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Sample records for superconducting rf cryomodules

  1. Cooling tests of the cryomodules at superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Norihito; Nakai, Hirotaka; Kojima, Yuuji

    2009-01-01

    KEK has been constructing the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) with aiming at a center of the ILC-R and D in Asia from 2005. In this project, KEK targets manufacturing and operational experiences of the RF cavity and cryomodule toward the ILC, and two cryomodules have been developed. These cryomodules are 6 meter long and have 4 nine-cell cavities in each cryostat. The designs of the cryomodules are based on the TESLA Type-3 (TTF-3) at DESY, however, each cryostat has the different type of cavities, TESLA-like type and Low-Loss type. The tests of the cryomodules were performed in two steps. In the first test, measurements of the cryogenic performances of these cryomodules were the main objective. One nine-cell cavity was assembled in each cryomodule and cool-down of the two cryomodules was performed, individually. In the second test, the four TESLA-like cavities were assembled in the cryomodule as complete integration. Cool-down of the cryomodule to 2 K was successfully completed, and thermal performances of the cryomodule and cooling capacity of the cryogenics system were studied in detail. In this paper, we will report the design of the cryomodules and the thermal performances at these cold tests. (author)

  2. Intermediate quality control tests in the development of a superconducting RF cryomodule for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Jones, Thomas; Strachan, John; Bate, Robert; Davies, Phil; McIntosh, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Through an international cryomodule collaboration, ASTeC at Daresbury Laboratory has taken the primary responsibility in leading the development of an optimised Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, operating in CW mode for energy recovery facilities and other high duty cycle accelerators. For high beam current operation, Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers are critical components of the SRF Cryomodule, ensuring excessive heating of the accelerating structures and beam instabilities are effectively managed. This paper describes some of the cold tests conducted on the HOM absorbers and other critical components during the construction phase, to ensure that the quality and reliable cryomodule performance is maintained.

  3. Cryomodule tests of four Tesla-like cavities in the Superconducting RF Test Facility at KEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kako

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-m cryomodule including four Tesla-like cavities was developed, and was tested in the Superconducting RF Test Facility phase-I at KEK. The performance as a total superconducting cavity system was checked in the cryomodule tests at 2 K with high rf power. One of the four cavities achieved a stable pulsed operation at 32  MV/m, which is higher than the operating accelerating gradient in the ILC. The maximum accelerating gradient (E_{acc,max⁡} obtained in the vertical cw tests was maintained or slightly improved in the cryomodule tests operating in a pulse mode. Compensation of the Lorentz force detuning at 31  MV/m was successfully demonstrated by a piezo tuner and predetuning.

  4. HIE-ISOLDE CRYO-MODULE Assembly - Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Leclercq, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of the cryo-module components in SM18 cleanroom. The superconducting solenoid (housed inside its helium vessel) is cleaned, prepared then installed on the supporting frame of the cryo-module and connected to the helium tank, prior to the assembly of the RF cavities on the structure. The completed first 2 cryo-modules installed inside the HIE-ISOLDE-LINAC ready for beam operation is also shown.

  5. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, IandQ modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing

  6. Superconducting Magnet Performance in LCLS-II Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Cheban, S. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Harms, E. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    New LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator Cry-omodules are under construction at Fermilab. Installed in-side each SCRF Cryomodule is a superconducting magnet package to focus and steer an electron beam. The magnet package is an iron dominated configuration with conduc-tively cooled racetrack-type quadrupole and dipole coils. For easier installation the magnet can be split in the vertical plane. Initially the magnet was tested in a liquid helium bath, and high precision magnetic field measurements were performed. The first (prototype) Cryomodule with the magnet inside was built and successfully tested at Fermilab test facility. In this paper the magnet package is discussed, the Cryomodule magnet test results and current leads con-duction cooling performance are presented. So far magnets in nine Cryomodules were successfully tested at Fermilab.

