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Sample records for superconducting solenoids orient

  1. Efficient transfer of positrons from a buffer-gas-cooled accumulator into an orthogonally oriented superconducting solenoid for antihydrogen studies

    CERN Document Server

    Comeau, D; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Gabrielse, G; Kalra, R; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Mullers, A; Walz, J

    2012-01-01

    Positrons accumulated in a room-temperature buffer-gas-cooled positron accumulator are efficiently transferred into a superconducting solenoid which houses the ATRAP cryogenic Penning trap used in antihydrogen research. The positrons are guided along a 9 m long magnetic guide that connects the central field lines of the 0.15 T field in the positron accumulator to the central magnetic field lines of the superconducting solenoid. Seventy independently controllable electromagnets are required to overcome the fringing field of the large-bore superconducting solenoid. The guide includes both a 15 degrees upward bend and a 105 degrees downward bend to account for the orthogonal orientation of the positron accumulator with respect to the cryogenic Penning trap. Low-energy positrons ejected from the accumulator follow the magnetic field lines within the guide and are transferred into the superconducting solenoid with nearly 100% efficiency. A 7 m long 5 cm diameter stainless-steel tube and a 20 mm long, 1.5 mm diamet...

  2. The CMS superconducting solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The huge solenoid that will generate the magnetic field for the CMS experiment at the LHC is shown stored in the assembly hall above the experimental cavern. The solenoid is made up of five pieces totaling 12.5 m in length and 6 m in diameter. It weighs 220 tonnes and will produce a 4 T magnetic field, 100 000 times the strength of the Earth's magnetic field, storing enough energy to melt 18 tonnes of gold.

  3. CERN tests largest superconducting solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN's Compacts Muon Solenoid (CMS) - the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet - has reached full field in testing. The instrument is part of the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, located in a giant subterranean chamber at Cessy on the Franco-Swiss border." (1 page)

  4. ATLAS's superconducting solenoid takes up position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid was moved to its final destination on 16 January. It has taken up position opposite the ATLAS liquid argon barrel cryostat, which will house the electromagnetic calorimeter. All that remains to do now is to slide it into the insulation vacuum, this will be done in the next few weeks. Built by Toshiba, under responsibility of KEK in Japan, the central solenoid is 2.4 metres in diameter, 5.3 metres long and weighs 5.5 tonnes. "It will provide an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla that will deflect particles inside the inner detector," as Roger Ruber, on-site project coordinator, explains. The inner detector, which consists of three sub-detectors, will be installed inside the solenoid later. The solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead travelling crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid argon calorimeter, it will be inserted soon.

  5. Fractional flux quanta in superconducting solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-03-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new topology. The topology is that of a superconducting wire that winds N times around a fixed axis and has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the solenoid, provided that its cross-section radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical topology is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0.

  6. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  7. HIE-ISOLDE CRYO-MODULE Assembly - Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Leclercq, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of the cryo-module components in SM18 cleanroom. The superconducting solenoid (housed inside its helium vessel) is cleaned, prepared then installed on the supporting frame of the cryo-module and connected to the helium tank, prior to the assembly of the RF cavities on the structure. The completed first 2 cryo-modules installed inside the HIE-ISOLDE-LINAC ready for beam operation is also shown.

  8. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-05-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  9. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  10. Failure Scenarios and Mitigations for the BABAR Superconducting Solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, EunJoo; Candia, A.; Craddock, W. W.; Racine, M.; Weisend, J. G.

    2006-04-01

    The cryogenic department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is responsible for the operation, troubleshooting, and upgrade of the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid detector for the BABAR B-factory experiment. Events that disable the detector are rare but significantly impact the availability of the detector for physics research. As a result, a number of systems and procedures have been developed over time to minimize the downtime of the detector, for example improved control systems, improved and automatic backup systems, and spares for all major components. Together they can prevent or mitigate many of the failures experienced by the utilities, mechanical systems, controls and instrumentation. In this paper we describe various failure scenarios, their effect on the detector, and the modifications made to mitigate the effects of the failure. As a result of these modifications the reliability of the detector has increased significantly with only 3 shutdowns of the detector due to cryogenics systems over the last 2 years.

  11. Test results of the g-2 superconducting solenoid magnet system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunce, G; Morse, WM; Benante, J; Cullen, MH; Danby, GT; Endo, K; Fedotovich, GV; Geller, J; Green, MA; Grossmann, A; GrossePerdckamp, M; Haeberlen, U; Hseuh, H; Hirabayashi, H; Hughes, VW; Jackson, JW; Jia, LX; Jungmann, K; Krienen, F; Larsen, R; Khazin, B; Kawall, D; Meng, W; Pai, C; Polk, T.; Prigl, R; Putlitz, GZ; Redin, S; Roberts, BL; Ryskulov, N; Semertzidas, Y; Shutt, R; Snydstrup, L; Tallerico, T; vonWalter, P; Woodle, K; Yamamoto, A

    The g-2 experiment dipole consists of a single 48 turn, 15.1 meter diameter outer solenoid and a pair of 24 turn inner solenoids, 13.4 meters in diameter. The inner solenoids are hooked in series and are run at a polarity that is opposite that of the outer solenoid, thus creating a dipole field in

  12. Superconducting Solenoid and Press for Permanent Magnet Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-08-01

    For the first time, a superconducting solenoid (SCM) was used to increase the remnant magnetization of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs). In particular, improved magnetic alignment of commercial-grade PM powder was achieved, as it was axial die pressed into 12.7-mm diameter cylindrical compacts in the 76.2-mm warm bore of a 9-T SCM. The press used to compact the powder is unique and was specifically designed for use with the SCM. Although the press was operated in the batch mode for this proof of concept study, its design is intended to enable automated production. In operation, a simple die and punch set made of nonmagnetic materials was filled with powder and loaded into a nonmagnetic press tube. The cantilevered press tube was inserted horizontally, on a carrier manually advanced along a track, into the SCM. The robustness of the mechanical components and the SCM, in its liquid helium dewar, were specifically designed to allow for insertion and extraction of the magnetic powder and compacts, while operating at 9 T.

  13. Superconducting curved transport solenoid with dipole coils for charge selection of the muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, P., E-mail: patrick.strasser@kek.jp [Muon Science Laboratory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ikedo, Y.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Koda, A.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T. [Muon Science Laboratory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Pant, A.D. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ogitsu, T. [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Makida, Y.; Yoshida, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sasaki, K. [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Okamura, T. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Superconducting curved transport solenoid. • Muon charge selection by superimposed dipole field. • World strongest pulsed muon source. -- Abstract: At the J-PARC Muon Science Facility (MUSE) the Super-Omega muon beamline is now under construction in the experimental hall No. 2 of the Materials and Life Science Facility building. Muons up to 45 MeV/c will be extracted with a large acceptance solid angle to produce the world highest intensity pulsed muon beam. This beamline comprises three parts, a normal-conducting capture solenoid, a superconducting curved transport solenoid and an axial focusing solenoid. Since only solenoids are used, both surface μ{sup +} and cloud μ{sup −} are extracted simultaneously. To accommodate future experiments that would only require either μ{sup +} or μ{sup −} beam, two dipole coils located on the straight section of the curved solenoid provide the muon charge selection by directing one of the beam onto the solenoid inner-wall. The design parameters, the construction status and the initial beam commissioning are reported.

  14. Jefferson Lab CLAS12 Superconducting Solenoid magnet Requirements and Design Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Hogan, John P. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Fair, Ruben J. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Ghoshal, Probir K. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Luongo, Cesar [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Elouadrhiri, Latifa [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Jefferson Lab 12GeV accelerator upgrade project, one of the experimental halls (Hall B) requires two superconducting magnets. One is a magnet system consisting of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a toroidal configuration and the second is an actively shielded solenoidal magnet system consisting of 5 coils. In this presentation the physics requirements for the 5 T solenoid magnet, design constraints, conductor decision, and cooling choice will be discussed. The various design iterations to meet the specification will also be discussed in this presentation.

  15. A new muon-pion collection and transport system design using superconducting solenoids based on CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xu, Wen-Zhen; Ni, Xiao-Jie; Pan, Zi-Wen; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2016-05-01

    A new muon and pion capture system is proposed for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), currently under construction. Using about 4% of the pulsed proton beam (1.6 GeV, 4 kW and 1 Hz) of CSNS to bombard a cylindrical graphite target inside a superconducting solenoid, both surface muons and pions can be acquired. The acceptance of this novel capture system - a graphite target wrapped up by a superconducting solenoid - is larger than the normal muon beam lines using quadrupoles at one side of the separated muon target. The muon and pion production at different capture magnetic fields was calculated using Geant4. The bending angle of the capture solenoid with respect to the proton beam was also optimized in simulation to achieve more muons and pions. Based on the layout of the muon experimental area reserved at the CSNS project, a preliminary muon beam line was designed with multi-purpose muon spin rotation areas (surface, decay and low-energy muons). Finally, high-flux surface muons (108/s) and decay muons (109/s) simulated by G4beamline will be available at the end of the decay solenoid based on the first phase of CSNS. This collection and transport system will be a very effective beam line at a proton current of 2.5 μA. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11527811)

  16. Effect of superconducting solenoid model cores on spanwise iron magnet roll control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with conventional ferromagnetic fuselage cores, superconducting solenoid cores appear to offer significant reductions in the projected cost of a large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system. The provision of sufficient magnetic roll torque capability has been a long-standing problem with all magnetic suspension and balance systems; and the spanwise iron magnet scheme appears to be the most powerful system available. This scheme utilizes iron cores which are installed in the wings of the model. It was anticipated that the magnetization of these cores, and hence the roll torque generated, would be affected by the powerful external magnetic field of the superconducting solenoid. A preliminary study has been made of the effect of the superconducting solenoid fuselage model core concept on the spanwise iron magnet roll torque generation schemes. Computed data for one representative configuration indicate that reductions in available roll torque occur over a range of applied magnetic field levels. These results indicate that a 30-percent increase in roll electromagnet capacity over that previously determined will be required for a representative 8-foot wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system design.

  17. A new muon-pion collection and transport system design using superconducting solenoids based on CSNS

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ran; Xu, Wenzhen; Ni, Xiaojie; Pan, Ziwen; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    A new muon and pion capture system was proposed at the under-conduction China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). Using about 4 % of the pulsed proton beam (1.6 GeV, 4 kW and 1 Hz) of CSNS to bombard a cylindrical graphite target inside a superconducting solenoid both surface muons and pions can be acquired. The acceptance of this novel capture system - a graphite target wrapped up by a superconducting solenoid - is larger than the normal muon beam lines using quadrupoles at one side of the separated muon target. The muon and pion production at different capture magnetic fields was calculated by Geant4, the bending angle of the capture solenoid with respect to the proton beam was also optimized in simulation to achieve more muons and pions and to reduce proton dosages to following beam elements. According to the layout of the muon experimental area reserved at the CSNS project, a preliminary muon beam line was designed with multi-propose muon spin rotation areas(surface, decay and low-energy muons). Finally, hi...

  18. NdFeB Magnets Aligned in a 9-T Superconducting Solenoid (asterisk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-08-01

    Commercial-grade magnet powder (Magnequench UG) was uniaxial die-pressed into cylindrical compacts, while being aligned in the 1-T to 8-T DC field of a superconducting solenoid at Argonne National Laboratory. Then, the compacts were added to normal Magnequench UG production batches for sintering and annealing. The variations in magnet properties for different strengths of alignment fields are reported for 15.88-mm (5/8-in.) diameter compacts made with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios in the range 3 0.25 and L 1. The best magnets were produced when the powder-filled die was inserted into the active field of the solenoid and then pressed. Improvements in the residual flux density of 8% and in the energy product of 16% were achieved by increasing the alignment field beyond the typical 2-T capabilities of electromagnets. The most improvement was achieved for the compacts with the smallest L/D ratio. The ability to make very strong magnets with small L/D, where self-demagnetization effects during alignment are greatest, would benefit most the production of near-final-shape magnets. Compaction of the magnet powder using a horizontal die and a continuously active superconducting solenoid was not a problem. Although the press was operated in the batch mode for this proof-of-concept study, its design is intended to enable automated production.

  19. Design and fabrication of a 30 T superconducting solenoid using overpressure processed Bi2212 round wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-18

    High field superconducting magnets are used in particle colliders, fusion energy devices, and spectrometers for medical imaging and advanced materials research. Magnets capable of generating fields of 20-30 T are needed by future accelerator facilities. A 20-30 T magnet will require the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and therefore the challenges of high field HTS magnet development need to be addressed. Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) conductors fabricated by the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) technique have demonstrated the capability to carry large critical current density of 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Available in round wire multi-filamentary form, Bi2212 may allow fabrication of 20-50 T superconducting magnets. Until recently the performance of Bi2212 has been limited by challenges in realizing high current densities (Jc ) in long lengths. This problem now is solved by the National High Magnetic Field Lab using an overpressure (OP) processing technique, which uses external pressure to process the conductor. OP processing also helps remove the ceramic leakage that results when Bi-2212 liquid leaks out from the sheath material and reacts with insulation, coil forms, and flanges. Significant advances have also been achieved in developing novel insulation materials (TiO2 coating) and Ag-Al sheath materials that have higher mechanical strengths than Ag-0.2wt.% Mg, developing heat treatment approaches to broadening the maximum process temperature window, and developing high-strength, mechanical reinforced Bi-2212 cables. In the Phase I work, we leveraged these new opportunities to prototype overpressure processed solenoids and test them in background fields of up to 14 T. Additionally a design of a fully superconducting 30 T solenoid was produced. This work in conjunction with the future path outlined in the Phase II proposal would

  20. A quantitative investigation of the effect of a close-fitting superconducting shield on the coil factor of a solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, R.; Koshelet, V.

    2009-01-01

    the geometry of the solenoid, but also the nearby magnetic environment. This has important consequences for many cryogenic experiments involving magnetic fields such as the determination of the parameters of Josephson junctions, as well as other superconducting devices. It is proposed to solve the problem...

  1. A quantitative investigation of the effect of a close-fitting superconducting shield on the coil factor of a solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, R.; Koshelet, V.;

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting shields are commonly used to suppress external magnetic interference. We show, that an error of almost an order of magnitude can occur in the coil factor in realistic configurations of the solenoid and the shield. The reason is that the coil factor is determined by not only...

  2. Failure Scenarios and Mitigations and for the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, EunJoo; Candia, A.; Craddock, W.W.; Racine, M.; Weisend, J.G., II; /SLAC

    2005-12-13

    The cryogenic department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is responsible for the operation, troubleshooting, and upgrade of the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid detector for the BABAR B-factory experiment. Events that disable the detector are rare but significantly impact the availability of the detector for physics research. As a result, a number of systems and procedures have been developed over time to minimize the downtime of the detector, for example improved control systems, improved and automatic backup systems, and spares for all major components. Together they can prevent or mitigate many of the failures experienced by the utilities, mechanical systems, controls and instrumentation. In this paper we describe various failure scenarios, their effect on the detector, and the modifications made to mitigate the effects of the failure. As a result of these modifications the reliability of the detector has increased significantly with only 3 shutdowns of the detector due to cryogenics systems over the last 2 years.

  3. An Investigation into the Electromagnetic Interactions between a Superconducting Torus and Solenoid for the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajput-Ghoshal, Renuka [JLAB; Ghoshal, Probir K. [JLAB; Fair, Ruben J. [JLAB; Hogan, John P. [JLAB; Kashy, David H. [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    The Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade in Hall B will need CLAS12 detector that requires two superconducting magnets. One is a magnet system consisting of six superconducting trapezoidal racetrack-type coils assembled in a Toroidal configuration (Torus) and the second is an actively shielded solenoidal magnet (Solenoid). Both the torus and solenoid are located in close proximity to one another and are surrounded by sensitive detectors. This paper investigates the electromagnetic interactions between the two systems during normal operation as well as during various fault scenarios as part of a Risk Assessment and Mitigation (RAM).

  4. Thermal Stability of Large Al-stabilized Superconducting Magnets Theoritical Analysis of CMS Solenoid.

    CERN Document Server

    Juster, F P

    1998-01-01

    The CMS detector magnet presently under design for the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN is an epoxy-impregnated structure, indirectly cooled by two-phase flow liquid helium. This magnet, based on aluminum-stabilized, mechanically reinforced conductor, is not cryostable : the heat generated by a thermal disturbance can be removed only by thermal diffusivity through the windings. In order to study the thermal stability of the magnet, we have developed numerical codes able to predict the thermal behaviour of an anisotropic and non-homogeneous medium against thermal perturbations due to friction or epoxy cracking. Our 3D finite element codes can calculate the propagation or the recovery of a normal zone in a superconducting magnet, taking into account the current diffusion effect, which strongly affects the heat generated by a transition in the case of large Al-stabilized conductors. Two different codes, CASTEM 2000 and HEATING are described in this paper. We present the results of the CMS Solenoid magnet sta...

  5. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  7. The first module of CMS superconducting magnet is leaving towards CERN: a huge solenoid, which will hold the world record of stored energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first module of the five which will make up the CMS superconducting magnet is sailing today from Genova port to CERN. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the experiments that will take place at the accelerator LHC. The device will arrive after 10-days of travel (1 page)

  8. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired ..delta..p/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200..mu.. resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10/sup 6/ A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A.

  9. Improving sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by powder compaction in a 9 T superconducting solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.; Rozendaal, E.; Wise, J. H.; Turner, L. R.

    2003-05-01

    Commercial-grade magnet powder (Magnequench UG) was axial die pressed in the 76.2 mm warm bore of a 9 T superconducting solenoid. Otherwise, processing was performed as part of normal factory operations. This pressing was done to improve the alignment of the anisotropic single-crystal particles of the compact and, thus, the remanent magnetization of the sintered cylindrical permanent magnets (12.7 mm diameter). Although the press was operated in batch mode for this proof-of-concept study, its design enables automated production. Improvements of up to 8% in magnetization and 16% in energy products were obtained, as the alignment field H was increased above the 2 T maximum field of electromagnets used in industry. The greatest improvements were obtained for magnets with the smallest length-to-diameter ratios, L/D<0.5. The production of quality magnets in this near-final-shape size range is currently being pursued by industry to eliminate expensive machining steps. To understand the potential for 2-8 T alignment fields to overcome the distortions created in the otherwise uniform field by the self-field of short compacts, electromagnetic code (Opera) calculations were made. A simple material model was used to predict the distortions. The trends in the predicted field-line inclinations, with L/D and H, compare to trends in the improvement of the magnetic properties.

  10. ATLAS Solenoid placed in its final position

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting solenoid during one of the transport operations. Securely attached to the overhead crane, the solenoid is situated in front of the opening to the liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter, where it will soon be inserted.

  11. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  12. The ATLAS central solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Ruber, R; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; ten Kate, H; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Metselaar, J; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Pavlov, O; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, E; Tanaka, K; Taylor, T; Yamaoka, H

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC is equipped with a superconducting magnet system consisting of three large toroids and a solenoid. The 2.3 m diameter, 5.3 m long solenoid is located at the heart of the experiment where it provides a 2 T field for spectrometry of the particles emanating from the interaction of the counter-rotating beams of hadrons. As the electromagnetic calorimeter of the experiment is situated outside the solenoid, the coil must be as transparent as possible to traversing particles. The magnet, which was designed at KEK, incorporates progress in technology coming from the development of previous solenoids of this type, in particular that of a new type of reinforced superconductor addressing the requirement of transparency. Special attention has been paid to ensuring reliability and ease of operation of the magnet, through the application of sufficiently conservative guidelines for the mechanical and electrical design, stringent testing during manufacture, and a comprehensive commissioning...

  13. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. After a test insertion on 6th February and a few weeks of preparation work it was finally inserted on 27th February. A couple of hectic 24-hours/7-day weeks followed in order to connect all services in the cryostat bulkhead. But last Monday, 15th March, both warm flanges of the cryostat could be closed. In another week's time we expect to finish the connection of the cryogenic cooling lines and the superconducting bus lines with the external services. Then the cool-down and test will commence... ...

  14. Processing and characterization of superconducting solenoids made of Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilament round wire for high field magnet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng

    As the only high temperature superconductor with round wire (RW) geometry, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting wire has the advantages of being multi-filamentary, macroscopically isotropic and twistable. With overpressure (OP) processing techniques recently developed by our group at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), the engineering current density (Je) of Bi-2212 RW can be dramatically increased. For example, Je of more than 600 A/mm 2 (4.2 K and 20 T) is achieved after 100 bar OP processing. With these intrinsically beneficial properties and recent processing progress, Bi-2212 RW has become very attractive for high field magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnets and accelerator magnets etc. This thesis summarizes my graduate study on Bi-2212 solenoids for high field and high homogeneity NMR magnet applications, which mainly includes performance study of Bi-2212 RW insulations, 1 bar and OP processing study of Bi-2212 solenoids, and development of superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RW conductors. Electrical insulation is one of the key components of Bi-2212 coils to provide sufficient electrical standoff within coil winding pack. A TiO 2/polymer insulation offered by nGimat LLC was systematically investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dielectric property measurements, and transport critical current (Ic) property measurements. About 29% of the insulation by weight is polymer. When the Bi-2212 wire is fully heat treated, this decomposes with slow heating to 400 °C in flowing O2. After the full reaction, we found that the TiO2 did not degrade the critical current properties, adhered well to the conductor, and provided a breakdown voltage of more than 100 V. A Bi-2212 RW wound solenoid coil was built using this insulation being offered by nGimat LLC. The coil resistance was constant through coil winding, polymer burn

  15. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  16. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  17. D0 Solenoid Commissioning September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-10-12

    D-Zero installed a new 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet into the central tracking region of the D-Zero detector. This report documents the cryogenic performance of the superconducting solenoid during its first cryogenic operation at Fermilab. By necessity, the liquid helium refrigerator was also operated. This was the second time the refrigerator plant has been operated. The refrigerator's performance is also documented herein.

  18. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  19. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Weidong, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Lijun; Ozaki, Toshinori; Gu, Genda; Li, Qiang, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF{sub 2} crystalline substrates, respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  20. Reference Design of the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Feher, S; Brandt,, J; Cheban, S; Coleman, R; Dhanaraj, N; Fang, I; Lamm, M; Lombardo, V; Lopes, M; Miller, J; Ostojic, R ,; Orris, D; Page, T; Peterson, T; Tang, Z; Wands, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab has been approved by the Department of Energy to proceed developing the preliminary design. Integral to the success of Mu2e is the superconducting solenoid system. One of the three major solenoids is the Detector Solenoid that houses the stopping target and the detectors. The goal of the Detector Solenoid team is to produce detailed design specifications that are sufficient for vendors to produce the final design drawings, tooling and fabrication procedures and proceed to production. In this paper we summarize the Reference Design of the Detector Solenoid.

  1. Insulating process for HT-7U central solenoid model coils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting Tokamak is a whole superconducting magnetically confined fusion device. The insulating system of its central solenoid coils is critical to its properties. In this paper the forming of the insulating system and the vacuum-pressure-impregnating (VPI) are introduced, and the whole insulating process is verified under the superconducting experiment condition.

  2. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  3. Induced Superconductivity and Engineered Josephson Tunneling Devices in Epitaxial (111)-Oriented Gold/Vanadium Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Katmis, Ferhat; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moodera, Jagadeesh S

    2016-04-13

    We report a unique experimental approach to create topological superconductors by inducing superconductivity into epitaxial metallic thin film with strong spin-orbit coupling. Utilizing molecular beam epitaxy technique under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, we are able to achieve (111) oriented single phase of gold (Au) thin film grown on a well-oriented vanadium (V) s-wave superconductor film with clean interface. We obtained atomically smooth Au thin films with thicknesses even down to below a nanometer showing near-ideal surface quality. The as-grown V/Au bilayer heterostructure exhibits superconducting transition at around 3.9 K. Clear Josephson tunneling and Andreev reflection are observed in S-I-S tunnel junctions fabricated from the epitaxial bilayers. The barrier thickness dependent tunneling and the associated subharmonic gap structures (SGS) confirmed the induced superconductivity in Au (111), paving the way for engineering thin film heterostructures based on p-wave superconductivity and nano devices exploiting Majorana Fermions for quantum computing.

  4. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  5. Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  6. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  7. Mechanics of a magnet and a Meissner superconducting ring at arbitrary position and orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Diaz, J.L., E-mail: jlperez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15. E28911 Leganes (Spain); Garcia-Prada, J.C.; Diaz-Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15. E28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    The force and torque exerted by a magnetic dipole on a superconducting ring (or hollow cylinder) in the Meissner state at arbitrary position and orientation are calculated using a Maxwell-London model previously proposed by the authors. The center of the ring is an unstable equilibrium point for the magnet. At this point the ring tends to align the magnet but tends to expel it for any small axial deviation from the center. There is also a non-monotonic and oscillatory dependence of the forces and torques on the position caused by the finiteness of the ring and a torque arises when the magnet is displaced both radially and axially from the center of the cylinder which corresponds to the experimental data. Therefore, the use of a magnet in a Meissner superconducting ring as a self aligning bearing requires a centered position and that the axial unstability to be compensated by additional mechanical means.

  8. 8T螺线管型高温超导磁体的电磁优化与分析%Electromagnetism optimization and analyses of 8T high temperature superconducting solenoid magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林煜; 李鹏远

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种强磁场高温超导螺线管磁体电磁性能的优化方法。通过编写Matlab数据处理程序优化了一个中心磁感应强度为8T、内径为20cm的磁体。利用有限元分析法分析已优化磁体的磁场分布,得到磁体在垂直方向的最大磁感应强度值与Matlab数据处理程序计算的结果基本吻合。%An optimization method of electromagnetic performance of high temperature superconducting solenoid magnet in high magnetic field is introduced. A Matlab code is written for optimizing the performance of the magnet with the central magnetic field of 8T and the inner diameter of 20 cm. Besides, the magnetic field distribution of the optimized magnet is analyzed by FEM software, and the value of the maximum magnetic induction in the axial direction is almost the same as the result calculated by the Matlab code.

  9. First Operation of the Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. It was cooled down from the 17th to 23th May 2006, and the first kA was put into it the same evening as it was cold and superconductive. That makes our solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas. The Central Solenoid in its final position at the heart of ATLAS. The coil current (red line) and voltage (blue line) showing the operation at nominal current of 7.73 kA for a magnetic field of 2.0 T and the subsequent successful commissioning up to 8 kAT The cool down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems and was achieved in perfect collaboration with the liquid argon detector with which it shares the Barrel Cryostat. Powering up to nominal current had to wait until the last week of July when the End-Cap Calorimeters were in closed position. The Tile Barrel and E...

  10. ATLAS Solenoid Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R

    Last month the central solenoid was installed in the barrel cryostat, which it shares with the liquid argon calorimeter. Figure 1: Some members of the solenoid and liquid argon teams proudly pose in front of the barrel cryosat, complete with detector and magnet. Some two years ago the central solenoid arrived at CERN after being manufactured and tested in Japan. It was kept in storage until last October when it was finally moved to the barrel cryostat integration area. Here a position survey of the solenoid (with respect to the cryostat's inner warm vessel) was performed. Figure 2: The alignment survey by Dirk Mergelkuhl and Aude Wiart. (EST-SU) At the start of the New Year the solenoid was moved to the cryostat insertion stand. Figure 3: The solenoid on the insertion stand, with Akira Yamamoto the solenoid designer and project leader. Figure 4: Taka Kondo, ATLAS Japan spokesperson, and Shoichi Mizumaki, Toshiba project engineer for the ATLAS solenoid, celebrate the insertion. Aft...

  11. Central Solenoid On-surface Test

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, R

    2004-01-01

    A full scale on-surface test of the central solenoid has been performed before its final installation in the ATLAS cavern starting in November. The successful integration of the central solenoid into the barrel cryostat, as reported in the March 2004 ATLAS eNews, was hardly finished when testing started. After a six-week period to cool down the LAr calorimeter, the solenoid underwent a similar procedure. Cooling it down to 4.6 Kelvin from room temperature took just over five and a half days. Cold and superconducting, it was time to validate the functionality of the control and safety systems. These systems were largely the same as the systems to be used in the final underground installation, and will be used not only for the solenoid and toroid magnets, but parts of it also for other LHC experiments. This solenoid test was the first occasion to test the system functionality in a real working environment. Several days were spent to fine tune the systems, especially the critical safety system, which turned out...

  12. Mu2e production solenoid cryostat conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T.H.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.M.; Peterson, T.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Mu2e is a muon-to-electron conversion experiment being designed by an international collaboration of more than 65 scientists and engineers from more than 20 research institutions for installation at Fermilab. The experiment is comprised of three large superconducting solenoid magnet systems, production solenoid (PS), transport solenoid (TS) and detector solenoid (DS). A 25 kW, 8 GeV proton beam strikes a target located in the PS creating muons from the decay of secondary particles. These muons are then focused in the PS and the resultant muon beam is transported through the TS towards the DS. The production solenoid presents a unique set of design challenges as the result of high radiation doses, stringent magnetic field requirements, and large structural forces. This paper describes the conceptual design of the PS cryostat and will include discussions of the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multi-layer insulation, cooling system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system.

  13. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  14. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  15. Optical solenoid beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Roichman, Yohai; Grier, David G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce optical solenoid beams, diffractionless solutions of the Helmholtz equation whose diffraction-limited in-plane intensity peak spirals around the optical axis, and whose wavefronts carry...

  16. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  17. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  18. Successful mapping of the solenoid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M.

    The ATLAS solenoid coil is about 5.3m long, has a diameter of 2.5m and is designed to deliver a magnetic field of approximately 2T for the ATLAS inner detector. The superconducting solenoid coil has been integrated inside the LAr barrel cryostat and was installed at its final position inside the cavern in November 2005. This summer - after completion of the extended barrel calorimeters and before the installation of the inner detector - the end cap calorimeters (LAr end caps and Tile extended barrels) were moved for the first time into their final position in order to create conditions as close as possible to final for the solenoid tests and for mapping the field inside the solenoid bore. Design and construction of the mapping machine The requirement on the absolute precision of the field measurements are 0.05% on the field integrals seen by particles; if this is achieved the momentum error coming from insufficient knowledge of the magnetic field will be negligible compared to the error stemming from the inn...

