inside the superconductor when quasiparticles are not equally populated on the two branches of the excitation spectrum, and such is the case in a current biased SNS junction. The electric field inside S decays according to a diffusion law. The diffusion length is determined by the quasiparticle ''branch-crossing'' relaxation time. The branch-crossing relaxation times were measured. Impurity-doping of tin was found to decrease this relaxation time.

  2. Identifying transitions in finite systems by means of partition function zeros and microcanonical inflection-point analysis: A comparison for elastic flexible polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Julio C S; Landau, David P; Bachmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For the estimation of transition points of finite elastic, flexible polymers with chain lengths from $13$ to $309$ monomers, we compare systematically transition temperatures obtained by the Fisher partition function zeros approach with recent results from microcanonical inflection-point analysis. These methods rely on accurate numerical estimates of the density of states, which have been obtained by advanced multicanonical Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Both the Fisher zeros method and microcanonical inflection-point analysis yield very similar results and enable the unique identification of transition points in finite systems, which is typically impossible in the conventional canonical analysis of thermodynamic quantities.

  3. Nonequilibrium interpretation of DC properties of NbN superconducting hot electron bolometers

    CERN Document Server

    Shcherbatenko, M; Lobanov, Yu; Maslennikov, S N; Kaurova, N; Finkel, M; Voronov, B; Goltsman, G; Klapwijk, T M

    2016-01-01

    We present a physically consistent interpretation of the dc electrical properties of niobiumnitride (NbN)-based superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB-) mixers, using concepts of nonequilibrium superconductivity. Through this we clarify what physical information can be extracted from the resistive transition and the dc current-voltage characteristics, measured at suitably chosen temperatures, and relevant for device characterization and optimization. We point out that the intrinsic spatial variation of the electronic properties of disordered superconductors, such as NbN, leads to a variation from device to device.

  4. Search for Pauli Exclusion Principle Violating Atomic Transitions and Electron Decay with a P-type Point Contact Germanium Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Finnerty, P S; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K-alpha electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8x10^30 seconds at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the x-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8x10^30 seconds at 90 C.L. It is estimated that the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76-Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.

  5. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, M.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Jasinski, B.R. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, Vermillion, SD (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Department of Physics, Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M.F. [Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Martin, R.D. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Romero-Romero, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vetter, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K{sub α} electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)

  6. Ising-like dynamical signatures and the end-point of the QCD transition line

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, S; Sexty, D; Szép, Z; Borsanyi, Sz.; Szep, Zs.

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the size of coherent domains in the one component $\\Phi^4$ field theory under the influence of a uniformly changing external magnetic field near the critical end-point $T_{\\Phi}=T_c, h_{\\Phi}=0$ was proposed recently as an estimate also for the variation of the chiral correlation length of QCD near its respective hypothetical end point in the $T_{QCD}-\\mu_{QCD}$ plane. The present detailed numerical investigation of the effective model suggests that passing by the critical QCD end point with realistic rate of temperature change will trigger large amplitude oscillations in the temporal variation of the chiral correlation length. A simple mechanism for producing this phenomenon is suggested.

  7. Charged polymers in the attractive regime: a first order transition from Brownian scaling to four points localization

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yueyun; Wouts, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    We study a quenched charged-polymer model, introduced by Garel and Orland in 1988, that reproduces the folding/unfolding transition of biopolymers. We prove that, below the critical inverse temperature, the polymer is delocalized in the sense that: (1) The rescaled trajectory of the polymer converges to the Brownian path; and (2) The partition function remains bounded. At the critical inverse temperature, we show that the maximum time spent at points jumps discontinuously from 0 to a positive fraction of the number of monomers, in the limit as the number of monomers tends to infinity. Finally, when the critical inverse temperature is large, we prove that the polymer collapses in the sense that a large fraction of its monomers live on four adjacent positions, and its diameter grows only logarithmically with the number of the monomers. Our methods also provide some insight into the annealed phase transition and at the transition due to a pulling force; both phase transitions are shown to be discontinuous.

  8. The Razor’s Edge of Collapse: The Transition Point from Lognormal to Power-Law Distributions in Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Stalpes, Kye; Collins, David C.

    2017-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the transitional column density value ({η }t) between the lognormal and power-law form of the probability distribution function (PDF) in star-forming molecular clouds. Our expression for {η }t depends on the mean column density, the variance of the lognormal portion of the PDF, and the slope of the power-law portion of the PDF. We show that {η }t can be related to physical quantities such as the sonic Mach number of the flow and the power-law index for a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. This implies that the transition point between the lognormal and power-law density/column density PDF represents the critical density where turbulent and thermal pressure balance, the so-called “post-shock density.” We test our analytic prediction for the transition column density using dust PDF observations reported in the literature, as well as numerical MHD simulations of self-gravitating supersonic turbulence with the Enzo code. We find excellent agreement between the analytic {η }t and the measured values from the numerical simulations and observations (to within 1.2 AV). We discuss the utility of our expression for determining the properties of the PDF from unresolved low-density material in dust observations, for estimating the post-shock density, and for determining the H i–H2 transition in clouds.

  9. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, V; Cirillo, M; Lucci, M; Ottaviani, I; Scherillo, A; Celentano, G; Pietropaolo, A

    2014-01-01

    A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the supercond...

  10. Exotic Magnetic Orders and Their Interplay with Superconductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Holm

    applications. The more recent discovery of high-temperature superconductors, with superconducting transition temperatures above 100~K, has led to the hope that superconductivity at room-temperature might be achievable, although a complete theoretical understanding of the high-temperature superconductors......Superconductivity represents one of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century. The practical applications are numerous ranging from clean energy storage and MRI machines to quantum computers. However, the low temperatures required for superconductivity prohibits many practical...

  11. Kerr-AdS analogue of tricritical point and solid/liquid/gas phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of multi-spinning d=6 Kerr-anti de Sitter black holes in the canonical ensemble of fixed angular momenta J1 and J2. We find, dependent on the ratio q=J2/J1, qualitatively different interesting phenomena known from the `every day thermodynamics' of simple substances. For q=0 the system exhibits recently observed reentrant large/small/large black hole phase transitions, but for 00.0985 we observe the `standard liquid/gas behavior' of the Van der Waals fluid.

  12. Searching for onset of quark deconfinement and critical point of QGP phase transition from rapidity distribution in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton (p-p) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c^2_s is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a knee point appearing at about 40A GeV/c (or 8.8 GeV) in the dependence of c^2_s on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy). This knee point can be possibly regarded as the onset of deconfinement of the quarks and gluons in proton-proton collisions, and the critical point of phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is possible that the quark deconfinement and QGP phase transition happen initially in collisions at 8.8 GeV.

  13. $D \\rightarrow a_1, f_1$ transition form factors and semileptonic decays via 3-point QCD sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Yabing; He, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Hao, Yannan

    2016-01-01

    By using the 3-point QCD sum rules, we calculate the transition form factors of $D$ decays into the spin triplet axial vector mesons $a_1(1260)$, $f_1(1285) $, $f_1(1420)$. In the calculations, we consider the quark contents of each meson in detail. In view of the fact that the isospin of $a_1(1260)$ is one, we calculate the $D^+ \\rightarrow a_1^0 (1260)$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow a_1^- (1260)$ transition form factors separately. In the case of $ f_1(1285), f_1(1420)$, the mixing between light flavor $SU(3)$ singlet and octet is taken into account. Based on the form factors obtained here, we give predictions for the branching ratios of relevant semileptonic decays, which can be tested in the future experiments.

  14. Unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF evidenced by torque measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF single crystals. Abnormal superconducting fluctuation, featured by enhanced diamagnetism with magnetic field, is detected up to about 1.5 times superconducting transition temperature Tc. Compared to cuprate superconductors, the fluctuation effect in iron-based superconductor is less pronounced. Anisotropy parameter γ is obtained from the mixed state torque data and it is found that γ shows both magnetic field and temperature depenence, pointing to multiband superconductivity. The temperature dependence of penetration depth λ (T) suggests unconventional superconductivity in CaFe0.85Co0.15AsF.

  15. Superconducting transition width (ΔT c) characteristics of 25 mol% Zr-added (Gd, Y)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductor tapes with high in-field critical current density at 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari Gharahcheshmeh, M.; Galstyan, E.; Xu, A.; Kukunuru, J.; Katta, R.; Zhang, Y.; Majkic, G.; Li, X.-F.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2017-01-01

    The superconducting transition width (∆T c) characteristics of REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO and RE = Gd, Y) superconductor tapes with Zr content of 25 mol% with high lift factor (ratio of critical current density (J c) at 30 K, 3 T (B||c) to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been determined. In this work, heavily doped (Gd, Y)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductor tapes with 25 mol% Zr addition were fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using a reel-to reel process. The optimal chemical composition range of (Gd, Y)Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductor tapes with Zr content of 25 mol% to achieve critical current densities above 3.5 MA cm-2 at 77 K in zero applied magnetic field has been determined. A superconducting transition width (∆T c) as narrow as 0.4 K and an onset critical transition temperature (T c-onset) as high as 92 K were obtained in the 25 mol% Zr-added (Gd, Y)BaCuO superconductor tapes. Based on the mapped compositional phase diagram of the ∆Tc and lift factor, ∆T c in the range of 0.7-0.9 K is observed in 25 mol% Zr-added (Gd, Y)BaCuO superconductor tapes with a high lift factor.

  16. Prediction of Superconductivity for Oxides Based on Structural Parameters and Artificial Neural Network Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Superconductive properties for oxides were predicted by artificial neural network (ANN) method with structural and chemical parameters as inputs. The predicted properties include superconductivity for oxides, distributed ranges of the superconductive transition temperature (Tc) for complex oxides, and Tc values for cuprate superconductors. The calculated results indicated that the adjusted ANN can be used to predict superconductive properties for unknown oxides.

  17. Multigap superconductivity and strong electron-boson coupling in Fe-based superconductors: a point-contact Andreev-reflection study of Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortello, M; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jiang, J; Weiss, J D; Hellstrom, E E; Gonnelli, R S

    2010-12-03

    Directional point-contact Andreev-reflection measurements in Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals (T(c) = 24.5 K) indicate the presence of two superconducting gaps with no line nodes on the Fermi surface. The point-contact Andreev-reflection spectra also feature additional structures related to the electron-boson interaction, from which the characteristic boson energy Ω(b)(T) is obtained, very similar to the spin-resonance energy observed in neutron scattering experiments. Both the gaps and the additional structures can be reproduced within a three-band s ± Eliashberg model by using an electron-boson spectral function peaked at Ω(0) = 12 meV ≃ Ω(b)(0).

  18. Determination of production efficiency, color, glass transition, and sticky point temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Sajad Ahmad Wani; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the powder recovery, color characteristics, glass transition temperature (Tg), and sticky point (Ts) temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder as affected by different concentrations of maltodextrin (DE 20). Five different combinations of pomegranate juice and maltodextrin (95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 75:25 v/w) were prepared and spray dried in a laboratory-type spray dryer. Increase in concentration of maltodextrin significantly increased the...

  19. An infinity of phase transitions as a function of temperature: exact results for a model with fixed-point imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, B. Todd; Walker, James S.

    1999-12-01

    Position-space renormalization-group methods are used to derive exact results for an Ising model on a fractal lattice. The model incorporates both nearest-neighbor and long-range interactions. The long-range interactions, which span all length scales on the lattice, can be thought of as resulting from fractal periodic boundary conditions. We present exact phase diagrams and specific heats in terms of these two interactions, and show that a “hall of mirrors” fixed-point imaging mechanism leads to an infinite number of phase transitions.