  7. Cryomodule tests of the TESLA-like superconducting cavity in KEK-STF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, Eiji; Sato, Masato; Shishido, Toshio; Noguchi, Shuichi; Hatori, Hirofumi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Construction of STF (Superconducting RF Test Facility) is being carried out at KEK. The STF-Baseline superconducting cavity system, which includes four TESLA-like 9-cell cavities, input couplers and frequency tuners, has been developed for the future ILC project. A 6-m cryomodule including one of four TESLA-like cavities was assembled, and the cryomodule was installed in the tunnel for the initial test, called the STF Phase-0.5. The first cool-down of the cryomodule and high power tests of the cavity had been carried out at 2 K from October to November, 2007. The maximum accelerating gradient (Eacc, max) of 19.3 MV/m was achieved in a specific pulse width of 1.5 msec and a repetition rate of 5 Hz, (23.4 MV/m in a shorter pulse width of 0.6 msec). Compensation of Lorentz force detuning at 18 MV/m was successfully demonstrated by using a piezo tuner. The second cryomodule test for four cavities, called the STF Phase-1.0, is scheduled in July, 2008. (author)

  8. Study of Arc-Related RF Faults in the CEBAF Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Curry; Ganapati Myneni; Ganapati Rao Myneni; John Musson; Thomas Powers; Timothy Whitlatch; Isidoro Campisi; Haipeng Wang

    2004-07-01

    A series of measurements has been conducted on two superconducting radio-frequency (RF) cavity pairs, installed in cryomodules and routinely operated in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, in order to study the RF-vacuum interaction during an RF fault. These arc-related fault rates increase with increasing machine energy, contribute to system downtime, and directly affect the accelerator's availability. For this study, the fundamental power coupler waveguides have been instrumented with vacuum gauges, additional arc detectors, additional infrared sensors, and temperature sensors in order to measure the system response during both steady-state operations and RF fault conditions. Residual gas analyzers have been installed on the waveguide vacuum manifolds to monitor the gas species present during cooldown, RF processing, and operation. Measurements of the signals are presented, a comparison with analysis is shown and results are discussed. The goal of this study is to characterize the RF-vacuum interaction during normal operations. With a better understanding of the installed system response, methods for reducing the fault rate may be devised, ultimately leading to improvements in availability.

  9. RF Processing of the Couplers for the SNS Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.Kang; I.E. Campisi; D. Stout; A. Vassioutchenko; M. Stirbet; M. Drury; T. Powers

    2005-01-01

    All eighty-one fundamental power couplers for the 805 MHz superconducting cavities of the SNS linac have been RF conditioned and installed in the cryomodules successfully. The couplers were RF processed at JLAB or at the SNS in ORNL: more than forty couplers have been RF conditioned in the SNS RF Test Facility (RFTF) after the first forty couplers were conditioned at JLAB. The couplers were conditioned up to 650 kW forward power at 8% duty cycle in traveling and standing waves. They were installed on the cavities in the cryomodules and then assembled with the airside waveguide transitions. The couplers have been high power RF tested with satisfactory accelerating field gradients in the cooled cavities

  10. CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Ahlman, R.; Augustine, M.; Crawford, K.; Drury, M.; Jordan, K.; Kelley, P.; Lee, T.; Marshall, J.; Preble, J.; Robb, J.; Schneider, W.; Susta, J.; Van Dyke, J.; Wiseman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, (CEBAF) is undergoing construction in Newport News, Virginia. When completed in 1994, the accelerator will be the largest installation of radio frequency superconductivity. Production of cryomodules, the fundamental cryogenic building block of the machine, has started. They consist of four sets of a pair of 1497 MHz, 5-cell cavities contained in separate helium vessels and mounted in a cryostat with appropriate end caps for helium supply and return. In this paper RF, heat load, and mechanical performance of the first unit tested and status of the project is discussed

  11. TESLA superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1995-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration has made steady progress since its first official meeting at Cornell in 1990. The infrastructure necessary to assemble and test superconducting rf cavities has been installed at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. 5-cell, 1.3 GHz cavities have been fabricated and have reached accelerating fields of 25 MV/m. Full sized 9-cell copper cavities of TESLA geometry have been measured to verify the higher order modes present and to evaluate HOM coupling designs. The design of the TESLA 9-cell cavity has been finalized and industry has started delivery. Two prototype 9-cell niobium cavities in their first tests have reached accelerating fields of 10 MV/m and 15 MV/m in a vertical dewar after high peak power (HPP) conditioning. The first 12 m TESLA cryomodule that will house 8 9-cell cavities is scheduled to be delivered in Spring 1995. A design report for the TTF is in progress. The TTF test linac is scheduled to be commissioned in 1996/1997. (orig.)