  19. Optical properties of c-axis oriented superconducting MgB2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, J J; Carr, G L; Perebeinos, V; Homes, C C; Strongin, M; Allen, P B; Kang, W N; Choi, E M; Kim, H J; Lee, S I

    2001-12-31

    Temperature dependent optical conductivities and dc resistivity of c-axis oriented superconducting (T(c) = 39.6 K) MgB2 films (approximately 450 nm) have been measured. The normal state ab-plane optical conductivities can be described by the Drude model with a temperature independent Drude plasma frequency of omega(p,D) = 13 600+/-100 cm(-1) or 1.68+/-0.01 eV. The normal state resistivity is fitted by the Bloch-Grüneisen formula with an electron-phonon coupling constant lambda(tr) = 0.13+/-0.02. The optical conductivity spectra below T(c) of these films suggest that MgB2 is a multigap superconductor.

  20. Automated Object-Oriented Simulation Framework for Modelling of Superconducting Magnets at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Michał; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej

    The thesis aims at designing a flexible, extensible, user-friendly interface to model electro thermal transients occurring in superconducting magnets. Simulations are a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of a magnet and its protection system against the effects of a quench. The application is created using scalable and modular architecture based on object-oriented programming paradigm which opens an easy way for future extensions. What is more, each model composed of thousands of blocks is automatically created in MATLAB/Simulink. Additionally, the user is able to automatically run sets of simulations with varying parameters. Due to its scalability and modularity the framework can be easily used to simulate wide range of materials and magnet configurations.

  1. Magnetic latching solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.; Albano, R.K.; Morrison, J.L. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized. 2 figs.

  2. Magnetic latching solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Albano, Richard K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morrison, Jr., John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized.

  3. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  4. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  5. Thermal analysis of the cold mass of the 2T solenoid for the PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Dudarev, A.; Pais Da Silva, H.; Vodopyanov, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2015-12-01

    The superconducting solenoid of the PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt (Germany) is designed to provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a length of about 4 m in a bore of 1.9 m. To allow a warm target feed pipe oriented transversely to the solenoid axis and penetrating through the cryostat and solenoid cold mass, the magnet is split into 3 inter-connected coils fitted in a common support cylinder. During normal operation, cooling of the cold mass to the working temperature of 4.5 K will be achieved through the circulation by natural convection of two-phase helium in cooling pipes attached to the Al-alloy support cylinder. Pure aluminium strips acting as heat drains and glued to the inner surface of the three coils and thermally bonded to the cooling pipes allow minimizing the temperature gradient across the 6-layers coils. In this paper the thermal design of the cold mass during normal operation and current ramps up and down is validated using an analytical approximation and numerical simulation.

  6. Thermal analysis of the cold mass of the 2T solenoid for the PANDA detector at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Rolando, G; Dudarev, A; Pais Da Silva, H; Vodopyanov, A; Schmitt, L

    2015-01-01

    The superconducting solenoid of the PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt (Germany) is designed to provide a magnetic field of 2 T over a length of about 4 m in a bore of 1.9 m. To allow a warm target feed pipe oriented transversely to the solenoid axis and penetrating through the cryostat and solenoid cold mass, the magnet is split into 3 inter-connected coils fitted in a common support cylinder. During normal operation, cooling of the cold mass to the working temperature of 4.5 K will be achieved through the circulation by natural convection of two-phase helium in cooling pipes attached to the Al-alloy support cylinder. Pure aluminium strips acting as heat drains and glued to the inner surface of the three coils and thermally bonded to the cooling pipes allow minimizing the temperature gradient across the 6-layers coils. In this paper the thermal design of the cold mass during normal operation and current ramps up and down is validated using an analytical appro...

  7. Improvements and Performance of the Fermilab Solenoid Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; et al.

    2016-09-02

    The Solenoid Test Facility at Fermilab was built using a large vacuum vessel for testing of conduction-cooled superconducting solenoid magnets, and was first used to determine the performance of the MICE Coupling Coil [1, 2]. The facility was modified recently to enable testing of solenoid magnets for the Mu2e experiment, which operate at much higher current than the Coupling Coil. One pair of low current conduction-cooled copper and NbTi leads was replaced with two pairs of 10 kA HTS leads cooled by heat exchange with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The new design, with additional control and monitoring capability, also provides helium cooling of the superconducting magnet leads by conduction. A high current power supply with energy extraction was added, and several improvements to the quench protection and characterization system were made. Here we present details of these changes and report on performance results from a test of the Mu2e prototype Transport Solenoid (TS) module. Progress on additional improvements in preparation for production TS module testing will be presented.

  8. Cosmic Solenoids Minimal Cross-Section and Generalized Flux Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, A; Davidson, Aharon; Karasik, David

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent general relativistic configuration describing a finite cross-section magnetic flux tube is constructed. The cosmic solenoid is modeled by an elastic superconductive surface which separates the Melvin core from the surrounding flat conic structure. We show that a given amount $\\Phi$ of magnetic flux cannot be confined within a cosmic solenoid of circumferential radius smaller than $\\frac{\\sqrt{3G}}{2\\pi c^2}\\Phi$ without creating a conic singularity. Gauss-Codazzi matching conditions are derived by means of a self-consistent action. The source term, representing the surface currents, is sandwiched between internal and external gravitational surface terms. Surface superconductivity is realized by means of a Higgs scalar minimally coupled to projective electromagnetism. Trading the 'magnetic' London phase for a dual 'electric' surface vector potential, the generalized quantization condition reads: $e/{hc} \\Phi + 1/e Q=n$ with $Q$ denoting some dual 'electric' charge, thereby allowing for a non-...

  9. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications - for example in particle therapie or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics - requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. The scaling shows that above a few MeV a solenoid needs to be pulsed or super-conducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remai...

  10. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  11. Tailoring of the flip effect in the orientation of a magnet levitating over a superconducting torus: Geometrical dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Jimenez, Efren, E-mail: ediez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain); Sander, Berit; Timm, Lauri; Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A local model is used to demonstrate a flip effect in the orientation of a magnet over a superconductor. {yields} A superconducting torus shape is studied. {yields} Increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. {yields} There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that help to fit the flip effect point. - Abstract: In a previous study, a general local model was used in order to demonstrate the apparition of a flip effect in the equilibrium orientation of a magnet when it is over a superconducting torus. This effect can be easily used in devices such as binary position detectors for magneto-microscopy, contactless sieves or magnetic levels amongst others. We present an initial study useful to design devices based on the flip effect between magnets and torus superconductors. It demonstrates that varying different geometrical parameters the flip effect point can be fixed. Also, it can be observed that increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. A magneto-mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is exposed. For an increment of cross-section diameter occurs the same behavior. There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that can be used for a more accurate fitting of the flip effect point.

  12. Inauguration of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In early 2005 the final piece of the CMS solenoid magnet arrived, marked by this ceremony held in the CMS assembly hall at Cessy, France. The solenoid is made up of five pieces totaling 12.5 m in length and 6 m in diameter. Weighing 220 tonnes, it will produce a 4 T magnetic field, 100 000 times the strength of the Earth's magnetic field and store enough energy to melt 18 tonnes of gold.

  13. Mu2e Transport Solenoid Cold-Mass Alignment Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. [Fermilab; Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Badgley, K. [Fermilab; Bradascio, F. [Fermilab; Brandt, J. [Fermilab; Evbota, D. [Fermilab; Hocker, A. [Fermilab; Lamm, M. [Fermilab; Lombardo, V. [Fermilab; Miller, J. [Boston U.; Nicol, T. [Fermilab; Kutschke, R. [Fermilab; Vellidis, C. [Fermilab; Wands, R. [Fermilab; Wenk, E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-01

    The Muon-to-electron conversion experiment (Mu2e) at Fermilab is designed to explore charged lepton flavor violation. It is composed of three large superconducting solenoids: the Production Solenoid (PS), the Transport Solenoid (TS) and the Detector Solenoid (DS). The TS is formed by two magnets: TS upstream (TSu) and downstream (TSd). Each has its own cryostat and power supply. Tolerance sensitivity studies of the position and angular alignment of each coil in this magnet system were performed in the past with the objective to demonstrate that the magnet design meets all the field requirements. The alignment of the cold-masses is critical to maximize the transmission of muons and to avoid possible backgrounds that would reduce the sensitivity of the experiment. Each TS magnet cold-mass can be individually aligned. In this work, we discuss implications of the alignment of the TS cold-masses in terms of the displacement of the magnetic center. Consideration of the practical mechanical limits are also presented.

  14. Numerical method to optimize the Polar-Azimuthal Orientation of Infrared Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Csete, Mária; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-01-01

    A novel finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the RF module of the COMSOL software package. This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of sub-wavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, fi, and azimuthal angle, gamma. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogensilsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavities and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. T...

  15. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.

    2010-12-01

    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  16. Final Testing of the ATLAS Central Solenoid before Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Haruyama, T; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Makida, Y; Metselaar, J; Passardi, Giorgio; Pavlov, O; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Ruber, Roger J M Y; Sbrissa, E; ten Kate, H H J; Tyrvainen, H; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    The central solenoid is part of the superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC collider. It provides a 2 tesla axial magnetic field for the inner 24 m3 volume centre particle tracker. Design and construction was done in Japan by KEK and Toshiba in collaboration with CERN. Factory tests were made in Japan with the proximity cryogenics in a geometrical arrangement corresponding to the final installation and, a full magnet test. After shipment to CERN the proximity cryogenics has been installed at a surface hall and recommissioning with load simulations and the instrumentation adapted for radiation hard requirements at the final underground area. The solenoid has recently been integrated in the common cryostat vessel of the liquid argon barrel. Cool down for final surface testing has started. The final control systems architecture and process logics are applied which is tested.

  17. TESTING OF FRAMED STRUCTURE PARTS OF COMPACT MUON SOLENOID BY NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Larchenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension parts of a compact muon solenoid for Large Hadron Collider have been tested in the paper. The paper describes a steady-state and cyclic “tension-compression” load created by superconducting electromagnet with energy of 3 GJ and magnetic induction of 4 tesla. A nondestructive testing method has been applied in the paper.

  18. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krave, S. T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tompkins, J. C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Flanagan, G. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Melconian, K. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  19. The ALICE cavern and solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment, one of the four major experiments of CERN's LHC project, will be housed in the cavern that once contained the L3 experiment at the LEP accelerator. The huge solenoid is the only remaining piece of the L3 experiment and will be used by ALICE.

  20. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  1. Hybrid design method for air-core solenoid with axial homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk Jin [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed to design an air-core superconducting solenoid system for 6 T axial uniform magnetic field using Niobium Titanium (NbTi) superconducting wire. In order to minimize the volume of conductor, the hybrid optimization method including a linear programming and a nonlinear programming was adopted. The feasible space of solenoid is divided by several grids and the magnetic field at target point is approximated by the sum of magnetic field generated by an ideal current loop at the center of each grid. Using the linear programming, a global optimal current distribution in the feasible space can be indicated by non-zero current grids. Furthermore the clusters of the non-zero current grids also give the information of probable solenoids in the feasible space, such as the number, the shape, and so on. Applying these probable solenoids as the initial model, the final practical configuration of solenoids with integer layers can be obtained by the nonlinear programming. The design result illustrates the efficiency and the flexibility of the hybrid method. And this method can also be used for the magnet design which is required the high homogeneity within several ppm (parts per million)

  2. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD MEASURED BY A ROTATING HALL PROBE IN A SOLENOID TO LOCATE ITS MAGNETIC AXIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KPONOU,A.; PIKIN,A.; BEEBE,E.; ALESSI,J.

    2000-11-06

    We have analyzed the motion of a Hall probe, which is rotated about an axis that is arbitrarily displaced and oriented with respect to the magnetic axis of a solenoid. We outline how the magnetic field measured by the rotating Hall probe can be calculated. We show how to compare theoretical results with actual measurements, to determine the displacement and orientation of the axis of rotation of the probe from the magnetic axis. If the center of rotation of the probe is known by surveying, the corresponding point on the magnetic axis of the solenoid can be located. This is applied to a solenoid that was built for BNL by Oxford Instruments.

  4. Performance of solenoids vs. quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications - for example in particle therapie or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics - requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. The scaling shows that above a few MeV a solenoid needs to be pulsed or super-conducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. The transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al.\\cite{yan2009}.

  5. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  6. Over Voltage in a Multi-sectioned Solenoid during a Quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinglong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, Xiaokun; Chen, Anbin; Green, M.A.; Xu, F.Y.

    2009-06-21

    Accurate analysis of over voltage in the superconducting solenoid during a quench is one of the bases for quench protection system design. Classical quench simulation methods can only give rough estimation of the over voltage within a magnet coil. In this paper, for multi-sectioned superconducting solenoid, based on the classical assumption of ellipsoidal normal zone, three-dimension al temperature results are mapped to the one-dimension of the wire, the temperature distribution along the wire and the resistances of each turn are obtained. The coil is treated as circuit comprised of turn resistances, turn self and mutual inductances. The turn resistive voltage, turn inductive voltage, and turn resultant voltage along the wire are calculated. As a result, maximum internal voltages, the layer-to-layer voltages and the turn-to-turn voltages are better estimated. Utilizing this method, the over voltage of a small solenoid and a large solenoid during quenching have been studied. The result shows that this method can well improve the over voltage estimate, especially when the coil is larger.

  7. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  8. Solenoid and Synchrotron radiation effects in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Tomás, R; Angal-Kalinin, D

    2010-01-01

    The emission of Synchrotron Radiation in the CLIC BDS is one of the major limitations of the machine performance. An extensive revision of this phenomenon is presented with special emphasis on the Interaction point (IP) solenoid.

  9. Arrival of the ATLAS solenoid from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L. to r.: Photo 01: L. to r.: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson). Photo 02: (truck on the right side) with the LAr barrel calorimeter cryostat (also built in Japan) on the left side. From left to right are the following ATLAS people: Herman ten Kate (Magnet Project Leader), Marzio Nessi (Technical Coordinator), Takahiko Kondo (KEK, Solenoid Project Leader), Peter Jenni (Spokesperson)

  10. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-11-01

    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries [1-1], but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations [1-2] provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools [1-3] contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field [1-4]. Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy [1-5] and Warm Dense Matter experiments [1-6], although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca{copyright} code [1-7] and some

  11. On-surface integration and test of the ATLAS central solenoid and its proximity cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, Roger J M Y; Cipolla, G; Deront, L; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kanahara, T; Kawai, M; Kondo, T; Kondo, Y; Kopeykin, N; Mizumaki, S; Metselaar, J; Park, A; Pavlov, O V; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, E; Stepanov, V; ten Kate, H H J; Yamamoto, A

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS detector for the LHC at CERN requires a superconducting solenoid, which provides the magnetic field for the inner detector. The ATLAS Central Solenoid and its associated proximity cryogenics system has been designed by KEK in collaboration with CERN. Following construction and preliminary tests at Toshiba in Japan the equipment has been shipped to CERN. The system is being prepared for the integration in the common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter, whereafter a full on-surface test has to be completed before its final installation 100 m underground in the ATLAS cavern. For this purpose a provisional set-up for commissioning of the final proximity cryogenics, the connecting chimney and the solenoid has been established. A number of tests and simulations have been conducted in applying a new process control system to validate the cryogenics functionalities, the electrical powering scheme as well as the magnet control and safety systems. The present status of the solenoid project and the results of th...

  12. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  13. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Hofmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  14. Radiation and thermal analysis of production solenoid for Mu2e experimental setup

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, V S; Mokhov, N V

    2011-01-01

    The Muon-to-Electron (Mu2e) experiment at Fermilab, will seek the evidence of direct muon to electron conversion at the sensitivity level where it cannot be explained by the Standard Model. An 8-GeV 25-kW proton beam will be directed onto a tilted gold target inside a large-bore superconducting Production Solenoid (PS) with the peak field on the axis of ~5T. The negative muons resulting from the pion decay will be captured in the PS aperture and directed by an S-shaped Transport Solenoid towards the stopping target inside the Detector Solenoid. In order for the superconducting magnets to operate reliably and with a sufficient safety margin, the peak neutron flux entering the coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude that is achieved by means of a sophisticated absorber placed in the magnet aperture. The proposed absorber, consisting of W- and Cu-based alloy parts, is optimized for the performance and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of energy deposition and radiation are reported. The results of the P...

  15. Superconducting magnets for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Three types of magnets are currently used to provide the background field required for magnet resonance imaging (MRI). (i) Permanent magnets produce fields of up to 0.3 T in volumes sufficient for imaging the head or up to 0.15 T for whole body imaging. Cost and simplicity of operation are advantages, but relatively low field, weight (up to 100 tonnes) and, to a small extent, instability are limitations. (ii) Water-cooled magnets provide fields of up to 0.25 T in volumes suitable for whole body imaging, but at the expense of power (up to 150 kW for 0.25 T) and water-cooling. Thermal stability of the field requires the maintenance of constant temperature through periods both of use and of quiescence. (iii) Because of the limitations imposed by permanent and resistive magnets, particularly on field strength, the superconducting magnet is now most widely used to provide background fields of up to 2 T for whole body MRI. It requires very low operating power and that only for refrigeration. Because of the constant low temperature, 4.2 K, at which its stressed structure operates, its field is stable. The following review deals principally with superconducting magnets for MRI. However, the sections on field analysis apply to all types of magnet and the description of the source terms of circular coils and of the principals of design of solenoids apply equally to resistive solenoidal magnets.

  16. On the Suitability of a Solenoid Horn for the ESS Neutrino Superbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegård, Maja; Ruber, R; Ziemann, R; Koutchouk, J -P

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), now under construction in Lund, Sweden, offers unique opportunities for experimental physics, not only in neutron science but potentially in particle physics. The ESS neutrino superbeam project plans to use a 5 MW proton beam from the ESS linac to generate a high intensity neutrino superbeam, with the final goal of detecting leptonic CP-violation in an underground megaton Cherenkov water detector. The neutrino production requires a second target station and a complex focusing system for the pions emerging from the target. The normal-conducting magnetic horns that are normally used for these applications cannot accept the 2.86 ms long proton pulses of the ESS linac, which means that pulse shortening in an accumulator ring would be required. That, in turn, requires H- operation in the linac to accommodate the high intensity. As an attractive alternative, we investigate the possibility of using superconducting solenoids for the pion focusing. This solenoid horn system needs ...

  17. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Tim; Zeitler, Benno; Gruener, Florian [University of Hamburg and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Manz, Stephanie [MPSD, University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration REGAE is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. Two future experiments at REGAE, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) and a time resolving Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) setup, require strong focusing magnets inside the target chamber. Permanent magnetic solenoids can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. Solenoids are fundamentally non-linear focusing elements whose non-linearity is worst for short, strong magnets as required for REGAE. The induced emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different setups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Since permanent magnetic solenoids cannot be switched off but are not needed in every experiment at REGAE, a mechanical lifting-system and a magnetic shielding has to ensure, that the different experiments do not disturb each other.

  18. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  19. Embedded Solenoid Transformer for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A resonant power converter for operation in the radio frequency range, preferably in the VHF, comprises at least one PCB-embedded transformer. The transformer is configured for radio frequency operation and comprises a printed circuit board defining a horizontal plane, the printed circuit board...... and second embedded solenoids are formed in the conductive layers of the printed circuit board, wherein each full turn of an embedded solenoid has a horizontal top portion formed in an upper conductive layer, a horizontal bottom portion formed in a lower conductive layer, and two vertical side portions...

  20. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, W.A.J.; Ouden, den A.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Wieland, J.; Slot, van der P.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron

  1. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; den Ouden, A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron

  2. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodak, Andrei, E-mail: akhodak@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Modified design of coil for testing ITER superconducting cable is presented. • Numerical analysis allowed design verification. • Three-dimensional current sharing temperature distributions are obtained from the results. - Abstract: The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4 K, no current, (3) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4 K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4 K, no current, and temperature 4 K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor

  3. The anti-solenoid compensation of the CLIC detector solenoid using IRSYN

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The detector solenoid of CLIC causes a range of aberrations on the beam at the interaction point, particularly due to its overlap with the final focus magnets. These effects are corrected using antisolenoid correction coils on the final quadrupole before the collision point. In this note, we use the interaction region beam dynamics code IRSYN to compute the impact of the SiD solenoid on the beam and benchmark the anti-solenoid correction. We find the correction is achieved, with a small residual amount of beam aberration which is correctable using the beam delivery system. This provides a validation of the correction and a benchmark of IRSYN to existing codes.

  4. THE ANTI-SOLENOID COMPENSATION OF THE CLIC DETECTOR SOLENOID USING IRSYN

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2011-01-01

    The detector solenoid of CLIC causes a range of aberrations on the beam at the interaction point, particularly due to its overlap with the final focus magnets. These effects are corrected using antisolenoid correction coils on the final quadrupole before the collision point. In this note, we use the interaction region beam dynamics code IRSYN to compute the impact of the SiD solenoid on the beam and benchmark the anti-solenoid correction. We find the correction is achieved, with a small residual amount of beam aberration which is correctable using the beam delivery system. This provides a validation of the correction and a benchmark of IRSYN to existing codes.

  5. Alternative Methods for Field Corrections in Helical Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krave, S. T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tompkins, J. C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Flanagan, G. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Melconian, K. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Helical cooling channels have been proposed for highly efficient 6D muon cooling. Helical solenoids produce solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical gradient field components. Previous studies explored the geometric tunability limits on these main field components. In this paper we present two alternative correction schemes, tilting the solenoids and the addition of helical lines, to reduce the required strength of the anti-solenoid and add an additional tuning knob.

  6. Fabrication and mechanical performance of the ATLAS central solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Mizumaki, S; Kobayashi, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Mine, S; Takano, H; Yamamoto, A; Kondo, T; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of the central solenoid for ATLAS detector in the CERN- LHC project was completed, and the performance test has been successfully carried out in Japan. The solenoid has arrived at CERN to be assembled with the LAr calorimeter. This paper describes the fabrication and mechanical, performance of the ATLAS central solenoid. (10 refs).

  7. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S.J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: Sscruggs2@uh.edu; Putman, P.T. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Fang, H. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Alessandrini, M. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Salama, K. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample.

  8. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  9. The role of superconductivity and cryogenics in the neutrinofactory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A.; Black, E.L.; Gupta, R.C.; Iarocci, M.A.; Lebedev,V.; Miller, J.R.; Palmer, R.B.; Padamsee, H.S.; Parker, B.L.; Prestemon,S.; Weggel, R.J.

    2001-05-06

    The proposed neutrino factory will produce a defined beam of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a storage ring[1,2,3]. The storage ring will be oriented so that the neutrinos can be detected at one or more detectors several thousand kilometers from the storage ring. This report presents an overview of the proposed neutrino factory and its subsystems that use cryogenics. Superconducting magnets will be used in the following ways in the neutrino factory; (1) the outsert solenoid for the 20 T pion capture system, (2) the decay channel where pions decay to muons, (3) the muon phase rotation system, (4) the muon cooling system, (5) focusing during the first stage of muon acceleration, (6) bending and focusing magnets in the re-circulating linac accelerator and (7) bending and focusing magnets in the muon storage ring where the neutrino beams are generated. Low temperature superconducting RF cavities will be used to accelerate the muons from about 200 MeV to 20 GeV. The muon cooling system uses liquid hydrogen absorbers at 20 K to reduce the emittance of the muon beam before it is accelerated to full energy.

  10. COMPENSATION OF DETECTOR SOLENOID IN SUPER-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Bertsche, Kirk; Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The SUPER-B detector solenoid has a strong 1.5 T field in the Interaction Region (IR) area, and its tails extend over the range of several meters. The main effect of the solenoid field is coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion which must be corrected in order to preserve the small design beam size at the Interaction Point. The additional effects are orbit and dispersion caused by the angle between the solenoid and beam trajectories. The proposed correction system provides local compensation of the solenoid effects independently for each side of the IR. It includes 'bucking' solenoids to remove the solenoid field tails and a set of skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and anti-solenoids to cancel linear perturbations to the optics. Details of the correction system are presented.

  11. Flip effect in the orientation of a magnet levitating over a superconducting torus in the Meissner state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Jimenez, Efren, E-mail: ediez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain); Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A torus superconductor shape has been analyzed. {yields} There is a flip effect on the stablest angular position of a magnet over the superconductor. {yields} The basis for a binary contactless proximity sensor has been presented. - Abstract: The torque between a permanent magnet and a toroidal superconductor in the Meissner state is calculated using a model previously proposed based on London's and Maxwell's equations. A flip effect on the stable orientation of the magnet as a function of position is demonstrated. At large distances the magnet tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the torus, but when you approach it, at a certain point there is a flip and it tends to be parallel to that axis while being closer than a certain limit. This effect can be easily used as a binary detector for proximity.

  12. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  13. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  14. Comparing superconducting and permanent magnets for magnetic refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bjørk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the cost of a high temperature superconducting (SC tape-based solenoid with a permanent magnet (PM Halbach cylinder for magnetic refrigeration. Assuming a five liter active magnetic regenerator volume, the price of each type of magnet is determined as a function of aspect ratio of the regenerator and desired internal magnetic field. It is shown that to produce a 1 T internal field in the regenerator a permanent magnet of hundreds of kilograms is needed or an area of superconducting tape of tens of square meters. The cost of cooling the SC solenoid is shown to be a small fraction of the cost of the SC tape. Assuming a cost of the SC tape of 6000 $/m2 and a price of the permanent magnet of 100 $/kg, the superconducting solenoid is shown to be a factor of 0.3-3 times more expensive than the permanent magnet, for a desired field from 0.5-1.75 T and the geometrical aspect ratio of the regenerator. This factor decreases for increasing field strength, indicating that the superconducting solenoid could be suitable for high field, large cooling power applications.

  15. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, W. A. J.; Ouden, den, J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Kate, ten, H.H.J.; Wieland, J.; Slot, van der, J.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron beam. A two-stage GM cryocooler, equipped with a first generation ErNi5 regenerator, cools the epoxy impregnated solenoid down to the operating temperature of about 7.5 K. This leaves a conservati...

  16. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Vacuum Pumping Calculations for the D0 Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-08-02

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the vacuum pumping speed for the D-Zero solenoid. The raw calculations are attached. A summary of the results are listed. The vacuum pumping speed of the solenoid is determined by the conductance of the pumping path. At higher pressure ranges during initial pumpdown, the conductances will be rather high. Calculations were not done for the transient pumpdown period, only the steady state type pumping situation. The pressure is assumed to be on the order of 10E-7 torr. This is the free molecular flow regime based on Knudsen number. This pressure regime is also where the pumping speed would be least. The conductances were calculated based on pumping helium gas at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. The total conductance of the pumping path from the solenoid to the inlet of the turbomolecular pump is 11.8 L/s. The effective pumping speed of a 1000 L/s turbo pump attached to this pumping path is 11.7 L/s. The minimum required pumping speed for design purposes was set at 4.3 L/s. This value was arrived at by assuming a warm leak size (10E-8 atm-cc/sec) was not detected during fabrication of the solenoid. It is then assumed that the leak leaks cold liquid helium into the vacuum space. With this leak rate, a 4.3 L/s pumping speed would be able to maintain a 2 x 10E-7 torr pressure in the solenoid vacuum jacket. The solenoid would be able to be operated with this small leak with continuous pumping.

  17. Superconducting wires and fractional flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá de Melo, C. A. R.

    1996-05-01

    The quantization of flux quanta in superconductors is revisited and analyzed in a new geometry. The system analyzed is a superconducting wire. The geometry is such that the superconducting wire winds N times around an insulating cylinder and that the wire has its end connected back to its beginning, thus producing an N-loop short circuited solenoid. The winding number N acts as a topological index that controls flux quantization. In this case, fractional flux quanta can be measured through the center of the insulating cylinder, provided that the cylinder radius is small enough. The Little-Parks experiment for an identical geometry is discussed. The period of oscillation of the transition temperature of the wire is found to vary as 1/N in units of flux Φ relative to the flux quantum Φ0. When a SQUID is made in such a geometry the maximal current through the SQUID varies with period Φ0/N.

  18. An elementary argument for the magnetic field outside a solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Aritro

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of the magnetic field inside and outside a uniform current density infinite solenoid of uniform cross-section is an elementary problem in classical electrodynamics that all undergraduate Physics students study. Symmetry properties of the cylinder and the judicious use of Ampere’s circuital law leads to correct results; however it does not explain why the field is non zero for a finite length solenoid, and why it vanishes as the solenoid becomes infinitely long. An argument is provided in Farley and Price (2001 Am. J. Phys. 69 751), explaining how the magnetic field behaves outside the solenoid and not too far from it, as a function of the length of the solenoid. A calculation is also outlined for obtaining the field just outside the circular cross section solenoid, in the classic text Classical Electrodynamics by Jackson, 3rd edn (John Wiley and Sons, Inc.), problems 5.3-5.5. The purpose of this paper is to provide an elementary argument for why the field becomes negligible as the length of the solenoid is increased. A quantitative analysis is provided for the field outside the solenoid, at radial distances large compared to the linear dimension of the solenoid cross section.

  19. Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastyaningrum, I.; Kartikaningsih, S.

    2017-01-01

    Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor.

  20. The effects of realistic pancake solenoids on particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Solenoids are widely used to transport or focus particle beams. Usually, they are assumed as being ideal solenoids with a high axial-symmetry magnetic field. Using the Vector Field Opera program, we modeled asymmetrical solenoids with realistic geometry defects, caused by finite conductor and current jumpers. Their multipole magnetic components were analyzed with the Fourier fit method; we present some possible optimized methods for them. We also discuss the effects of 'realistic' solenoids on low energy particle transport. The finding in this paper may be applicable to some lower energy particle transport system design.

  1. Superconducting transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  2. Superconductivity and superconductive electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M. R.

    1990-12-01

    The Stanford Center for Research on Superconductivity and Superconductive Electronics is currently focused on developing techniques for producing increasingly improved films and multilayers of the high-temperature superconductors, studying their physical properties and using these films and multilayers in device physics studies. In general the thin film synthesis work leads the way. Once a given film or multilayer structure can be made reasonably routinely, the emphasis shifts to studying the physical properties and device physics of these structures and on to the next level of film quality or multilayer complexity. The most advanced thin films synthesis work in the past year has involved developing techniques to deposit a-axis and c-axis YBCO/PBCO superlattices and related structures. The in-situ feature is desirable because no solid state reactions with accompanying changes in volume, morphology, etc., that degrade the quality of the film involved.