  20. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  1. STRIPES AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN CUPRATE SUPERCONDUCTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRANQUADA, J.M.

    2005-08-22

    One type of order that has been observed to compete with superconductivity in cuprates involves alternating charge and antiferromagnetic stripes. Recent neutron scattering studies indicate that the magnetic excitation spectrum of a stripe-ordered sample is very similar to that observed in superconducting samples. In fact, it now appears that there may be a universal magnetic spectrum for the cuprates. One likely implication of this universal spectrum is that stripes of a dynamic form are present in the superconducting samples. On cooling through the superconducting transition temperature, a gap opens in the magnetic spectrum, and the weight lost at low energy piles up above the gap; the transition temperature is correlated with the size of the spin gap. Depending on the magnitude of the spin gap with respect to the magnetic spectrum, the enhanced magnetic scattering at low temperature can be either commensurate or incommensurate. Connections between stripe correlations and superconductivity are discussed.

  2. Stripes and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    One type of order that has been observed to compete with superconductivity in cuprates involves alternating charge and antiferromagnetic stripes. Recent neutron scattering studies indicate that the magnetic excitation spectrum of a stripe-ordered sample is very similar to that observed in superconducting samples. In fact, it now appears that there may be a universal magnetic spectrum for the cuprates. One likely implication of this universal spectrum is that stripes of a dynamic form are present in the superconducting samples. On cooling through the superconducting transition temperature, a gap opens in the magnetic spectrum, and the weight lost at low energy piles up above the gap; the transition temperature is correlated with the size of the spin gap. Depending on the magnitude of the spin gap with respect to the magnetic spectrum, the enhanced magnetic scattering at low temperature can be either commensurate or incommensurate. Connections between stripe correlations and superconductivity are discussed.

  3. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the e+e− charges, a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics processes in due course.

  4. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the $e^{+}e^{-}$ charges), a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics process...

  5. Topological superconductivity induced by ferromagnetic metal chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Hua; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; MacDonald, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent experiments have provided evidence that one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductivity can be realized experimentally by placing transition-metal atoms that form a ferromagnetic chain on a superconducting substrate. We address some properties of this type of system by using a Slater-Koster tight-binding model to account for important features of the electronic structure of the transition-metal chains on the superconducting substrate. We predict that topological superconductivity is nearly universal when ferromagnetic transition-metal chains form straight lines on superconducting substrates and that it is possible for more complex chain structures. When the chain is weakly coupled to the substrate and is longer than superconducting coherence lengths, its proximity-induced superconducting gap is ˜Δ ESO/J where Δ is the s -wave pair potential on the chain, ESO is the spin-orbit splitting energy induced in the normal chain state bands by hybridization with the superconducting substrate, and J is the exchange splitting of the ferromagnetic chain d bands. Because of the topological character of the 1D superconducting state, Majorana end modes appear within the gaps of finite length chains. We find, in agreement with the experiment, that when the chain and substrate orbitals are strongly hybridized, Majorana end modes are substantially reduced in amplitude when separated from the chain end by less than the coherence length defined by the p -wave superconducting gap. We conclude that Pb is a particularly favorable substrate material for ferromagnetic chain topological superconductivity because it provides both strong s -wave pairing and strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, but that there is an opportunity to optimize properties by varying the atomic composition and structure of the chain. Finally, we note that in the absence of disorder, a new chain magnetic symmetry, one that is also present in the crystalline topological insulators, can stabilize multiple

  6. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  7. Nature of Roberge-Weiss transition end points for heavy quarks in $N_f=2$ lattice QCD with Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Liang-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The phase structure of QCD with imaginary chemical potential provides information on the phase diagram of QCD with real chemical potential. At imaginary chemical potential $i\\mu_I=i\\pi T$, previous studies show that the Roberge-Weiss (RW) transition end points are triple points at both large and small quark masses, and second order transition points at intermediate quark masses, the triple points and second order points are separated by two tricritical points. We present simulations with $ 2 $ flavor Wilson fermions to investigate the nature of RW transition end points. The simulations are carried out at 8 values of the hopping parameter $\\kappa$ ranging from 0.020 to 0.140 on different lattice volume. The Binder cumulant, susceptibility and reweighted distribution of the imaginary part of Polyakov loop are employed to determine the nature of RW transition end points. The simulations show that the RW transition end point is of first order with $\\kappa$ values within the interval $0.020-0.070$ and $0.120-0.140...

  8. Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.

  9. Autonomous basin climbing method with sampling of multiple transition pathways: application to anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue; Yip, Sidney; Yildiz, Bilge

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an extension of the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method, an atomistic activation-relaxation technique for sampling transition-state pathways. The extended algorithm (ABC-E) allows the sampling of multiple transition pathways from a given minimum, with the additional feature of identifying the pathways in the order of increasing activation barriers, thereby prioritizing them according to their importance in the kinetics. Combined with on-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo calculations, the method is applied to simulate the anisotropic diffusion of point defects in hcp Zr. Multiple migration mechanisms are identified for both the interstitials and vacancies, and benchmarked against results from other methods in the literature. The self-interstitial atom (SIA) diffusion kinetics shows a maximum anisotropy at intermediate temperatures (400~700 K), a non-monotonic behavior that we explain to originate from the stabilities and migration mechanisms associated with different SIA sites. The accuracy of the ABC-E calculations is validated, in part, by the existing results in the literature for point defect diffusion in hcp Zr, and by benchmarking against analytical results on a hypothetical rough-energy landscape. Lastly, sampling prioritization and computational efficiency are demonstrated through a direct comparison between the ABC-E and the activation relaxation technique.

  10. Superconductivity by transition metal doping in Ca10(Fe1-xMxAs)10(Pt3As8) (M = Co, Ni, Cu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzer, Tobias; Kessler, Fabian; Johrendt, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    We report the successful substitution of cobalt, nickel and copper for iron in the 1038-phase parent compound ? yielding ?, ? and ?), respectively. Superconductivity is induced in Co and Ni doped compounds reaching critical temperatures up to 15 K, similar to known Pt substituted ?), whereas no superconductivity was detected in ?. The obtained ? phase diagrams are very similar to those of other iron arsenide superconductors indicating rather universal behaviour despite the more complex structures of the 1038-type compounds, where the physics is primarily determined by the FeAs layer.

  11. Laminar and transitional liquid metal duct flow near a magnetic point dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Tympel, Saskia; Schumacher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The flow transformation and the generation of vortex structures by a strong magnetic dipole field in a liquid metal duct flow is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The dipole is considered as the paradigm for a magnetic obstacle which will deviate the streamlines due to Lorentz forces acting on the fluid elements. The duct is of square cross-section. The dipole is located above the top wall and is centered in spanwise direction. Our model uses the quasi-static approximation which is applicable in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. The analysis covers the stationary flow regime at small hydrodynamic Reynolds numbers $Re$ as well as the transitional time-dependent regime at higher values which may generate a turbulent flow in the wake of the magnetic obstacle. We present a systematic study of these two basic flow regimes and their dependence on $Re$ and on the Hartmann number $Ha$, a measure of the strength of the magnetic dipole field. Furthermore, three orientations...

  12. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  13. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  14. Synthesis of Key Points from the OSEP Early Childhood Transition FAQ (SPP/APR Indicators C-8, B-11 and B-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, M.; Henson, J.; Lucas, A.; Whaley, K.

    2010-01-01

    This document is a synthesis of the key points provided in the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Early Childhood Transition FAQs: SPP/APR indicators C-8 and B-12 released on December 1, 2009. It was developed to assist states with the implementation of effective transition policies and practices. The following is included: (1) Transition…

  15. Influence of the Choice of Core-Envelope Transition Point on the Binary Merger of Two Main-sequence Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Fei Chen; Zhan-Wen Han

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the influence of different choices of core-envelope transition point on the final merger of contact binaries with two main-sequence components. A binary of 1.00 + 0.90 M⊙ with an initial orbital period of 0.35d is examined. The mass fraction of the primary mixed with the matter of the secondary,qmix, determined by the chosen core-envelope transition point, ranges from 0.04 to 1.00 in our analysis. If as qmix < 0.8, none of the helium-rich matter in the center of the primary is mixed into the envelope, and there is little distinction in the evolutionary tracks of the mergers. The timescales of the mergers remaining on the main sequence, tBS, are very similar (~ 6.2 × 108yr) if qmix < 0.71, since no hydrogen-rich matter of the secondary is mixed into the core of the mergers;for qmix > 0.71, the larger qmix is, the greater the mixing, hence the longer the blue straggler lifetime, tBS, and also the greater the luminosity. For qmix = 1.00,tBS ~ 8.5 × 10/ yr. Estimation by ( )r - ( )a = 0.0 shows that the point at which tBS begins to increase is about qmix = 0.68. In comparison with the homogeneously mixed models, the merger with a helium profile similar to that of the primary is less luminous and has a shorter tBS.

  16. A DEVICE FOR MEASURING SUPERCONDUCTING TRANSITION TEMPERATURE BY AC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING FILM IN SMALL ^* CRYOCOOLER%在小型制冷机中测量薄片交流磁化率以决定超导转变温度的装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚向华; 王三胜; 杨慧; 陈笃行

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a device for measuring superconducting transition temperature in small cryocooler, based on principles of electromagnetic induction and superconducting magnetic effect, is introduced. This device consists of a vacuum chamber, a small cryocooler, a vacuum pump, a vacuum gauge, a lock-in amplifier, a temperature controller, a computer and a coil pancake and so on. The coil pancake, which is fixed in the vacuum claamoer, contains a primary coil and secondary coil, the primary coil and secondary coil are respectively wound onto two coil formers. The measured superconducting thin film is put between the primary coil and the secondary coil. The small cryocooler is used to cool superconducting thin film, the vacuum pump is used to pump gas in the vacuum chamber, and the temperature controller is used to measure and control the temperature of superconducting thin filro. The internal oscillator of the lock-in amplifier is connected to the primary coil to provide an excitation field exerted to the superconducting film. At the same time, the lock-in amplifier is used to measure the response of the secondary coil. In our system, the sample temperature datum and the voltage output of the secondary coil are transmitted and saved in the computer; then these datum can be drawn into V--T lines displayed on the computer screen at real time. Experiments show that this device can be used to obtain superconducting transition temperature automatically by measuring ac susceptibility with a lower cost.%本文介绍了一种利用电磁感应原理和超导磁效应,在小型制冷机中测量超导体转变温度的装置.本装置包括密闭的真空室、压缩制冷机、真空泵、真空计、锁相放大器、温控仪、计算机、线圈绕组.其中,线圈绕组置于真空室内,由初级线圈和次级线圈组成,初级线圈和次级线圈分别绕制在两个线圈骨架上;被测超导薄片材料放置于初级线圈和次级线圈之间

  17. Fermi surfaces in general codimension and a new controlled nontrivial fixed point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, T; Shankar, R

    2009-01-30

    The energy of a d-dimensional Fermi system typically varies only along d(c)=1 ("radial") dimensions. We consider d(c)=1+epsilon and study a transition to superconductivity in an epsilon expansion. The nontrivial fixed point describes a scale invariant theory with an effective space-time dimension D=d(c)+1. Remarkably, the results can be reproduced by the Hertz-Millis action for the superconducting order parameter in higher effective space-time dimensions. We consider possible realizations of the transition at epsilon=1, which corresponds to a linear Fermi surface in d=3.