  12. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  13. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  14. Superconducting rf activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Hakimi, M.; Kirchgessner, J.

    1988-01-01

    Development of rf superconductivity for high energy accelerators has been a robust activity at the Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear Studies (LNS) for many years. In order to realize the potential of rf superconductivity, a two-pronged approach has been followed. On the one hand accelerator applications were selected where the existing state-of-the art of superconducting rf is competitive with alternate technologies, then LNS engaged in a program to design, construct and test suitable superconducting cavities, culminating in a full system test in an operating accelerator. On the second front the discovery and invention of ideas, techniques and materials required to make superconducting rf devices approach the ideal in performance has been aggressively pursued. Starting with the development of superconducting cavities for high energy electron synchrotrons, the technology was extended to high energy e + e - storage rings. The LE5 cavity design has now been adopted for use in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). When completed, this project will be one of the largest applications of SRF technology, using 440 LE5 modules[4]. In the last two years, the cavity design and the technology have been transferred to industry and CEBAF. Cornell has tested the early industrial prototypes and cavity pairs. LNS has developed, in collaboration with CEBAF, designs and procedures for cavity pair and cryomodule assembly and testing. Advanced research for future electron accelerators is badly needed if particle physicists hope to expand the energy frontier. Superconducting cavity technology continues to offer attractive opportunities for further advances in achievable voltage at reasonable cost for future accelerators. For Nb, the full potential implies an order of magnitude increase over current capabilities. 20 references, 11 figures

  15. LCLS-II Cryomodules Production at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Tug [Fermilab; Grimm, Chuck [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Premo, Ken [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    LCLS-II is an upgrade project for the linear coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC. The LCLS-II linac will consist of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting RF continuous wave (CW) cryomodules that Fermilab and Jefferson Lab (JLab) will assemble in collaboration with SLAC. The LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design is based on the European XFEL pulsed-mode cryomodule design with modifications needed for CW operation. Fermilab and JLab will each assemble and test a prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule to assess the results of the CW modifications, in advance of 16 and 17 production 1.3 GHz cryomodules, respectively. Fermilab is solely responsible for the 3.9 GHz cryomodules. After the prototype cryomodule tests are complete and lessons learned incorporated, both laboratories will increase their cryomodule production rates to meet the challenging LCLS-II project requirement of approximately one cryomodule per month per laboratory. This paper presents the Fermilab Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF) infrastructure for LCLS-II cryomodule production, the Fermilab prototype 1.3 GHz CW cryomodule (pCM) assembly and readiness for production assembly.

  16. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  17. Application of RF Superconductivity to High-Current Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the authors initiated a development program in Los Alamos for high-current superconducting proton-linac technology to build prototypes components of this linac to demonstrate the feasibility. The authors are building 700-MHz niobium cavities with elliptical shapes, as well as power couplers to transfer high RF power to these cavities. The cavities and power couplers will be integrated in cryostats as linac cryomodules. In this paper, they describe the linac design and the status of the development program

  18. Performance Characterization of LCLS-II Superconducting Radiofrequency Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, RuthAnn [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-11-10

    This paper will describe the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source)-II, Fermilab’s role in the development of LCLS-II, and my contributions as a Lee Teng intern. LCLS-II is a second generation x-ray free electron laser being constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab is responsible for the design, construction, and testing of several 1.3 GHz cryomodules to be used in LCLS-II. These cryomodules are currently being tested at Fermilab. Some software was written to analyze the data from the cryomodule tests. This software assesses the performance of the cryomodules by looking at data on the cavity voltage, cavity gradient, dark current, and radiation.

  19. Conceptual Design of the Superconducting Proton Linac Short Cryo-module

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Capatina, O; Azevedo, P; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Vande Craen, A; Williams, L R; Weingarten, W; Rousselot, S; Duthil, P; Duchesne, P; Reynet, D; Dambre, P

    2012-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art Superconducting Radio Frequency technology, which would serve as a driver for new physics facilities such as neutrinos and radioactive ion beams. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium b=1 elliptical cavities, operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating field of 25 MV/m, and testing of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase only four out of the eight cavities of an SPL cryo-module will be tested in a ½ length cryo-module developed for this purpose, and therefore called the Short Cryo-module. This paper presents the conceptual design of the SC, highlighting its innovative principles in terms of cavity supporting and alignment, and describes the integratio...