  3. Design of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Tim

    2013-10-15

    The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a small linear accelerator at DESY in Hamburg, which produces short, low emittance electron bunches. It is originally designed and built for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) within the framework of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL). Additionally, two future experiments are planned at REGAE. First, an external injection experiment for Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWA) will be performed in the framework of the LAOLA collaboration (LAboratory fOr Laser- and beam-driven plasma Acceleration). This experiment will provide a method for the reconstruction of the electric field distribution within a linear plasma wakefield. Second, a time resolving high energy Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) will be implemented. Among others it is designed to allow for living cell imaging. Both experiments require strong focusing magnets inside the new target chamber at REGAE. Permanent magnetic solenoids (PMSs) can provide the needed focusing strength due to their enormous surface current density, while having compact dimensions at the same time. The present thesis deals with the design of such strong focusing PMSs. Since short and strong solenoids, as required for REGAE, exhibit a distinct non-linearity, the induced emittance growth is relatively large. This emittance growth is investigated and minimized for different set-ups with axially and radially magnetized annular magnets. Furthermore a magnetic shielding is developed. Together with a mechanical lifting system it assures that magnetic leakage fields do not disturb experiments, where the PMSs are removed from the beamline.

  4. Measurement of the ATLAS solenoid magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, M; Giudici, P-A; Kehrli, A; Losasso, M; Pons, X; Sandaker, H; Miyagawa, P S; Snow, S W; Hart, J C; Chevalier, L

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose detector designed to explore a wide range of physics at the Large Hadron Collider. At the centre of ATLAS is a tracking detector in a 2 T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the machine built to map the field, the data analysis methods, the final results, and their estimated uncertainties. The remotely controlled mapping machine used pneumatic motors with feedback from optical encoders to scan an array of Hall probes over the field volume and log data at more than 20 000 points in a few hours. The data were analysed, making full use of the physical constraints on the field and of our knowledge of the solenoid coil geometry. After a series of small corrections derived from the data itself, the resulting maps were fitted with a function obeying Maxwell's equations. The fit residuals had an r.m.s. less than 0.5 mT and the systematic error on the measurement of track sagitta due to the field uncertainty was estimated to be in the range 0.02 % to 0.12 % depending on the track...

  5. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  6. A METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH QUALITY SOLENOIDAL FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive device is described which can be used to provide a highly homogeneous solenoidal magnetic field when the solenoid windings are inadequate. Design considerations and experimental measurements are presented. A field straightness of approximately 10{sup -4} radians has been achieved.

  7. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  8. Impedance of a planar solenoid with a thin magnetic core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rejaei, B.; Vroubel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The high-frequency impedance of a planar solenoid with a thin magnetic core is theoretically investigated using the magnetostatic Green’s function formalism. It is shown that the electrical behavior of the solenoid depends on how the magnetic field induced by the current-carrying coil is coupled to

  9. Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.

  10. HIE-Isolde: Commissioning and first results of the Mathilde system monitoring the positions of cavities and solenoids inside cryomodules

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, Guillaume; Klumb, Francis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The new superconducting HIE-ISOLDE Linac replaced most of pre-existing REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. This upgrade involves the design, construction, installation and commissioning of 4 high-β cryomodules. Each high-β cryomodule houses five superconducting cavities and one superconducting solenoid. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, located inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The Monitoring and Alignment Tracking for HIE-ISOLDE (MATHILDE) system has been developed to fulfil the alignment and monitoring needs for components exposed to non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. MATHILDE is based on opto-electronic sensors (HBCAM) observing, through high quality viewports, spher...

  11. A Conduction-Cooled Superconducting Magnet System-Design, Fabrication and Thermal Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Holbøll, Joachim; Wang, Qiuliang

    2015-01-01

    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet system with an operating current of 105.5 A was designed, fabricated and tested for material processing applications. The magnet consists of two coaxial NbTi solenoid coils with an identical vertical height of 300 mm and is installed in a high-vacuumed c......A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet system with an operating current of 105.5 A was designed, fabricated and tested for material processing applications. The magnet consists of two coaxial NbTi solenoid coils with an identical vertical height of 300 mm and is installed in a high...

  12. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed.

  13. Electroplated solenoid-type inductors for CMOS rf CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chul; Choi, Wonseo; Chun, KukJin

    2000-10-01

    A Solenoid-type Inductors have been realized using electroplating technique mainly used for 2 Ghz band CMOS RF VCO applications. The integrated spiral inductor has low Q factor due to substrate loss and skin effects. And it also occupies large area compared to solenoid-type inductor. The direction of flux of the solenoid-type inductor is parallel to the substrate, which can lower substrate loss and other interference with integrated passive components. In this research, Solenoid-type inductors are simulated and modeled as equivalent circuit for CMOS RF VCO based on extracted S- parameters. The electroplated solenoid-type inductors are fabricated on both a standard silicon substrate and glass substrate by thick PR photolithography and copper electroplating. The achieved inductance varies range from 1 nH to 5 nH, and maximum Q factor over 10. The inductors are scheduled to be integrated on CMOS RF VCO with RF MEMS capacitor for future.

  14. Evidence of incomplete annealing at 800 °C and the effects of 120 °C baking on the crystal orientation and the surface superconducting properties of cold-worked and chemically polished Nb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Z.-H.; Dzyuba, A.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Cooley, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    High-purity niobium rods were cold-worked by wire-drawing, followed by various combinations of chemical polishing and high-vacuum baking at 120 °C or annealing at 800 °C in order to better understand changes to the surface superconducting properties resulting from typical superconducting radio-frequency cavity processing. AC susceptibility measurements revealed an enhanced upper transition Tc at ˜ 9.3-9.4 K in all samples that was stable through all annealing steps, a value significantly above the accepted Tc of 9.23 K for pure annealed niobium. Corresponding elevations were seen in the critical fields, the ratio of the surface critical field Hc3 to the bulk upper critical field Hc2 rising to 2.3, well above the Ginzburg-Landau value of 1.695. Orientation imaging revealed an extensive dislocation rich sub-grain structure in the as-drawn rods, a small reduction of the surface strain after baking at 120 °C, and a substantial but incomplete recrystallization near the surface after annealing at 800 °C. We interpret these changes in surface superconducting and structural properties to extensive changes in the near-surface interstitial contamination produced by baking and annealing and to synergistic interactions between H and surface O introduced during electropolishing and buffered chemical polishing.

  15. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Quanling, E-mail: pengql@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Fengyu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang 150006 (China); Wang, Ting [Beijing Huantong Special Equipment Co., LTD, Beijing 100192 (China); Yang, Xiangchen [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Anbin [Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang 150006 (China); Wei, Xiaotao [Beijing Huantong Special Equipment Co., LTD, Beijing 100192 (China); Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-11-11

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects.

  16. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  17. Study of superconducting a-axis oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin films deposited on Y 2O 3/YSZ/Si with PrBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosova, Alica; Chromik, Stefan; Benacka, Stefan; Wuyts, Bart

    1995-02-01

    Epitaxial a-axis oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) superconducting thin films have been grown by off-axis magnetron sputtering on Y 2O 3/YSZ/Si substrates with PrBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (PBCO) seed layer. The YBCO thin films were deposited immediately after the on-axis magnetron sputtering of PBCO. XRD analyses show that the a-axis volume fraction for 120 nm thick YBCO films varies with substrate temperature during PBCO deposition and its maximum value is higher than 98%. The TEM study shows the clear dependence between the character of the R- T dependence and the microstructure of our YBCO thin films, which varies with the change of the volume ratio of a-axis to c-maxis oriented YBCO.

  18. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based radioactive nuclear beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valdir Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the solenoids act as thick lenses to collect, select, and focus the secondary beam into a scattering chamber. Many experiments with radioactive light particle beams (RNB) such as 6He, 7Be, 8Li, 8B have been performed at these two facilities. These low-energy RNB have been used to investigate low-energy reactions such as elastic scattering, transfer and breakup, providing useful information on the structure of light nuclei near the drip line and on astrophysics. Total reaction cross-sections, derived from elastic scattering analysis, have also been investigated for light system as a function of energy and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed.

  19. Electrical characterization of S/C conductor for the CMS solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Greco, Michela; Kircher, F; Musenich, R

    2005-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The coil is wound from 20 high purity aluminum-stabilized NbTi conductors with a total length of 45 km. The main peculiarity of the CMS magnet among other existing thin detector solenoids is its sandwich-type aluminum-stabilized superconductor. This special feature was chosen in order to have a mechanically self-supporting winding structure. We measured the critical current of all the 21 finished conductors in fields up to 6 T using the Ma.Ri.S.A. test facility at INFN-Genova. We compare these results with the critical current of single strands measured by CEA- Saclay, extracted from the conductor after the co-extrusion. A comparison among the measurements provides information about the possible critical current degradation and assures an accurate quality control of the conductor pr...

  20. Progress on Design and Construction of a MuCool Coupling Solenoid Magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Liu, Xiao Kun; Xu, FengYu; Li, S.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, Xinglong; Zheng, ShiXian; Li, Derun; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Mike; Green, M.A.

    2010-06-28

    The MuCool program undertaken by the US Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration is to study the behavior of muon ionization cooling channel components. A single superconducting coupling solenoid magnet is necessary to pursue the research and development work on the performance of high gradient, large size RF cavities immersed in magnetic field, which is one of the main challenges in the practical realization of ionization cooling of muons. The MuCool coupling magnet is to be built using commercial copper based niobium titanium conductors and cooled by two cryo-coolers with each cooling capacity of 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The solenoid magnet will be powered by using a single 300A power supply through a single pair of binary leads that are designed to carry a maximum current of 210A. The magnet is to be passively protected by cold diodes and resistors across sections of the coil and by quench back from the 6061 Al mandrel in order to lower the quench voltage and the hot spot temperature. The magnet is currently under construction. This paper presents the updated design and fabrication progress on the MuCool coupling magnet.

  1. Refurbishment and Testing of the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Coils for JLab's Hall D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anumagalla, Ravi; Biallas, George; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark

    2012-07-01

    JLab refurbished the LASS1, 1.85 m bore Solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linier Accelerator Center and used a second time at the MEGA Experiment at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation & instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

  2. Validation of Quench Simulation and Simulation of the TWIN Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Pots, Rosalinde Hendrika

    2015-01-01

    For the Future Circular Collider at CERN a multi-purpose detector is proposed. The 6T TWIN Solenoid, a very large magnet system with a stored energy of 53 GJ, is being designed. It is important to protect the magnet against quenches in the system. Therefore several existing quench protection systems are evaluated and simulations have be performed on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid. The simulations on quenches in the TWIN Solenoid have been performed with promising results; the hotspot temperatures do not exceed 120 K and layer to layer voltages stay below 500 V. Adding quench heaters to the system might improve the quench protection system further.

  3. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E M; Ellis, J

    2013-11-01

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  4. Accelerator Technology: Magnets, Normal and Superconducting

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Normal Conducting Magnets 8.1.2.1 Magnetic Design 8.1.2.2 Coils 8.1.2.3 Yoke 8.1.2.4 Costs 8.1.2.5 Undulators, Wigglers, Permanent Magnets 8.1.2.6 Solenoids 8.1.3 Superconducting Magnets 8.1.3.1 Superconducting Materials 8.1.3.2 Superconducting Cables 8.1.3.3 Stability and Margins, Quench and Protection 8.1.3.4 Magnetization, Coupling and AC Loss 8.1.3.5 Magnetic Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets 8.1.3.6 Current Leads 8.1.3.7 Mechanics, Insulation, Cooling and Manufacturing Aspects

  5. A design of novel type superconducting magnet for super-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging by using the harmonic analysis method of magnetic vector potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俎栋林; 郭华; 宋枭禹; 包尚联

    2002-01-01

    The approach of expanding the magnetic scalar potential in a series of Legendre polynomials is suitable for designing a conventional superconducting magnetic resonance imaging magnet of distributed solenoidal configuration. Whereas the approach of expanding the magnetic vector potential in associated Legendre harmonics is suitable for designing a single-solenoid magnet that has multiple tiers, in which each tier may have multiple layers with different winding lengths. A set of three equations to suppress some of the lowest higher-order harmonics is found. As an example, a 4T single-solenoid magnetic resonance imaging magnet with 4 × 6 layers of superconducting wires is de signed The degree of homogeneity in the 0.5m diameter sphere volume is better than 5.8 ppm. The same degree of homogeneity is retained after optimal integralization of turns in each correction layer. The ratio Bm/Bo in the single-solenoid magnet is 30%lower than that in the conventional six-solenoid magnet. This tolerates higher rated superconducting current in the coil. The Lorentz force of the coil in the single-solenoid system is also much lower than in the six-solenoid system. This novel type of magnet possesses significant advantage over conventional magnets, especially when used as a super-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging magnet.

  6. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  7. Progress on Superconducting Magnets for the MICE Cooling Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A; Virostek, Steve P.; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael S.; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, XingLong; Xu, FengYu; Liu, X. K.; Zheng, S. X.; Bradshaw, Thomas; Baynham, Elwyn; Cobb, John; Lau, Wing; Lau, Peter; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2009-09-09

    The muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) consists of a target, a beam line, a pion decay channel, the MICE cooling channel. Superconducting magnets are used in the pion decay channel and the MICE cooling channel. This report describes the MICE cooling channel magnets and the progress in the design and fabrication of these magnets. The MICE cooling channel consists of three types of superconducting solenoids; the spectrometer solenoids, the coupling solenoids and the focusing solenoids. The three types of magnets are being fabricated in he United States, China, and the United Kingdom respectively. The spectrometer magnets are used to analyze the muon beam before and after muon cooling. The coupling magnets couple the focusing sections and keep the muon beam contained within the iris of the RF cavities that re used to recover the muon momentum lost during ionization cooling. The focusing magnets focus the muon beam in the center of a liquid hydrogen absorber. The first of the cooling channel magnets will be operational in MICE in the spring of 2010.

  8. Characteristic analysis of low consumption power ISO solenoid valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Ju, M. J.; Oh, Y. C. [FAMCO, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. S. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, A special quality analysis and experiment for low power consumption type pneumatic ISO Solenoid valve was performed. And flow characteristics of the ISO Solenoid valve by stroke change was numerically investigated. As a result, it is shown that magnetic force(2.4N) is exerted enough to move poppet with 0.3mm stroke with 0.01 seconds of response time, and that there is no magnetic force emitted by yoke.

  9. The Compact Muon Solenoid Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient experiment operation, contributing to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC changes. CMS sub-detector’s bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. A protection mechanism ensures that the sub-detectors are locked in a safe mode whenever a potentially dangerous situation exists. The system is supervised from the experiment control room by a single operator. A small set of screens summarizes the status of the detector from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency. The automation allows now for configuration commands that can be used to automatically pre-configure hardwar...

  10. Solenoid-free plasma start-up in spherical tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Shevchenko, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    The central solenoid is an intrinsic part of all present-day tokamaks and most spherical tokamaks. The spherical torus (ST) confinement concept is projected to operate at high toroidal beta and at a high fraction of the non-inductive bootstrap current as required for an efficient reactor system. The use of a conventional solenoid in a ST-based fusion nuclear facility is generally believed to not be a possibility. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is therefore an area of extensive worldwide research activity. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is also relevant to steady-state tokamak operation, as the central transformer coil of a conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactor would be located in a high radiation environment but would be needed only during the initial discharge initiation and current ramp-up phases. Solenoid-free operation also provides greater flexibility in the selection of the aspect ratio and simplifies the reactor design. Plasma start-up methods based on induction from external poloidal field coils, helicity injection and radio frequency current drive have all made substantial progress towards meeting this important need for the ST. Some of these systems will now undergo the final stages of test in a new generation of large STs, which are scheduled to begin operations during the next two years. This paper reviews research to date on methods for inducing the initial start-up current in STs without reliance on the conventional central solenoid.

  11. An elementary argument for the magnetic field outside a solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Aritro

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the magnetic field inside and outside a uniform current density infinite solenoid of uniform cross-section is an elementary problem in classical electrodynamics that all undergraduate Physics students study. Symmetry properties of the cylinder and the judicious use of Ampere's circuital law leads to correct results; however it does not explain why the field is non zero for a finite length solenoid, and why it vanishes as the solenoid becomes infinitely long. An argument is provided in (American Journal of Physics 69, 751 (2001)) by Farley and Price, explaining how the magnetic field behaves outside the solenoid and not too far from it, as a function of the length of the solenoid. A calculation is also outlined for obtaining the field just outside the circular cross section solenoid, in the classic text Classical Electrodynamics by J.D.Jackson, 3rd ed, (John Wiley and Sons, INC) Problems 5.3, 5.4, 5.5. The purpose of this letter is to provide an elementary argument for why the field becomes n...

  12. Performance of a superconducting magnet system operated in the Super Omega Muon beam line at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Ikedo, Yutaka; Ogitsu, Toru; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Adachi, Taihei; Kadono, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Strasser, Patric; Koda, Akihiro; Fujimori, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Ohhata, Hirokatsu; Okamura, Takahiro; Okada, Ryutaro [J-PARC, KEK, Shirakata 203-1, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Orikasa, Tomofumi [Keihin Product Operations, Toshiba, Suehiro 2-4, Tsurumi, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    A superconducting magnet system, which is composed of an 8 m long solenoid for transportation and 12 short solenoids for focusing, has been developed for Muon Science Establishment facility of J-PARC. The transport solenoid is composed of a 6 m straight section connected to a 45 degree curved section at each end. Muons of various momenta and of both electric charges are transported through the solenoid inner bore with an effective diameter of 0.3 m, where 2 T magnetic field is induced. There are 12 focusing solenoids with an effective bore diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 0.35 m arranged on a straight line at suitable intervals. The maximum central field of each focusing solenoid is 0.66 T. All solenoid coils are cooled by GM cryocoolers through their own conductions. The magnet system has been installed into the beam line in the summer of 2012, and its performance has been checked. Beam commissioning has been carried out since October 2012. During beam operation, temperature rise over 6 K in the transport solenoid due to a nuclear heating from the muon production target is observed at beam intensity of about 300 kW.

  13. Nexan receives two CMS Awards of the Year 2002 for its work in superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Nexans has received one Crystal and one Gold CMS award for its contribution to the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector project. The CMS detector is designed to study the fundamental constituents of matter. The prizes recompense the excellent quality of Nexans' service in the supply of the necessary low-temperature superconducting cables sheathed in extruded aluminium.

  14. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  15. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  16. Linear Coupling for B-Factory Tilted Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.

    2005-02-16

    In this thesis they have presented the transfer matrix for B Factory tilted solenoid with the expansion of magnetic field up to the fifth order. Starting with the general theory of linear coupling, we got the Hamiltonian for solenoid with the bending magnet and quadrupole inside. The solenoid axis is tilted by 20 mrad horizontally w.r.t. the collision axis and at the entrance and the exit of the solenoid the beam will sense transverse and longitudinal non-linear fields. To account both this effects the expansion of the magnetic field was done. The code of coordinate transformation, which relates the frame of the reference orbit to the frame of the collision axis and to the solenoid frame, has been introduced. They tried to show that not symplectic fourth-order Runge Kutta integration method, which had been used for integration of the Hamiltonian equations, might be used as a model for ''not tracking'' problems. The deviation from a symplectic transfer matrix is smaller than 10{sup -5}. Using the transfer matrix, the change in beam shape and blow up of emittance, due to the solenoid coupling, was discussed. In order to compensate this effect they used 4 tilted quadrupoles on each side of the IP. The method based on the Hamiltonian in Eq.19 integrates along a reference orbit which is defined only by the horizontal and vertical bending fields and not by the tilted solenoid. In order to get the Hamiltonian, which is associated with a non-planar curvature of the reference orbit, it is necessary to account the effect of torsion. In that case the transformation between the three different coordinate systems will become more complicated.

  17. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device that is presently under construction. This article starts with a brief historical introduction to superconductivity as a phenomenon, and some fundamental properties necessary for the understanding of the technical behavior of superconductors are described. The introduction of superconductivity in the industrial cycle faces many challenges, first for the properties of the base elements, e.g. the wires, tapes and thin films, then for the various applied devices, where a number of new difficulties had to be resolved. A variety of industrial applications in energy, medicine and communications are briefly presented, showing how superconductivity is now entering the market.

  18. Magnetization-orientation dependence of the superconducting transition in AF-F/S/F and S/F/F-AF type spin valve heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdravkov, Vladimir [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of the Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, MD 2028 Kishiniev (Moldova, Republic of); Lenk, Daniel; Kehrle, Jan; Obermeier, Guenter; Ullrich, Aladin; Mueller, Claus; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman; Sidorenko, Anatoli [D. Ghitsu Institute of the Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, MD 2028 Kishiniev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar [Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    In F/S/F spin valve core structures, i.e. Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59}/Nb/Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59} systems, deposited on an antiferromagnetic CoO{sub x} layer, or with such a layer on top, critical temperature oscillations and reentrant superconductivity are observed, which can be well described by the theory. Introducing a Co sub-layer yields exchange bias effects, which influence the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting transition. Aging effects are studied, which especially alter the transparency of the lower F/S interface, resulting in a change of the behavior of the transition temperature as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness from extinction, over reentrant, to oscillating. The results are discussed in comparison to the S/F/F-AF triplet spin valve effect in a Nb/Cu{sub 41}Ni{sub 59}/nc-Nb/Co/CoO{sub x} system, where nc-Nb acts as a normal conducting spacer to decouple the ferromagnetic layers.

  19. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  20. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device...

  1. Surface superconductivity in thin cylindrical Bi nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingliang; Wang, Jian; Ning, Wei; Mallouk, Thomas E; Chan, Moses H W

    2015-03-11

    The physical origin and the nature of superconductivity in nanostructured Bi remains puzzling. Here, we report transport measurements of individual cylindrical single-crystal Bi nanowires, 20 and 32 nm in diameter. In contrast to nonsuperconducting Bi nanoribbons with two flat surfaces, cylindrical Bi nanowires show superconductivity below 1.3 K. However, their superconducting critical magnetic fields decrease with their diameter, which is the opposite of the expected behavior for thin superconducting wires. Quasiperiodic oscillations of magnetoresistance were observed in perpendicular fields but were not seen in the parallel orientation. These results can be understood by a model of surface superconductivity with an enhanced surface-to-bulk volume in small diameter wires, where the superconductivity originates from the strained surface states of the nanowires due to the surface curvature-induced stress.

  2. Scattering detection of a solenoidal Poynting vector field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Salandrino, Alessandro; Samadi, Akbar; Heinrich, Matthias; Chen, Zhigang; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2016-08-01

    The Poynting vector S plays a central role in electrodynamics as it is directly related to the power and the momentum carried by an electromagnetic wave. In the presence of multiple electromagnetic waves with different polarizations and propagation directions, the Poynting vector may exhibit solenoidal components which are not associated to any power flow. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the presence of such solenoidal components has physical consequences, and it is not a mere artifact of the gauge invariance of S. In particular, we identify a simple field configuration displaying solenoidal components of S and theoretically show that a judiciously designed scatterer can act as a "Poynting vector detector" which when immersed in such field distribution would experience a transverse optical force orthogonal to the incidence plane. We experimentally validate our theoretical predictions by observing a pronounced asymmetry in the scattering pattern of a spherical nanoparticle.

  3. Note: An improved solenoid driver valve for miniature shock tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P T

    2016-05-01

    A solenoid driver valve has been built to improve the operating performance of diaphragmless shock tubes, which are used for high pressure, high temperature chemical kinetics, and fluid mechanics studies. For shock tube driver application, the most important characteristics are those of sealing, strength, and quality of the generated shock waves and repeatability of opening characteristics and therefore subsequent post-shock conditions. The main features of the new driver valve are a face o-ring sealing design of the valve, the large internal volume, and through inserts near the solenoid core: adjustable opening characteristics of the valve.

  4. Quench Analysis of the PANDA Target Spectrometer Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Deelen, Nikkie

    2014-01-01

    A quench analysis of the PANDA Target Solenoid has been performed. The characteristic time of the fast discharge is $12\\ \\text{s}$. The peak temperature and peak voltage during a quench are $30\\ \\text{K}$ and $160\\ \\text{V}$ respectively. During a quench the energy stored in the magnetic field is mostly dissipated in the dump resistor. The slow discharge of the PANDA solenoid takes approximately $1950\\ \\text{s}$ during which nearly all the energy is dissipated in the diodes of the quench protection circuit.

  5. Dispersion in a bent-solenoid channel with symmetric focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-xi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2001-08-21

    Longitudinal ionization cooling of a muon beam is essential for muon colliders and will be useful for neutrino factories. Bent-solenoid channels with symmetric focusing has been considered for beam focusing and for generating the required dispersion in the ``emittance exchange'' scheme of longitudinal cooling. In this paper, we derive the Hamiltonian that governs the linear beam dynamics of a bent-solenoid channel, solve the single-particle dynamics, and give equations for determining the lattice functions, in particular, the dispersion functions.

  6. Measurement of liquid permittivity by solenoid self-resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Patrick; Mazzeo, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Permittivity of a liquid is an important macroscopic property which is dependent on the composition and physical state of the liquid. Measurement of liquid permittivity is usually performed using a parallel-plate capacitor or terminated coaxial line. In this study, a solenoid surrounding a column of liquid is used to measure permittivity changes. The inductance of the solenoid is not greatly affected by permittivity and conductivity changes for small diameters. However, the self-capacitance is greatly affected by changing solution conditions. The self-resonance, due to the changing self-capacitance, thus reveals properties of the solution. This is demonstrated on a variety of liquids with varying permittivity and conductivity.

  7. Analysis of the cooldown of the ITER central solenoid model coil and insert coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifetto, R.; Brighenti, A.; Isono, T.; Martovetsky, N.; Kawano, K.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2017-01-01

    A series of superconducting insert coils (ICs) made of different materials has been tested since 2000 at JAEA Naka in the bore of the central solenoid model coil at fields up to 13 T and currents up to several tens of kA, fully representative of the ITER operating conditions. Here we focus on the 2015 test of the presently last IC of the series, the central solenoid (CS) insert coil, which was aimed at confirming the performance and properties of the Nb3Sn conductor, manufactured in Japan and used to wind the ITER CS modules in the US. As typical for these large scale applications, the cooldown (CD) from ambient to supercritical He temperature may take a long time, of the order of several weeks, so that it should be useful, also in the perspective of future IC tests, to optimize it. To that purpose, a comprehensive CD model implemented in the 4C code is developed and presented in this paper. The model is validated against the experimental data of an actual CD scenario, showing a very good agreement between simulation and measurements, from 300 to 4.5 K. The maximum temperature difference across the coil, which can only be roughly estimated from the measurements, is then extracted from the results of the simulation and shown to be much larger than the maximum value of 50 K, prescribed on the basis of the allowable thermal stress on the materials. An optimized CD scenario is finally designed using the model for the initial phase of the CD between 300 and 80 K, which allows reducing the needed time by ∼20%, while still satisfying the major constraints. Recommendations are also given for a better location/choice of the thermometers to be used for the monitoring of the maximum temperature difference across the coil.

  8. Silicon subsystem mechanical engineering closeout report for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, J.; Christensen, R.W.; Hayman, G.; Jones, D.C.; Ross, R.; Wilds, W.; Yeamans, S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1995-02-01

    The authors group at Los Alamos National Laboratory was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the silicon tracking system of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) experiment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. The responsibility included the overall design of the system from the mechanical point of view, development and integration of the cooling system, which was required to remove the heat generated by the front-end electronics, assembly of the system to extremely tight tolerances, and verification that the construction and operational stability and alignment tolerances would be met. A detailed description of the concepts they developed and the work they performed can be found in a report titled ``Silicon Subsystem Mechanical Engineering Work for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration`` which they submitted to the SSC Laboratory. In addition to the mechanical engineering work, they also performed activation, background, and shielding studies for the SSC program. Much of the work they performed was potentially useful for other future high energy physics (HEP) projects. This report describes the closeout work that was performed for the Los Alamos SDC project. Four major tasks were identified for completion: (1) integration of the semi-automated assembly station being developed and construction of a precision part to demonstrate solutions to important general assembly problems (the station was designed to build precision silicon tracker subassemblies); (2) build a state-of-the-art TV holography (TVH) system to use for detector assembly stability tests; (3) design, build, and test a water based cooling system for a full silicon shell prototype; and (4) complete and document the activation, background, and shielding studies, which is covered in a separate report.

  9. Measurement application for injector solenoid : measurement application for an injector solenoid in the Wärtsilä 46CR engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ohls, Tony Conny Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Wärtsilä Finland Services and concerns creating an application with LabVIEW that will measure key values from an injector solenoid intended for a Wärtsilä 46CR engine. The application created will analyse two signals that are sampled with a frequency of 100 000 Hz and based on these signals, the key values will be calculated. The key values are: the time it takes for a valve to start opening from the moment power is fed into the solenoid, the time it takes...

  10. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    cubic, yttria stabilized, zirconia (YSZ) single crystals with (100) orientation and ao = 0.512 to 0.516 nm. Films were magnetron-sputtered... Crown by Solid-State and Vapor-Phase Epitaxy," IEEE Trans. Uagn. 25(2), 2538 (1989). 6. J. H. Kang, R. T. Kampwirth, and K. E. Gray, "Superconductivity...summarized in Fig. 1, are too high for SrTiO3 or yttria- stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to be used in rf applications. MgO, LaAIO 3 , and LaGaO3 have a tan 6

  11. LPI: pulsed solenoid for positron focusing in LIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1993-01-01

    The solenoid for the initial focusing of the positrons emerging from the conversion target is mounted inside the vacuum, immediately after the target. Pulsed with a current of 6 kA for some 7 microseconds, it produces a longitudinal magnetic field of 1.5 T.

  12. Some New Integral Identities for Solenoidal Fields and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Semenov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spaces Rn, n ≥ 2, it has been proved that a solenoidal vector field and its rotor satisfy the series of new integral identities which have covariant form. The interest in them is explained by hydrodynamics problems for an ideal fluid.

  13. Approximations for the natural logarithm from solenoid-toroid correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Semiz, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    It seems reasonable that a toroid can be thought of approximately as a solenoid bent into a circle. The correspondence of the inductances of these two objects gives an approximation for the natural logarithm in terms of the average of two numbers. Different ways of averaging give different approximants. They are expressions simpler than Taylor polynomials, and are meaningful over a wider domain.