  18. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  19. Superconductivity in the antiperovskite Dirac-metal oxide Sr3-xSnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, Mohamed; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Hausmann, Jan Niklas; Yonezawa, Shingo; Fukumoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of perovskite oxides triggered by the discovery of high-temperature and unconventional superconductors have had crucial roles in stimulating and guiding the development of modern condensed-matter physics. Antiperovskite oxides are charge-inverted counterpart materials to perovskite oxides, with unusual negative ionic states of a constituent metal. No superconductivity was reported among the antiperovskite oxides so far. Here we present the first superconducting antiperovskite oxide Sr3-xSnO with the transition temperature of around 5 K. Sr3SnO possesses Dirac points in its electronic structure, and we propose from theoretical analysis a possibility of a topological odd-parity superconductivity analogous to the superfluid 3He-B in moderately hole-doped Sr3-xSnO. We envision that this discovery of a new class of oxide superconductors will lead to a rapid progress in physics and chemistry of antiperovskite oxides consisting of unusual metallic anions.

  20. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  1. SUPERCONDUCTING PHOTOCATHODES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMEDLEY, J.; RAO, T.; WARREN, J.; SEKUTOWICZ, LANGNER, J.; STRZYZEWSKI, P.; LEFFERS, R.; LIPSKI, A.

    2005-10-09

    We present the results of our investigation of lead and niobium as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. Quantum efficiencies (QE) have been measured for a range of incident photon energies and a variety of cathode preparation methods, including various lead plating techniques on a niobium substrate. The effects of operating at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and different vacuum levels on the cathode QE have also been studied.

  2. Two types of superconducting domes in unconventional superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    Uncovering the origin of unconventional superconductivity is often plagued by the overwhelming material diversity with varying normal and superconducting (SC) properties. In this article, we deliver a comprehensive study of the SC properties and phase diagrams using multiple tunings (such as disorder, pressure or magnetic field in addition to doping and vice versa) across several families of unconventional superconductors, including the copper-oxides, heavy-fermions, organics and the recently discovered iron-pnictides, iron-chalcogenides, and oxybismuthides. We discover that all these families often possess two types of SC domes, with lower and higher SC transition temperatures T c, both unconventional but with distinct SC and normal states properties. The lower T c dome arises with or without a quantum critical point (QCP), and not always associated with a non-Fermi liquid (NFL) background. On the contrary, the higher-T c dome clearly stems from a NFL or strange metal phase, without an apparent intervening phase transition or a QCP. The two domes appear either fully separated in the phase diagram, or merged into one, or arise independently owing to their respective normal state characteristics. Our findings suggest that a QCP-related mechanism is an unlikely scenario for the NFL phase in these materials, and thereby narrows the possibility towards short-range fluctuations of various degrees of freedom in the momentum and frequency space. We also find that NFL physics may be a generic route to higher-T c superconductivity.

  3. High Tc superconductivity mechanism controlled by electric dipole correlation and charge correlation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The model is based on a mirror symmetry breaking second order phase transition leading to a pairing between a free charge carriers and a free mirror charge carriers. This approach gives a unified description of low and high Tc superconductivity with a point of view differing from that of BCS theory.The material's crystal structure symmetry is the key to understand the mechanism of pairing by introducing a mirror plane polarization effect in lattice as it is described below.

  4. Superconductor-normal-superconductor with distributed Sharvin point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Little, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear superconducting junction device comprising a layer of high transient temperature superconducting material which is superconducting at an operating temperature, a layer of metal in contact with the layer of high temperature superconducting material and which remains non-superconducting at the operating temperature, and a metal material which is superconducting at the operating temperature and which forms distributed Sharvin point contacts with the metal layer.

  5. The singular point transition concept: A novel continuously variable transmission comprising planetary gear trains and a variator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà Ayats, J. R.; Diego-Ayala, U.; Artes, F. Fenollosa

    2012-01-01

    The singular point transition concept relates a novel type of continuously variable transmission. This transmission comprises a pair of planetary gear trains and a couple of electric motors, used to control the overall speed ratio. Its singularity lies in the topology of operation, with less than 10% of nominal power circulating through the electric path. This low power level is achieved by segmenting the range of operation of the transmission. To validate this technology, a test bed was built. The transmission presented here is able to provide any output/input speed ratio within the interval of 0:1.55, meaning that it also offers the function of an infinite variable transmission. Description of the system and results of experimental tests are presented. The results showed that the transmission is able to function in the whole range of operation. They also showed that under load conditions the fraction of power transmitted through the electric path is maintained around the design value.

  6. Dependence of the L-H transition on X-point geometry and divertor recycling on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Chang, C. S.; Kaye, S. M.; Kim, K.; Ku, S.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Podesta, M.; the NSTX Team

    2013-11-01

    The edge electron (Te) and ion temperature (Ti) at the time of the L-H transition increase when the X-point radius (RX) is reduced to a high-triangularity shape while maintaining constant edge density. Consequently the L-H power threshold (PLH) is larger for the high-triangularity shape. This supports the prediction that a single-particle loss hole, whose properties are strongly linked to RX and Ti, influences the edge radial electric field (Er) and Er × B flow-shearing rate available for turbulence suppression. Simulations using XGC0, a full-f drift-kinetic neoclassical code, indicate that maintaining a constant Er × B flow-shearing rate does require a larger heat flux and edge Ti as RX decreases. NSTX also observes a decrease in PLH when the divertor recycling is decreased using lithium coatings. However, the edge Te and Ti at the L-H transition appear independent of the divertor recycling for a constant shape. XGC0 calculations demonstrate that more heat flux is needed to maintain the edge Ti and the Er × B flow-shearing rate as the contribution of divertor recycling to the overall neutral fuelling rate increases.

  7. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. B. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe sh. 31 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  8. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  9. Engineering students at typically invisible transition points: A focus on admissions and the sophomore year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth M.

    similarity than differences, although the differences indicated that engineering sophomores were less engaged in their learning and less engaged with faculty and advisors. Sophomore engineering women were much more likely than men to be involved in engineering peer mentoring or leadership programs. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the most significant predictor of student satisfaction was satisfaction with peers on campus. The most significant predictor of intention to persist and intention to graduate was surety of major choice. However, there were differences in the most significant predictors when looking at men and women separately. Predictors of success outcomes for engineering sophomores point to the interconnectedness of experiences with faculty, advisors, and peers with individual student traits, characteristics, and preferences, with individual aspects acting as mediating and moderating factors. The overarching results of this research project offer frameworks through which change in the engineering education process can lead to greater participation by women in the engineering field, and increased retention rates for all engineering students.

  10. Dependences on RE of superconducting properties of transition metal co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs2 with RE = La-Gd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakita, H.; Ogino, H.; Sala, A.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Shimoyama, J.

    2015-11-01

    Dependence of superconducting properties of (Ca, RE)(Fe, TM)As2 [(Ca, RE)112, TM: Co, Ni)] on RE elements (RE = La-Gd) was systematically investigated. Improvement of superconducting properties by Co or Ni co-doping was observed for all (Ca, RE)112, which is similar to Co-co-doped (Ca, La)112 or (Ca, Pr)112. Tc of Co-co-doped samples decreased from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd with decreasing ionic radii of RE3+. However, Co-co-doped (Ca, Eu)112 showed exceptionally low Tc = 21 K probably due to the co-existence of Eu3+ and Eu2+ suggested by longer interlayer distance dFe-Fe of (Ca, Eu)112 than other (Ca, RE)112.

  11. Distinguishing S-plus-minus and S-plus-plus electron pairing symmetries by neutron spin resonances in superconducting Sodium-Iron-Cobalt-Arsenic (transitional temperature = 18 Kelvin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Alexander V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Chenglin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Li, Haifeng [Institut fur Festkorperforschung, Julich, Germany; Su, Yiki [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Nethertom, Tucker [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Redding, Caleb [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Carr, Scott [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; Schneidewind, Astrid [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz, Garching, Germany; Faulhaber, Enrico [Gemeinsame Forschergruppe HZB, Berlin, Germany; Li, Shiliang [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Yao, Daoxin [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; Bruckel, Thomas [Institut fur Festkorperforschung, Julich, Germany; Dai, Pengchen [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Sobolev, Oleg [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz, Garching, Germany

    2012-06-05

    A determination of the superconducting (SC) electron pairing symmetry forms the basis for establishing a microscopic mechansim for superconductivity. For iron pnictide superconductors, the s{sup {+-}}-pairing symmetry theory predicts the presence of a sharp neutron spin resonance at an energy below the sum of hole and electron SC gap energies (E {le} 2{Delta}). Although the resonances have been observed for various iron pnictide superconductors, they are broad in energy and can also be interpreted as arising from the s{sup ++}-pairing symmetry with E {ge} 2{Delta}. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to reveal a sharp resonance at E = 7 meV in the SC NaFe{sub 0.935}Co{sub 0.045}As (T{sub c} = 18 K). By comparing our experiments with calculated spin-excitations spectra within the s{sup {+-}} and s{sup ++}-pairing symmetries, we conclude that the resonance in NaFe{sub 0.935}Co{sub 0.045}As is consistent with the s{sup {+-}}-pairing symmetry, thus eliminating s{sup ++}-pairing symmetry as a candidate for superconductivity.

  12. Superconductivity of columbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.B.; Zemansky, M.W.; Boorse, H.A.

    1950-11-15

    Isothermal critical magnetic field curves and zero field transitions for several annealed specimens of columbium have been measured by an a.c. mutual inductance method at temperatures from 5.1 deg K to the zero field transition temperature. The H-T curve was found to fit the usual parabolic relationship H = H{sub 0}(1-T(2)/T(2){sub 0}) with H{sub 0} = 8250 oersteds and T{sub 0} = 8.65 deg K. The initial slope of the curve was 1910 oersteds/deg. The electronic specific heat in the normal state calculated from the thermodynamic equations is 0.0375T and the approximate Debye characteristic temperature in the superconducting state, 67 deg K. Results on a different grade of columbium with a tantalum impurity of 0.4 percent, according to neutron scattering measurements, were in agreement, with the data obtained from columbium of 0.2 percent maximum tantalum impurity.

  13. Competition between superconductivity and charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2007-02-01

    We derive an effective field theory for the competition between superconductivity (SC) and charge density waves (CDWs) by employing the SO(3) pseudospin representation of the SC and CDW order parameters. One important feature in the effective nonlinear σ model is the emergence of a Berry phase even at half filling, originating from the competition between SC and CDWs, i.e., the pseudospin symmetry. A-well known conflict between the previous studies of Oshikawa [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1535 (2000)] and Lee and Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1490 (1990)] is resolved by the appearance of the Berry phase. The Berry phase contribution allows a deconfined quantum critical point of fractionalized charge excitations with e instead of 2e in the SC-CDW quantum transition at half filling. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of the deconfined quantum criticality against quenched randomness by performing a renormalization group analysis of an effective vortex action. We argue that, although randomness results in a weak disorder fixed point differing from the original deconfined quantum critical point, deconfinement of the fractionalized charge excitations still survives at the disorder fixed point owing to a nonzero fixed point value of the vortex charge.

  14. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in YBCO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhonghua; Gao, Daqiang; Dong, Chunhui; Yang, Guijin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jinlin; Shi, Zhenhua; Gao, Hua; Luo, Honggang; Xue, Desheng

    2012-03-21

    Nanoparticles of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) were synthesized via a citrate pyrolysis technique. Room temperature ferromagnetism was revealed in the samples by a vibrating sample magnetometer. Electron spin resonance spectra at selected temperatures indicated that there is a transition from the normal to the superconducting state at temperatures below 100 K. The M-T curves with various applied magnetic fields showed that the superconducting transition temperatures are 92 K and 55 K for the air-annealed and the post-annealed samples, respectively. Compared to the air-annealed sample, the saturation magnetization of the sample by reheating the air-annealed one in argon atmosphere is enhanced but its superconductivity is weakened, which implies that the ferromagnetism maybe originates from the surface oxygen defects. By superconducting quantum interference device measurements, we further confirmed the ferromagnetic behavior at high temperatures and interesting upturns in field cooling magnetization curves within the superconducting region are found. We attributed the upturn phenomena to the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity at low temperatures. Room temperature ferromagnetism of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) nanoparticles has been observed in some previous related studies, but the issue of the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity within the superconducting region is still unclear. In the present work, it will be addressed in detail. The cooperation phenomena found in the spin-singlet superconductors will help us to understand the nature of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in more depth.