  20. Commissioning of the CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, M.; Lee, T.; Marshall, J.; Preble, J.; Saulter, Q.; Schneider, W.; Spata, M.; Wiseman, M.

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, over half of the cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 μA beam. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q 0 ) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity. The sensitivity of the resonant frequency to changes in pressure and gradient is also measured. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. In all cases, the performance of CEBAF cryomodules has exceeded the design requirements. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. This paper describes the cryomodule commissioning hardware, software, and measurements

  1. RF superconductivity at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is a 4 GeV continuous beam electron accelerator being constructed to perform nuclear physics research. Construction began in February 1987 and initial operation is scheduled for February 1994. The present report describes its prototyping, problems/solutions, further development, facilities, design status, production and upgrade potential. The accelerator is 1.4 km in circumference, and has a race-track shape. It is of the recirculated linear accelerator type, and employs a total of five passes. Two linacs on opposite sides of the race-track each provide 400 MeV per pass. Beams of various energies are transported by separated arcs at each end of the straight sections to provide the recirculation. There are 4 recirculation arcs at the injector end, and 5 arcs at the other end. The full energy beam is routed by an RF separator to between one and three end stations, as desired, on a bucket-by-bucket basis. The average output beam current is 200 microamperes. Acceleration is provided by 338 superconducting cavities, which are arranged in pairs, each of which is enclosed in a helium vessel and suspended inside a vacuum jacket without ends. (N.K.)

  2. Recent progress in the superconducting RF Program at TRIUMF/ISAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R.E. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: lax@triumf.ca; Fong, K. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Laverty, M. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Mitra, A. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Poirier, R. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Sekachev, I. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Zvyagintsev, V. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    A heavy ion superconducting linac is being installed at TRIUMF to increase the final energy of radioactive beams from ISAC. A first stage of 20 MV consisting of five medium beta cryomodules each with four quarter wave bulk niobium cavities and a superconducting solenoid is being installed with commissioning scheduled for December 2005. The cavities have been fully characterized for rf performance. Two cryomodules have been tested at cold temperatures. A high beta cavity ({beta} {sub 0} = 0.104) for the next phase is presently in design. A weak phase lock loop technique is used to monitor the control loop phase noise to characterize system microphonics. A recent highlight is the acceleration of heavy ions by one cryomodule as a proof of system integrity. The report will summarize all aspects of the program.

  3. Introduction to Superconducting RF Structures and the Effect of High Pressure Rinsing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This presentation begins by describing RF superconductivity and SRF accelerating structures. Then the use of superconducting RF structures in a number of accelerators around the world is reviewed; for example, the International Linear Collider (ILC) will use ~16,000 SRF cavities with ~2,000 cryomodules to get 500 GeV e⁺/e⁻ colliding energy. Field emission control was (and still is) a very important practical issue for SRF cavity development. It has been found that high-pressure ultrapure water rinsing as a final cleaning step after chemical surface treatment resulted in consistent performance of single- and multicell superconducting cavities.

  4. Introduction to Superconducting RF Structures and the Effect of High Pressure Rinsing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This presentation begins by describing RF superconductivity and SRF accelerating structures. Then the use of superconducting RF structures in a number of accelerators around the world is reviewed; for example, the International Linear Collider (ILC) will use ~16,000 SRF cavities with ~2,000 cryomodules to get 500 GeV e@@@/e@@@ colliding energy. Field emission control was (and still is) a very important practical issue for SRF cavity development. It has been found that high-pressure ultrapure water rinsing as a final cleaning step after chemical surface treatment resulted in consistent performance of single- and multicell superconducting cavities.

  5. CEBAF Cryomodule Commissioning in the South Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Drury; H. Lankford; T. Lee; J. Marshall; J. Preble; Q. Saulter; W. Schneider; Michael Spata; Mark Wiseman

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, 38 1/4 cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz[1]. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 mu-A beam[2]. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's (Q(sub ext)) of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q(sub 0)) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity[3]. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. During the period from April 1993 through September 1993, 16 of the 20 cryomodules installed in the South Linac were commissioned. All cryomodules tested in the South Linac meet or exceed the CEBAF specifications. This paper describes the results of the commissioning of the first 10 cryomodules in the South Linac

  6. Modern technologies in rf superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1994-01-01

    The development and application of superconducting rf cavities in particle accelerators is a fine example of advanced technology and of close cooperation with industry. This contribution examines the theoretical and present-day practical limitations of sc cavities and describes some advanced technologies needed for their large scale applications. (orig.)