  14. Teichmüller theory of the punctured solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert; Sari´c, Dragomir

    2008-01-01

    The punctured solenoid plays the role of an initial object for the category of punctured surfaces with morphisms given by finite covers branched only over the punctures. The (decorated) Teichmüller space of is introduced, studied, and found to be parametrized by certain coordinates on a fixed tri...

  15. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  16. Teichmüller theory of the punctured solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert; Sari´c, Dragomir

    2008-01-01

    The punctured solenoid plays the role of an initial object for the category of punctured surfaces with morphisms given by finite covers branched only over the punctures. The (decorated) Teichmüller space of is introduced, studied, and found to be parametrized by certain coordinates on a fixed...

  17. An electric arc in the magnetic field of a solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungurs, I.A.; Shilova, Ye.I.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative experiment is described, enabling investigation of the structure of the arc discharge between rod and ring electrodes, and evaluation of the speed of the axial flux created by electromagnetic forces. It is shown that placement of the plasma stream during discharge in the magnetic field of the solenoid provides the possibility of controlling this stream.

  18. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  19. The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delepine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will study protonproton collisions at unprecedented energies and luminosities. In this article we providefi rst a brief general introduction to particle physics. We then explain what CERN is. Thenwe describe the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the most powerful particle acceleratorever built. Finally we describe the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, its physics goals,construction details, and current status.El experimento Compact Muon Solenoid en el Large Hadron Collider del CERN estudiarácolisiones protón protón a energías y luminosidades sin precedente. En este artículo presentamos primero una breve introducción general a la física de partículas. Despuésexplicamos lo que es el CERN. Luego describimos el Large Hadron Collider, el más potente acelerador de partículas construido por el hombre, en el CERN. Finalmente describimos el experimento Compact Muon Solenoid, sus objetivos en física, los detalles de su construcción,y su situación presente.

  20. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, J.R.; Anastas, G.V. Jr.; Bushko, D.A.; Flynn, F.J.; Goldie, J.H.; Gondhalekar, V.; Hawkey, T.J.; Hockney, R.L.; Torti, R.P.

    1992-12-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  1. Free-standing oxide superconducting articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    A substrate-free, free-standing epitaxially oriented superconductive film including a layer of a template material and a layer of a ceramic superconducting material is provided together with a method of making such a substrate-free ceramic superconductive film by coating an etchable material with a template layer, coating the template layer with a layer of a ceramic superconductive material, coating the layer of ceramic superconductive material with a protective material, removing the etchable material by an appropriate means so that the etchable material is separated from a composite structure including the template lay This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  2. Commissioning and Testing the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Magnet in JLab's Hall D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Joshua T. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Biallas, George H. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Brown, G.; Butler, David E. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Carstens, Thomas J. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Chudakov, Eugene A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Creel, Jonathan D. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Egiyan, Hovanes [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Martin, F.; Qiang, Yi [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Smith, Elton S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Stevens, Mark A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Spiegel, Scot L. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Whitlatch, Timothy E. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Wolin, Elliott J. [Carnegie Mellon University , Pittsburgh, PA; Ghoshal, Probir K. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-06-01

    JLab refurbished and reconfigured the LASS1, 1.85m bore Solenoid and installed it as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The magnet contains four superconducting coils within an iron yoke. The magnet was built in the early1970's at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and used a second time at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The coils were extensively refurbished and individually tested by JLab. A new Cryogenic Distribution Box provides cryogens and their control valving, current distribution bus, and instrumentation pass-through. A repurposed CTI 2800 refrigerator system and new transfer line complete the system. We describe the re-configuration, the process and problems of re-commissioning the magnet and the results of testing the completed magnet.

  3. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  4. SUPERCONDUCTING PHOTOCATHODES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMEDLEY, J.; RAO, T.; WARREN, J.; SEKUTOWICZ, LANGNER, J.; STRZYZEWSKI, P.; LEFFERS, R.; LIPSKI, A.

    2005-10-09

    We present the results of our investigation of lead and niobium as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. Quantum efficiencies (QE) have been measured for a range of incident photon energies and a variety of cathode preparation methods, including various lead plating techniques on a niobium substrate. The effects of operating at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and different vacuum levels on the cathode QE have also been studied.

  5. Test of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil and CS Insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Michael, P; Minervini, J; Radovinsky, A; Takayasu, M; Gung, C Y; Thome, R; Ando, T; Isono, T; Hamada, K; Kato, T; Kawano, K; Koizumi, N; Matsui, K; Nakajima, H; Nishijima, G; Nunoya, Y; Sugimoto, M; Takahasi, Y; Hsuji, H; Bessette, D; Okuno, K; Mitchell, N; Ricci, M; Zanino, R; Savoldi, L; Arai, K; Ninomiya, A

    2001-09-25

    The Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) was designed and built from 1993 to 1999 by an ITER collaboration between the US and Japan, with contributions from the European Union and the Russian Federation. The main goal of the project was to establish the superconducting magnet technology necessary for a large-scale fusion experimental reactor. Three heavily instrumented insert coils were built to cover a wide operational space for testing. The CS Insert, built by Japan, was tested in April-August of 2000. The TF Insert, built by Russian Federation, will be tested in the fall of 2001. The NbAl Insert, built by Japan, will be tested in 2002. The testing takes place in the CSMC Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Japan. The CSMC was charged successfully without training to its design current of 46 kA to produce 13 T in the magnet bore. The stored energy at 46 kA was 640 MJ. This paper presents the main results of the CSMC and the CS Insert testing--magnet critical parameters, ac losses, joint performance, quench characteristics and some results of the post-test analysis.

  6. Final design of the Switching Network Units for the JT-60SA Central Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampasi, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.lampasi@enea.it [National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Frascati (Italy); Coletti, Alberto; Novello, Luca [Fusion for Energy (F4E) Broader Fusion Development Department, Garching (Germany); Matsukawa, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Mukouyama, Naka-si, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Burini, Filippo; Taddia, Giuseppe; Tenconi, Sandro [OCEM Energy Technology, San Giorgio Di Piano (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    This paper describes the approved detailed design of the four Switching Network Units (SNUs) of the superconducting Central Solenoid of JT-60SA, the satellite tokamak that will be built in Naka, Japan, in the framework of the “Broader Approach” cooperation agreement between Europe and Japan. The SNUs can interrupt a current of 20 kA DC in less than 1 ms in order to produce a voltage of 5 kV. Such performance is obtained by inserting an electronic static circuit breaker in parallel to an electromechanical contactor and by matching and coordinating their operations. Any undesired transient overvoltage is limited by an advanced snubber circuit optimized for this application. The SNU resistance values can be adapted to the specific operation scenario. In particular, after successful plasma breakdown, the SNU resistance can be reduced by a making switch. The design choices of the main SNU elements are justified by showing and discussing the performed calculations and simulations. In most cases, the developed design is expected to exceed the performances required by the JT-60SA project.

  7. Design and Construction of a Prototype Solenoid Coil for MICE Coupling Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Guo, XingLong; Xu, FengYu; Liu, XiaoKun; Wu, Hong; Zheng, ShiXian; Green, Michael A; Li, Derun; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael

    2010-06-28

    A superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around four conventional RF cavities, which produces up to 2.6 T central magnetic field to keep the muons within the cavities, is to be used for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). The coupling coil made from copper matrix NbTi conductors is the largest of three types of magnets in MICE both in terms of 1.5 m inner diameter and about 13MJ stored magnetic energy at full operation current of 210A. The stress induced inside the coil assembly during cool down and magnet charging is relatively high. In order to validate the design method and develop the coil winding technique with inside-wound SC splices required for the coupling coil, a prototype coil made from the same conductor and with the same diameter and thickness but only one-fourth long as the coupling coil was designed and fabricated by ICST. The prototype coil was designed to be charged to strain conditions that are equivalent or greater than would be encountered in the coupling coil. This paper presents detailed design of the prototype coil as well as developed coil winding skills. The analyses on stress in the coil assembly and quench process were carried out.

  8. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  9. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max

    2012-12-15

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required. A quantity to rate the beam quality is the beam emittance. In the course of this thesis transverse emittance measurements by a solenoid scan could be realized and beyond that an improved theoretical description of a solenoid was successful. The foundation of emittance measurements are constituted by theoretical models which describe the envelope of a beam. Two different models were derived. The first is an often used model to determine the transverse beam emittance without considering space charge effects. More interesting and challenging was the development of an envelope model taking space charge effects into account. It is introduced and cross checked with measurements and simulations.

  10. Results of the ATLAS solenoid magnetic field map

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, M; Chevalier, L; Giudici, P A; Hart, J C; Kehrli, A; Losasso, M; Miyagawa, P S; Pons, X; Sandaker, H; Snow, S W

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to explore a wide range of particle physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider. A crucial component to the success of ATLAS will be a precise knowledge of the magnetic field produced by the ATLAS solenoid. To achieve this, a special field mapping machine was built and deployed to measure the solenoid magnetic field. This paper describes the mapping machine, the field mapping campaign, and the subsequent analysis of the field map data. After a series of small corrections, some taken from surveys and some derived from the data itself, were applied to the recorded data, the corrected data were fitted with a function obeying Maxwell's equations. The resulting field residuals had an rms of less than 0.5 mT, and the systematic error on the measurement of track sagitta due to the field uncetainty was estimated to range fom 2-12 × 10-4, depending on the tack rapidity.

  11. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max

    2012-12-15

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required. A quantity to rate the beam quality is the beam emittance. In the course of this thesis transverse emittance measurements by a solenoid scan could be realized and beyond that an improved theoretical description of a solenoid was successful. The foundation of emittance measurements are constituted by theoretical models which describe the envelope of a beam. Two different models were derived. The first is an often used model to determine the transverse beam emittance without considering space charge effects. More interesting and challenging was the development of an envelope model taking space charge effects into account. It is introduced and cross checked with measurements and simulations.

  12. Magnetic Alignment of Pulsed Solenoids Using the Pulsed Wire Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelaez, D.; Madur, A.; Lipton, T.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Kwan, J.W.

    2011-04-01

    A unique application of the pulsed-wire measurement method has been implemented for alignment of 2.5 T pulsed solenoid magnets. The magnetic axis measurement has been shown to have a resolution of better than 25 {micro}m. The accuracy of the technique allows for the identification of inherent field errors due to, for example, the winding layer transitions and the current leads. The alignment system is developed for the induction accelerator NDCX-II under construction at LBNL, an upgraded Neutralized Drift Compression experiment for research on warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion. Precise alignment is essential for NDCX-II, since the ion beam has a large energy spread associated with the rapid pulse compression such that misalignments lead to corkscrew deformation of the beam and reduced intensity at focus. The ability to align the magnetic axis of the pulsed solenoids to within 100 pm of the induction cell axis has been demonstrated.

  13. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  14. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  15. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Romanelli, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kumaki, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  16. Integration of RFQ beam coolers and solenoidal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenago, M.; Romé, M.; Maggiore, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Maero, G.; Chiurlotto, F.; Comunian, M.; Galatà, A.; Cavaliere, F.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic traps are a flexible and powerful method of controlling particle beams, possibly of exotic nuclei, with cooling (of energy spread and transverse oscillations) provided by collisions with light gases as in the Radio Frequency Quadrupole Cooler (RFQC). A RFQC prototype can be placed inside the existing Eltrap solenoid, capable of providing a magnetic flux density component Bz up to 0.2 T, where z is the solenoid axis. Confinement in the transverse plane is provided both by Bz and the rf voltage Vrf (up to 1 kV at few MHz). Transport is provided by a static electric field Ez (order of 100 V/m), while gas collisions (say He at 1 Pa, to be maintained by differential pumping) provide cooling or heating depending on Vrf. The beamline design and the major parameters Vrf, Bz (which affect the beam transmission optimization) are here reported, with a brief description of the experimental setup.

  17. Recent results on S = /minus/3 baryon spectroscopy from the LASS (Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D' Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashiii, H.; Iwata, S.

    1989-02-01

    Data demonstrating the existence of two ..cap omega../sup */minus// resonances produced in K/sup /minus//p interactions at 11 GeV/c in the LASS spectrometer are presented. The first state is seen in the ..xi../sup */degree//minus// decay channel with mass 2253 +- 13 MeV/c/sup 2/ and width 81 +- 38 MeV/c/sup 2/, and the second in the ..cap omega../sup /minus//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus// system with mass 2474 +- 12 and width 72 +- 33 MeV/c/sup 2/. Inclusive cross sections corresponding to these decays corrected for unseen charge modes are estimated to be respectively 630 +- 180 and 290 +- 90 nb, respectively. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. First Generation Final Focusing Solenoid For NDCX-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-11-09

    This report describes the prototype final focus solenoid (FFS-1G), or 1st generation FFS. In order to limit eddy currents, the solenoid winding consists of Litz wire wound on a non-conductive G-10 tube. For the same reason, the winding pack was inserted into an electrically insulating, but thermally conducting Polypropylene (Cool- Poly© D1202) housing and potted with highly viscous epoxy (to be able to wick the single strands of the Litz wire). The magnet is forced-air cooled through cooling channels. The magnet was designed for water cooling, but he cooling jacket cracked, and therefore cooling (beyond natural conduction and radiation) was exclusively by forced air. Though the design operating point was 8 Tesla, for the majority of running on NDCX-1 it operated up to about 5 Tesla. This was due mostly from limitations of voltage holding at the leads, where discharges at higher pulsed current damaged the leads. Generation 1 was replaced by the 2nd generation solenoid (FFS-2G) about a year later, which has operated reliably up to 8 Tesla, with a better lead design and utilizes water cooling. At this point, FFS-1G was used for plasma source R&D by LBNL and PPPL. The maximum field for those experiments was reduced to 3 Tesla due to continued difficulty with the leads and because higher field was not essential for those experiments. The pulser for the final focusing solenoid is a SCR-switched capacitor bank which produces a half-sine current waveform. The pulse width is ~800us and a charge voltage of 3kV drives ~20kA through the magnet producing ~8T field.

  19. Design and characterization of permanent magnetic solenoids for REGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, M., E-mail: max.hachmann@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Flöttmann, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gehrke, T. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mayet, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    REGAE is a small electron linear accelerator at DESY. In order to focus short and low charged electron bunches down to a few μm permanent magnetic solenoids were designed, assembled and field measurements were done. Due to a shortage of space close to the operation area an in-vacuum solution has been chosen. Furthermore a two-ring design made of wedges has been preferred in terms of beam dynamic issues. To keep the field quality of a piecewise built magnet still high a sorting algorithm for the wedge arrangement including a simple magnetic field model has been developed and used for the construction of the magnets. The magnetic field of these solenoids has been measured with high precision and compared to simulations. - Highlights: • presenting a two-ring radially magnetized permanent magnetic solenoid design. • development of a analytical field description and field quality factor. • development of a sorting algorithm for permanent magnetic pieces to form a magnet. • performing a high-precision field measurement of a high gradient field.

  20. Invited Article: Development of high-field superconducting Ioffe magnetic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Brome, C. R.; Butterworth, J. S.; Dzhosyuk, S. N.; Mattoni, C. E. H.; McKinsey, D. N.; Michniak, R. A.; Doyle, J. M.; Golub, R.; Korobkina, E.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Palmquist, G. R.; Seo, P.-N.; Huffman, P. R.; Coakley, K. J.; Mumm, H. P.; Thompson, A. K.; Yang, G. L.; Lamoreaux, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of three generations of superconducting Ioffe magnetic traps. The first two are low current traps, built from four racetrack shaped quadrupole coils and two solenoid assemblies. Coils are wet wound with multifilament NbTi superconducting wires embedded in epoxy matrices. The magnet bore diameters are 51 and 105mm with identical trap depths of 1.0T at their operating currents and at 4.2K. A third trap uses a high current accelerator-type quadrupole magnet and two low current solenoids. This trap has a bore diameter of 140mm and tested trap depth of 2.8T. Both low current traps show signs of excessive training. The high current hybrid trap, on the other hand, exhibits good training behavior and is amenable to quench protection.

  1. Design of a Solenoid Actuator with a Magnetic Plunger for Miniaturized Segment Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Woo Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a solenoid actuator with a ferromagnetic plunger to generate both rectilinear and turning motions of a multi-segmented robot. Each segment of the miniaturized robot is actuated by a pair of solenoids, and in-phase and out-of-phase actuations of the solenoid pair cause the linear and turning motions. The theoretical analysis on the actuation force by the solenoid with the magnetic plunger is implemented based on the Biot-Savart law. The optimal design parameters of the solenoid are determined to actuate a segmented body. We manufacture the miniaturized robot consisting of two segments and a pair of solenoids. Experiments are performed to measure the linear and angular displacements of the two-segmented robot for various frictional conditions.

  2. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  3. SUPERCONDUCTING HELICAL SNAKE MAGNET FOR THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLEN, E.; ANERELLA, M.; ESCALLIER, G.; GANETIS, G.; GHOSH, A.; GUPTA, R.; HARRISON, M.; JAIN, A.; LUCCIO, A.; MACKAY, W.; MARONE, A.; MURATORE, J.; PLATE, S.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This ''partial Snake'' magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that the magnet can operate in the AGS cooled by several cryocoolers. The design, construction and performance of this unique magnet will be summarized.

  4. Itinerant Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Karchev, Naoum

    2004-01-01

    Superconductivity has again become a challenge following the discovery of unconventional superconductivity. Resistance-free currents have been observed in heavy-fermion materials, organic conductors and copper oxides. The discovery of superconductivity in a single crystal of $UGe_2$, $ZrZn_2$ and $URhGe$ revived the interest in the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The experiments indicate that: i)The superconductivity is confined to the ferromagnetic phase. ii)The ferromag...

  5. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  6. A solenoid-based active hydraulic engine mount: modelling, analysis, and verification

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the design, modelling, identification, simulation, and experimental verification of a low-cost solenoid-based active hydraulic engine mount. To build an active engine mount, a commercial On-Off solenoid is modified to be used as an actuator and it is embedded inside a hydraulic engine mount. The hydraulic engine mount is modelled and tested, solenoid actuator is modelled and identified, and finally the models were integrated to obtain the analytical model of the...

  7. Development and Characterization of a High Magnetic Field Solenoid for Laser Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Divol, L; Fulkerson, S; Satariano, J; Price, D; Bower, J; Edwards, J; Town, R; Glenzer, S H; Offenberger, A A; Tynan, G R; James, A N

    2006-05-05

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in laser-produced gas-jet plasmas by high external magnetic fields. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves fields exceeding 10 T. Temporally resolved measurements of the electron temperature profile transverse to a high power laser beam were obtained using Thomson Scattering. A method for optimizing the solenoid design based on the available stored energy is presented.

  8. Design of a superconducting insert to obtain a high and quasi-uniform magnetic force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, Jean [GREEN, University of Nancy BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Netter, Denis [GREEN, University of Nancy BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Quettier, Lionel [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay (France); Mailfert, Alain [INPL, 2 av de la foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we study the magnetic force generated by the combination of a solenoid and a superconducting ring insert. We have focused our study on the uniformity of the magnetic force. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal shape of the superconducting ring. We are able to obtain uniformity of 0.5% variance. We also study the influence of several factors on uniformity, such as the critical current of the coil, the ring, and the size of the working area.

  9. Beam dynamics of the interaction region solenoid in a linear collider due to a crossing angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tenenbaum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Future linear colliders may require a nonzero crossing angle between the two beams at the interaction point (IP. This requirement in turn implies that the beams will pass through the strong interaction region solenoid with an angle, and thus that the component of the solenoidal field perpendicular to the beam trajectory is nonzero. The interaction of the beam and the solenoidal field in the presence of a crossing angle will cause optical effects not observed for beams passing through the solenoid on axis; these effects include dispersion, deflection of the beam, and synchrotron radiation effects. For a purely solenoidal field, the optical effects which are relevant to luminosity exactly cancel at the IP when the influence of the solenoid’s fringe field is taken into account. Beam size growth due to synchrotron radiation in the solenoid is proportional to the fifth power of the product of the solenoidal field, the length of the solenoid, and the crossing angle. Examples based on proposed linear collider detector solenoid configurations are presented.

  10. Conceptual design of Dump resistor for Superconducting CS of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swati; Raj, Piyush; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    Under upgradation activities for SST-1, the existing resistive central solenoid (CS) coil will be replaced with Nb3Sn based superconducting coil. Design of Central solenoid had been completed and some of the initiative has already taken for its manufacturing. The superconducting CS will store upto 3 MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14 kA. During quench, energy stored in the coils has to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5 s by inserting a 20 mΩ dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a critical part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20 mΩ dump resistor has been proposed. The required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented and discussed. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the form of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. Such an array of grids connected in series and parallel will cater to the electrical as well as thermal parameters. It will be cooled by natural convection. During operation, the estimated maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor will raise upto 600 K.

  11. Heavy ion physics at LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedjidian, M.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    1995-07-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is one of the two detectors proposed to achieve the primary goal of the LHC: the discovery of the Higgs boson(s). For this purpose, the detector is optimized for the precise measurement of muons, photons, electrons and jets. It is a clear motivation to investigate its ability to measure the hard processes probing the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in ion collisions. It is the case of the heavy quark bound states, long predicted to be suppressed in a QGP. In CMS they can be detected, via their muonic decay according to the principle adopted for the p-p physics.

  12. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  13. Convection of Paramagnetic Fluid in a Cube Heated and Cooled from Side Walls and Placed below a Superconducting Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Tomasz; Fornalik, Elzbieta; Tagawa, Toshio; Ozoe, Hiroyuki; Szmyd, Janusz S.

    The magnetic convection of paramagnetic fluid is studied in a strong magnetic field. The fluid in a cubic enclosure is heated from one vertical wall and cooled from the opposite one. The fluid is the 80% mass aqueous solution of glycerol with 0.8 mol/kg concentration of gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate to make the working fluid paramagnetic. The small amount of liquid crystal slurry is added to the fluid in order to visualize the temperature profiles in a vertical cross-section. This system is placed directly below the solenoid of the superconducting magnet which is oriented vertically. The temperature of cold wall is constantly controlled by the water flowing from a thermostating bath. On the other hand, the hot wall is heated by a nichrome wire from a DC power supply. In the numerical computations, the configuration of the system is modeled to be as close as possible to the real system. The physical properties of the working fluid are used to compute dimensionless parameters in the numerical model and the computations are carried out for corresponding cases. Later, the numerical and experimental results are compared with each other.

  14. State-of-the-art of superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, M. S.

    1972-09-01

    A survey of the most recent developments in superconducting magnet materials is presented, and complete data on the upper critical field and transition temperature for the NbTi alloy system are given. The overall critical current density of compound conductors is shown for both low and high field commercial superconductors. A tabulation is given of high field and large bore solenoids, comparing design and test data. Comparative data are also given for some nonsolenoidal coils, and details are listed for the systems under construction or design. A criterion is derived for the stable current density attainable in extremely large magnet systems such as those envisioned for fusion reactors: j ∝ (stored energy)-1/6 . The review concludes with summaries concerning the structural materials useful in large magnets and the effects of radiation on superconducting magnets.

  15. The helium cryogenic plant for the CMS superconducting magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Perinic, G; Dagut, F; Dauguet, P; Hirel, P

    2002-01-01

    A new helium refrigeration plant with a cooling capacity of 800 W at 4.45 K, 4500 W between 60 K and 80 K, and 4 g/s liquefaction simultaneously has been designed and is presently being constructed by Air Liquide for CERN. The refrigeration plant will provide the cooling power for the cool down and the operation of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) superconducting coil whose cold mass weighs 225 t. The refrigeration plant will at first be installed in a surface building for the tests of the superconducting magnet. On completion of the tests the cold box will be moved to its final underground position next to the CMS experimental cavern. This paper presents the process design, describes the main components and explains their selection. (4 refs).

  16. Field Measurement for Superconducting Magnets of ADS Injector I

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiangchen

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting solenoid magnet prototype for ADS injection-I had been fabricated in Beijing Qihuan Mechanical and Electric Engineer Company and tested in Haerbin Institute of Technology (HIT) in Nov, 2012. Batch magnet production was processed after some major revision from the magnet prototype, they include: removing off the perm-alloy shield, extending the iron yoke, using thin superconducting cable, etc. The first one of the batch magnets was tested in the vertical Dewar in HIT in Sept. 2013. Field measurement was carried out at the same time by the measurement platform that seated on the top of the vertical Dewar. This paper will present the field measurement system design, measurement results and discussion on the residual field from the persistent current effect.

  17. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  18. Qualification of the Joints for the ITER Central Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Berryhill, A; Kenney, S

    2011-09-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid has 36 interpancake joints, 12 bus joints, and 12 feeder joints in the magnet. The joints are required to have resistance below 4 nOhm at 45 kA at 4.5 K. The US ITER Project Office developed two different types of interpancake joints with some variations in details in order to find a better design, qualify the joints, and establish a fabrication process. We built and tested four samples of the sintered joints and two samples with butt-bonded joints (a total of eight joints). Both designs met the specifications. Results of the joint development, test results, and selection of the baseline design are presented and discussed in the paper. The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) consists of six modules. Each module is composed of six wound hexapancakes and one quadrapancake. The multipancakes are connected electrically and hydraulically by in-line interpancake joints. The joints are located at the outside diameter (OD) of the module. Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) high-current joints are critical elements in the CICC magnets. In addition to low resistivity, the CS joints must fit a space envelope equivalent to the regular conductor cross section and must have low hydraulic impedance and enough structural strength to withstand the hoop and compressive forces during operation, including cycling. This paper is the continuation of the work reported on the intermodule joints.

  19. Advancing Non-Solenoidal Startup on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, J. A.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Perry, J. M.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    The Pegasus experiment utilizes compact, edge-localized current sources (Ainj 2 - 4 cm2, Iinj 10 kA, Vinj 1 kV) for non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) startup. Recent campaigns are comparing two injector geometries that vary the differing relative contributions of DC helicity input and non-solenoidal inductive voltages. A predictive 0-D model that treats the plasma as a resistive element with time-varying inductance and enforces Ip limits from Taylor relaxation was tested with inward growth of the plasma current channel using injectors on the outboard midplane. Strong inductive drive arises from plasma shape evolution and poloidal field (PF) induction. A major unknown in the model is the resistive dissipation, and hence the electron confinement. Te (R) profile measurements in LHI show centrally-peaked Te > 100 eV while the plasma is coupled to the injectors, suggesting LHI confinement is not strongly stochastic. A second campaign utilizes new injectors in the lower divertor region. This geometry trades subtler relaxation field programming and reduced PF induction for higher HI rates. Present efforts are developing relaxation methods at high BT, with relaxation at BT , inj > 0.15 T achieved to date via higher Iinj and PF manipulation. Conceptual design studies of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and ECH heating systems for Pegasus have been initiated to explore direct comparison of LHI to CHI with and without ECH assist. Supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375, DE-SC0006928.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, John C.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature's position.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, J.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid is disclosed. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature`s position. 5 figs.

  2. Using Experiment and Computer Modeling to Determine the Off-Axis Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietor-Santos, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ideal solenoid is a common topic among introductory-based physics textbooks and a typical current arrangement in laboratory hands-on experiences where the magnetic field inside a solenoid is determined at different currents and at different distances from its center using a magnetic probe. It additionally provides a very simple…

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid is disclosed. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature`s position. 5 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature's position.

  5. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; Makida, Y; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Aoki, K; Haruyama, T; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Wachi, Y; Mine, S; Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test. (7 refs).

  6. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  7. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  8. Development of the Butt Joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N

    2006-08-23

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) requires compact and reliable joints for its Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The baseline design is a diffusion bonded butt joint. In such a joint the mating cables are compacted to a very low void fraction in a copper sleeve and then heat treated. After the heat treatment the ends are cut, polished and aligned against each other and then diffusion bonded under high compression in a vacuum chamber at 750 C. The jacket is then welded on the conductor to complete the joint, which remarkably does not require more room than a regular conductor. This joint design is based on a proven concept developed for the ITER CS Model Coil that was successfully tested in the previous R&D phase.

  9. submitter Starting Manufacture of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Libeyre, P; Dolgetta, N; Gaxiola, E; Jong, C; Lyraud, C; Mitchell, N; Journeaux, J Y; Vollmann, T; Evans, D; Sgobba, S; Langeslag, S; Reiersen, W; Martovetsky, N; Everitt, D; Hatfield, D; Rosenblad, P; Litherland, S; Freudenberg, K; Myatt, L; Smith, J; Brazelton, C; Abbott, R; Daubert, J; Rackers, K; Nentwich, T

    2016-01-01

    The central solenoid (CS) is a key component of the ITER magnet system to provide the magnetic flux swing required to drive induced plasma current up to 15 MA. The manufacture of its different subcomponents has now started, following completion of the design analyses and achievement of the qualification of the manufacturing procedures. A comprehensive set of analyses has been produced to demonstrate that the CS final design meets all requirements. This includes in particular structural analyses carried out with different finite-element models and addressing normal and fault conditions. Following the Final Design Review, held in November 2013, and the subsequent design modifications, the analyses were updated for consistency with the final design details and provide evidence that the Magnet Structural Design Criteria are fully met. Before starting any manufacturing activity of a CS component, a corresponding dedicated qualification program has been carried out. This includes manufacture of mockups using the re...

  10. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  11. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  12. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  13. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  14. a Thermohydraulic-Quenching Code for Superconducting Magnets in Network Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Schultz, Joel; Minervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    A thermohydraulic-quench code "Solxport3D-Quench" has been developed for a system of superconducting and normal solenoid magnets with supply network circuits. Each power supply network circuit consists of at least one superconducting magnet with parallel circuits including voltage sources, resistors or diodes. When used for analysis of a magnetic confinement fusion device, the plasma currents and passive structure eddy currents are also included in all scenarios. The simulation starts from superconducting stage for each magnet coil. The superconducting stage switches to quench stage if any one of the superconducting magnets quenches (i.e., exceeding the current sharing temperature.) It is followed by the dumping stage after a given quench detection time. The recovery of the superconducting stage is allowed at any time step before dumping. The currents of each magnetic coil are calculated by a time-difference method. The thermohydraulic parameters during superconducting and quench/dumping stage are obtained by a finite element method. The size and location of each finite element are dynamically defined at each time step during quench and dumping. Calibrations against test data are presented.