  15. 18 January 2011 - Ing. Vittorio Malacalza, ASG Superconductors S.p.A, Italy in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Deputy Department Head L. Rossi, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18 January 2011 - Ing. Vittorio Malacalza, ASG Superconductors S.p.A, Italy in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Deputy Department Head L. Rossi, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  16. Depression of superconducting transition temperature due to Pr in the (La 2.5- xPr xNd 0.5)CaBa 3Cu 7O z system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundaliya, Darshan C.; Vij, Reeta; Kulkarni, R. G.; Yelon, W. B.; Malik, S. K.

    2002-03-01

    Structural and superconducting properties of (La2.5-xPrxNd0.5)CaBa3Cu7Oz (0⩽x⩽0.7) compounds have been investigated. Neutron diffraction studies reveal that these crystallize in the triple-perovskite structure (space group P4/mmm) with an oxygen content of 16.6 per formula unit nearly independent of the Pr content. The superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of x=0 compound is ∼79 K and decreases almost linearly with increasing x to ∼42 K for x=0.7. In order to see if the depression of Tc due to Pr can be compensated by Ca, we examined the compounds (La2.5-x-yPrxCayNd0.5)CaBa3Cu7Oz with x=0.7 and y=0 and 0.4. The observed Tc in these compound is almost independent of Ca content suggesting the absence of a contribution from hole filling in the depression of Tc by Pr. The observed depression of Tc with increasing Pr content in the title compound is analyzed on the basis of magnetic pair breaking by the Pr-4f electrons.

  17. CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Selection of the type of superconducting coil for the Omega project; New intensity records at the proton synchrotron; Progress with the Spiral Reader film measuring equipment; New technique at transition energy on the proton synchrotron; CERN Courier 10th anniversary; Equipment travelling from and to Serpukhov

  18. Thermodynamic Green functions in theory of superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Plakida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A general theory of superconductivity is formulated within the thermodynamic Green function method for various types of pairing mediated by phonons, spin fluctuations, and strong Coulomb correlations in the Hubbard and t-J models. A rigorous Dyson equation for matrix Green functions is derived in terms of a self-energy as a many-particle Green function. By applying the noncrossing approximation for the self-energy, a closed self-consistent system of equations is obtained, similar to the conventional Eliashberg equations. A brief discussion of superconductivity mediated by kinematic interaction with an estimation of a superconducting transition temperature in the Hubbard model is given.

  19. Reorientational dynamics in molecular liquids as revealed by dynamic light scattering: From boiling point to glass transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, B.; Petzold, N.; Kahlau, R.; Rössler, E. A.

    2013-08-01

    We determine the reorientational correlation time τ of a series of molecular liquids by performing depolarized light scattering experiments (double monochromator, Fabry-Perot interferometry, and photon correlation spectroscopy). Correlation times in the range 10-12 s-100 s are compiled, i.e., the full temperature interval between the boiling point and the glass transition temperature Tg is covered. We focus on low-Tg liquids for which the high-temperature limit τ ≅ 10-12 s is easily accessed by standard spectroscopic equipment (up to 440 K). Regarding the temperature dependence three interpolation formulae of τ(T) with three parameters each are tested: (i) Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, (ii) the approach recently discussed by Mauro et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 19780 (2009)], and (iii) our approach decomposing the activation energy E(T) in a constant high temperature value E∞ and a "cooperative part" Ecoop(T) depending exponentially on temperature [Schmidtke et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.041507. On the basis of the present data, approaches (i) and (ii) are insufficient as they do not provide the correct crossover to the high-temperature Arrhenius law clearly identified in the experimental data while approach (iii) reproduces the salient features of τ(T). It allows to discuss the temperature dependence of the liquid's dynamics in terms of a Ecoop(T)/E∞ vs. T/E∞ plot and suggests that E∞ controls the energy scale of the glass transition phenomenon.

  20. A direct method for locating minimum-energy crossing points (MECPs) in spin-forbidden transitions and nonadiabatic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachiyo, Teepanis; Rodriguez, Jorge H

    2005-09-01

    An efficient computational method for locating minimum-energy crossing points (MECPs) between potential-energy surfaces in spin-crossover transitions and nonadiabatic spin-forbidden (bio)chemical reactions is introduced. The method has been tested on the phenyl cation and the computed MECP associated with its radiationless singlet-triplet spin crossover is in good agreement with available data. However, the convergence behavior of the present method is significantly more efficient than some alternative methods which allows us to study nonadiabatic processes in larger systems such as spin crossover in metal-containing compounds. The convergence rate of the method obeys a fast logarithmic law which has been verified on the phenyl cation. As an application of this new methodology, the MECPs of the ferrous complex [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2), which exhibits light-induced excited spin state trapping, have been computed to identify their geometric and energetic parameters during spin crossover. Our calculations, in conjunction with spin-unrestricted density-functional calculations, show that the transition from the singlet ground state to a triplet intermediate and to the quintet metastable state of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) is accompanied by unusually large bond-length elongations of the axial ligands ( approximately 0.26 and 0.23 A, respectively). Our results are consistent with crystallographic data available for the metastable quintet but also predict new structural and energetic information about the triplet intermediate and at the MECPs which is currently not available from experiment.

  1. Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.

    Graphenes transport properties have been extensively studied in the 10 years since its discovery in 2004, with ground-breaking experimental observations such as Klein tunneling, fractional quantum Hall effect and Hofstadters butterfly. Though, so far, it turned out to be rather poor on complex correlated electronic ground states and phase transitions, despite various theoretical predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to help understanding the underlying theoretical and experimental reasons for the lack of strong electronic interactions in graphene, and, employing graphenes high tunability and versatility, to identify and alter experimental parameters that could help to induce stronger correlations. In particular graphene holds one last, not yet experimentally discovered prediction, namely exhibiting intrinsic superconductivity. With its vanishingly small Fermi surface at the Dirac point, graphene is a semi-metal with very weak electronic interactions. Though, if it is doped into the metallic regime, where the size of the Fermi surface becomes comparable to the size of the Brillouin zone, the density of states becomes sizeable and electronic interactions are predicted to be dramatically enhanced, resulting in competing correlated ground states such as superconductivity, magnetism and charge density wave formation. Following these predictions, this thesis first describes the creation of metallic graphene at high carrier doping via electrostatic doping techniques based on electrolytic gates. Due to graphenes surface only properties, we are able to induce carrier densities above n>1014 cm-2 (epsilonF>1eV) into the chemically inert graphene. While at these record high carrier densities we yet do not observe superconductivity, we do observe fundamentally altered transport properties as compared to semi-metallic graphene. Here, detailed measurements of the low temperature resistivity reveal that the electron-phonon interactions are governed by a reduced, density

  2. Mapping Dimensionality and Directionality of Electronic Behavior in CeCoIn5: the Superconducting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Benjamin E.; Gyenis, Andras; Randeria, Mallika T.; Peterson, Gabriel A.; Aynajian, Pegor; Bauer, Eric D.; Yazdani, Ali

    Unconventional superconductors often exhibit anisotropic physical properties that arise from the directional dependence of their order parameters. A prime example is CeCoIn5, a heavy fermion d-wave superconductor with a rich low-temperature phase diagram consisting of competing and coexisting magnetic and superconducting orders. Here we present dilution refrigerator scanning tunneling microscopy of CeCoIn5 cleaved perpendicular to its basal plane. We study superconductivity on the (100) surface, whose normal vector points along the antinode of the superconducting energy gap. The gap magnitude is similar to that observed in the basal plane, with a key difference: it does not exhibit any suppression near step edges. Application of a magnetic field along the [100] direction leads to the formation of anisotropic vortices, and the vortex lattice undergoes a transition at high field before the superconducting state gives way to a pseudogap phase. Our measurements illustrate the directional dependence of the superconducting properties in CeCoIn5, and more generally, demonstrate the utility of imaging d-wave superconductors along their nodal and antinodal directions.

  3. The road to superconducting spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrig, Matthias

    Energy efficient computing has become a major challenge, with the increasing importance of large data centres across the world, which already today have a power consumption comparable to that of Spain, with steeply increasing trend. Superconducting computing is progressively becoming an alternative for large-scale applications, with the costs for cooling being largely outweighed by the gain in energy efficiency. The combination of superconductivity and spintronics - ``superspintronics'' - has the potential and flexibility to develop into such a green technology. This young field is based on the observation that new phenomena emerge at interfaces between superconducting and other, competing, phases. The past 15 years have seen a series of pivotal predictions and experimental discoveries relating to the interplay between superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The building blocks of superspintronics are equal-spin Cooper pairs, which are generated at the interface between superconducting and a ferromagnetic materials in the presence of non-collinear magnetism. Such novel, spin-polarised Cooper pairs carry spin-supercurrents in ferromagnets and thus contribute to spin-transport and spin-control. Geometric Berry phases appear during the singlet-triplet conversion process in structures with non-coplanar magnetisation, enhancing functionality of devices, and non-locality introduced by superconducting order leads to long-range effects. With the successful generation and control of equal-spin Cooper pairs the hitherto notorious incompatibility of superconductivity and ferromagnetism has been not only overcome, but turned synergistic. I will discuss these developments and their extraordinary potential. I also will present open questions posed by recent experiments and point out implications for theory. This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC Grant No. EP/J010618/1).

  4. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the superconducting transition temperature and superfluid density of SmFeAsO0.85 and PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. L.; Lu, W.; Yang, J.; Yi, W.; Li, Z. C.; Zhang, C.; Ren, Z. A.; Che, G. C.; Sun, L. L.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, X. J.; Zhao, Z. X.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured magnetic susceptibility of iron pnictide superconductors SmFeAsO0.85 and PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO under hydrostatic pressure up to 1.15 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature (TC) deceases linearly and the Meissner signal size also decreases with increasing pressure for SmFeAsO0.85 . In contrast, the TC of PrFe0.925Co0.075AsO initially increases with pressure then saturates above ˜0.8GPa . Meanwhile its Meissner signal exhibits the similar pressure dependence. Our results indicate that the pressure dependences of TC and superfluid density in both systems are positively correlated which suggests that these quaternary iron-based superconductors are not conventional BCS ones.

  5. Itinerant Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Karchev, Naoum

    2004-01-01

    Superconductivity has again become a challenge following the discovery of unconventional superconductivity. Resistance-free currents have been observed in heavy-fermion materials, organic conductors and copper oxides. The discovery of superconductivity in a single crystal of $UGe_2$, $ZrZn_2$ and $URhGe$ revived the interest in the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The experiments indicate that: i)The superconductivity is confined to the ferromagnetic phase. ii)The ferromag...

  6. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  7. The first module of the CMS experiment's superconducting solenoid has arrived at Point 5 after a long journey from Genoa to Geneva.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    We see the first module of the CMS coil, a silver cylinder with a diameter of 6.3 metres and a height of 2.5 metres, ready to be lifted onto the platform specially designed for the five modules at Point 5.