  7. Results of Cavity Series Fabrication at Jefferson Laboratory for the Cryomodule 'R100'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhauser, F.; Clemens, W.A.; Drury, M.A.; Forehand, D.; Henry, J.; Manning, S.; Overton, R.B.; Williams, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    A series production of eight superconducting RF cavities for the cryomodule R100 was conducted at JLab in 2010. The cavities underwent chemical post-processing prior to vertical high power testing and routinely exceeded the envisaged performance specifications. After cryomodule assembly, cavities were successfully high power acceptance tested. In this paper, we present the achievements paving the way for the first demonstration of 100 MV (and beyond) in a single cryomodule to be operated at CEBAF.

  8. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  9. Technology of RF superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams

  10. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. (author)

  11. SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Peter Kneisel; John Mammosser; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircia Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Tim Whitlatch; Mark Wiseman

    2003-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility, Jefferson Lab, is producing 24 Superconducting Radio FR-equency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium beta production, and 12 high beta (0.81) production cryomodules. After testing [ ], the medium beta prototype cryomodule was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and acceptance check out has been completed. All production orders for cavities and cryomodule components are being received at this time and the medium beta cryomodule production run has started. Each of the medium beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. The performance results of cryomodules to date will be discussed

  12. TESLA & ILC Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, T. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Weisend, II, J. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration developed a unique variant of SRF cryomodule designs, the chief feature being use of the large, low pressure helium vapor return pipe as the structural support backbone of the cryomodule. Additional innovative features include all cryogenic piping within the cryomodule (no parallel external cryogenic transfer line), long strings of RF cavities within a single cryomodule, and cryomodules connected in series. Several projects, including FLASH and XFEL at DESY, LCLS-II at SLAC, and the ILC technical design have adopted this general design concept. Advantages include saving space by eliminating the external transfer line, relatively tight packing of RF cavities along the beamline due to fewer warm-cold transitions, and potentially lower costs. However, a primary disadvantage is the relative lack of independence for warm-up, replacement, and cool-down of individual cryomodules.

  13. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. Additional measurements of mechanical stability under RF operation (frequency variation with He pressure, Lorentz detuning) and cryogenic and electric measurements of power dissipation are presented. (author)

  14. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, Robert E.; Schaa, Volker R.W.

    2015-01-01

    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  15. Superconducting RF activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.; Shu, Q.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the RF superconductivity research and development work that has taken place at Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear Studies over the past years. The work that has been performed since the last RF superconductivity workshop is emphasized together with a discussion of the direction of future efforts. Past work is summarized first, focusing on research and development activities in the area of RF superconductivity. Superconducting TeV linear collider is then discussed focusing on the application of superconducting RF to a future TeV linear collider. Linear collider structure development is then described centering on the development of a simpler (thereby cheaper) structure for a TeV linear collider. B-factory with superconducting RF is outlined focusing on the formulation of a conceptual design for a B-factory. B-factory structure development is discussed in relation to the advancement in the capability of SC cavities to carry beam currents of several amperes necessary for a high luminosity storage ring. High gradients are discussed as the key to the realization of a high energy superconducting linac or a superconducting RF B-factory. (N.K.)

  16. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a superconducting slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first superconducting heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System). The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop superconducting RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the linac has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began developing of superconducting RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. The two divisions collaborate in work on several applications of RF superconductivity, and also in work to develop the technology generally. The present report briefly describes major features of the superconducting heavy-ion linac (very-low-velocity superconducting linac, positive ion injector), proton accelerating structures (superconducting resonant cavities for acceleration of high-current proton and deuteron beams, RF properties of oxide superconductors), and future work. Both divisions expect to continue a variety of studies, frequently in collaboration, to advance the basic technology of RF superconductivity. (N.K.)