  15. Protective link for superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  16. Magnetoelastic instabilities and vibrations of superconducting-magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, F.C.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes the research accomplished under Depatment of Energy/NSF grants associated with the structural design of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors. The main results pertain to magnetomechanical instabilities in toroidal and poloidal field magnets for proposed fusion reactors. One major accomplishment was the building and testing of a 1/75th scale superconducting structural model of a 16 coil Tokamak reactor. Using this model the buckling of toroidal and poloidal field coils under different constraints was observed. A series of dynamic tests were performed, including the effect of currents on natural frequencies, poloidal-toroidal coil interaction, and buckling induced superconducting-normal quench of the coils. The stability of poloidal coils in a toroidal magnet field were investigated with the 16 coil torus. A superconducting poloidal coil was observed to become statically unstable or buckle as the current approached a certain value. Magnetoelastic buckling of other magnet systems such as a yin-yang pair of magnets, Ioffe coils, and discrete coil solenoids were also studied.

  17. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified.

  18. INVESTIGATION ON THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL THREE-WAY SOLENOID VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Su Ling; Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao; Liu Quanbing

    2006-01-01

    Objective A novel high-speed three-way solenoid valve is developed, which is used for the common-rail injection system equipped on DME powered engine. In order to improve the dynamic response performance of the three-way solenoid. Methods Experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of spool stroke, drive voltage, negative demagnetizing pulse and two drive schemes on the dynamic response performance of the three-way solenoid valve. Results The results show that the dynamic response performance of the three-way solenoid valve can be remarkably improved by shortening the spool stroke and increasing the drive voltage. Simultaneously, the difference between the response time of closing valve and that of opening valve decreases. At each different drive voltage, there exists an optimal negative demagnetizing pulse corresponding to the same positive exciting pulse. At this optimal pulse,the dynamic response performance of the three-way solenoid valve is the best. In addition, the high drive voltage can lead to the smaller optimal negative demagnetizing pulse. It is also indicated from the experiments that the dynamic response performance of the three-way solenoid valve is better when the NO. 1 drive scheme is adopted. The lower drive voltage results in the larger difference between the dynamic response performances for the two drive schemes.Conclusion The dynamic response performance of a novel three-way solenoid valve is good.

  19. Effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the orientation of a cerium oxide buffer layer on sapphire and the properties of a YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozhaev, P. B.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Skov, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the crystal properties of CeO2 buffer layers grown on a (1 (1) under bar 02) sapphire substrate and on the properties of superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox thin films are investigated. It is shown that (100) and (111) CeO2 growth is observed, depending...

  20. Design of SuSI - superconducting source for ions at NSCL/MSU - II. The conventional parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavodszky, P.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)]. E-mail: zavodszky@nscl.msu.edu; Arend, B. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Cole, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); DeKamp, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Machicoane, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Marti, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Miller, P. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moskalik, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Vincent, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zeller, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    An ECR ion source is being designed to initially serve as a test bench for development and later will replace the existing 6.4 GHz SC-ECRIS. This ECRIS will operate at 18 + 14.5 GHz microwave frequencies. The radial magnetic field will be produced by six superconducting hexapole coils, capable to reach 1.5 T at the aluminum plasma chamber wall (R = 50 mm). The axial trapping will be produced with six superconducting solenoids enclosed in an iron yoke. We will present the conventional parts of this ion source design: plasma chamber, injection and extraction hardware design and principles of the associated test beamline.

  1. An improved billet on billet extrusion process of continuous aluminium alloy shapes for cryogenic applications in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, S S

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. CMS will contain the largest and the most powerful superconducting solenoid magnet ever built in terms of stored energy. It will work at 4.2 K, will have a magnetic length of 12.5 m, with a free bore of 6m and will be manufactured as a layered and modular structure of NbTi cables embedded in a high purity (99.998%) Al- stabiliser. Each layer consists of a wound continuous length of 2.55 km. In order to withstand the high electromagnetic forces, two external aluminium alloy reinforcing sections are foreseen. These reinforcements, of 24 mm multiplied by 18 mm cross-section, will be continuously electron beam (EB) welded to the pure Al-stabiliser. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcements due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened state, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperatures and ready EB weldability. Ea...

  2. LIL-W: Positron conversion target and solenoid (pictures 01 and 04).

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    In the direction of the beam, from right to left: a steering dipole (DHZ.25); the arm, at 45 deg, of a wire scanner which measures beam size; the conversion target, housed in the small tank with a window, where positrons are produced; immediately afterwards, invisible inside the vacuum chamber, is a pulsed solenoid to focus the emerging positrons; finally, a large solenoid, consisting of 3 pancakes, further focuses the positrons. Towards the left, the linac LIL-W, its accelerating structure hidden under a continuous outer solenoid mantle.

  3. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented.

  4. New method for generating linear transfer matrices through combined rf and solenoid fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for computing the transverse transfer matrix for superimposed axisymmetric rf and solenoid field maps. The algorithm constructs the transfer matrix directly from one-dimensional rf and solenoid field maps without computing numerical derivatives or eigenfunction expansions of the field map data. In addition, this method accurately describes the dynamics of low energy particles starting from a solenoid-immersed cathode, allowing the method to simulate transport through both rf and electrostatic guns. Comparison of particle tracking with the transfer matrix, and direct integration of the equations of motion through several field setups, shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  5. Superconducting linac beam dynamics with high-order maps for RF resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, A A; Pardo, R C; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.177

    2004-01-01

    The arbitrary-order map beam optics code COSY Infinity has recently been adapted to calculate accurate high-order ion-optical maps for electrostatic and radio-frequency accelerating structures. The beam dynamics of the superconducting low-velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab is used to demonstrate some advantages of the new simulation capability. The injector linac involves four different types of superconducting accelerating structures and has a total of 18 resonators. The detailed geometry for each of the accelerating cavities is included, allowing an accurate representation of the on- and off-axis electric fields. The fields are obtained within the code from a Poisson-solver for cylindrically symmetric electrodes of arbitrary geometry. The transverse focusing is done with superconducting solenoids. A detailed comparison of the transverse and longitudinal phase space is made with the conventional ray-tracing code LINRAY. The two codes are evaluated for ease ...

  6. Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of pulsed-laser-deposition-grown La1.85Sr0.15CuO4/La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 superlattices on (001)-oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Sen, K.; Marozau, I.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Biskup, N.; Varela, M.; Khaydukov, Y.; Soltwedel, O.; Keller, T.; Döbeli, M.; Schneider, C. W.; Bernhard, C.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial La1.85Sr0.15CuO4/La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LSCO/LCMO) superlattices on (001)-oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates have been grown with pulsed laser deposition technique. Their structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties have been determined with in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, specular neutron reflectometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, electric transport, and magnetization measurements. We find that despite the large mismatch between the in-plane lattice parameters of LSCO (a =0.3779 nm) and LCMO (a =0.387 nm) these superlattices can be grown epitaxially and with a high crystalline quality. While the first LSCO layer remains clamped to the LaSrAlO4 substrate, a sizable strain relaxation occurs already in the first LCMO layer. The following LSCO and LCMO layers adopt a nearly balanced state in which the tensile and compressive strain effects yield alternating in-plane lattice parameters with an almost constant average value. No major defects are observed in the LSCO layers, while a significant number of vertical antiphase boundaries are found in the LCMO layers. The LSCO layers remain superconducting with a relatively high superconducting onset temperature of Tconset≈36 K. The macroscopic superconducting response is also evident in the magnetization data due to a weak diamagnetic signal below 10 K for H ∥ ab and a sizable paramagnetic shift for H ∥ c that can be explained in terms of a vortex-pinning-induced flux compression. The LCMO layers maintain a strongly ferromagnetic state with a Curie temperature of TCurie≈190 K and a large low-temperature saturation moment of about 3.5(1) μB per Mn ion. These results suggest that the LSCO/LCMO superlattices can be used to study the interaction between the antagonistic ferromagnetic and superconducting orders and, in combination with previous studies on YBa2Cu3O7-x/La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 superlattices, may allow one to identify the relevant mechanisms.

  7. Levitation pressure and friction losses in superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting bearing having at least one permanent magnet magnetized with a vertical polarization. The lower or stator portion of the bearing includes an array of high-temperature superconducting elements which are comprised of a plurality of annular rings. An annular ring is located below each permanent magnet and an annular ring is offset horizontally from at least one of the permanent magnets. The rings are composed of individual high-temperature superconducting elements located circumferentially along the ring. By constructing the horizontally-offset high-temperature superconducting ring so that the c-axis is oriented in a radial direction, a higher levitation force can be achieved. Such an orientation will also provide substantially lower rotational drag losses in the bearing.

  8. Levitation pressure and friction losses in superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting bearing having at least one permanent magnet magnetized with a vertical polarization. The lower or stator portion of the bearing includes an array of high-temperature superconducting elements which are comprised of a plurality of annular rings. An annular ring is located below each permanent magnet and an annular ring is offset horizontally from at least one of the permanent magnets. The rings are composed of individual high-temperature superconducting elements located circumferentially along the ring. By constructing the horizontally-offset high-temperature superconducting ring so that the c-axis is oriented in a radial direction, a higher levitation force can be achieved. Such an orientation will also provide substantially lower rotational drag losses in the bearing.

  9. Impact of detector solenoid on the Compact Linear Collider luminosity performance

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Tomas, Rogelio; Schulte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of {\\sigma} = 1 nm vertically and {\\sigma} = 45 nm horizontally. Given the small and very flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded from the impact of the experimental solenoid field in combination with a large crossing angle. Main effects include y-x'-coupling and increase of vertical dispersion. Additionally, Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation (ISR) from the orbit deflection created by the solenoid field, increases the beam emittance. A detailed study of the impact from a realistic solenoid field and the associated correction techniques for the CLIC Final Focus is presented. In particular, the impact of techniques to compensate the beam optics distortions due to the detector solenoid main field and its overlap with the final focus magnets are shown. The unrecoverable luminosity loss due to ISR has been evaluated, and found to...

  10. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  11. The influence of the iron shield of the solenoid on spin tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the iron shield of the solenoid on spin tracking is studied in this paper. In the case of the 200 MeV proton, the study has been numerically done in the ZGOUBI code. The distribution of the magnetic field was done by POISSON. We have come to the conclusion that the influence of the solenoid’s shielding on spin tracking is the same at its entrance and exit and that is directly proportional to the intensity of the magnetic induction B on the axis of the solenoid. We have also determined that the influence of the solenoid’s shielding is much stronger on transversal components of the spin than on its longitudinal component. The differences between components of the spin for the shielded and not-shielded solenoid diminish with the in crease in the distance from the solenoid.

  12. Study on a New Large Solid Angle Capture System for Surface Muon Using Sup erconducting Solenoids%大俘获立体角的内靶超导螺线管表面muon源的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冉; 刘艳芬; 许文贞; 谭宗泉; 成斌; 孔伟; 叶邦角

    2014-01-01

    高通量µ子源是国际上µ子科学研究的重要条件。在中国散裂中子源的高能质子应用区中,运用蒙特卡罗工具Geant4和G4beamline软件设计了使用内靶超导螺线管俘获高通量表面µ子的束线。与传统的分离靶和基于四极磁铁的收集系统相比,大孔径超导螺线管可以将收集效率提高两个量级。通过对不同靶材的粒子产率进行分析得出石墨是最佳靶材,然后比较俘获螺线管与束流的不同偏转角度下收集的表面µ的产率,提出了合理的较高产率的俘获和输运螺线管的设计方案,并与常规磁铁方案比较,最终在衰变螺线管端口的表面µ通量高达108/s。%High intense muons are required by many applications in muon science. A large acceptance channel for surface muons was designed at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) using a superconducting solenoid and an internal target, which can provide a large solid angle to collect intense surface muons. Compared to conventional separate target and collection system based on quadrupole magnets, a superconducting solenoid with large aperture can collect two orders larger of surface muons. This device was simulated by Geant4 and G4beamline. By analyzing the surface muon production ratio produced by the process that protons bombard four different materials, we chose the graphite as the target material. Then comparing the intensity of surface muon by different angles between the axis of the capture solenoids and the proton beam line, we proposed the capture and transport solenoid system with higher muon production ratio. Finally, the yield of surface muon at the exit of decay solenoid can be up to 108/s.

  13. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  14. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  15. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  16. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng; Hsun-Heng Tsai

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to oc...

  17. Approach control of a gas exchange solenoid actuator for IC engines

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chun-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Application of solenoid valve actuators in internal combustion engines can facilitate operations such as variable valve timing for improved efficiency and emission. Unfortunately, smooth solenoid valve landing is hard to achieve due to limited control authority, limited bandwidth, and time varying disturbances. The resultant valve impact causes unacceptable noise and component wear on the engine. To solve this ``soft seating" problem, the controller is further divided into approach and landin...

  18. Superconducting Focusing Lenses for the SSR1 Cryomodule of PXIE Test Stand at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Five solenoid-based focusing lenses designed for use inside the SSR1 cryomodule of the PXIE test stand at Fermilab have been fabricated and tested. In addition to a focusing solenoid, each lens is equipped with a set of windings that generate magnetic field in the transverse plane and can be used in the steering dipole mode or as a skew quadrupole corrector. The lenses will be installed between superconducting cavities in the cryomodule, so getting sufficiently low fringe magnetic field was one of the main design requirements. Beam dynamics simulations indicated a need for high accuracy positioning of the lenses in the cryomodule, which triggered a study towards understanding uncertainties of the magnetic axis position relative to the geometric features of the lens. This report summarizes the efforts towards certification of the lenses, including results of performance tests, fringe field data, and uncertainty of the magnetic axis position.

  19. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The STAR Collaboration

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it`s experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  20. the LHC Compact Muon Solenoid experiment detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a multi-purpose experiment designed to exploit the physics of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider collision energy (14TeV at centre of mass) over the full range of expected luminosities (up to 1034cm-2s-1). CMS detector control system (DCS) responsibility is to ensure a safe, correct and efficient operation of the detector so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The system is also required to make possible that inexperienced shifters can operate the detector and a small crew of experts can take care of the maintenance of its software and hardware infrastructure. The DCS large subsystems size sum up to more than a million parameters that need to be supervised. A cluster of roughly 100 servers is used to provide the required processing resources. A scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a comput...

  1. An implantable RF solenoid for magnetic resonance microscopy and microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D S; Cohen, M S; Clark, W G; Chu, A C; Nunnally, R L; Smith, J; Mills, D; Judy, J W

    2012-08-01

    Miniature solenoids routinely enhance small volume nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy; however, no such techniques exist for patients. We present an implantable microcoil for diverse clinical applications, with a microliter coil volume. The design is loosely based on implantable depth electrodes, in which a flexible tube serves as the substrate, and a metal stylet is inserted into the tube during implantation. The goal is to provide enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of structures that are not easily accessed by surface coils. The first-generation prototype was designed for implantation up to 2 cm, and provided initial proof-of-concept for microscopy. Subsequently, we optimized the design to minimize the influence of lead inductances, and to thereby double the length of the implantable depth (4 cm). The second-generation design represents an estimated SNR improvement of over 30% as compared to the original design when extended to 4 cm. Impedance measurements indicate that the device is stable for up to 24 h in body temperature saline. We evaluated the SNR and MR-related heating of the device at 3T. The implantable microcoil can differentiate fat and water peaks, and resolve submillimeter features.

  2. Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Anatolie

    2011-01-01

    This book demonstrates how the new phenomena in superconductivity on the nanometer scale (FFLO state, triplet superconductivity, Crossed Andreev Reflection, synchronized generation etc.) serve as the basis for the invention and development of novel nanoelectronic devices and systems. It demonstrates how rather complex ideas and theoretical models, like odd-pairing, non-uniform superconducting state, pi-shift etc., adequately describe the processes in real superconducting nanostructues and novel devices based on them. The book is useful for a broad audience of readers, researchers, engineers, P

  3. Superconductive imaging surface magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jr., William C.; van Hulsteyn, David B.; Flynn, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    An improved pick-up coil system for use with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device gradiometers and magnetometers involving the use of superconducting plates near conventional pick-up coil arrangements to provide imaging of nearby dipole sources and to deflect environmental magnetic noise away from the pick-up coils. This allows the practice of gradiometry and magnetometry in magnetically unshielded environments. One embodiment uses a hemispherically shaped superconducting plate with interior pick-up coils, allowing brain wave measurements to be made on human patients. another embodiment using flat superconducting plates could be used in non-destructive evaluation of materials.

  4. Superconducting optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  5. Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康

    2000-01-01

    There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...

  6. Experimental investigation of the role of the triplet pairing in the superconducting spin-valve effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, P. V.; Kamashev, A. A.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Validov, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V. E.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    An important role of the morphology of a superconducting layer in the superconducting spin-valve effect has been established. The triplet pairing induced by the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect has been experimentally investigated for samples CoO x /Py1/Cu/Py2/Cu/Pb (where Py = Ni0.81Fe0.19) with a smooth superconducting layer. The optimization of the parameters of this structure has demonstrated a complete switching between the normal and superconducting states with a change in the relative orientation of magnetizations of the ferromagnetic layers from the antiparallel to orthogonal orientation. A pure triplet contribution has been observed for the sample with a permalloy layer thickness at which the superconducting spin-valve effect vanishes. A direct comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical calculation of the temperature of the transition to the superconducting state has been performed for the first time.

  7. Method for detecting superconducting stripes in high-temperature superconductors based on nonlinear resistivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Rodrigo A; Martin, Ivar

    2011-09-16

    We theoretically study the effect that stripelike superconducting inclusions would have on the nonlinear resistivity in single crystals. Even if the stripe orientation varies throughout the sample between two orthogonal directions due to twinning, we predict that there should be a universal dependence of the nonlinear resistivity on the angle between the applied current and the crystal axes. This prediction can be used to test the existence of superconducting stripes at and above the superconducting transition temperature in cuprate superconductors.

  8. Quench propagation and detection in the superconducting bus-bars of the ATLAS magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H H J; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A; Baynham, D Elwyn; Courthold, M J D; Lesmond, C

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS superconducting magnet system comprising Barrel (BT) and End-Cap Toroids (ECT) and also Central Solenoid (CS) will store more than 1.5 GJ of magnetic energy. The magnet system will have many superconducting busbars, a few meters long each, running from the current leads to Central Solenoid and Toroids as well as between the coils of each Toroid. Quench development in the busbars, i.e., the normal zone propagation process along the busbar superconductors, is slow and exhibits very low voltages. Therefore, its timely and appropriate detection represents a real challenge. The temperature evolution in the busbars under quench is of primary importance. Conservative calculations of the temperature were performed for all the magnets. Also, a simple and effective method to detect a normal zone in a busbar is presented. A thin superconducting wire, whose normal resistance can be easily detected, is placed in a good thermal contact to busbar. Thus, the wire can operate as straightforward and low-noise quench-...

  9. Graphene: Carbon's superconducting footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafek, Oskar

    2012-02-01

    Graphene exhibits many extraordinary properties, but superconductivity isn't one of them. Two theoretical studies suggest that by decorating the surface of graphene with the right species of dopant atoms, or by using ionic liquid gating, superconductivity could yet be induced.

  10. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  11. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  12. Conceptual design report for the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-15

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) will search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation and investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. The emphasis win be the correlation of many observables on an event-by-event basis. In the absence of definitive signatures for the QGP, it is imperative that such correlations be used to identify special events and possible signatures. This requires a flexible detection system that can simultaneously measure many experimental observables. The physics goals dictate the design of star and it's experiment. To meet the design criteria, tracking, momentum analysis, and particle identification of most of the charged particles at midrapidity are necessary. The tracking must operate in conditions at higher than the expected maximum charged particle multiplicities for central Au + Au collisions. Particle identification of pions/kaons for p < 0.7 GeV/c and kaons/protons for p < 1 GeV/c, as well as measurement of decay particles and reconstruction of secondary vertices will be possible. A two-track resolution of 2 cm at 2 m radial distance from, the interaction is expected. Momentum resolution of {Delta}p/p {approximately} 0.02 at p = 0.1 GeV/c is required to accomplish the physics, and,{Delta}p/p of several percent at p = 10 GeV/c is sufficient to accurately measure the rapidly failing spectra at high Pt and particles from mini-jets and jets.

  13. Superconductivity in carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugon, Katarzyna

    The purpose of this thesis is to explain the phenomenon of superconductivity in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. In the introductory chapter, there is a description of superconductivity and how it occurs at critical temperature (Tc) that is characteristic and different to every superconducting material. The discovery of superconductivity in mercury in 1911 by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes is also mentioned. Different types of superconductors, type I and type II, low and high temperatures superconductors, as well as the BCS theory that was developed in 1957 by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer, are also described in detail. The BCS theory explains how Cooper's pairs are formed and how they are responsible for the superconducting properties of many materials. The following chapters explain superconductivity in doped fullerenes, graphene and carbon nanotubes, respectively. There is a thorough explanation followed by many examples of different types of carbon nanomaterials in which small changes in chemical structure cause significant changes in superconducting properties. The goal of this research was not only to take into consideration well known carbon based superconductors but also to search for the newest available materials such as the fullerene nanowhiskers discovered quite recently. There is also a presentation of fairly new ideas about inducing superconductivity in a monolayer of graphene which is more challenging than inducing superconductivity in graphite by simply intercalating metal atoms between its graphene sheets. An effort has been taken to look for any available information about carbon nanomaterials that have the potential to superconduct at room temperature, mainly because discovery of such materials would be a real revolution in the modern world, although no such materials have been discovered yet.

  14. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  15. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  16. The Test Facility for the EAST Superconducting Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yu; Weng Peide

    2005-01-01

    A large facility for testing superconducting magnets has been in operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since the completion of its construction that began in 1999. A helium refrigerator is used to cool the magnets and liquefy helium which can provide 3.8 K ~ 4.5 K, 1.8 bar ~ 5 bar, 20 g/s ~ 40 g/s supercritical helium for the coils or a 150 L/h liquefying helium capacity. Other major parts include a large vacuum vessel (3.5 m in diameter and 6.1 m in height) with a liquid nitrogen temperature shield, two pairs of current lead,three sets of 14.5 kA~ 50 kA power supply with a fast dump quench protection circuitry, a data acquisition and control system, a vacuum pumping system, and a gas tightness inspecting devise.The primary goal of the test facility is to test the EAST TF and PF magnets in relation to their electromagnetic, stability, thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical performance. The construction of this facility was completed in 2002, followed by a series of systematic coil testing. By now ten TF magnets, a central solenoid model coil, a central solenoid prototype coil, and a model coil of the PF large coil have been successfully tested in the facility.

  17. The Test Facility for the EAST Superconducting Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Weng, Peide

    2005-08-01

    A large facility for testing superconducting magnets has been in operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since the completion of its construction that began in 1999. A helium refrigerator is used to cool the magnets and liquefy helium which can provide 3.8 K-4.5 K, 1.8 bar-5 bar, 20 g/s-40 g/s supercritical helium for the coils or a 150 L/h liquefying helium capacity. Other major parts include a large vacuum vessel (3.5 m in diameter and 6.1 m in height) with a liquid nitrogen temperature shield, two pairs of current lead, three sets of 14.5 kA-50 kA power supply with a fast dump quench protection circuitry, a data acquisition and control system, a vacuum pumping system, and a gas tightness inspecting devise. The primary goal of the test facility is to test the EAST TF and PF magnets in relation to their electromagnetic, stability, thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical performance. The construction of this facility was completed in 2002, followed by a series of systematic coil testing. By now ten TF magnets, a central solenoid model coil, a central solenoid prototype coil, and a model coil of the PF large coil have been successfully tested in the facility.

  18. Shielding optimization studies for the detector systems of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    Preliminary shielding optimization studies for the Superconducting Super Collider`s Solenoidal Detector Collaboration detector system were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1993. The objective of the study was to reduce the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes leaving the shield to a level that resulted in insignificant effects on the functionality of the detector system. Steel and two types of concrete were considered as components of the shield, and the shield was optimized according to thickness, weight, and cost. Significant differences in the thicknesses, weights, and costs were noted for the three optimization parameters. Results from the study are presented.

  19. Thermal Emittance Measurement of the Cs2Te Photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The thermal emittance of the photocathode is an interesting physical property for the photoinjector, because it decides the minimum emittance the photoinjector can finally achieve. In this paper we will report the latest results of the thermal emittance of the Cs2Te photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF gun. The measurement is performed with solenoid scan method with very low bunch charge and relative large laser spot on cathode, in order to reduce the space charge effect as much as possible, and meanwhile to eliminate the wake fields and the effect from beam halos.

  20. Manufacture and Test of a Small Ceramic-Insulated Nb$_{3}$Sn Split Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Rossi, L; Tommasini, D

    2008-01-01

    A small split solenoid wound with high-Jc Nb3Sn conductor, constituted by a 0.8 mm Rod Re-stack Process (RRP®) strand, was built and tested at CERN in order to study the applicability of: 1) ceramic wet glass braid insulation without epoxy impregnation of the magnet; 2) a new heat treatment devised at CERN and particularly suitable for reacting RRP® Nb3Sn strands. This paper briefly describes the solenoid and the experimental results obtained during 4.4 K and 1.9 K tests. The split solenoid consists of two coils (25 mm inner diameter, 51.1 mm outer diameter, 12.9 mm height). The coils were initially separately tested, in an iron mirror configuration, and then tested together in split solenoid configuration. In all the tests at 4.4 K the coils reached a current higher than 95 % of their short sample limits at the first quench; in split solenoid configuration the maximum field values in the coils and in the aperture were respectively 10.7 T and 12.5 T. At 1.9 K the coils had premature quenches due to self fi...

  1. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  2. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  3. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 216-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Kumaki, M. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  4. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  5. Recent developments on superconducting magnesium diboride wires and tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soltanian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  MgB2 wire and tape were prepared using the powder in tube and reaction in-situ technique. All samples were characterized using the XRD, SEM, TEM, as well as transport and magnetic measurements. High transport and magnetic critical current density values have been obtained for metal-clad wires and tapes. Different sheath materials have been examined, but Fe appears to be the best sheath for MgB2 superconductors. In addition to wires and tapes we also attempt to prepare superconducting coils. Results on transport Jc of solenoid coils up to 100 turns fabricated with Cu-sheathed MgB2 wires using a wind-reaction in-situ technique are reported. The results indicate that the MgB2 wires have potential for large scale applications.

  6. Effect of plasma disruption on superconducting magnet in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junjun, E-mail: lijunjun73@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China); Wang, Qiuliang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Li, Jiangang; Wu, Yu; Qian, Jing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China)

    2013-10-15

    For the safe operation of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with higher plasma performance discharge in future, it is important to study the effect of plasma disruption on central solenoid (CS) coils. The outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils measured in experiment is analyzed. It is found that the outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils caused by plasma disruption cannot be observed in experimental data, because the effect of plasma disruption on outlet of CS coils is a small value, and the discretization error of experimental data is bigger than this value. In addition, the maximum temperature of CS coils during the plasma discharge is simulated by SAITOKPF code, and it appears that the maximum temperature of CS coils increases a little in the plasma disruption, but the temperature rise is a small quantity.

  7. Electrical joints in the CMS superconducting magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Farinon, S; Curé, B; Fabbricatore, P; Greco, Michela; Musenich, R

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The CMS coil consists of five independent modules each containing four winding layers. Each winding layer is composed of a single length of aluminum stabilized and aluminum alloy reinforced conductor. Each of the four conductor lengths within a module will be electrically joined after winding is completed, and each of the five modules will be connected to the magnet bus bars during module assembly. Due to the large dimensions of the conductor and to the high current it carries, the conductor joints are sources of substantial and nontrivial joule heating during nonsteady state operation of the magnet. In addition to steady-state conditions, three transient conditions have been analyzed. The first is related to the current diffusion during a magnet transient that results in a time dep...

  8. The superconducting spin valve and triplet superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, I.A., E-mail: ilgiz_garifullin@yahoo.com [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Leksin, P.V.; Garif' yanov, N.N.; Kamashev, A.A. [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Fominov, Ya.V. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Schumann, J.; Krupskaya, Y.; Kataev, V.; Schmidt, O.G. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Büchner, B. [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    A review of our recent results on the spin valve effect is presented. We have used a theoretically proposed spin switch design F1/F2/S comprising a ferromagnetic bilayer (F1/F2) as a ferromagnetic component, and an ordinary superconductor (S) as the second interface component. Based on it we have prepared and studied in detail a set of multilayers CoO{sub x}/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/S (S=In or Pb). In these heterostructures we have realized for the first time a full spin switch effect for the superconducting current, have observed its sign-changing oscillating behavior as a function of the Fe2-layer thickness and finally have obtained direct evidence for the long-range triplet superconductivity arising due to noncollinearity of the magnetizations of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers. - Highlights: • We studied a spin switch design F1/F2/S. • We prepared a set of multilayers CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/S (S=In or Pb). • The full spin switch effect for the superconducting current was realized. • We observed its oscillating behavior as a function of the Fe2-layer thickness. • We obtained direct evidence for the long-range triplet superconductivity.

  9. Tunneling in superconducting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2010-12-01

    Here we review our results on the breakpoint features in the coupled system of IJJ obtained in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A correspondence between the features in the current voltage characteristics (CVC) and the character of the charge oscillations in superconducting layers is demonstrated. Investigation of the correlations of superconducting currents in neighboring Josephson junctions and the charge correlations in neighboring superconducting layers reproduces the features in the CVC and gives a powerful method for the analysis of the CVC of coupled Josephson junctions. A new method for determination of the dissipation parameter is suggested.

  10. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ``bad metals``, with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described.

  11. Suppression of superconductivity by twin boundaries in FeSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can-Li; Wang, Yi-Lin; Jiang, Ye-Ping; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Chen, Xi; Hoffman, Jennifer E; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2012-09-28

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are employed to investigate twin boundaries in stoichiometric FeSe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Twin boundaries can be unambiguously identified by imaging the 90° change in the orientation of local electronic dimers from Fe site impurities on either side. Twin boundaries run at approximately 45° to the Fe-Fe bond directions, and noticeably suppress the superconducting gap, in contrast with the recent experimental and theoretical findings in other iron pnictides. Furthermore, vortices appear to accumulate on twin boundaries, consistent with the degraded superconductivity there. The variation in superconductivity is likely caused by the increased Se height in the vicinity of twin boundaries, providing the first local evidence for the importance of this height to the mechanism of superconductivity.