  8. Quantum shape phase transitions from spherical to deformed for Bose-Fermi systems: the effect of the odd particle around the critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böyükata M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.

  9. CLIQ – Coupling-Loss Induced Quench System for Protecting Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Ravaioli, E; Kirby, G; ten Kate, H H J; Verweij, A P

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed Coupling-Loss-Induced Quench (CLIQ) protection system is a new method for initiating a fast and voluminous transition to the normal state for protecting high energy density superconducting magnets. Upon quench detection, CLIQ is triggered to generate an oscillating current in the magnet coil by means of a capacitive discharge. This in turn introduces a high coupling loss in the superconductor which provokes a quick transition to the normal state of the coil windings. The system is now implemented for the protection of a two meter long superconducting quadrupole magnet and characterized in the CERN magnet test facility. Various CLIQ configurations with different current injection points are tested and the results compared to similar transients lately measured with a not optimized configuration. Test results convincingly show that the newly tested design allows for a more global quench initiation and thus a faster discharge of the magnet energy. Moreover, the performance of CLIQ for reduc...

  10. Discovery of Superconductivity in κ-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. S.; Cowan, D. O.; Fainchtein, R.; Bohandy, J.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H. H.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kushch, N. D.; Flynn, J. P.; Vanzile, M. L.; Williams, J. M.

    1996-03-01

    Evidence of superconductivity with a mid-point transition temperature of 7.2K was found for the first time on crystals of κ-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]I. The crystals were first synthesized at Johns Hopkins University and later independently synthesized at Argonne National Laboratory. The structure of the materials has been confirmed to be of the kappa-phase moiety by STM, AFM, Raman, ESR and X-ray diffraction. Superconductivity of the samples was confirmed by dc-conductivity, modulated microwave reflectance and magnetic susceptibility with a transition onset of 7.5K. (Authors HSL, DOC and RF acknowledge support by NSF under grant No. DMR-9223481; authors affiliated with ANL acknowledge support by DOE under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.)

  11. d-wave superconductivity, antiferromagnetism and spin liquid in quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahebsara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The self-energy-functional approach is a powerful many-body tool to investigate different broken symmetry phases of strongly correlated electron systems. We use the variational cluster perturbation theory (also called the variational cluster approximation to investigate the interplay between the antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity of κ-(ET2 X conductors. These compounds are described by the so-called dimer Hubbard model, with various values of the on-site repulsion U and diagonal hopping amplitude t. At strong coupling, our zero-temperature calculations show a transition from Néel antiferromagnetism to a spin-liquid phase with no long range order, at around t ~ 0.9. At lower values of U, we find d-wave superconductivity. Taking into account the point group symmetries of the lattice, we find a transition between dx2-y2 and dxy pairing symmetries, the latter happening for smaller values of U.

  12. Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2012-01-01

    (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down......In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... to somewhere between 4K and 50K, depending on what type of superconductor is employed, which poses a significant challenge both from a construction and operation point of view. The high temperature superconductors can facilitate a higher operation temperature and simplified cooling, but the current price...

  13. Role of single-point mutations and deletions on transition temperatures in ideal proteinogenic heteropolymer chains in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2016-07-01

    A coarse-grained statistical mechanics-based model for ideal heteropolymer proteinogenic chains of non-interacting residues is presented in terms of the size K of the chain and the set of helical propensities [Formula: see text] associated with each residue j along the chain. For this model, we provide an algorithm to compute the degeneracy tensor [Formula: see text] associated with energy level [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the number of residues with a native contact in a given conformation. From these results, we calculate the equilibrium partition function [Formula: see text] and characteristic temperature [Formula: see text] at which a transition from a low to a high entropy states is observed. The formalism is applied to analyze the effect on characteristic temperatures [Formula: see text] of single-point mutations and deletions of specific amino acids [Formula: see text] along the chain. Two probe systems are considered. First, we address the case of a random heteropolymer of size K and given helical propensities [Formula: see text] on a conformational phase space. Second, we focus our attention to a particular set of neuropentapeptides, [Met-5] and [Leu-5] enkephalins whose thermodynamic stability is a key feature on their coupling to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] receptors and the triggering of biochemical responses.

  14. Transitions and turning points revisited: A replication to explore child maltreatment and youth offending links within and across Australian cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-03-01

    In this study we examined the consistency of life-course child maltreatment trajectories and youth offending links across birth cohorts. In so doing we demonstrated the value of replication studies for maltreatment research. We applied the methodology of Stewart et al. (2008) and linked population-based (1990 birth cohort) child protection and youth justice administrative data from Queensland, Australia. We performed a group based trajectory analysis to identify distinct maltreatment trajectory groups distinguishable by maltreatment timing and frequency across the life-course. We explored group-based youth offending outcomes with consideration of variations in maltreatment chronicity, timing, and frequency, multi-type maltreatment, gender and race (Indigenous Australian versus non-Indigenous Australian youths). To determine the consistency of maltreatment trajectories and offending links across cohorts (1983/84 versus 1990) we compared our results with those of Stewart et al. (2008). Consistent with Stewart et al. (2008): (1) We identified six distinct maltreatment trajectory groups; (2) Trajectory groups characterised by chronic maltreatment and/or adolescent maltreatment had the largest proportion of young offenders; and (3) Maltreatment frequency commonly peaked at transition points. Extending beyond Stewart et al. (2008) we noted considerable overlap between maltreatment dimensions and a potential impact of race and multi-type maltreatment on maltreatment and offending links. We endorse replication studies as a valuable tool to advance child maltreatment policy and practice and recommend further research on interactions between maltreatment dimensions, gender, race, and youth offending.

  15. Directional point-contact spectroscopy of MgB$_{2}$ single crystals in magnetic fields two-band superconductivity and critical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gonnelli, R S; Ummarino, G A; Della Rocca, V; Calzolari, A; Stepanov, V A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J; Dellarocca, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    The results of the first directional point-contact measurements in MgB2 single crystals, in the presence of magnetic fields up to 9 T either parallel or perpendicular to the ab planes, are presented. By applying suitable magnetic fields, we separated the partial contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total Andreev-reflection conductance. Their fit with the BTK model allowed a very accurate determination of the temperature dependency of the gaps (Delta_sigma and Delta_pi), that resulted in close agreement with the predictions of the two-band models for MgB2. We also obtained, for the first time with point-contact spectroscopy, the temperature dependence of the (anisotropic) upper critical field of the sigma band and of the (isotropic) upper critical field of the pi band.

  16. Direct evidence for two-band superconductivity in MgB2 single crystals from directional point-contact spectroscopy in magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, R S; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J

    2002-12-01

    We present the results of the first directional point-contact spectroscopy experiments in high-quality MgB2 single crystals. Because of the directionality of the current injection into the samples, the application of a magnetic field allowed us to separate the contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total conductance of our point contacts. By using this technique, we were able to obtain the temperature dependency of each gap independent of the other. The consequent, strong reduction of the error on the value of the gap amplitude as a function of temperature allows a stricter test of the predictions of the two-band model for MgB2.

  17. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elifritz, Thomas Lee

    1995-01-01

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence with the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  18. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifritz, T.L. [Information Corporation, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  19. Observation of quantum Griffiths singularity and ferromagnetism at the superconducting LaAl O3/SrTi O3(110 ) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shengchun; Xing, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Liu, Haiwen; Fu, Hailong; Zhang, Yangwei; He, Lin; Xie, X. C.; Lin, Xi; Nie, Jiacai; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Diverse phenomena emerge at the interface between band insulators LaAl O3 and SrTi O3 , such as superconductivity and ferromagnetism, showing an opportunity for potential applications as well as contributing to fundamental research interests. Here, we report the superconductor-metal transition driven by a perpendicular magnetic field in superconducting two-dimensional electron gas formed at the LaAl O3/SrTi O3(110 ) interface, which offers an appealing platform for quantum phase transition from a superconductor to a weakly localized metal. Interestingly, when approaching the quantum critical point, the dynamic critical exponent is not a constant but a diverging value, which is direct evidence of a quantum Griffiths singularity arising from quenched disorder at ultralow temperatures. Furthermore, the hysteretic property of magnetoresistance is observed at the LaAl O3/SrTi O3(110 ) interface, which suggests the potential coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism.

  20. Superconductivity: The persistence of pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Alex; Littlewood, Peter

    2015-05-20

    Superconductivity stems from a weak attraction between electrons that causes them to form bound pairs and behave much like bosons. These so-called Cooper pairs are phase coherent, which leads to the astonishing properties of zero electrical resistance and magnetic flux expulsion typical of superconducting materials. This coherent state may be qualitatively understood within the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) model, which predicts that a gas of interacting bosons will become unstable below a critical temperature and condense into a phase of matter with a macroscopic, coherent population in the lowest energy state, as happens in 4He or cold atomic gases. The successful theory proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) predicts that at the superconducting transition temperature Tc, electrons simultaneously form pairs and condense, with no sign of pairing above Tc. Theorists have long surmised that the BCS and BEC models are opposite limits of a single theory and that strong interactions or low density can, in principle, drive the system to a paired state at a temperature Tpair higher than Tc, making the transition to the superconducting state BEC-like (Fig. 1). Yet most superconductors to date are reasonably well described by BCS theory or its extensions, and there has been scant evidence in electronic materials for the existence of pairing independent of the full superconducting state (though an active debate rages over the cuprate superconductors). Writing in Nature, Jeremy Levy and colleagues have now used ingenious nanostructured devices to provide evidence for electron pairing1. Perhaps surprisingly, the material they have studied is a venerable, yet enigmatic, low-temperature superconductor, SrTiO3.

  1. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  2. Microwave spectroscopy evidence of superconducting pairing in the magnetic-field-induced metallic state of InO(x) films at zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, LiDong; Wen, Jiajia; Kim, Minsoo; Sambandamurthy, G; Armitage, N P

    2013-08-09

    We investigate the field-tuned quantum phase transition in a 2D low-disorder amorphous InO(x) film in the frequency range of 0.05 to 16 GHz employing microwave spectroscopy. In the zero-temperature limit, the ac data are consistent with a scenario where this transition is from a superconductor to a metal instead of a direct transition to an insulator. The intervening metallic phase is unusual with a small but finite resistance that is much smaller than the normal state sheet resistance at the lowest measured temperatures. Moreover, it exhibits a superconducting response on short length and time scales while global superconductivity is destroyed. We present evidence that the true quantum critical point of this 2D superconductor metal transition is located at a field B(sm) far below the conventionally defined critical field B(cross) where different isotherms of magnetoresistance cross each other. The superfluid stiffness in the low-frequency limit and the superconducting fluctuation frequency from opposite sides of the transition both vanish at B≈B(sm). The lack of evidence for finite-frequency superfluid stiffness surviving B(cross) signifies that B(cross) is a crossover above which superconducting fluctuations make a vanishing contribution to dc and ac measurements.

  3. Microwave Spectroscopy Evidence of Superconducting Pairing in the Magnetic-Field-Induced Metallic State of InOx Films at Zero Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, LiDong; Wen, Jiajia; Kim, Minsoo; Sambandamurthy, G.; Armitage, N. P.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the field-tuned quantum phase transition in a 2D low-disorder amorphous InOx film in the frequency range of 0.05 to 16 GHz employing microwave spectroscopy. In the zero-temperature limit, the ac data are consistent with a scenario where this transition is from a superconductor to a metal instead of a direct transition to an insulator. The intervening metallic phase is unusual with a small but finite resistance that is much smaller than the normal state sheet resistance at the lowest measured temperatures. Moreover, it exhibits a superconducting response on short length and time scales while global superconductivity is destroyed. We present evidence that the true quantum critical point of this 2D superconductor metal transition is located at a field Bsm far below the conventionally defined critical field Bcross where different isotherms of magnetoresistance cross each other. The superfluid stiffness in the low-frequency limit and the superconducting fluctuation frequency from opposite sides of the transition both vanish at B≈Bsm. The lack of evidence for finite-frequency superfluid stiffness surviving Bcross signifies that Bcross is a crossover above which superconducting fluctuations make a vanishing contribution to dc and ac measurements.