  12. A study of ISO Solenoid Valve with static and dynamic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Ju, M. J.; Oh, Y. C. [FAMCO Ltd, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. S. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The technology of ISO Solenoid Valves is now considered as a core technology in the fields of the production line of semi-conductor chips and the ISO fluid chips for medical applications. And ISO Solenoid Valves, which operate by compressed air, are characterized by high speed response, great repeatability and that the pressure on the cross sectional area of poppet is kept constant regardless of the fluctuation of the pressure exerted on the ports. The primary objective of this study is to compare the optimally designed Solenoid Valve with the actually produced one and to design a power saving circuit which can highly improve the efficiency by providing optimal current according to mechanical load.

  13. Application of High-speed Solenoid Valve to the Semi-active Control of Landing Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Gu Hongbin; Chen Dawei

    2008-01-01

    To select or develop an appropriate actuator is one of the key and difficult issues in the study of semi-active controlled landing gear.Performance of the actuator may directly affect the effectiveness of semi-active control.In this article,parallel high-speed solenoid valves are chosen to be the actuators for the semi-active controlled landing gear and being studied.A nonlinear high-speed solenoid valve model is developed with the consideration of magnctic saturation characteristics and verified by test.According to the design rule of keeping the peak load as small as possible while absorbing the specified shock energy,a fuzzy PD control rule is designed.By the rule,controller parameters can be self-regulated.The simulation results indicate that the semi-active control based on high-speed solenoid valve can effectively improve the control performance and reduce impact load during landing.

  14. Variety of molecular conformation of plasmid pUC18 DNA and solenoidally supercoiled DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄熙泰; 王照清; 吴永文; 樊廷玉; 王树荣; 王勖焜

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid pUC18 DNA isolated from Escherichia coli HB101 were analyzed by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and hybridization. The results show that the DNA sample can be separated into six groups of different structural components. The plectonemically and solenoidally supercoiled pUC18 DNA coexist in it. These two different conformations of supercoiled DNA are interchangeable with the circumstances (ionic strength and type, etc.). The amount of solenoidally supercoiled pUC18 DNA in the samples can be changed by treatment of DNA topoisome rases. Under an electron microscope, the solenoidal supercoiling DNA has a round shape with an average diameter of 45 nm. The facts suggest that solenoidaUy supercoiled DNA be a structural entity independent of histones. The polymorphism of DNA structure may be important to packing of DNA in vivo.

  15. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2137 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Horioka, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  16. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  17. GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécz, Zs.; Konoplev, I. V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.

  18. Ferrite-Cored Solenoidal Induction Coil Sensor for BUD (MM-1667)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, F.; Becker, A.; Conti, U.; Gasperikova, E.

    2011-06-15

    We have designed and lab tested a new ferrite cored induction coil sensor for measuring the secondary fields from metallic UXO with the BUD system. The objective was to replace the 5-inch diameter air-cored coils in the BUD system with smaller sensors that would allow the placement of multiple sensors in the smaller package of the new BUD hand-held system. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil of length L can easily be made to have sensitivity and noise level roughly the same as an air-cored coil of a diameter on the same order as L. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil can easily have a feedback configuration to achieve critical damping. The feedback configuration leads to a very stable response. Feedback ferrite-cored solenoidal coils show very little interaction as long as they are separated by one half their length.

  19. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...... MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train....

  20. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  1. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  2. Superconductivity and symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, L.G., E-mail: sarasua@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-02-15

    In the present work we consider the relation between superconductivity and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGBS). We show that ODLRO does not require in principle SBGS, even in the presence of particle number fluctuations, by examining exact solutions of a fermionic pairing model. The criteria become equivalent if a symmetry breaking field is allowed, which can be attributed to the interaction with the environment. However, superconducting states without SBGS are not forbidden.

  3. Photoemission, Correlation and Superconductivity:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Cloëtta, D.; Pavuna, D.; Perfetti, L.; Grioni, M.; Margaritondo, G.

    We review some of the problems still affecting photoemission as a probe of high-temperature superconductivity, as well as important recent results concerning their solution. We show, in particular, some of the first important results on thin epitaxial films grown by laser ablation, which break the monopoly of cleaved BCSCO in this type of experiments. Such results, obtained on thin LSCO, may have general implications on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Design and Comparison of a 1 MW / 5s HTS SMES with Toroidal and Solenoidal Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Antonio; Gholizad, Babak; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frédéric; Zermeño, Víctor M R

    2015-01-01

    The design of a HTS SMES coil with solenoidal and toroidal geometry is carried out based on a commercially available 2G HTS conductor. A SMES system of practical interest (1 MW / 5 s) is considered. The comparison between ideal toroidal and solenoidal geometry is first discussed and the criteria used for choosing the geometrical parameters of the coils' bore are explained. The design of the real coil is then carried out and the final amount of conductor needed is compared. A preliminary comparison of the two coils in terms of AC loss during one charge discharge cycle is also discussed.

  5. ASME XI stroke time testing of solenoid valves at Connecticut Yankee Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company has developed the capability of measuring the stroke times of AC and DC solenoid valves. This allows the station to measure the stroke time of any solenoid valve in the plant, even those valves which do not have valve stem position indicators. Connecticut Yankee has adapted the ITI MOVATS Checkmate 3 system, using a signal input from a Bruel and Kjaer (B&K) Model 4382 acoustic accelerometer and the Schaumberg Campbell Associates (SCA) Model SCA-1148 dual sensor, which is a combined accelerometer and gaussmeter.

  6. Mach Number Dependence of Turbulent Magnetic Field Amplification: Solenoidal versus Compressive Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph; Schober, Jennifer; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S; Schleicher, Dominik R G; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.114504

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth rate and saturation level of the turbulent dynamo in magnetohydrodynamical simulations of turbulence, driven with solenoidal (divergence-free) or compressive (curl-free) forcing. For models with Mach numbers ranging from 0.02 to 20, we find significantly different magnetic field geometries, amplification rates, and saturation levels, decreasing strongly at the transition from subsonic to supersonic flows, due to the development of shocks. Both extreme types of turbulent forcing drive the dynamo, but solenoidal forcing is more efficient, because it produces more vorticity.

  7. Development of a permanent magnet alternative for a solenoidal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.; Fahy, A.; Barr, M. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Jardine, A.; Allison, W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dastoor, P.C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    The most sensitive desktop-sized ionizer utilising electron bombardment is currently the solenoidal ion source. We present an alternate design for such an ion source whereby the solenoidal windings of the electromagnet are replaced by a shaped cylindrical permanent magnet in order to reduce the complexity and running costs of the instrument. Through finite element modelling of the magnetic field in COMSOL and experimental measurements on a small-scale prototype magnet stack, we demonstrate the required shape of the permanent magnet in order to generate the needed field, and the necessity of soft iron collars to smooth fluctuations along the central axis.

  8. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  9. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (˜100 μA) with high charge (˜10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  10. Development of solenoid-induced helical wiggler with four poles per period

    CERN Document Server

    Ohigashi, N; Kiyochi, M; Nakao, N; Fujita, M; Imasaki, K; Nakai, S; Mima, K

    1999-01-01

    A new type of helical wiggler consisting of two staggered-iron arrays inserted into a solenoid field has been developed. The field measured by a test wiggler showed linear increment with the period. It was seen that 24% of the solenoid field contributed to the induced wiggler field when the gap length and the period of the wiggler were 16 and 24 mm, respectively. This wiggler would be useful for an FEL with a low-energy electron beam propagating in a strong axial guiding field.

  11. Development of solenoid-induced helical wiggler with four poles per period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Kiyochi, M.; Nakao, N.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Nakai, S.; Mima, K.

    1999-06-01

    A new type of helical wiggler consisting of two staggered-iron arrays inserted into a solenoid field has been developed. The field measured by a test wiggler showed linear increment with the period. It was seen that 24% of the solenoid field contributed to the induced wiggler field when the gap length and the period of the wiggler were 16 and 24 mm, respectively. This wiggler would be useful for an FEL with a low-energy electron beam propagating in a strong axial guiding field.

  12. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  13. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  14. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozovic, Ivan [Mount Sinai, NY; Logvenov, Gennady [Port Jefferson Station, NY; Gozar, Adrian Mihai [Port Jefferson, NY

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  15. A summary of the Planck constant measurements using a watt balance with a superconducting solenoid at NIST

    CERN Document Server

    Schlamminger, S; Haddad, D; Newell, D B; Seifert, F; Chao, L S; Liu, R; Williams, E R; Pratt, J R

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have been using a watt balance, NIST-3, to measure the Planck constant $h$ for over ten years. Two recently published values disagree by more than one standard uncertainty. The motivation for the present manuscript is twofold. First, we correct the latest published number to take into account a recently discovered systematic error in mass dissemination at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Second, we provide guidance on how to combine the two numbers into one final result. In order to adequately reflect the discrepancy, we added an additional systematic uncertainty to the published uncertainty budgets. The final value of $h$ measured with NIST-3 is $h = 6.626\\,069\\,36(37)\\times 10^{-34}\\,\\mbox{J\\,s}$. This result is $77(57) \\times 10^{-9}$ fractionally higher than $h_{\\mathrm{90}}$. Each number in parentheses gives the value of the standard uncertainty in the last two digits of the respective value and $h_{\\mathrm{90}}$ is th...

  16. The superconducting spin valve and triplet superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garifullin, I. A.; Leksin, P. V.; Garif`yanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Krupskaya, Y.; Kataev, V.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.

    2015-01-01

    A review of our recent results on the spin valve effect is presented. We have used a theoretically proposed spin switch design F1/F2/S comprising a ferromagnetic bilayer (F1/F2) as a ferromagnetic component, and an ordinary superconductor (S) as the second interface component. Based on it we have prepared and studied in detail a set of multilayers CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/S (S=In or Pb). In these heterostructures we have realized for the first time a full spin switch effect for the superconducting current, have observed its sign-changing oscillating behavior as a function of the Fe2-layer thickness and finally have obtained direct evidence for the long-range triplet superconductivity arising due to noncollinearity of the magnetizations of the Fe1 and Fe2 layers.

  17. Double pancake superconducting coil design for maximum magnetic energy storage in small scale SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Hekmati, Rasoul

    2016-12-01

    Electrical power quality and stability is an important issue nowadays and technology of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems, SMES, has brought real power storage capability to power systems. Therefore, optimum SMES design to achieve maximum energy with the least length of tape has been quite a matter of concern. This paper provides an approach to design optimization of solenoid and toroid types of SMES, ensuring maximum possible energy storage. The optimization process, based on Genetic Algorithm, calculates the operating current of superconducting tapes through intersection of a load line with the surface indicating the critical current variation versus the parallel and perpendicular components of magnetic flux density. FLUX3D simulations of SMES have been utilized for energy calculations. Through numerical analysis of obtained data, formulations have been obtained for the optimum dimensions of superconductor coil and maximum stored energy for a given length and cross sectional area of superconductor tape.

  18. Development of a Superconducting Magnet System for the ONR/General Atomics Homopolar Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubel, K. M.; Langhorn, A. R.; Creedon, W. P.; Johanson, N. W.; Sheynin, S.; Thome, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the design, testing and operational experience of a superconducting magnet system presently in use on the Homopolar Motor Program. The homopolar motor is presently being tested at General Atomics in San Diego, California for the U.S Navy Office of Naval Research. The magnet system consists of two identical superconducting solenoid coils housed in two cryostats mounted integrally within the homopolar motor housing. The coils provide the static magnetic field required for motor operation and are wound using NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix. Each magnet is conduction cooled using a Gifford McMahon cryocooler. The coils are in close proximity to the iron motor housing requiring a cold to warm support structure with high stiffness and strength. The design of the coils, cold to warm support structure, cryogenic system, and the overall magnet system design will be described. The test results and operational experience will also be described.

  19. Danish orientalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerlang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth-century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations - Great Britain, France, Germany...

  20. Rotation of the solenoid magnet of the CMS experiment before the insertion into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    At one side of the 27 km ring of the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the 230 tonne solenoid magnet for the CMS experiment has been rotated through 90° prior to insertion into its cryostat - the jacket that will cool the magnet to 4.2 K (-269° C).

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Model-Based Adaptive Control of a Solenoid-Valve System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongBin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear model-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a solenoid-valve system. The challenge is that solenoids and butterfly valves have uncertainties in multiple parameters in the nonlinear model; various kinds of physical appearance such as size and stroke, dynamic parameters including inertia, damping, and torque coefficients, and operational parameters especially, pipe diameters and flow velocities. These uncertainties are making the system not only difficult to adjust to the environment, but also further complicated to develop the appropriate control approach for meeting the system objectives. The main contribution of this research is the application of adaptive control theory and Lyapunov-type stability approach to design a controller for a dynamic model of the solenoid-valve system in the presence of those uncertainties. The control objectives such as set-point regulation, parameter compensation, and stability are supposed to be simultaneously accomplished. The error signals are first formulated based on the nonlinear dynamic models and then the control input is developed using the Lyapunov stability-type analysis to obtain the error bounded while overcoming the uncertainties. The parameter groups are updated by adaptation laws using a projection algorithm. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate good performance of the proposed nonlinear model-based adaptive approach and to compare the performance of the same solenoid-valve system with a non-adaptive method as well.

  2. Impact of detector solenoid on the Compact Linear Collider luminosity performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inntjore Levinsen, Y.; Dalena, B.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2014-05-01

    In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of σy=1 nm vertically and σx=45 nm horizontally. With exceptionally small and flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded due to the combination of the experimental solenoid field and a large crossing angle. The two main effects reducing the luminosity are y-x'-coupling and an increase of vertical dispersion. Additionally, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) from the orbit deflection created by the solenoid field increases the beam emittance and results in unrecoverable luminosity degradation. A novel approach to evaluate the ISR effect from a realistic solenoid field without knowledge of the full compensation of the geometric aberrations is presented. This approach is confirmed by a detailed study of the correction techniques to compensate the beam optics distortions. The unrecoverable luminosity loss due to ISR for CLIC at 3 TeV has been evaluated, and found to be around 4% to 5% for the solenoid design under study.

  3. Compact Muon Solenoid: largest physics experiment to be held in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Atkins, William

    2007-01-01

    "over the last fifteen years about 2'300 engineers and scientists from over 150 scientific institutions in 37 countries around the world have worked together to design and build a gigantic general-purpose particle detector, what is called the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS)." (1 page)

  4. Experiments with a double solenoid system: Measurements of the 6He + p Resonant Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampa Condori R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent experiment has been performed in the double solenoid system Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil (RIBRAS by impinging a pure 6He secondary beam on a thick CH2 target to measure the 6He + p excitation function. Results of this experiment will be presented.

  5. The homoclinic and heteroclinic C*-algebra of a generalized one-dimensional solenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    D. Ruelle and I. Putnam have constructed three C*-algebras from the homoclinic and heteroclinic structure of a Smale space. This paper gives gives a complete description of these algebras when the Smale space is one of the generalized one-dimensional solenoids studied by R. Williams and I. Yi....

  6. Impact of detector solenoid on the Compact Linear Collider luminosity performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Inntjore Levinsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of σ_{y}=1  nm vertically and σ_{x}=45  nm horizontally. With exceptionally small and flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded due to the combination of the experimental solenoid field and a large crossing angle. The two main effects reducing the luminosity are y-x^{′}-coupling and an increase of vertical dispersion. Additionally, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR from the orbit deflection created by the solenoid field increases the beam emittance and results in unrecoverable luminosity degradation. A novel approach to evaluate the ISR effect from a realistic solenoid field without knowledge of the full compensation of the geometric aberrations is presented. This approach is confirmed by a detailed study of the correction techniques to compensate the beam optics distortions. The unrecoverable luminosity loss due to ISR for CLIC at 3 TeV has been evaluated, and found to be around 4% to 5% for the solenoid design under study.

  7. The Magnetic Field inside a Long Solenoid--A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David; Carlton, Kevin; Lisgarten, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a technique for measuring the magnetic field inside a long solenoid using computer data logging. This is a new approach to a standard student practical. The design and construction of the sensors is described; they significantly reduce the cost of the apparatus. The approach of the practical is for the students to…

  8. Investigation, development and verification of printed circuit board embedded air-core solenoid transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf

    2015-01-01

    A new printed circuit board embedded air-core transformer/coupled inductor is proposed and presented. The transformer is intended for use in power converter applications operating at very high frequency between 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The transformer is based on two or more solenoid structures...

  9. Nanoscience and Engineering in Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Lang, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    For emerging energy saving technologies, superconducting materials with superior performance are needed. Such materials can be developed by manipulating the 'elementary building blocks' through nanostructuring. For superconductivity the 'elementary blocks' are Cooper pair and fluxon (vortex). This book presents new ways how to modify superconductivity and vortex matter through nanostructuring and the use of nanoscale magnetic templates. The basic nano-effects, vortex and vortex-antivortex patterns, vortex dynamics, Josephson phenomena, critical currents, and interplay between superconductivity

  10. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  11. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  12. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  13. More superconductivity questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A L

    1987-07-17

    Although making liquid nitrogen-temperature superconductors is easy enough that high school science projects already feature them, researchers still have little idea how the new ceramic oxides work and therefore little guidance for improving them. At the International Workshop on Novel Mechanisms of Superconductivity, held from 22 to 26 June in Berkeley, California, theorists reviewed a host of competing explanations of how these materials come by their remarkable properties, but they could not, get far in sifting through the candidates for the best one. One cause of the unsettled situation is that theorists have not yet pushed their models far enough to make many specific predictions about physical properties and therefore to provide a reason to choose one theory over another. But experimental data for comparison with theory are lacking, too. For example, experimentalists are just now succeeding in being able to grow single crystals and thin films of the ceramic oxide superconductors, whose properties were shown at the workshop to be highly anisotropic. Measurements already made on the polycrystalline sintered material available up to now are difficult to interpret and therefore need to be repeated on good-quality crystals and films, where the variation of properties with crystallographic orientation can be mapped out. Given the high level of Japanese activity in the field, it was surprising that no researchers from industrial laboratories in Japan presented their findings at the workshop. In the light of a budding international competition in commercializing superconductors, some American scientists interpreted the absence as an attempt to protect proprietary advances. A more pleasant surprise was the attendance of a delegation of six Soviet scientists, although one of the fathers of superconductivity theory, Vitaly Ginzburg of the P.N.Lebedev Institute of Physics in Moscow, who was expected, did not come.

  14. Failed theories of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalian, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Almost half a century passed between the discovery of superconductivity by Kammerlingh Onnes and the theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer. During the intervening years the brightest minds in theoretical physics tried and failed to develop a microscopic understanding of the effect. A summary of some of those unsuccessful attempts to understand superconductivity not only demonstrates the extraordinary achievement made by formulating the BCS theory, but also illustrates that mistakes are a natural and healthy part of the scientific discourse, and that inapplicable, even incorrect theories can turn out to be interesting and inspiring.

  15. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  16. Fingerprints of Mott Superconductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强华

    2003-01-01

    We improve a previous theory of doped Mott insulators with duality between pairing and magnetism by a further duality transform. As the result we obtained a quantum Ginzburg-Landau theory describing the Cooper pair condensate and the dual of spin condensate. We address the superconductivity by doping a Mott insulator,which we call the Mott superconductivity. Some fingerprints of such novelty in cuprates are the scaling between neutron resonance energy and superfluid density, and the induced quantized spin moment by vortices or Zn impurity (together with circulating charge super-current to be checked by experiments).

  17. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  18. Design for a superconducting niobium RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a design for a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 192 Mhz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling cost for fabrication with niobium. Results of MAFIA numerical modeling, measurements on a copper model, and plans for a beam test are discussed.

  19. Construction of a superconducting RFQ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kennedy, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Crandall, K.R. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the design and construction status of a niobium superconducting RFQ operating at 194 MHz. The structure is of the rod and post type, novel in that each of four rods is supported by two posts oriented radially with respect to the beam axis. Although the geometry has four-fold rotation symmetry, the dipole-quadrupole mode splitting is large, giving good mechanical tolerances. The simplicity of the geometry enables designing for good mechanical stability while minimizing tooling costs for fabrication with niobium. Design details of a prototype niobium resonator, results of measurements on room temperature models, and construction status are discussed.

  20. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  1. Superconducting spin-triplet-MRAM with infinite magnetoresistance ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Daniel; Ullrich, Aladin; Obermeier, Guenter; Mueller, Claus; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zdravkov, Vladimir I. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9A, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Sidorenko, Anatoli S. [D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Academiei Str. 3/3, MD2028 Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar R. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86159 Augsburg (Germany); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated a nanolayered hybrid superconductor-ferromagnet spin-valve structure, i.e. the superconducting transition temperature of this structure depends on its magnetic history. The observed spin-valve effect is based on the generation of the long range odd in frequency triplet component, arising from a non-collinear relative orientation of the constituent ferromagnetic layers. We investigated the effect both as a function of the sweep amplitude of the magnetic field, determining the magnetic history, and the applied transport current. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility of switching the system from the normal o the superconducting state by applying field pulses, yielding an infinite magnetoresistance ratio.

  2. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a solenoid system to generate magnetic field for an ECR proton source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Jain; P A Naik; P R Hannurkar

    2010-08-01

    Solenoid coils with iron jacket (electromagnets) have been designed and developed for generation and confinement of the plasma produced by an electron cyclotron resonance source operating at 2450 MHz frequency. The magnetic field configurations designed using the solenoid coils are off-resonance, mirror, and flat, satisfying electron cyclotron resonance condition along the axis of the plasma chamber. 2D Poisson software was used for designing. Details of design, fabrication, and magnetic field mapping of the solenoid coils are presented in this paper.

  3. Explicit Representation of Roots on -Adic Solenoids and Non-Uniqueness of Embeddability into Rational One-Parameter Subgroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter Becker-Kern

    2007-11-01

    This note generalizes known results concerning the existence of roots and embedding one-parameter subgroups on -adic solenoids. An explicit representation of the roots leads to the construction of two distinct rational embedding one-parameter subgroups. The results contribute to enlighten the group structure of solenoids and to point out difficulties arising in the context of the embedding problem in probability theory. As a consequence, the uniqueness of embedding of infinitely divisible probability measures on -adic solenoids is solved under a certain natural condition.

  4. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  5. Spin-orbit-coupled superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Di; Liang, C-T

    2014-06-25

    Superconductivity and spin-orbit (SO) interaction have been two separate emerging fields until very recently that the correlation between them seemed to be observed. However, previous experiments concerning SO coupling are performed far beyond the superconducting state and thus a direct demonstration of how SO coupling affects superconductivity remains elusive. Here we investigate the SO coupling in the critical region of superconducting transition on Al nanofilms, in which the strength of disorder and spin relaxation by SO coupling are changed by varying the film thickness. At temperatures T sufficiently above the superconducting critical temperature T(c), clear signature of SO coupling reveals itself in showing a magneto-resistivity peak. When T superconductivity. By studying such magneto-resistivity peaks under different strength of spin relaxation, we highlight the important effects of SO interaction on superconductivity.

  6. Superconducting cyclotrons at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, H. G.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the status of the three superconducting cyclotrons which are in operation or under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The oldest of these, the K500, has been in operation since September 1982 supporting a national user program in heavy ion nuclear physics. A second large research cyclotron, the K800, is now nearing completion. This cyclotron will accelerate lighter heavy ions to 200 MeV/nuc and heavier particles up to energies given by 1200 Q2/ A MeV/nucleon. The magnet for this cyclotron came into operation in May 1984 and has performed smoothly and reliably in three extended operating periods. At present, K800 construction activity centers on fabrication and installation of the rf system, the extraction system, and the ECR injection line. The third NSCL superconducting cyclotron is a smaller 50 MeV deuteron cyclotron to be used for neutron therapy in the radiation oncology center of a major Detroit hospital (Harper Hospital). Design features of this small, application oriented, cyclotron are described in some detail.

  7. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  8. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    of Nb/Al- Nx /NbTiN junctions for SIS mixer applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconduct., vol. 11, pp. 76–79, Mar. 2001. [48] M. Gurvitch, W. A...Another connector developed by IBM for commercial applications using a dendritic interposer technology. A “beam-on-pad” approach developed by Siemens

  9. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  10. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  11. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  12. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  13. LHC Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Jean Leyder

    2000-01-01

    The LHC is the next step in CERN's quest to unravel the mysteries of the Universe. It will accelerate protons to energies never before achieved in laboratories, and to hold them on course it will use powerful superconducting magnets on an unprecedented scale.

  14. Coupled superconducting flux qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantenberg, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents results of theoretical and experimental work on superconducting persistent-current quantum bits. These qubits offer an attractive route towards scalable solid-state quantum computing. The focus of this work is on the gradiometer flux qubit which has a special geometric design, t

  15. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  16. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  17. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Esposito, E.; Lisitskyi, M. P.; Nappi, C.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.

    2006-03-01

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

  18. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, R [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Ejrnaes, M [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Naples (Italy); Esposito, E [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Lisitskyi, M P [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Nappi, C [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Pagano, S [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Perez de Lara, D [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

  19. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  20. Superconducting doped topological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi, E-mail: sasaki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mizushima, Takeshi, E-mail: mizushima@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Studies on both normal- and SC-state properties of doped topological materials. • Odd-parity pairing systems with the time-reversal-invariance. • Robust superconductivity in the presence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering. • We propose experiments to identify the existence of Majorana fermions in these SCs. - Abstract: Recently, the search for Majorana fermions (MFs) has become one of the most important and exciting issues in condensed matter physics since such an exotic quasiparticle is expected to potentially give rise to unprecedented quantum phenomena whose functional properties will be used to develop future quantum technology. Theoretically, the MFs may reside in various types of topological superconductor materials that is characterized by the topologically protected gapless surface state which are essentially an Andreev bound state. Superconducting doped topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators are promising candidates to harbor the MFs. In this review, we discuss recent progress and understanding on the research of MFs based on time-reversal-invariant superconducting topological materials to deepen our understanding and have a better outlook on both the search for and realization of MFs in these systems. We also discuss some advantages of these bulk systems to realize MFs including remarkable superconducting robustness against nonmagnetic impurities.

  1. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2012-01-01

    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  2. Coupled superconducting flux qubits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantenberg, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents results of theoretical and experimental work on superconducting persistent-current quantum bits. These qubits offer an attractive route towards scalable solid-state quantum computing. The focus of this work is on the gradiometer flux qubit which has a special geometric design, t

  3. Applications of Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Presents a general review of current practical applications of the properties of superconducters. The devices are classified into groups according to the property that is of primary importance. The article is inteded as a first introduction for students and professionals. (Author/DS)

  4. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  5. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  6. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  7. Development of a persistent superconducting joint between Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilamentary round wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Davis, Daniel S.; Bosque, Ernesto S.; Hilton, David K.; Kim, Youngjae; Abraimov, Dmytro V.; Starch, William L.; Jiang, Jianyi; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting joints are one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high-field, high-homogeneity magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance magnets in which persistent current mode operation is highly desired. In this study, a procedure for fabricating superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RWs during coil reaction was developed. Melting temperatures of Bi-2212 powder with different amounts of Ag addition were investigated by differential thermal analysis so as to provide information for selecting the proper joint matrix. Test joints of 1.3 mm dia. wires heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen using the typical partial melt Bi-2212 heat treatment (HT) had transport critical currents I c of ˜900 A at 4.2 K and self-field, decreasing to ˜480 A at 14 T evaluated at 0.1 μV cm-1 at 4.2 K. Compared to the I c of the open-ended short conductor samples with identical 1 bar HT, the I c values of the superconducting joint are ˜20% smaller than that of conductor samples measured in parallel field but ˜20% larger than conductor samples measured in perpendicular field. Microstructures examined by scanning electron microscopy clearly showed the formation of a superconducting Bi-2212 interface between the two Bi-2212 RWs. Furthermore, a Bi-2212 RW closed-loop solenoid with a superconducting joint heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen showed an estimated joint resistance below 5 × 10-12 Ω based on its field decay rate. This value is sufficiently low to demonstrate the potential for persistent operation of large inductance Bi-2212 coils.

  8. RIKEN超导ECR离子源磁体系统的设计%Design of Magnet System for RIKEN Superconducting ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Ohnishi; T.Nakagawa; Y.Higurashi; M.Kidera; H.Saito; A.Goto

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting magnet system for a 28GHz ECR ion source has been designed.The maximum axial magnetic fields are 4T at the rf injection side and 2T at the beam extraction side,respectively.The hexapole magnetic field is about 2T on the inner surface of the plasma chamber.The superconducting coils consist of six solenoids and six racetrack windings for a hexapole field.Two kinds of coil arrangements were investigated:one is an arrangement in which the hexpole coil is located in the bore of the solenoids,and another is the reverse of it.The coils use NbTi-Copper conductor and are bath-cooled in liquid helium.The six solenoids are excited with individual power supplies to search for the optimal axial field distribution.The current leads use high Tc material and the cryogenic system is operated in LHe re-condensation mode using small refrigerators.The thermal insulated supports of the cold mass have also been designed based on the calculated results of the magnetic force.The heat loads to 70K and LHe stages were estimated from the design of the supports,the current leads and so on.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of Tcs measurement in conductor 1A of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil using the M&M code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2000-08-01

    We present a first study of current sharing temperature ( Tcs) tests performed over the last few months in the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiment at JAERI, Naka, Japan. The CSMC is a superconducting magnet, layer-wound two-in-hand using 18 layers of Nb 3Sn two-channel cable-in-conduit conductors, which very recently reached a record 13 T at 46 kA DC operation. Here we apply the multi-conductor Mithrandir (M&M) code to a selected set of shots with different transport currents (30, 40, and 46 kA) and we concentrate on conductor 1A on the innermost (i.e., with highest magnetic field) layer. In the test, resistive heaters located upstream of layers 1 and 2 are used to progressively and quasi-steadily increase the supercritical helium inlet temperature in the coil. The Tcs is reached when a threshold of 0.5 mV resistive voltage is measured across the coil, after which the heaters are turned off and the coil current is dumped. Computed results are compared with experimental data, showing good agreement in the inlet and outlet temperatures of all four heated conductors, both as Tcs is reached (30, 40 kA) and during the whole hour-long transient from nominal conditions to Tcs reached (46 kA).