  4. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  5. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  6. Phenomenology and sign change of the Hall resistivity near the superconducting transition of polycrystalline DyBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa-Rojas, J. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Escuela Colombiana de Ingenieria, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia); Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Pureur, P. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and the Hall effect in the normal and superconducting states of a ceramic DyBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconductor are reported. In high temperatures the diagonal resistivity is proportional to T, whereas the Hall response exhibits a 1/T dependence and the cotangent of the Hall angle is proportional to T{sup 2}. Upon decreasing the temperature, the Hall response shows a sign reversal close to T{sub c}, goes through a negative maximum and vanishes close to the so-called zero-resistance temperature. The aim of this report is to show that the sign change occurs in the temperature region dominated by thermal fluctuations in the order parameter. (orig.)

  7. Superconductivity and Fast Proton Transport in Nanoconfined Water

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K H

    2016-01-01

    A real-space molecular-orbital description of Cooper pairing in conjunction with the dynamic Jahn-Teller mechanism for high-Tc superconductivity predicts that electron-doped water confined to the nanoscale environment of a carbon nanotube or biological macromolecule should superconduct below and exhibit fast proton transport above the transition temperature, Tc = 230 degK (-43 degC).

  8. Spontaneous fluxoid formation in superconducting loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2009-01-01

    a scaling relation on the quenching time τQ, as one would expect if the transition took place as fast as causality permits. However, the observed Zurek-Kibble scaling exponent σ=0.62±0.15 is two times larger than anticipated for large loops. Assuming Gaussian winding number densities we show......We report on the experimental verification of the Zurek-Kibble scenario in an isolated superconducting ring over a wide parameter range. The probability of creating a single flux quantum spontaneously during the fast normal-superconducting phase transition of a wide Nb loop clearly follows...

  9. First-order Freedericksz transition at the threshold point for weak anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell under external electric and magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关荣华; 杨国琛

    2003-01-01

    Based on the modified formula of Rapini-Papoular, the equilibrium equation and boundary condition of the director have been obtained and the behaviour of the Freedericksz transition at the threshold point has been studied for weak-anchoring nematic liquid crystal cells under external electric and magnetic fields with the methods of analytical derivation and numerical calculation. The results show that, except for the usual second-order transition, the first-order Freedericksz transition can also be induced by a suitable surface anchoring technique for the liquid crystal cell given in the paper. The conditions for the existence of the first-order Freedericksz transition are obtained. They are related to the material elastic coefficient k11, k33 the thickness of the liquid crystal cell, the external electric field and the strength of surface anchoring, etc.

  10. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors and ropes of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafi, B.; Haddad, S.; Sfar, I.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.

    2009-03-01

    It has been reported that, in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors, superconductivity may coexist macroscopically with non-superconducting states giving rise to an inhomogeneous phase. We investigate, based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, the effect of disorder on the stability of the superconducting phase in such a mixed state. We also focus on the interplay between superconductivity and disorder in ropes of carbon nanotubes. We show that the superconducting transition temperature in quasi-one organic conductors is reduced by disorder but does not obey the Abrikosov-Gorkov law. However, and contrary to what is expected, disorder can further superconductivity in ropes of carbon nanotubes.

  11. 轨道交通用高温超导直线感应电机的设计与测试%The Design and Test of High Temperature Superconducting Linear Induction Motor for Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方进; 申政

    2013-01-01

    高温超导直线感应电机对于城市轨道交通的发展具有重要意义.参考常规铜绕组直线感应电机的设计理论,对高温超导直线感应电机进行设计.结合高温超导带材的特性,设计超导绕组线圈的结构并选择单层整距集中绕组结构的方式对线圈在初级铁芯上进行排列,采用无磁材料制作薄壁杜瓦,最后将各个部分整体组装成高温超导直线感应电机试验样机.运用有限元分析软件ANSOFT对所设计的电机建模并进行仿真计算.制作铜绕组试制样机并搭建直线电机牵引测试平台对制作的电机样机进行测试,将试验结果和仿真结果进行对比分析,验证设计的合理性与可行性.%High temperature superconducting linear induction motor (HTS LIM) is significant for the development of urban rail transit.The HTS LIM was designed,using design theory of conventional copper windings linear induction motor as a reference.Combined with the properties of high temperature superconducting tapes,the structure of the superconducting coils was designed and the coils were arranged adopting the single layer concentrated structure in the primary core.The Dewar was manufactured by adopting non magnetic material.Finally,various parts were assembled into HTS LIM test prototype.The model of HTS LIM was built and the simulation was executed by finite element analysis software ANSOFT.The copper windings trial prototype was manufactured and the linear motor traction test platform was set up to test the performance of the motor prototype testing.The test results and simulation results were analyzed to verify the rationality and feasibility of the design.

  12. Characterization of the insulator barrier and the superconducting transition temperature in GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}/BaTiO{sub 3} bilayers for application in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, H., E-mail: henrynavarro@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Yang, Ilkyu [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeehoon [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); CALDES, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-28

    The optimization of the superconducting properties in a bottom electrode and the quality of an insulator barrier are the first steps in the development of superconductor/insulator/superconductor tunnel junctions. Here, we study the quality of a BaTiO{sub 3} tunnel barrier deposited on a 16 nm thick GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} thin film by using conductive atomic force microscopy. We find that the tunnel current is systematically reduced (for equal applied voltage) by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier thickness between 1.6 and 4 nm. The BaTiO{sub 3} layers present an energy barrier of ≈1.2 eV and an attenuation length of 0.35–0.5 nm (depending on the applied voltage). The GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} electrode is totally covered by a BaTiO{sub 3} thickness above 3 nm. The presence of ferroelectricity was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy for a 4 nm thick BaTiO{sub 3} top layer. The superconducting transition temperature of the bilayers is systematically suppressed by increasing the BaTiO{sub 3} thickness. This fact can be associated with stress at the interface and a reduction of the orthorhombicity of the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The reduction in the orthorhombicity is expected by considering the interface mismatch and it can also be affected by reduced oxygen stoichiometry (poor oxygen diffusion across the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier)

  13. High-Tc Superconductivity and Raman Scattering Study of the phonon properties of electron doped (transition metal, rare-earth) - Oxygen-Free CaFeAsF and compared with RFeAsO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Kalyan; Hadjiev, Viktor; Chu, C. W.(Paul)

    Quaternary CaFeAsF has ZrCuSiAs-type structure,(RO)δ+ layer in RFeAsO replaced by (CaF)δ+ layer,with tetragonal (P4/nmm)-orthorhombic (Cmma) phase transition at 134K,while magnetic order,SDW sets in at 114K. Partial replacement of Fe with Co/Ni is direct electron doping to (FeAs)δ+ layer.Tc ~15K in CaFe0.9Ni0.1AsF.Substitution of rare earth metal for alkaline earth metal suppresses anomaly in resistivity & induces superconductivity.Tc ~52K in Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Characterized by resistivity, susceptibility,XRD & EDX-SEM.Upper critical field estimated from magneto resistance.Bulk superconductivity proved by DC magnetization. Hall coefficient RH revealed hole-like charge carriers in parent compound CaFeAsF, while electron-type (RH in normal state is -Ve) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Evolution of Raman active phonons of Ca1-xPrxFeAsF measured with polarized Raman spectroscopy at room temperature from absurfaces of impurity-free microcrystals.Spectra exhibit sharp phonon lines on very weak electronic scattering background.Frequency and symmetry of Raman phonons involving out-of-plane atomic vibrations are found at 162.5 cm-1 (A1 g, Pr), 201 cm-1 (A1 g, As), 215.5 cm-1 (B1 g, Fe), 265 cm-1 (Eg, Fe) and 334 cm-1 (B1 g, F) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Observations are compared with RFeAsO unconventional superconductors also possibly related to magnetic fluctuations

  14. Analysis of mechanical characteristics of superconducting field coil for 17 MW class high temperature superconducting synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.

  15. Superconducting instability of a non-centrosymmetric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowska, Dorota; Harań, Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    The Fermi gas approach to the weak-coupling superconductivity in the non-centrosymmetric systems lead to a conclusion of an approximately spin-orbit coupling independent critical temperature of the singlet states as well as the triplet states defined by the order parameter aligned with the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling vector. We indicate that the above results follow from a simplified approximation of a density of states by a constant Fermi surface value. Such a scenario does not properly account for the spin-split quasiparticle energy spectrum and reduces the spin-orbit coupling influence on superconductivity to the bare pair-breaking effect of a lifted spin degeneracy. Applying the tight-binding model, which captures the primary features of the spin-split energy band, i.e., its enhanced width and the spin-orbit coupling induced redistribution of the spectral weights in the density of states, we calculate the critical temperature of a non-centrosymmetric superconductor. We report a general tendency of the critical temperature to be suppressed by the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling. We indicate that, the monotonic decrease of the critical temperature may be altered by the spin-orbit coupling induced van Hove singularities which, when driven to the Fermi level, generate maxima in the phase diagram. Extending our considerations to the intermediate-coupling superconductivity we point out that the spin-orbit coupling induced change of the critical temperature depends on the structure of the electronic energy band and both - the strength and symmetry of the pair potential. Finally, we discuss the mixed singlet-triplet state superconducting instability and establish conditions concerning the symmetry of the singlet and triplet counterparts as well as the range of the spin-orbit coupling energy which make such a phase transition possible.

  16. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  17. Color confinement and dual superconductivity in unquenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, J M; Del Debbio, L; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C

    2003-01-01

    We report on evidence from lattice simulations that confinement is produced by dual superconductivity of the vacuum in full QCD as in quenched QCD. Preliminary information is obtained on the order of the deconfining phase transition.

  18. High Tc superconducting fabrication of loop antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Mahmood Faisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a solid state reaction to prepared many samples of YBa2Cu3O7−δ And (YBa2Cu3O7−δ1−x(Ag2Ox by mixing the appropriate ratios of constituent oxides; BaO, CuO, and Y2O3 the mixture were ground to fine power and then calcined at 900 °C without Ag2O and 930 °C for using Ag2O as impurities. The calcined black power were grounded again and molded into pellets by applying a hydrostatic pressure from (0.3–0.6 Gpa. These pellets were sintered at 950 °C. Silver was added as impurities with the calcined powder with ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.45 to increase its ductility. The transition temperature for the superconductor samples were done using non-contact technique. It is an easy and sensitive technique compared with four – point probe method. The maximum Tc was 110 K for YBa2Cu3O6.989. Evaporation deposition technique to deposited a thin film, of 2200 A° thickness on the surface of the samples and then annealed to room temperature. This technical reduces the resistance to 0.2 Ω and makes a good ohmic contact at liquid nitrogen boiling point (77 K metals of various conductivity such as copper, brass aluminum and iron were used to study the effect of eddy-current loss on them and then compared with the superconducting samples, with Ag2O or without Ag2O. The maximum power loss were obtained for the superconducting samples when they cooling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The sintered pellets were drilled manually by 6 mm drill and a slot was done along its radius, to fabricate a superconducting loop antenna for receiving magnetic field signal. The best received signal was obtained when the antenna cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

  19. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The conventional theory of superconductivity predicts no charge flow when the normal-superconductor phase boundary moves. • The theory of hole superconductivity predicts flow and counterflow of charge. • An experiment to measure a voltage is proposed. • No voltage will be measured if the conventional theory is correct. • A voltage will be measured if the theory of hole superconductivity is correct. - Abstract: The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  20. Superconductivity in anti-post-Perovskite vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bosen; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2013-11-29

    Superconductivity, which is a quantum state induced by spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking, frequently emerges in low-dimensional materials. Hence, low dimensionality has long been considered as necessary to achieve high superconducting transition temperatures (TC). The recently discovered post-perovskite (ppv) MgSiO3, which constitutes the Earth's lowermost mantle (D" layer), has attracted significant research interest due to its importance in geoscience. The ppv structure has a peculiar two-dimensional character and is expected to be a good platform for superconductivity. However, hereunto, no superconductivity has been observed in isostructural materials, despite extensive investigation. Here, we report the discovery of superconductivity with a maximum TC of 5.6 K in V3PnNx (Pn = P, As) phases with the anti-ppv structure, where the anion and cation positions are reversed with respect to the ppv structure. This discovery stimulates further explorations of new superconducting materials with ppv and anti-ppv structures.