  10. Study of thermosiphon cooling scheme for the production solenoid of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, N.; Kashikhin, V.; Peterson, T.; Pronskikh, V.; Nicol, T.

    2014-01-01

    A thermosiphon cooling scheme is envisioned for the Production Solenoid of the Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The thermosiphon cooling is achieved by indirect cooling with helium at 4.7 K. The siphon tubes are welded to the solenoid outer structure. The anticipated heat loads in the solenoid is presented as well as the cooling scheme design. A thermal model using ANSYS to simulate the temperature gradient is presented. The thermal analysis also makes provisions for including the heat load generated in the coils and structures by the secondary radiation simulated using the MARS 15 code. The impact of the heat loads from supports on the solenoid cooling is studied. The thermosiphon cooling scheme is also validated using pertinent correlations to study flow reversals and the cooling regime.

  11. On the solenoidal heat-flux in quasi-ballistic thermal conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ashok T.; Bowers, John E.

    2015-09-01

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely, the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise by applying the heat-flux equation to a right-circular cylinder. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature.

  12. On The Solenoidal Heat Flux in Quasi-Ballistic Thermal Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ashok; Bowers, John

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise in a right-circular cylinder when the transport is in the quasi-ballistic regime. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature. Effects due to circulating heat fluxes are noted in the effective thermal conductivity of silicon discs. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, USA under Project Number CMMI-1363207.

  13. The heat kernel for two Aharonov-Bohm solenoids in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šťovíček, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    A non-relativistic quantum model is considered with a point particle carrying a charge e and moving in the plane pierced by two infinitesimally thin Aharonov-Bohm solenoids and subjected to a perpendicular uniform magnetic field of magnitude B. Relying on a technique originally due to Schulman, Laidlaw and DeWitt which is applicable to Schrödinger operators on multiply connected configuration manifolds a formula is derived for the corresponding heat kernel. As an application of the heat kernel formula, approximate asymptotic expressions are derived for the lowest eigenvalue lying above the first Landau level and for the corresponding eigenfunction while assuming that | eB | R2 /(ħ c) is large, where R is the distance between the two solenoids.

  14. Performance Characterization of a Solenoid-type Gas Valve for the H- Magnetron Source at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, A. [Fermilab; Bollinger, D. S. [Fermilab; Karns, P. R. [Fermilab

    2016-09-06

    The magnetron-style H- ion sources currently in operation at Fermilab use piezoelectric gas valves to function. This kind of gas valve is sensitive to small changes in ambient temperature, which affect the stability and performance of the ion source. This motivates the need to find an alternative way of feeding H2 gas into the source. A solenoid-type gas valve has been characterized in a dedicated off-line test stand to assess the feasibility of its use in the operational ion sources. H- ion beams have been extracted at 35 keV using this valve. In this study, the performance of the solenoid gas valve has been characterized measuring the beam current output of the magnetron source with respect to the voltage and pulse width of the signal applied to the gas valve.

  15. Magnetic Field, Force, and Inductance Computations for an Axially Symmetric Solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Immer, Christopher D.; Simpson, James C.

    2001-01-01

    The pumping of liquid oxygen (LOX) by magnetic fields (B field), using an array of electromagnets, is a current topic of research and development at Kennedy Space Center, FL. Oxygen is paramagnetic so that LOX, like a ferrofluid, can be forced in the direction of a B field gradient. It is well known that liquid oxygen has a sufficient magnetic susceptibility that a strong magnetic gradient can lift it in the earth's gravitational field. It has been proposed that this phenomenon can be utilized in transporting (i.e., pumping) LOX not only on earth, but on Mars and in the weightlessness of space. In order to design and evaluate such a magnetic pumping system, it is essential to compute the magnetic and force fields, as well as inductance, of various types of electromagnets (solenoids). In this application, it is assumed that the solenoids are air wrapped, and that the current is essentially time independent.

  16. Spin flipping a stored vertically polarized proton beam with an RF solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, R. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Courant, E. D.; Crandell, D. A.; Kaufman, W. A.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Ratner, L. G.; Wong, V. K.; Caussyn, D. D.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Ellison, T. J. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; Przewoski, B. von; Ohmori, C.

    1995-09-01

    A recent experiment in the IUCF cooler ring studied the spin flip of a stored vertically polarized 139 MeV proton beam. This spin flip was accomplished by using an RF solenoid to induce an artificial depolarizing resonance in the ring, and then varying the solenoid's frequency through this resonance value to induce spin flip. We found a polarization loss after multiple spin flips of about 0.00±0.05% per flip and also losses for very long flip times. This device will be useful for reducing systematic errors in polarized beam-internal target scattering asymmetry experiments by enabling experimenters to perform frequent beam polarization reversals in the course of the experiment.

  17. Effect Of The LEBT Solenoid Magnetic Field On The Beam Generation For Particle Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmohammadi Satri, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 for upgrade of the LHC injectors with higher intensity and eventually an increase of the LHC luminosity. Linac4 structure is a source, a 45 keV low energy beam transport line (LEBT) with two solenoids, a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a Medium Energy Beam Transport line (MEBT), a 50 Mev DTL, a 100 Mev CCDTL and PIMS up to 160 Mev. We use Travel v4.07 and PathManager code for simulation. Firstly, we need to a file as a source and defining the beginning point (last point in tracking back) of simulation. We recognise the starting point base on the solenoid magnetic property of LEBT.

  18. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  19. Construction of the Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) at Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacob; Bardayan, Dan; Blankstein, Drew; Hall, Matthew; Hall, Oscar; Kolata, James; O'Malley, Patrick; Becchetti, Frederick; Blackmon, Jeffery; Pain, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The study of nucleon transfer reactions gives information about many nuclei involved in astrophysical processes. The design and use of new detector systems improves our ability to accurately characterize these nuclei. The Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) is a new helical orbit spectrometer being designed at the University of Notre Dame to study transfer reactions with high-energy light ion beams from the FN tandem accelerator. SSNAP incorporates a series of position-sensitive silicon detectors to be set on-axis inside the second TwinSol solenoid. SSNAP will be sensitive to light ions produced in different reactions and the charged-particle decay products from the exotic nuclei produced. Results of initial testing and future plans with this detector system will be shown in this presentation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.

  20. Beam Dynamics Based Design of Solenoid Channel for TAC Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kisoglu, H F

    2014-01-01

    Today a linear particle accelerator (linac), in which electric and magnetic fields are of vital importance, is one of the popular energy generation sources like Accelerator Driven System (ADS). A multipurpose, including primarily ADS, proton linac with energy of ~2 GeV is planned to constitute within the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project collaborated by more than 10 Turkish universities. A Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) channel with two solenoids is a subcomponent of this linac. It transports the proton beam ejected by an ion source, and matches it with the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) that is an important part of the linac. The LEBT channel would be consisted of two focusing solenoids and some diagnostic elements such as faraday cup, BC transformers, etc. This paper includes a beam dynamical design and optimization study of LEBT channel for TAC proton linac done by using a beam dynamics simulation code PATH MANAGER and comparing of the simulation results with the theoretical expectations.

  1. Circularly Inclined Solenoid Channel for 6D Ionization Cooling of Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexahin, Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Ionization cooling is essential for realization of Muon Collider, muons beam based neutrino factories and other experiments involving muons. The simplest structure - absorber(s) immersed in alternating solenoidal magnetic field - provides only transverse cooling since the longitudinal motion in the most suitable momentum range (2-300MeV/c) is naturally anti-damped. To overcome this difficulty it is proposed to periodically tilt solenoids so that a rotating transverse magnetic field was created. By choosing the phase advance per period above a multiple of 2{pi} it is possible to ensure that muons with higher momentum make a longer path in the absorber (whether distributed or localized) thus providing longitudinal damping. Basic theory of such channel and results of tracking simulations are presented.

  2. Requirements for qualification of manufacture of the ITER Central Solenoid and Correction Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libeyre, Paul, E-mail: paul.libeyre@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Li, Hongwei [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Reiersen, Wayne [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dolgetta, Nello; Jong, Cornelis; Lyraud, Charles; Mitchell, Neil; Laurenti, Adamo [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Sgobba, Stefano [CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Turck, Bernard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Martovetsky, Nicolai; Everitt, David; Freudenberg, K.; Litherland, Steve; Rosenblad, Peter [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Smith, John; Spitzer, Jeff [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wei, Jing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Fang, Chao [ASIPP, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A manufacturing line is installed for the ITER Correction Coils. • A manufacturing line is under installation for the ITER Central Solenoid. • Qualification of the manufacturing procedures has started for both manufacturing lines and acceptance criteria set. • Winding procedure of Correction Coils is qualified. - Abstract: The manufacturing line of the ITER Correction Coils (CC) at ASIPP in Hefei (China) was completed in 2013 and the manufacturing line of the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) modules is under installation at General Atomic premises in Poway (USA). In both cases, before starting production of the first coils, qualification of the manufacturing procedures is achieved by the construction of a set of mock-ups and prototypes to demonstrate that design requirements defined by the ITER Organization are effectively met. For each qualification item, the corresponding mock-ups are presented with the tests to be performed and the related acceptance criteria. The first qualification results are discussed.

  3. Towards maintenance-free SOVs (solenoid operated valves). [For nuclear power plant use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, R. (Valcor Engineering Corp., Springfield, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Because most solenoid operated valves (SOVs) are being used in vital safety related systems in nuclear power plants, they must be shown to perform satisfactorily over 40 years of normal service plus one year into post-LOCA. Current practice in SOV design and manufacture, as described here, aims to minimize the need for maintenance and to make it simpler when it is necessary. (author).

  4. View through the CMS detector during the cooldown of the solenoid on February 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon, UC Davis

    2006-01-01

    Image looking along the beam direction through CMS. One can see, from the inside out: the patch panels and cables for the Preshower and ECAL; the front of the endcap HCAL; some cathode strip chambers (CSCs) for detecting muons; the sealed solenoid (the first circular silver-coloured ring) currently being cooled to operating temperature and held by the central barrel yoke ring (red and orange); one of the other barrel yoke rings installed with many muon chambers (silver rectangular boxes).

  5. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.P. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Briggs, R.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable {open_quotes}Integrated Research Experiment{close_quotes} (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, {open_quotes}the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenology{close_quotes}. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well.

  6. Optimal Design on the Magnetic Field of the High-speed Response Solenoid Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As an integrated control unit that directly transfo rm s digital electric signals into analogy hydraulic signals, High-speed response solenoid valve (HSV) plays an important role in determining an electro-hydrauli c automatic system's overall performance. In the process of designing an HSV, o ne should well understand that various soft magnetic material properties and geo metries greatly affect HSV's magnetic field design that accordingly has a direc t influence on HSV's electric performance. As an approac...

  7. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on Disrupted Beam in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprek, Dragan; /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    This paper presents calculations of detector solenoid effects on disrupted primary beam in the ILC 14 mrad extraction line. Particle tracking simulations are performed for evaluation of primary beam loss along the line as well as of beam distribution and polarization at Compton Interaction Point. The calculations are done both without and with solenoid compensation. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

  8. Finite Element Analysis on the Pre-load Structures of the Central Solenoid for the HT-7U Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The central solenoid is an important part of the HT-7U device. In this paper, the computational analysis of the stress and the displacement on the pre-load structures of the central solenoid have been made by the finite element analysis system COSMOS/M2.0 under room and/or operating temperature. According to the analytical results, the clip aprons and compression plates are all satisfied with safety design criteria.

  9. Coherent and semiclassical states in magnetic field in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Gitman, D M; Filho, D P Meira

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to constructing coherent states (CS) and semiclassical states (SS) in magnetic-solenoid field is proposed. The main idea is based on the fact that the AB solenoid breaks the translational symmetry in the xy-plane, this has a topological effect such that there appear two types of trajectories which embrace and do not embrace the solenoid. Due to this fact, one has to construct two different kinds of CS/SS, which correspond to such trajectories in the semiclassical limit. Following this idea, we construct CS in two steps, first the instantaneous CS (ICS) and the time dependent CS/SS as an evolution of the ICS. The construction is realized for nonrelativistic and relativistic, spinning and spinless particles both in (2+1)- and (3+1)- dimensions and gives a non-trivial example of SS/CS for systems with a nonquadratic Hamiltonian. It is stressed that CS depending on their parameters (quantum numbers) describe both pure quantum and semiclassical states. An analysis is represented that classifies para...

  10. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.

  11. A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-08-08

    Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.

  12. A nonintrusive method for measuring the operating temperature of a solenoid-operated valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, Robert C.

    Experimental data are presented to show that the in-service operating temperature of a solenoid operated valve (SOV) can be inferred simply and nondisruptively by using the copper winding of the solenoid coil as a self-indicating, permanently available resistance thermometer. The principal merits of this approach include: (1) there is no need for an add-on temperature sensor, (2) the true temperature of a critical and likely the hottest, part of the SOV (namely, the electrical coil) is measured directly, (3) temperature readout can be provided at any location at which the SOV electrical lead wires are accessible (even though remote from the valve), (4) the SOV need not be disturbed (whether normally energized or deenergized) to measure its temperature in situ, and (5) the method is applicable to all types of SOVs, large and small, ac- and dc-powered. Laboratory tests comparing temperatures measured both by coil resistance and by a conventional thermometer placed in contact with the external surface of the potted solenoid coil indicate that temperature within the coil may be on the order of 40 C higher than that measured externally, a fact that is important to life-expectancy calculations made on the basis of Arrhenius theory. Field practicality is illustrated with temperature measurements made using this method on a SOV controlling the flow of refrigerant in a large chilled-water air-conditioning system.

  13. Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harres, K.; Alber, I.; Tauschwitz, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Daido, H.; Günther, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Otten, A.; Schollmeier, M.; Schütrumpf, J.; Tampo, M.; Roth, M.

    2010-02-01

    This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 1012 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  14. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...

  15. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  16. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  17. Superconducting switch pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Wollan, J.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a superconducting switch pack at least one switch element. The switch element including a length of superconductive wire having a switching portion and two lead portions, the switching portion being between the lead portions; means for supporting the switching portion in a plane in a common mold; hardened resin means encapsulating the switching portion in the plane in a solid body; wherein the solid body has an exterior surface which is planar and substantially parallel with and spaced apart from the plane in which the switching portion is positioned. The exterior surface being exposed to the exterior of the switch pack and the resin means filling the space between the exterior surface and the plane of the switching portion so as to provide uninterrupted thermal communication between the plane of the switching portion and the exterior of the switch pack; and a heater element in thermal contact with the switching portion.

  18. Tunable superconducting nanoinductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Anthony J; Santavicca, Daniel F; Frunzio, Luigi; Rooks, Michael J; Prober, Daniel E [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Catelani, Gianluigi [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Frydman, Aviad, E-mail: anthony.annunziata@yale.edu, E-mail: daniel.prober@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2010-11-05

    We characterize inductors fabricated from ultra-thin, approximately 100 nm wide strips of niobium (Nb) and niobium nitride (NbN). These nanowires have a large kinetic inductance in the superconducting state. The kinetic inductance scales linearly with the nanowire length, with a typical value of 1 nH {mu}m{sup -1} for NbN and 44 pH {mu}m{sup -1} for Nb at a temperature of 2.5 K. We measure the temperature and current dependence of the kinetic inductance and compare our results to theoretical predictions. We also simulate the self-resonant frequencies of these nanowires in a compact meander geometry. These nanowire inductive elements have applications in a variety of microwave frequency superconducting circuits.

  19. Time ripe for superconductivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsh

    2002-04-01

    But there is a crucial deadline and failure to meet it could send superconductivity back to the commercial shadows (at least outside the medical and scientific niches where it is a key enabler in analytical instruments, magnetic resonance imaging, and particle accelerators for another 30 years. Later this decade, the vintage infrastructure of dense copper conductors that supports power distribution in developed countries, in particular in the US, will become due for renewal. (Recent power problems in California were largely those of distribution infrastructure. At the same time, boosting capacity to serve the needs of increasingly affluent populations will pose a challenge. Superconductivity could provide the answer — if the technology matures in time and cost targets are met.

  20. Relativistic Model for two-band Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohsaku, Tadafumi

    2003-01-01

    To understand the superconductivity in MgB2, several two-band models of superconductivity were proposed. In this paper, by using the relativistic fermion model, we clearize the effect of the lower band in the superconductivity.

  1. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  2. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenicke, A.F.

    2008-01-25

    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  3. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  4. Conclusions from 12 Years Operational Experience of the Cryoplants for the Superconducting Magnets of the LEP Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, K; Delikaris, D; Passardi, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) has ended its last physics run in November 2000, and it is at present being dismantled to liberate the tunnel for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project to be completed by end of 2005. The cryogenic systems for the superconducting solenoid and focusing quadrupoles for the two LEP experiments, ALEPH and DELPHI, each supplying a cooling power of 800 W/4.5 K entropy equivalent, have accumulated more then 100'000 hours of running time. The paper summarises the 12 years cryogenic experience in the various operating modes: cool-down, steady state, recovery after energy fast dump, utilities failures and warm-up of the superconducting magnets. The detailed operation statistics is presented and compared to the other CERN cryogenic systems. Emphasis is given to the technical analysis of the fault conditions and of their consequences on the helium refrigeration production time in view of the future operation of the LHC cryogenics.

  5. Silicon superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, J. E.; Francheteau, A.; Marcenat, C.; Lefloch, F., E-mail: francois.lefloch@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA - INAC - SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Chiodi, F.; Débarre, D. [Université Paris-sud, CNRS - IEF, F-91405 Orsay - France (France); Hasselbach, K. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS - Inst. Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Kirtley, J. R. [Center for probing at nanoscale, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305-4045 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We have studied a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) made from a single layer thin film of superconducting silicon. The superconducting layer is obtained by heavily doping a silicon wafer with boron atoms using the gas immersion laser doping technique. The SQUID is composed of two nano-bridges (Dayem bridges) in a loop and shows magnetic flux modulation at low temperature and low magnetic field. The overall behavior shows very good agreement with numerical simulations based on the Ginzburg-Landau equations.

  6. Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer (SQOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-05

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The SQOT (Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer ) project proposes to build a novel electro-optic system which can...Apr-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: "Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer " (SQOT) The views, opinions and...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: "Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer " (SQOT) Report Title The

  7. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, V; Cirillo, M; Lucci, M; Ottaviani, I; Scherillo, A; Celentano, G; Pietropaolo, A

    2014-01-01

    A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the supercond...

  8. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  9. US Navy superconductivity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1991-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of the Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion) use LTS materials while space applications (millimeter wave electronics) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment to be conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity.

  10. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  11. Studies to Enhance Superconductivity in Thin Film Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin; Brunke, Lyle; Burke, Jack; Vier, David; Steckl, Andrew; Haugan, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    With research in the area of superconductivity growing, it is no surprise that new efforts are being made to induce superconductivity or increase transition temperatures (Tc) in carbon given its many allotropic forms. Promising results have been published for boron doping in diamond films, and phosphorus doping in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) films show hints of superconductivity.. Following these examples in the literature, we have begun studies to explore superconductivity in thin film carbon samples doped with different elements. Carbon thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous SiO2/Si and single-crystal substrates. Doping is achieved by depositing from (C1-xMx) single-targets with M = B4C and BN, and also by ion implantation into pure-carbon films. Previous research had indicated that Boron in HOPG did not elicit superconducting properties, but we aim to explore that also in thin film carbon and see if there needs to be a higher doping in the sample if trends were able to be seen in diamond films. Higher onset temperatures, Tc , and current densities, Jc, are hoped to be achieved with doping of the thin film carbon with different elements.

  12. Route to topological superconductivity via magnetic field rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loder, Florian; Kampf, Arno P.; Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Apart from the very few spin-triplet superconductors with p-wave pairing symmetry, a candidate system for topological superconductivity is a conventional, two-dimensional s-wave superconductor in a magnetic field with a sufficiently strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Typically, the required magnetic field to convert the superconductor into a topologically non-trivial state is however by far larger than the upper critical field H{sub c2}, which excludes its realization. Here we argue that this problem is overcome by rotating the magnetic field into the superconducting plane. We explore the topological transitions which occur upon changing the strength and the orientation of the magnetic field and show that an unusual superconducting state with finite-momentum pairing exists, which preserves its topological nature up to an in-plane field orientation. We discuss the realizability of this state at the superconducting interface between LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}.

  13. Superconductivity in CVD diamond films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2009-06-24

    A beautiful jewel of diamond is insulator. However, boron doping can induce semiconductive, metallic and superconducting properties in diamond. When the boron concentration is tuned over 3 × 10(20) cm(-3), diamonds enter the metallic region and show superconductivity at low temperatures. The metal-insulator transition and superconductivity are analyzed using ARPES, XAS, NMR, IXS, transport and magnetic measurements and so on. This review elucidates the physical properties and mechanism of diamond superconductor as a special superconductivity that occurs in semiconductors.

  14. Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   ‎ The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons ‎ . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.

  15. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  16. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  17. Optimization of superconducting tiling pattern for superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for reducing magnetic field inhomogeneities which produce rotational loss mechanisms in high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings. Magnetic field inhomogeneities are reduced by dividing high temperature superconducting structures into smaller structures, and arranging the smaller structures into tiers which stagger the magnetic field maximum locations of the smaller structures.

  18. Suppression of Superconductivity by Twin Boundaries in FeSe

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jenny Eve; Song, Can-Li; Wang, Yi-Lin; Jiang, Ye-Ping; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are employed to investigate twin boundaries in stoichiometric FeSe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Twin boundaries can be unambiguously identified by imaging the 90{\\deg} change in the orientation of local electronic dimers from Fe site impurities on either side. Twin boundaries run at approximately 45{\\deg} to the Fe-Fe bond directions, and noticeably suppress the superconducting gap, in contrast with the recent experiment...

  19. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  20. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  1. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  2. Superconducting Magnet with the Minimum Steel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mentink, M.; Da Silva, H. Pais; Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Berriaud, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T in combination with two superconducting dipole and two conventional toroid magnets is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 23.468 m long has seven 3.35 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 22.6 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and the 0.7 m thick nose disk and four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks each side. The maximum outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length is 62.6 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity about \\pm 2.7. The superconducting dipole magnets allow measuring the charged particle momenta in the pseudora...

  3. A superconducting magnetic gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    A comparison is made between a magnetic gear using permanent magnets and superconductors. The objective is to see if there are any fundamental reasons why superconducting magnets should not provide higher power densities than permanent magnets. The gear is based on the variable permeability design of Attilah and Howe (2001 IEEE Trans. Magn. 37 2844-46) in which a ring of permanent magnets surrounding a ring of permeable pole pieces with a different spacing gives an internal field component at the beat frequency. Superconductors can provide much larger fields and forces but will saturate the pole pieces. However the gear mechanism still operates, but in a different way. The magnetisation of the pole pieces is now constant but rotates with angle at the beat frequency. The result is a cylindrical Halbach array which produces an internal field with the same symmetry as in the linear regime, but has an analytic solution. In this paper a typical gear system is analysed with finite elements using FlexPDE. It is shown that the gear can work well into the saturation regime and that the Halbach array gives a good approximation to the results. Replacing the permanent magnets with superconducting tapes can give large increases in torque density, and for something like a wind turbine a combined gear and generator is possible. However there are major practical problems. Perhaps the most fundamental is the large high frequency field which is inevitably present and which will cause AC losses. Also large magnetic fields are required, with all the practical problems of high field superconducting magnets in rotating machines. Nevertheless there are ways of mitigating these difficulties and it seems worthwhile to explore the possibilities of this technology further.

  4. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  5. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  6. Superconducting dipole electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, John R.

    1977-07-26

    A dipole electromagnet of especial use for bending beams in particle accelerators is wound to have high uniformity of magnetic field across a cross section and to decrease evenly to zero as the ends of the electromagnet are approached by disposing the superconducting filaments of the coil in the crescent-shaped nonoverlapping portions of two intersecting circles. Uniform decrease at the ends is achieved by causing the circles to overlap increasingly in the direction of the ends of the coil until the overlap is complete and the coil is terminated.

  7. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    Public lecture by Philippe Lebrun, who works at CERN on applications of superconductivity and cryogenics for particle accelerators. He was head of CERN’s Accelerator Technology Department during the LHC construction period. Centre culturel Jean Monnet, route de Gex Tuesday 11 October from 8.30 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. » Suitable for all – Admission free - Lecture in French » Number of places limited For further information: +33 (0)4 50 42 29 37

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-02-01

    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  9. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  10. Superconductivity from correlated hopping

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, C D; Aligia, A A

    1995-01-01

    We consider a chain described by a next-nearest-neighbor hopping combined with a nearest-neighbor spin flip. In two dimensions this three-body term arises from a mapping of the three-band Hubbard model for CuO$_2$ planes to a generalized $t-J$ model and for large O-O hopping favors resonance-valence-bond superconductivity of predominantly $d$-wave symmetry. Solving the ground state and low-energy excitations by analytical and numerical methods we find that the chain is a Luther-Emery liquid with correlation exponent $K_{\\rho} = (2-n)^2/2$, where $n$ is the particle density.

  11. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  12. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, AC

    1978-01-01

    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  13. Heavy fermion superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, Jean-Pascal; Glémot, Loı̈c; Suderow, Hermann; Huxley, Andrew; Kambe, Shinsaku; Flouquet, Jacques

    2000-05-01

    The quest for a precise identification of the symmetry of the order parameter in heavy fermion systems has really started with the discovery of the complex superconducting phase diagram in UPt 3. About 10 years latter, despite numerous experiments and theoretical efforts, this is still not achieved, and we will quickly review the present status of knowledge and the main open question. Actually, the more forsaken issue of the nature of the pairing mechanism has been recently tackled by different groups with macroscopic or microscopic measurement, and significant progress have been obtained. We will discuss the results emerging from these recent studies which all support non-phonon-mediated mechanisms.

  14. Algorithms for Computing the Magnetic Field, Vector Potential, and Field Derivatives for a Thin Solenoid with Uniform Current Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    A numerical algorithm for computing the field components Br and Bz and their r and z derivatives with open boundaries in cylindrical coordinates for radially thin solenoids with uniform current density is described in this note. An algorithm for computing the vector potential Aθ is also described. For the convenience of the reader, derivations of the final expressions from their defining integrals are given in detail, since their derivations are not all easily found in textbooks. Numerical calculations are based on evaluation of complete elliptic integrals using the Bulirsch algorithm cel. The (apparently) new feature of the algorithms described in this note applies to cases where the field point is outside of the bore of the solenoid and the field-point radius approaches the solenoid radius. Since the elliptic integrals of the third kind normally used in computing Bz and Aθ become infinite in this region of parameter space, fields for points with the axial coordinate z outside of the ends of the solenoid and near the solenoid radius are treated by use of elliptic integrals of the third kind of modified argument, derived by use of an addition theorem. Also, the algorithms also avoid the numerical difficulties the textbook solutions have for points near the axis arising from explicit factors of 1/r or 1/r2 in the some of the expressions.

  15. Transport of intense proton beams in an induction linac by solenoid lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, W.; Choe, J. Y.; Uhm, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed proton induction linac at NSWC, a 100 A and 3 μs proton beam is accelerated to 5 MeV through a series of accelerating gaps. This beam can be effectively focused by solenoid lenses in this low energy regime and can be transported by adjusting the focusing strength in each period. For the transport channel design to reduce the number of independently controlled lenses, a theory of matched beams in the space-charge dominated regime has been developed. This study can be applied to cost efficient designs of induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion and free electron lasers.

  16. Spherical aberration from trajectories in real and hard-edge solenoid fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAS B

    2016-06-01

    For analytical, real and hard-edge solenoidal axial magnetic fields, the low-energy electron trajectories are obtained using the third-order paraxial ray equation. Using the particle trajectories, it is shown that the spherical aberration in the hard-edge model is high and it increases monotonously with hard edginess, although the focal length converges, in agreement with a recentfield and spherical aberration model. The model paved the way for a hard-edge approximation that gives correct focal length and spherical aberration, which is verified here by the trajectory method. In essence, we show that exact hard-edge fields give infinite spherical aberrations.

  17. The Silicon Sensors for the Compact Muon Solenoid Tracker - Design and Qualification Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent; Assouak, Samia; Bergauer T.; Bilei, Gian Mario; Borrello, Laura; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dinu, Nicoleta; Demaria, Natale; Feld, Lutz; Focardi, Ettore; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Forton, Eric; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Honma, Alan; Juillot, Pierre; Kartashov, Dmitry; Krammer, Manfred; Macchiolo, Anna; Mannelli, Marcello; Messineo, Alberto; Migliore, Ernesto; Militaru, Otilia; Piasecki, Christian; Santinelli, Roberto; Sentenac, Daniel; Servoli, Leonello; Starodumov, Andrei; Tonelli, Guido; Wang, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. Its inner tracking system consist of the world largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST). In total it implements 24244 silicon sensors covering an area of 206 m^2. To construct a large system of this size and ensure its functionality for the full lifetime of ten years under LHC condition, the CMS collaboration developed an elaborate design and a detailed quality assurance program. This paper describes the strategy and shows first results on sensor qualification.

  18. Self-consistent Kinetic Description of the Low-Pressure Solenoidal Inductively Coupled Argon Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛明; 王友年

    2005-01-01

    Using an one-dimensional slab model, we have studied the electron energy distribution, the anomalous skin effect, and power absorption in the solenoidal-inductively-coupled argon discharge under low pressures (≤1.33 Pa). The electron energy distribution function and rf electromagnetic field in the plasma are determined self-consistently by the linearized Bolztmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that, at low pressures, the electron energy distribution function exhibits a non-Maxwellian distribution with a long high-energy tail. The anomalous skin effect is greatly enhanced under low pressures and the negative power absorption is also obtained.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL THREE-WAY SOLENOID VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the increasinglystrict emissionstandards andi mprove the perfor mance of diesel en-gines,using electronic control systemin diesel en-gines becomes more and more popular.In the com-mon-rail injection system of diesel engines,injec-tion ti ming and injection duration are controlled bythe solenoid valve.The perfor mance of common-rail injection systemis directly deter mined by thesolenoid valve[1-2].A novel high-speed three-waysolenoid valve used in the common-rail injectionsystem for DME powe...