  1. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  2. Superconducting Qubits: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Devoret, M. H.; Wallraff, A.; Martinis, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting qubits are solid state electrical circuits fabricated using techniques borrowed from conventional integrated circuits. They are based on the Josephson tunnel junction, the only non-dissipative, strongly non-linear circuit element available at low temperature. In contrast to microscopic entities such as spins or atoms, they tend to be well coupled to other circuits, which make them appealling from the point of view of readout and gate implementation. Very recently, new designs ...

  3. Superconductivity in the Tungsten Bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Phillip; Ishii, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; Munakata, Ko; Hammond, Robert H.; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Geballe, Theodore H.; Beasley, Malcolm R.

    2015-03-01

    Via pulsed laser deposition and post-annealing, high quality K-doped WO3-y films with reproducible transport properties are obtained. A home built two-coil mutual inductance setup is used to probe the behavior of the films in the superconducting and normal state. The inverse penetration depths and dissipation peaks are measured as a function of temperature and field. Separately, via thin film deposition techniques, we report for the first time stable crystalline hexagonal WO3 on substrates. In order to tune the physical properties of the undoped material, we utilized an ionic liquid gating technique. We observe an insulator-to-metal transition, showing the ionic liquid gate to be a viable technique to alter the electrical transport properties of this material. By comparing the alkali and ionic liquid gated WO3, we conclude with some remarks regarding how superconductivity arises in this system.

  4. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  5. Structural phase transitions and superconductivity in Fe(1+delta)Se0.57Te0.43 at ambient and elevated pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresty, Nathalie C; Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Ganin, Alexey Y; McDonald, Martin T; Claridge, John B; Giap, Duong; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kagayama, Tomoko; Ohishi, Yasuo; Takata, Masaki; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Margadonna, Serena; Prassides, Kosmas

    2009-11-25

    The ternary iron chalcogenide, Fe(1.03)Se(0.57)Te(0.43) is a member of the recently discovered family of Fe-based superconductors with an ambient pressure T(c) of 13.9 K and a simple structure comprising layers of edge-sharing distorted Fe(Se/Te)(4) tetrahedra separated by a van der Waals gap. Here we study the relationship between its structural and electronic responses to the application of pressure. T(c) depends sensitively on applied pressure attaining a broad maximum of 23.3 K at approximately 3 GPa. Further compression to 12 GPa leads to a metallic but nonsuperconducting ground state. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction shows that the superconducting phase is metrically orthorhombic at ambient pressure but pressurization to approximately 3 GPa leads to a structural transformation to a more distorted structure with monoclinic symmetry. The exact coincidence of the crystal symmetry crossover pressure with that at which T(c) is maximum reveals an intimate link between crystal and electronic structures of the iron chalcogenide superconductors.

  6. Effects of critical fluctuations and dimensionality on the jump in specific heat at the superconducting transition temperature: Application to YBa2Cu3O7 -δ ,Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ , and KOs2O6 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keumo Tsiaze, R. M.; Wirngo, A. V.; Mkam Tchouobiap, S. E.; Fotue, A. J.; Baloïtcha, E.; Hounkonnou, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a study of the superconducting order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations in YBa2Cu3O7 -δ ,Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ , and KOs2O6 compounds. A nonperturbative technique within the framework of the renormalized Gaussian approach is proposed. The essential features are reported (analytically and numerically) through Ginzburg-Landau (GL) model-based calculations which take into account both the dimension and the microscopic parameters of the system. By presenting a self-consistent approach improvement on the GL theory, a technique for obtaining corrections to the asymptotic critical behavior in terms of nonuniversal parameters is developed. Therefore, corrections to the specific heat and the critical transition temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional samples are found taking into account the fact that fluctuations occur at all length scales as the critical point of a system is approached. The GL model in the free-field approximation and the 3D-X Y model are suitable for describing the weak and strong fluctuation regimes respectively. However, with a modified quadratic coefficient, the renormalized GL model is able to explain certain experimental observations including the specific heat of complicated systems, such as the cup-rate superconductors and the β -pyrochlore oxides. It is clearly shown that the enhancement, suppression, or rounding of the specific heat jump of high-Tc cup-rate superconductors at the transition are indicative of the order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations according to the dimension and the nature of interactions.

  7. Effects of critical fluctuations and dimensionality on the jump in specific heat at the superconducting transition temperature: Application to YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ},Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ}, and KOs_{2}O_{6} compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keumo Tsiaze, R M; Wirngo, A V; Mkam Tchouobiap, S E; Fotue, A J; Baloïtcha, E; Hounkonnou, M N

    2016-06-01

    We report on a study of the superconducting order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ},Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ}, and KOs_{2}O_{6} compounds. A nonperturbative technique within the framework of the renormalized Gaussian approach is proposed. The essential features are reported (analytically and numerically) through Ginzburg-Landau (GL) model-based calculations which take into account both the dimension and the microscopic parameters of the system. By presenting a self-consistent approach improvement on the GL theory, a technique for obtaining corrections to the asymptotic critical behavior in terms of nonuniversal parameters is developed. Therefore, corrections to the specific heat and the critical transition temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional samples are found taking into account the fact that fluctuations occur at all length scales as the critical point of a system is approached. The GL model in the free-field approximation and the 3D-XY model are suitable for describing the weak and strong fluctuation regimes respectively. However, with a modified quadratic coefficient, the renormalized GL model is able to explain certain experimental observations including the specific heat of complicated systems, such as the cup-rate superconductors and the β-pyrochlore oxides. It is clearly shown that the enhancement, suppression, or rounding of the specific heat jump of high-T_{c} cup-rate superconductors at the transition are indicative of the order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations according to the dimension and the nature of interactions.

  8. Phase-glass scaling near the coherence transition in granular HoBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa-Rojas, J.; Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A. A. 14490, Bogota DC (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2005-07-01

    Systematic measurements of electrical magnetoconductivity near the coherence transition of granular HoBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films are reported. Experiments performed in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 2500 Oe reveal that close to the coherence transition temperature T{sub c0}(H), the correlation length scales as a power law of temperature with a thermal-dependent critical exponent, {nu}. In low external fields the corresponding value of {nu} is consistent with the two-dimensional phase-glass model, which is in the same dynamical universality class of the so-called vortex-glass model. At applied fields H > 1000 Oe, the vortex dynamics becomes stronger and the coherence transition is not observed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Magneto-Optical Measurements of a Cascade of Transitions in Superconducting La1.875Ba0.125CuO4 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Hovnatan; Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Fejer, M. M.; Xia, Jing; Kapitulnik, A.

    2012-10-01

    Recent experiments on the original cuprate high-temperature superconductor, La2-xBaxCuO4, revealed a remarkable sequence of phase transitions. Here we investigate such crystals with the polar Kerr effect, which is sensitive to time-reversal-symmetry breaking. Concurrent birefringence measurements accurately locate the structural phase transitions from high-temperature tetragonal to low-temperature orthorhombic, and then to lower-temperature tetragonal, at which temperature strong Kerr signal onsets. Hysteretic behavior of the Kerr signal suggests that time-reversal symmetry is already broken well above room temperature, an effect that was previously observed in high quality YBa2Cu3O6+x crystals.

  10. Local lattice distortions vs. structural phase transition in NdFeAsO1-xFx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamiotou, M.; Lampakis, D.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Karpinski, J.; Fitch, A.; Tsiaklagkanos, P.; Liarokapis, E.

    2016-08-01

    The lattice properties at low temperatures of two samples of NdFeAsO1-xFx (x = 0.05 and 0.25) have been examined in order to investigate possible structural phase transition that may occur in the optimally doped superconducting sample with respect to the non-superconducting low-F concentration compound. In order to detect small modifications in the ion displacements with temperature micro-Raman and high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction measurements were carried out. No increase of the width of the (2 2 0) or (3 2 2) tetragonal diffraction peaks and microstrains could be found in the superconducting sample from synchrotron XRD measurements. On the other hand, the atomic displacement parameters deviate from the expected behavior, in agreement with modifications in the phonon width, as obtained by Raman scattering. These deviations occur around 150 K for both F dopings, with distinct differences among the two compounds, i.e., they decrease at low doping and increase for the superconducting sample. The data do not support a hidden phase transition to an orthorhombic phase in the superconducting compound, but point to an isostructural lattice deformation. Based on the absence of magnetic effects in this temperature range for the superconducting sample, we attribute the observed lattice anomalies to the formation of local lattice distortions that, being screened by the carriers, can only acquire long-range coherence by means of a structural phase transition at low doping levels.

  11. Renormalization group approach to a p-wave superconducting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continentino, Mucio A.; Deus, Fernanda [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caldas, Heron [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, 36301-000, São João Del Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    We present in this work an exact renormalization group (RG) treatment of a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor. The model proposed by Kitaev consists of a chain of spinless fermions with a p-wave gap. It is a paradigmatic model of great actual interest since it presents a weak pairing superconducting phase that has Majorana fermions at the ends of the chain. Those are predicted to be useful for quantum computation. The RG allows to obtain the phase diagram of the model and to study the quantum phase transition from the weak to the strong pairing phase. It yields the attractors of these phases and the critical exponents of the weak to strong pairing transition. We show that the weak pairing phase of the model is governed by a chaotic attractor being non-trivial from both its topological and RG properties. In the strong pairing phase the RG flow is towards a conventional strong coupling fixed point. Finally, we propose an alternative way for obtaining p-wave superconductivity in a one-dimensional system without spin–orbit interaction.

  12. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  13. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K

    2001-01-01

    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.

  14. Protective link for superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  15. Superconductivity above 10 K in Non-Cuprate Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1973, several non-cuprate transition metal and non-transition metal oxides were discovered with superconducting transition temperatures between 10 and 30 K. Retrospectives about these discoveries in spinel structure LiTi2O4 and perovskite structure (Ba,K)(Bi,Pb)O3 are given.

  16. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2+1 flavor QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point

    CERN Document Server

    Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Takeda, Shinji; Ukawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD around the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively $O(a)$-improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical endline is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multi-parameter, multi-ensemble reweighting method to calculate observables off the SU(3)-symmetric point, at the temporal size $N_{\\rm T}$=6 and lattice spacing as low as $a \\approx 0.19$ fm. We confirm that the slope of the critical endline takes the value of $-2$, and find that the second derivative is positive, at the SU(3)-flavor symmetric point on the Columbia plot parametrized with the strange quark mass $m_s$ and degenerated up-down quark mass $m_{\\rm l}$.