  20. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Huang, WenHui; Du, YingChao; Yan, LiXin; Tang, ChuanXiang

    2011-12-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  1. Slice emittance measurement for photocathode RF gun with solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The radiation of high-gain short-wavelength free-electron laser depends on the slice transverse emittance of the electron bunch. This essay introduces the method of slice emittance measurement, and shows the brief setup of this experiment using the solenoid scanning and RF deflecting cavity at Tsinghua University. The preliminary experimental results show that the slice rms emittance of the electron bunch generated by photocathode RF gun has considerable variations along the bunch and is typically less than 0.55 mm mrad for the laser rms radius of 0.4 mm.

  2. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, T.; Harres, K.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Bussmann, M.; Deppert, O.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joost, M.; Sobiella, M.; Tauschwitz, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we present simulation results of the available spectrum after transport through the gantry.

  3. Sampled Data Control of a Compliant Actuated Joint Using On/Off Solenoid Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tsagarakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control system design method for a compliant actuated joint using on/off solenoid valves. Themathematical modelling and the system’s hardware are described in detail. The control design method is presented in ageneral manner so it could be applied for any other similar system. For the present system, the designed controller is implementedvia a digital computer and it is characterised by very good performance and simplicity. The success of the proposedmethod is validated via simulations and experiment.

  4. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  5. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2011-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  6. Overview of Superconducting Photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2009-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR-FELs is contingent upon the development of an appropriate source. Electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µm rad) and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required to meet the FEL specification [1]. An elegant way to create such an unique beam is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting RF photo injector with the superconducting technology to get a superconducting RF photo injector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches are under investigation at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, JLab, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Lot of progress could be achieved during the last years and first long term operation was demonstrated at the FZD [2]. In the near future, this effort will lead to SRF guns, which are indispensab...

  7. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  8. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-04-30

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the superconducting surface, reduces the magnetic-field gradients and dramatically lowers the trap depth. A novel numerical method for calculating magnetic fields in atom chips with superconducting microstructures has been developed. This numerical method overcomes the geometrical limitations of other calculation techniques and can solve superconducting microstructures of arbitrary geometry. The numerical method has been used to calculate the parameters of magnetic microtraps in computer-simulated chips containing thin-film wires. Simulations were carried out for both the superconducting and the normal-conducting state, and the differences between the two cases were analyzed. Computer simulations have been contrasted with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus generates a magnetic microtrap for ultracold Rubidium atoms near a superconducting Niobium wire of circular cross section. The design and construction of the apparatus has met the challenge of integrating the techniques for producing atomic quantum gases with the techniques for cooling solid bodies to cryogenic temperatures. By monitoring the position of the atom cloud, one can observe how the Meissner effect influences the magnetic microtrap. (orig.)

  9. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  10. SolCalc: A Suite for the Calculation and the Display of Magnetic Fields Generated by Solenoid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. L. [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    SolCalc is a software suite that computes and displays magnetic fields generated by a three dimensional (3D) solenoid system. Examples of such systems are the Mu2e magnet system and Helical Solenoids for muon cooling systems. SolCalc was originally coded in Matlab, and later upgraded to a compiled version (called MEX) to improve solving speed. Matlab was chosen because its graphical capabilities represent an attractive feature over other computer languages. Solenoid geometries can be created using any text editor or spread sheets and can be displayed dynamically in 3D. Fields are computed from any given list of coordinates. The field distribution on the surfaces of the coils can be displayed as well. SolCalc was benchmarked against a well-known commercial software for speed and accuracy and the results compared favorably.

  11. Recent development of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator for kaolin in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zian; Wang, Meifen; Ning, Fei Peng; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Guoqing; Hou, Zhi Long; Liu, Zhaong Xiu; Dai, Zhong [Institute of High Energy Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Pei Yong; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Zhaolian [Weifang Xinli Superconducting Technology Co.,Ltd., Weifang (China)

    2017-03-15

    A series of high gradient superconducting magnetic separator (HGMS) for kaolin has been developed. It is used for processing kaolin to increase the brightness or whiteness whether it is for paper or ceramic applications. The HGMS system mainly consists of a solenoid magnet with a zero boil-off helium cryostat, a double reciprocating canisters system, and a PLC (Process Logic Controller) fully automatic control system based on SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system. We have successfully developed CGC-5.5/300 and CGC-5.0/500 HGMS systems in the recent years, and now three sets of them are on-site operation in different customers. This paper will present recent progress of the HGMS system, the results of some experiments on processing kaolin clay used HGMS, and the on-site operation.

  12. On the magnetic field evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Akgün, Taner; Pons, José A.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2017-08-01

    We revisit the various approximations employed to study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in neutron star cores and discuss their limitations and possible improvements. A recent controversy on the correct form of the induction equation and the relevant evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores is addressed and clarified. We show that this ambiguity in the estimation of time-scales arises as a consequence of nominally large terms that appear in the induction equation, but which are, in fact, mostly irrotational. This subtlety leads to a discrepancy by many orders of magnitude when velocity fields are absent or ignored. Even when internal velocity fields are accounted for, only the solenoidal part of the electric field contributes to the induction equation, which can be substantially smaller than the irrotational part. We also argue that stationary velocity fields must be incorporated in the slow evolution of the magnetic field as the next level of approximation.

  13. Using Superconducting Magnet to Reproduce Quick Variations of Gravity in Liquid Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichavant, Guillaume; Beysens, Daniel; Chatain, Denis; Communal, Daniel; Lorin, Clément; Mailfert, Alain

    2011-02-01

    A ground based facility (OLGA), providing magnetic compensation of gravity in oxygen, has been developed. A 2-T superconducting magnetic solenoid is used to create the required magnetic field. A novel electrical supply permits to quickly vary the magnetic field, leading to rapid variation of the acceleration forces applied to oxygen. These variations can be made from overcompensation of gravity (-0.5 g) to zero gravity or from zero gravity to reduced gravity (0.4 g) with a time constant of 340 ms. This time is typical of the cutoff or reignition of spacecraft engines. Preliminary results on the transient flows induced by these acceleration variations in a reservoir filled with liquid and gaseous oxygen are presented.

  14. Emittance minimization at the ELBE superconducting electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.; Arnold, A.; Lu, P.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Vennekate, H.; Xiang, R.

    2014-07-01

    The transverse emittance is one of the most important quantities which characterize the quality of an electron source. For high quality experiments low beam emittance is required. By means of theoretical considerations and simulation calculations we have studied how the emittance of the Rossendorf superconducting radio-frequency photoelectron source (SRF gun) can be minimized. It turned out that neither a solenoid magnet nor the effect of space charge forces is needed to create a pronounced emittance minimum. The minimum appears by just adjusting the starting phase of the electron bunch with respect to the RF phase of the gun in a suitable way. Investigation of various correlations between the properties of the beam particles led to an explanation on how the minimum comes about. It is shown that the basic mechanism of minimization is the fact that the longitudinal properties of the particles (energy) are strongly influenced by the starting phase. Due to the coupling of the longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom by the relativistic equation of motion the transverse degrees of freedom and thereby the emittance can be strongly influenced by the starting phase as well. The results obtained in this study will be applied to minimize the emittance in the commissioning phase of the SRF gun.

  15. CW Superconducting RF Photoinjector Development for Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann A.; Rao T.; Anders, W.; Dirsat, M.; Frahm, A. Jankowiak, A.; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, J.; Kugeler, O.; Quast, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Schuster, M.; Smedley, J.; Sekutowicz, J.; Kneisel, P.; Nietubyc, R.; Will, I.

    2010-10-31

    ERLs have the powerful potential to provide very high current beams with exceptional and tailored parameters for many applications, from next-generation light sources to electron coolers. However, the demands placed on the electron source are severe. It must operate CW, generating a current of 100 mA or more with a normalized emittance of order 1 {micro}m rad. Beyond these requirements, issues such as dark current and long-term reliability are critical to the success of ERL facilities. As part of the BERLinPro project, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is developing a CWSRF photoinjector in three stages, the first of which is currently being installed at HZB's HoBiCaT facility. It consists of an SRF-cavity with a Pb cathode and a superconducting solenoid. Subsequent development stages include the integration of a high-quantum-efficiency cathode and RF components for high-current operation. This paper discusses the first stage towards an ERL-suitable SRF photoinjector, the present status of the facility and first cavity tests.

  16. First Cryogenic Testing of the ATLAS Superconducting Prototype Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlic, J P; Passardi, Giorgio; Pirotte, O; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system of the ATLAS detector will consist of a central solenoid, two end-cap toroids and the barrel toroid made of eight coils (BT) symmetrically placed around the central axis of the detector. All these magnets will be individually tested in an experimental area prior to their final installation in the underground cavern of the LHC collider. A dedicated cryogenic test facility has been designed and built for this purpose. It mainly consists of a 1'200 W at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid nitrogen pre-cooling unit, a cryostat housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps, a distribution valve box and transfer lines. Prior to the start of the series tests of the BT magnets, two model coils are used at this facility. The first one, the so-called B00 of comparatively small size, contains the three different types of superconductors used for the ATLAS magnets which are wound on a cylindrical mandrel. The second magnet, the B0, is a reduced model of basically identical design concept as the...

  17. Commissioning of the Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Delruelle, N; Bradshaw, T; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Rochford, J

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the test results of the helium cryoplant for the superconducting magnets of the ATLAS particle detector at CERN. It consists of two refrigerators used in common by all the magnets and of two proximity cryogenic systems (PCS) interfacing respectively the toroids and the central solenoid. Emphasis is given to the commissioning of the refrigerators: the main unit of 6 kW equivalent capacity at 4.5 K and the thermal shield refrigerator providing 20 kW between 40 K and 80 K. The first unit is used for refrigeration at 4.5 K and for the cooling of three sets of 20 kA current leads, while the second one provides, in addition to the 20 kW refrigeration of the thermal shields, 60 kW for the cool-down to 100 K of the 660 ton cold mass of the magnets. The tests, carried out with the equipment in the final underground configuration, are extended to the PCS that includes the large liquid helium centrifugal pumps (each providing 1.2 kg/s) for forced-flow cooling of the magnets and the complex distributi...

  18. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  19. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  20. Estimation and measurement of flat or solenoidal coil inductance for radiofrequency NMR coil design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Jan K; DeVries, Jeffrey S; Sykes, Brian D

    2007-07-01

    The inductance of a radiofrequency coil determines its compatibility with a given NMR probe circuit. However, calculation (or estimation) of inductance for radiofrequency coils of dimensions suitable for use in an NMR probe is not trivial, particularly for flat-coils. A comparison of a number of formulae for calculation of inductance is presented through the use of a straightforward inductance measurement circuit. This technique relies upon instrumentation available in many NMR laboratories rather than upon more expensive and specialized instrumentation often utilized in the literature. Inductance estimation methods are suggested and validated for both flat-coils and solenoids. These have proven very useful for fabrication of a number of new coils in our laboratory for use in static solid-state NMR probes operating at (1)H frequencies of 300 and 600MHz. Solenoidal coils with very similar measured and estimated inductances having inner diameters from 1 to 5mm are directly compared as an example of the practical application of inductance estimation for interchange of coils within an existing solid-state NMR probe.

  1. Highly sensitive giant magnetoimpedance in a solenoid containing FeCo-based ribbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yun-Zhang; Xu Qi-Ming; Zheng Jin-Ju; Wu Feng-Min; Ye Hui-Qun; Si Jian-Xiao; Zheng Jian-Long; Fan Xiao-Zhen; Yang Xiao-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance effect in a solenoid containing a magnetic core of Fe36Co36Nb4Si4.sB19.2 (FeCo-based) ribbon under a weak magnetic field (WMF) is presented in this paper. The FeCo-based amorphous ribbon is prepared by single roller quenching and annealed with Joule heat in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere.The giant magnetoimpedance effect in solenoid (GMIES) profiles are measured with an HP4294A impedance analyzer.The result shows that the GMIES responds to the WMF sensitively (as high as 1580 %/A·m-l).The high sensitivity can be obtained in a moderate narrow range of annealing current density (30-34 A/mm2) and closely depends on the driven current frequency.The highest sensitivity (1580 %/A.m-1) is obtained when the FeCobased amorphous ribbon is annealed at 32 A/mm2 for 10 min and then driven with an alterning current (AC) at the frequency of 350 kHz.The highly sensitive GMIES under the WMF may result from the multiple magnetic-anisotropic structure,which is induced by the temperature gradient produced during Joule-heating the ribbon.

  2. Ultrafast probing of magnetic field growth inside a laser-driven solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C.; Pollock, B. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Hazi, A.; Divol, L.; Farmer, W. A.; Haberberger, D.; Javedani, J.; Johnson, A. J.; Kemp, A.; Levy, M. C.; Grant Logan, B.; Mariscal, D. A.; Landen, O. L.; Patankar, S.; Ross, J. S.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Swadling, G. F.; Williams, G. J.; Fujioka, S.; Law, K. F. F.; Moody, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid. ALE3D modeling shows that target disassembly and current diffusion may limit the B-field increase for longer laser drive. Scaling of these experimental results to a National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum target size (˜0.2 cm3 ) indicates that it is possible to achieve several tens of Tesla.

  3. A single-solenoid pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal scattering studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zahirul; Capatina, Dana; Ruff, Jacob P C; Das, Ritesh K; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Yasuo; Welp, Ulrich; Canfield, Paul C

    2012-03-01

    We present a pulsed-magnet system that enables x-ray single-crystal diffraction in addition to powder and spectroscopic studies with the magnetic field applied on or close to the scattering plane. The apparatus consists of a single large-bore solenoid, cooled by liquid nitrogen. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling samples near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields close to ~30 T with a zero-to-peak-field rise time of ~2.9 ms are generated by discharging a 40 kJ capacitor bank into the magnet coil. The unique characteristic of this instrument is the preservation of maximum scattering angle (~23.6°) on the entrance and exit sides of the magnet bore by virtue of a novel double-funnel insert. This instrument will facilitate x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies that are impractical, if not impossible, to perform using split-pair and narrow-opening solenoid magnets. Furthermore, it offers a practical solution for preserving optical access in future higher-field pulsed magnets.

  4. The link between solenoidal turbulence and slow star formation in G0.253+0.016

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, C; Longmore, S N; Kruijssen, J M D; Bally, J; Contreras, Y; Crocker, R M; Garay, G; Jackson, J M; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

    2016-01-01

    Star formation in the Galactic disc is primarily controlled by gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. It is not clear that this also applies to star formation near the Galactic Centre. Here we determine the turbulence and star formation in the CMZ cloud G0.253+0.016. Using maps of 3mm dust emission and HNCO intensity-weighted velocity obtained with ALMA, we measure the volume-density variance $\\sigma_{\\rho/\\rho_0} = 1.3 \\pm 0.5$ and turbulent Mach number $\\mathcal{M} = 11 \\pm 3$. Combining these with turbulence simulations to constrain the plasma $\\beta = 0.34 \\pm 0.35$, we reconstruct the turbulence driving parameter $b = 0.22 \\pm 0.12$ in G0.253+0.016. This low value of $b$ indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving of the turbulence in G0.253+0.016. By contrast, typical clouds in the Milky Way disc and spiral arms have a significant compressive (curl-free) driving component ($b > 0.4$). We speculate that shear causes the solenoidal driving in G0.253+0.016 and show that this may reduce the star forma...

  5. Forced Two-Phase Helium Cooling Scheme for the Mu2e Transport Solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatkowski, G. [Fermilab; Cheban, S. [Fermilab; Dhanaraj, N. [Fermilab; Evbota, D. [Fermilab; Lopes, M. [Fermilab; Nicol, T. [Fermilab; Sanders, R. [Fermilab; Schmitt, R. [Fermilab; Voirin, E. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e Transport Solenoid (TS) is an S-shaped magnet formed by two separate but similar magnets, TS-u and TS-d. Each magnet is quarter-toroid shaped with a centerline radius of approximately 3 m utilizing a helium cooling loop consisting of 25 to 27 horizontal-axis rings connected in series. This cooling loop configuration has been deemed adequate for cooling via forced single phase liquid helium; however it presents major challenges to forced two-phase flow such as “garden hose” pressure drop, concerns of flow separation from tube walls, difficulty of calculation, etc. Even with these disadvantages, forced two-phase flow has certain inherent advantages which make it a more attractive option than forced single phase flow. It is for this reason that the use of forced two-phase flow was studied for the TS magnets. This paper will describe the analysis using helium-specific pressure drop correlations, conservative engineering approach, helium properties calculated and updated at over fifty points, and how the results compared with those in literature. Based on the findings, the use of forced-two phase helium is determined to be feasible for steady-state cooling of the TS solenoids

  6. Chromatic, geometric and space charge effects on laser accelerated protons focused by a solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Omari, Husam; Hofmann, Ingo; Ratzinger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We stud­ied nu­mer­i­cal­ly emit­tance and trans­mis­sion ef­fects by chro­mat­ic and ge­o­met­ric aber­ra­tions, with and with­out space charge, for a pro­ton beam be­hind a solenoid in the laser pro­ton ex­per­i­ment LIGHT at GSI. The TraceWin code was em­ployed using a field map for the solenoid and an ini­tial dis­tri­bu­tion with ex­po­nen­tial en­er­gy de­pen­dence close to the ex­per­i­ment. The re­sults show a strong ef­fect of chro­mat­ic, and a rel­a­tive­ly weak one of ge­o­met­ric...

  7. Ultrafast probing of magnetic field growth inside a laser-driven solenoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C; Pollock, B B; Turnbull, D P; Hazi, A; Divol, L; Farmer, W A; Haberberger, D; Javedani, J; Johnson, A J; Kemp, A; Levy, M C; Grant Logan, B; Mariscal, D A; Landen, O L; Patankar, S; Ross, J S; Rubenchik, A M; Swadling, G F; Williams, G J; Fujioka, S; Law, K F F; Moody, J D

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid. ALE3D modeling shows that target disassembly and current diffusion may limit the B-field increase for longer laser drive. Scaling of these experimental results to a National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum target size (∼0.2cm^{3}) indicates that it is possible to achieve several tens of Tesla.

  8. Optimal design of solenoid valve to minimize cavitation by numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seungbin; Jang, Ilhoon; Song, Simon

    2012-11-01

    Keeping pace with the development of clean energy, hybrid cars and electric vehicles are getting extensive attention recently. In an electronic-control brake system which is essential to those vehicles, a solenoid valve is used to control external hydraulic pressure that boosts up the driver's braking force. However, strong cavitation occurs at the narrow passage between the ball and seat of a solenoid valve due to sudden decrease in pressure, leading to severe damage to the valve. In this study, we investigate the cavitation numerically to discover geometric parameters to affect the cavitation, and an optimal design to minimize the cavitation using optimization technique. As a result, we found four parameters: seat inner radius, seat angle, seat length, and ball radius. Among them, the seat inner radius affects the cavitation most. Also, we found that preventing a sudden reduction in a flow passage is important to reduce cavitation. Finally using an evolutionary algorithm for optimization we minimized cavitation. The optimal design resulted in the maximum vapor volume of fraction of 0.04 while it was 0.7 for reference geometry.

  9. Variation in superconducting transition temperature due to tetragonal domains in two-dimensionally doped SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noad, Hilary; Spanton, Eric M.; Nowack, Katja C.; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Minu; Merz, Tyler A.; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Vailionis, Arturas; Hwang, Harold Y.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-11-01

    Strontium titanate is a low-temperature, non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor that superconducts to carrier concentrations lower than in any other system and exhibits avoided ferroelectricity at low temperatures. Neither the mechanism of superconductivity in strontium titanate nor the importance of the structure and dielectric properties for the superconductivity are well understood. We studied the effects of twin structure on superconductivity in a 5.5-nm-thick layer of niobium-doped SrTiO3 embedded in undoped SrTiO3. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device susceptometer to image the local diamagnetic response of the sample as a function of temperature. We observed regions that exhibited a superconducting transition temperature Tc≳ 10 % higher than the temperature at which the sample was fully superconducting. The pattern of these regions varied spatially in a manner characteristic of structural twin domains. Some regions are too wide to originate on twin boundaries; therefore, we propose that the orientation of the tetragonal unit cell with respect to the doped plane affects Tc. Our results suggest that the anisotropic dielectric properties of SrTiO3 are important for its superconductivity and need to be considered in any theory of the mechanism of the superconductivity.

  10. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. The cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy are described. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. The 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  11. Spinon Superconductivity and Superconductivities Mediated by Spin-Waves and Phonons in Cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Mourachkine, A.

    1998-01-01

    The disclosure of spinon superconductivity and superconductivity mediated by spin-waves in hole-doped Bi2212 cuprate raises the question about the origin of the superconductivity in other cuprates and specially in an electron-doped NCCO cuprate.

  12. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  13. Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Superconducting cable connections and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Laan, Daniel Cornelis

    2017-09-05

    Superconducting cable connector structures include a terminal body (or other structure) onto which the tapes from the superconducting cable extend. The terminal body (or other structure) has a diameter that is sufficiently larger than the diameter of the former of the superconducting cable, so that the tapes spread out over the outer surface of the terminal body. As a result, gaps are formed between tapes on the terminal body (or other structure). Those gaps are filled with solder (or other suitable flowable conductive material), to provide a current path of relatively high conductivity in the radial direction. Other connector structures omit the terminal body.

  15. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58109-753 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Mota-Silva, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath.

  16. Comparison of magnetic field uniformities for discretized and finite-sized standard $\\cos\\theta$, solenoidal, and spherical coils

    CERN Document Server

    Nouri, N

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge for experiments requiring a highly uniform magnetic field concerns the identification and design of a discretized and finite-sized magnetic field coil of minimal size. In this work we compare calculations of the magnetic field uniformities and field gradients for three different standard (i.e., non-optimized) types of coils: $\\cos\\theta$, solenoidal, and spherical coils. For an experiment with a particular requirement on either the field uniformity or the field gradient, we show that the volume required by a spherical coil form which satisfies these requirements can be significantly less than the volumes required by $\\cos\\theta$ and solenoidal coil forms.

  17. Unconventional superconductivity from magnetism in transition-metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. A.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Dykstra, C.; Governale, M.; Zülicke, U.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate proximity-induced superconductivity in monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the presence of an externally generated exchange field. A variety of superconducting order parameters is found to emerge from the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity, covering the entire spectrum of possibilities to be symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to the valley and spin degrees of freedom, as well as even or odd in frequency. More specifically, when a conventional s -wave superconductor with singlet Cooper pairs is tunnel-coupled to the TMD layer, both spin-singlet and triplet pairings between electrons from the same and opposite valleys arise due to the combined effects of intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and a magnetic-substrate-induced exchange field. As a key finding, we reveal the existence of an exotic even-frequency triplet pairing between equal-spin electrons from different valleys, which arises whenever the spin orientations in the two valleys are noncollinear. All types of superconducting order turn out to be highly tunable via straightforward manipulation of the external exchange field.

  18. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K

    2001-01-01

    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.

  19. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  20. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  1. Anyon Superconductivity of Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-; Parengkuan, August

    2016-10-01

    In any permutatives to Pedro P. Kuczhynski from Peru, for anyon superconductivity sought EZ Kuchinskii et al.: ``Anion height dependence of Tc & d.o.s of Fe-based Superconductors'', 2010 as well as ``on the basis of electron microscopy & AFM measurements, these phenomena are quantified with focus on fractal dimension, particle perimeter & size of the side branch(tip width) in bert Stegemann et al.:Crystallization of Sb nanoparticles-Pattern Formation & Fractal Growth'', J.PhysChem B., 2004. For dendritic & dendrimer fractal characters shown further: ``antimony denrites were found to be composed of well-crystallized nanoflakes with size 20-4 nm''- Bou Zhau, et al., MaterialLetters, 59 (2005). The alkyl triisopropyl attached in TIPSb those includes in DNA, haemoglobin membrane/fixed-bed reactor for instance quotes in Dragony Fu, Nature Review Cancer, 12 (Feb 2012). Heartfelt Gratitudes to HE. Mr. Prof. Ir. Handojo.

  2. Superconductivity of columbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.B.; Zemansky, M.W.; Boorse, H.A.

    1950-11-15

    Isothermal critical magnetic field curves and zero field transitions for several annealed specimens of columbium have been measured by an a.c. mutual inductance method at temperatures from 5.1 deg K to the zero field transition temperature. The H-T curve was found to fit the usual parabolic relationship H = H{sub 0}(1-T(2)/T(2){sub 0}) with H{sub 0} = 8250 oersteds and T{sub 0} = 8.65 deg K. The initial slope of the curve was 1910 oersteds/deg. The electronic specific heat in the normal state calculated from the thermodynamic equations is 0.0375T and the approximate Debye characteristic temperature in the superconducting state, 67 deg K. Results on a different grade of columbium with a tantalum impurity of 0.4 percent, according to neutron scattering measurements, were in agreement, with the data obtained from columbium of 0.2 percent maximum tantalum impurity.

  3. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  4. Electromagnetic characteristics of a superconducting magnet for the 28 GHz ECR ion source according to the series resistance of the protection circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongseok; Mo, Young Kyu; Kang, Jong O.; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Junil; Lee, Onyou; Kang, Hyoungku; Hong, Jonggi; Choi, Sukjin; Hong, In Seok; Nam, Seokho; Ahn, Min Chul

    2015-10-01

    A linear accelerator, called RAON, is being developed as a part of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) at the Institute for Basic Science (IBS). The linear accelerator utilizes an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for providing intense highly-charged ion beams to the linear accelerator. The 28-GHz ECR ion source can extract heavy-ion beams from protons to uranium. The superconducting magnet system for the 28-GHz ECR ion source is composed of hexapole coils and four solenoid coils made with low-Tc superconducting wires of NbTi. An electromagnetic force acts on the superconducting magnets due to the magnetic field and flowing current in the case of not only the normal state but also the quench state. In the case of quench on hexapole coils, an unbalanced flowing current among the hexapole coils is generated and causes an unbalanced electromagnetic force. Coil motions and coil strains in the quench state are larger than those in the normal state due to the unbalanced electromagnetic force among hexapole coils. Therefore, an analysis of the electromagnetic characteristics of the superconducting magnet for the 28-GHz ECR ion source on series resistance of the protection circuit in the case of quench should be conducted. In this paper, an analysis of electromagnetic characteristics of Superconducting hexapole coils for the 28-GHz ECR ion source according to the series resistance of the protection circuit in the case of quench performed by using finite-elements-method (FEM) simulations is reported.

  5. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J. W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.557378] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1  μmrad, and high average current (hundreds of mA are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun. SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University. Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term operation was demonstrated at FZD [R. Xiang et al., in Proceedings of the 31st International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 09, Liverpool, UK (STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, 2009, p. 488]. In the near future SRF guns are expected to play an important role for linac-driven FEL facilities. In this paper we will review the concepts, the design parameters, and the status of the major SRF gun projects.

  6. Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine...

  7. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  8. Superconductivity in all its states

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    Temporary exhibition at the Saint-Genis-Pouilly Tourist Office. For the 100th anniversary of its discovery, take a plunge into the amazing world of superconductivity. Some materials, when cooled down to extreme temperatures, acquire a remarkable property -  they become superconducting. Superconductivity is a rare example of a quantum effect that can be witnessed on the macroscopic scale and is today at the heart of much research. In laboratories, researchers try to gain a better understanding of its origins, study new superconducting materials, explore the phenomenon at the nanometric scale and pursue their indefatigable search for new applications. Monday to Friday: 09:00 a.m. to 12:00 and 2:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Saturday: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon » Open to all – Admission free For further information: +33 (0)4 50 42 29 37

  9. Search for superconductivity in micrometeorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénon, S; Ramírez, J G; Basaran, Ali C; Wampler, J; Thiemens, M; Taylor, S; Schuller, Ivan K

    2014-12-05

    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening inhomogeneous materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10(-12) cc of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting, non-magnetic matrix. For the first time, we apply this technique to the search for superconductivity in extraterrestrial samples. We tested approximately 65 micrometeorites collected from the water well at the Amundsen-Scott South pole station and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials. None of these micrometeorites contained superconducting compounds, but we saw the Verwey transition of magnetite in our microwave system. This demonstrates that we are able to detect electro-magnetic phase transitions in extraterrestrial materials at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  11. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  12. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to...

  13. Cryogenic Systems and Superconductive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report defines, investigates, and experimentally evaluates the key elements of a representative crogenic turborefrigerator subsystem suitable for providing reliable long-lived cryogenic refrigeration for a superconductive ship propulsion system.

  14. The superconducting bending magnets 'CESAR'

    CERN Document Server

    Pérot, J

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, CERN decided to build two high precision superconducting dipoles for a beam line in the SPS north experimental area. The aim was to determine whether superconducting magnets of the required accuracy and reliability can be built and what their economies and performances in operation will be. Collaboration between CERN and CAE /SACLAY was established in order to make use of the knowledge and experience already acquired in the two laboratories. (0 refs).

  15. Y-Ba Superconducting Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunbao, Tian; Xiaofei, Li; Tinglian, Wen; Zuxiang, Lin; Shichun, Li; Huijun, Yu

    Polycrystalline Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting materials have been studied. It was found that chemical composition and processing condition may play an important role in the final structure and superconducting properties. The density has been determined and compared with the calculated value according to the structure model reported by Bell Labs. The grain size and the morphology of the materials were observed by SEM.

  16. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  17. Entanglement witnessing in superconducting beamsplitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, H.; Hofstetter, L.; Reeb, D.

    2013-06-01

    We analyse a large class of superconducting beamsplitters for which the Bell parameter (CHSH violation) is a simple function of the spin detector efficiency. For these superconducting beamsplitters all necessary information to compute the Bell parameter can be obtained in Y-junction setups for the beamsplitter. Using the Bell parameter as an entanglement witness, we propose an experiment which allows to verify the presence of entanglement in Cooper pair splitters.

  18. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  19. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  20. Growth of YBCO superconducting thin films on CaF sub 2 buffered silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, S S; Patil, J M; Shirodkar, V S

    2000-01-01

    CaF sub 2 films were grown on silicon using the neutral cluster beam deposition technique. These films were highly crystalline and c-axis oriented. Superconducting YBCO thin films were grown on the Ca F sub 2 buffered silicon using the laser ablation technique. These films showed T sub c (onset) at 90 K and Tc(zero) at 86 K. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the YBCO films were also oriented along the c-axis.