  17. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bosworth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using WxSi1−x, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (MoxSi1−x offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo83Si17. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz, there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  18. Critical points, phase transitions and water-like anomalies for an isotropic two length scale potential with increasing attractive well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L.; Furlan, A. P.; Krott, L. B.; Diehl, A.; Barbosa, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular Dynamic and Monte Carlo studies are performed in a system of particles interacting through core-softened (CS) potential, composed by two length scales: a repulsive shoulder at short distances and the another a variable scale, that can be repulsive or strongly attractive depending on the parameters used. The system show water-like anomalous behavior. The density, diffusion and structural anomalous regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram shrink in pressure as the system becomes more attractive. The transition appears with the increase of the attraction well. We found that the liquid-gas phase transition is Ising-like for all the CS potentials and its critical temperature increases with the increase of the attraction. No Ising-like behavior for the liquid-liquid phase transition was detected in the Monte Carlo simulations what might be due to the presence of stable amorphous phases.

  19. Key role of work hardening in superconductivity/superfluidity, heat conductivity and ultimate strain increase, evolution, cancer, aging and other phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V P

    2009-01-01

    The shear/laminar flow of liquids/gas/plasma/biological cells (BC), etc. is equivalent to dislocation-like shear of solids. The turbulent flow is the next stage of deformation/ multiplication of dislocation-like defects and their ordering in sub-grains and grain-boundaries, then grains slip-rotation in the direction approximately perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that phase transitions are governed by unified deformation hardening/softening under hydrostatic pressure, particle irradiation and impurity (isotope) chemical pressure, hard confining conditions and cooling, etc. thus changing electric, magnetic, ferroelectric, thermal, optical properties.1-2 Dislocation-like work hardening, DWH, is determined by non-monotonous properties of dislocation double edge-cross-jog slip, and ultrastrong DWH gives the lowest drag for any dislocation-like plasticity at phase transitions. This provides the same micromechanisms of the ultimate stage of conventional deformation (superfluidity) of ordinary liquids, i....

  20. Superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped picene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamanari, Yusuke; Mitamura, Hiroki; Kambe, Takashi; Ikeda, Naoshi; Okamoto, Hideki; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yamaji, Minoru; Kawasaki, Naoko; Maniwa, Yutaka; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2010-03-04

    Efforts to identify and develop new superconducting materials continue apace, motivated by both fundamental science and the prospects for application. For example, several new superconducting material systems have been developed in the recent past, including calcium-intercalated graphite compounds, boron-doped diamond and-most prominently-iron arsenides such as LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (ref. 3). In the case of organic superconductors, however, no new material system with a high superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) has been discovered in the past decade. Here we report that intercalating an alkali metal into picene, a wide-bandgap semiconducting solid hydrocarbon, produces metallic behaviour and superconductivity. Solid potassium-intercalated picene (K(x)picene) shows T(c) values of 7 K and 18 K, depending on the metal content. The drop of magnetization in K(x)picene solids at the transition temperature is sharp (<2 K), similar to the behaviour of Ca-intercalated graphite. The T(c) of 18 K is comparable to that of K-intercalated C(60) (ref. 4). This discovery of superconductivity in K(x)picene shows that organic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for improved T(c) values.

  1. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  2. Disentangling phase transitions and critical points in the proton–neutron interacting boson model by catastrophe theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. García-Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2. Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.

  3. Disentangling phase transitions and critical points in the proton–neutron interacting boson model by catastrophe theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ramos, J.E., E-mail: enrique.ramos@dfaie.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Huelva al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Arias, J.M., E-mail: ariasc@us.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Sevilla al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Dukelsky, J., E-mail: dukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-07

    We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.

  4. Mode selection of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability from the point of view of Landau phase transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Wei, Bing

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical model referring to mode selection of Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which explains the generation of fundamental instability mode and evolution of fundamental wavelength in experiments, is proposed on the basis of the Landau theory of phase transition. The basic idea of this phase transition model lies in that the appearance of MRT instability pattern can be considered as a consequence of the spontaneous generation of interfacial structure like the spontaneous magnetization in a ferromagnetic system. It is demonstrated that the amplitude of instability is responsible for the order parameter in the Landau theory of phase transition and the fundamental wavelength appears to play a role analogous to inverse temperature in thermodynamics. Further analysis indicates that the MRT instability is characterized by first order phase transition and the fundamental wavelength is proportional to the square root of energy entering into the system from the driving source. The theory predicts that the fundamental wavelength grows rapidly and saturates reaching a limiting wavelength of the order of the liner's final outer radius. The results given by this theory show qualitative agreement with the available experimental data of MRT instability of liner implosions conducted on the Sandia Z machine as well as Primary Test Stand facility at the Institute of Fluid Physics.

  5. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  6. Quantum Griffiths singularity of superconductor-metal transition in Ga thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Zhang, Hui-Min; Fu, Hai-Long; Liu, Haiwen; Sun, Yi; Peng, Jun-Ping; Wang, Fa; Lin, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian; Xie, X C

    2015-10-30

    The Griffiths singularity in a phase transition, caused by disorder effects, was predicted more than 40 years ago. Its signature, the divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, is challenging to observe experimentally. We report the experimental observation of the quantum Griffiths singularity in a two-dimensional superconducting system. We measured the transport properties of atomically thin gallium films and found that the films undergo superconductor-metal transitions with increasing magnetic field. Approaching the zero-temperature quantum critical point, we observed divergence of the dynamical critical exponent, which is consistent with the Griffiths singularity behavior. We interpret the observed superconductor-metal quantum phase transition as the infinite-randomness critical point, where the properties of the system are controlled by rare large superconducting regions.

  7. Experimental evidence of non-linear behaviour in YBCO superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palenque, E.R.; Appleyard, N.J.; Jackson, T.J.; Palmer, S.B. [Dept. of Phys., Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Preliminary measurements of the non-linear dynamics of a thin (two dimensional) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconducting film in a small AC magnetic field are presented, a peak in third harmonic generation which may provide evidence of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition is found just below the superconducting transition temperature. (author)

  8. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  9. Wetting, prewetting and surface transitions in type-I superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, J. O.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    1995-02-01

    Within the Ginzburg-Landau theory, which is quantitatively correct for classical superconductors, it is shown that a type-I superconductor can display an interface delocalization or “wetting” transition, in which a macroscopically thick superconducting layer intrudes from the surface into the bulk normal phase. The condition for this transition to occur is that the superconducting order parameter | ψ| 2 is enhanced at the surface. This corresponds to a negative surface extrapolation length b. The wetting transition takes place at bulk two-phase coexistence of normal and superconducting phases, at a temperature TD below the critical temperature Tc, and at magnetic field HD = Hc( TD). The field is applied parallel to the surface. Surprisingly, the order of the wetting transition is controlled by a bulk material constant, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. This is very unusual, since in other systems (fluids, Ising magnets,…) the order of the wetting transition depends on surface parameters that are difficult to determine or control. For superconductors, first-order wetting is predicted for 0 ≤ κ wetting for 0.374 wetting, the prewetting extension is also found. Unlike in standard wetting problems, the prewetting line does not terminate at a critical point but changes from first to second order at a tricritical point. Twinning-plane superconductivity (TPS) is reinterpreted as a prewetting phenomenon. The possibility of critical wetting in superconductors is especially interesting because this phenomenon has largely eluded experimental verification in any system until now. Furthermore, superconductors provide a realization of wetting in systems with short-range (exponentially decaying) interactions. This is very different from the usual long-range (algebraically decaying) interactions, such as van der Waals forces, and has important consequences for the wetting characteristics.

  10. Probing critical point energies of transition metal dichalcogenides: surprising indirect gap of single layer $SL-WSe_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chendong; CHEN, YUXUAN; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding quasiparticle band structures of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is critical for technological advances of these materials for atomic layer electronics and photonics. Although theoretical calculations to date have shown qualitatively similar features, there exist subtle differences which can lead to important consequences in the device characteristics. For example, most calculations have shown that all single layer (SL) TMDs have direct band gaps, while some have shown t...

  11. Oxide-based platform for reconfigurable superconducting nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey, Joshua P.; Cheng, Guanglei; Irvin, Patrick; Cen, Cheng; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Bi, Feng; Huang, Mengchen; Bark, Chung-Wung; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cho, Kwang-Hwan; Eom, Chang-Beom; Levy, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    We report quasi-1D superconductivity at the interface of LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The material system and nanostructure fabrication method supply a new platform for superconducting nanoelectronics. Nanostructures having line widths w ˜ 10 nm are formed from the parent two-dimensional electron liquid using conductive atomic force microscope lithography. Nanowire cross-sections are small compared to the superconducting coherence length in LaAlO3/SrTiO3, placing them in the quasi-1D regime. Broad superconducting transitions versus temperature and finite resistances in the superconducting state well below Tc ≈ 200 mK are observed, suggesting the presence of fluctuation- and heating-induced resistance. The superconducting resistances and V-I characteristics are tunable through the use of a back gate. Four-terminal resistances in the superconducting state show an unusual dependence on the current path, varying by as much as an order of magnitude. This new technology, i.e., the ability to ‘write’ gate-tunable superconducting nanostructures on an insulating LaAlO3/SrTiO3 ‘canvas’, opens possibilities for the development of new families of reconfigurable superconducting nanoelectronics.

  12. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  13. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  14. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  15. Microscopic Superconductivity and Room Temperature Electronics of High-Tc Cuprates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-Sui; CHEN Wan-Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper points out that the Landau criterion for macroscopic superfluidity of He H is only a criterion for microscopic superfluidity of 4He, extends the Landau criterion to microscopic superconductivity in fermions (electron and hole) system and system with Cooper pairs without long-range phase coherence. This paper gives another three non-superconductive systems that are of microscopic superconductivity. This paper demonstrates that one application of microscopic superconductivity is to establish room temperature electronics of the high-To cuprates.

  16. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  17. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  18. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  19. Determination of phase transition points of ionic liquids by combination of thermal analysis and conductivity measurements at very low heating and cooling rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Philipp; Schreiner, Christian; Schweiger, Hans-Georg [Workgroup Electrochemistry and Electrolytes, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstr. 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Gores, Heiner Jakob, E-mail: Heiner.Gores@Chemie.Uni-Regensburg.d [Workgroup Electrochemistry and Electrolytes, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstr. 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The determination of phase transition points of nine different ionic liquids (ILs) was performed by thermal analysis with simultaneous recording of conductivity. Conductivity of electrolyte solutions and ILs drastically changes during phase transitions and thus is an additional and very sensitive indicator for measuring phase transition points. Evaluation of temperature-time functions and conductivity-time functions with our computer-coupled automated equipment enabled the determination of melting temperatures with high accuracy and reliability. This claim is based on large samples, low temperature change rates and by regularly repeated measurements, i.e. at least seven measurements per IL. The melting temperatures of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(penta-fluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, and 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide were, to our knowledge, determined for the first time. The melting temperatures of the other 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-, and trimethylsulfonium-based ILs showed either a very good accordance with values published in literature or were distinctly higher.

  20. Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Anatolie

    2011-01-01

    This book demonstrates how the new phenomena in superconductivity on the nanometer scale (FFLO state, triplet superconductivity, Crossed Andreev Reflection, synchronized generation etc.) serve as the basis for the invention and development of novel nanoelectronic devices and systems. It demonstrates how rather complex ideas and theoretical models, like odd-pairing, non-uniform superconducting state, pi-shift etc., adequately describe the processes in real superconducting nanostructues and novel devices based on them. The book is useful for a broad audience of readers, researchers, engineers, P