  17. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  18. Design approach for the development of a cryomodule for compact crab cavities for Hi-Lumi LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Jones, Thomas; Templeton, Niklas; Goudket, Philippe; McIntosh, Peter; Wheelhouse, Alan; Burt, Graeme; Hall, Ben; Wright, Loren; Peterson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    A prototype Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, comprising multiple compact crab cavities is foreseen to realise a local crab crossing scheme for the "Hi-Lumi LHC", a project launched by CERN to increase the luminosity performance of LHC. A cryomodule with two cavities will be initially installed and tested on the SPS drive accelerator at CERN to evaluate performance with high-intensity proton beams. A series of boundary conditions influence the design of the cryomodule prototype, arising from; the complexity of the cavity design, the requirement for multiple RF couplers, the close proximity to the second LHC beam pipe and the tight space constraints in the SPS and LHC tunnels. As a result, the design of the helium vessel and the cryomodule has become extremely challenging. This paper assesses some of the critical cryogenic and engineering design requirements and describes an optimised cryomodule solution for the evaluation tests on SPS.

  19. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  20. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Yuuji; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Ishimaru, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cryogenic system consisting of a helium refrigerator (4 kW at 4.4 K) and a liquid helium distribution transfer system for TRISTAN 508 MHz 32 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities was designed and constructed. After the performance test of the cryogenic system, 16 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities in 8 cryostats were installed in underground TRISTAN electron-positron collider and connected to the helium refrigerator on the ground level through the transfer line (total length about 330 m) and cooled by liquid helium pool boiling in parallel. The cryogenic system and its operation experience are described. (author)

  1. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.; Baffes, C.M.; Carlson, K.; Chase, B.; Church, M.D.; Harms, E.R.; Klebaner, A.L.; Leibfritz, J.R.; Martinez, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Nobrega, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  2. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  3. Pulsed rf superconductivity program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-08-01

    Recent tests performed at SLAC on superconducting TM 010 caavities using short rf pulses (less than or equal to 2.5 μs) have established that at the cavity surface magnetic fields can be reached in the vicinity of the theoretical critical fields without an appreciable increase in average losses. Tests on niobium and lead cavities are reported. The pulse method seems to be best suited to study peak field properties of superconductors in the microwave band, without the limitations imposed by defects. The short pulses also seem to be more effective in decreasing the causes of field emission by rf processing. Applications of the pulsed rf superconductivity to high-gradient linear accelerators are also possible

  4. An RF input coupler system for the CEBAF energy upgrade cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.R. Delayen; L.R. Doolittle; T. Hiatt; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; L. Phillips; J. Preble; W.J. Schneider; G. Wu

    1999-01-01

    Long term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. Thus an upgraded cryomodule to more than double the present voltage is under development. A new waveguide coupler system has been designed and prototypes are currently being developed. This coupler, unlike the original, has a nominal Q ext of 2.1 x 10 7 , reduced sensitivity of Q ext to mechanical deformation, reduced field asymmetry within the beam envelope, freedom from window arcing with a single window at 300 K, and is capable of transmitting 6kW CW both traveling wave and in full reflection

  5. Status of superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting technology was recommended for the main linac design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP). The basis for this design has been developed and tested at DESY, and R and D is progressing at many laboratories around the world including DESY, Orsay, KEK, FNAL, SLAC, Cornell, and JLAB. In order to promote Asian SC-technology for ILC, construction of a test facility in KEK was discussed and decided. The role and status of the superconducting RF test facility (STF) is reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Drury; Edward Daly; Christiana Grenoble; William Hicks; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman; G. Davis; Jean Delayen

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-β (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-β and twelve high-β (0.81) production cryomodules. Nine medium-β cryomodules as well as two high-β cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q 0 ), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Q ext 's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper

  7. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Michael A; Davis, Kirk; Delayen, Jean R; Grenoble, Christiana; Hicks, William R; King, Larry; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Tom; Preble, Joseph P; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-beta and twelve high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Ten medium-beta cryomodules as well as two high beta cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q0), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Qext's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Design and Prototype Progress toward a Superconducting Crab Cavity Cryomodule for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Henry, James; Kneisel, Peter; Rimmer, Robert; Slack, Gary; Turlington, Larry; waldschmidt, Geoff; Nassiri, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    A squashed, elliptical supercondconducting (SC) cavity with waveguide dampers on the beam pipes has currently been chosen as the baseline design for the Short Pulse X-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An alternate cavity design, with a waveguide damper located directly on the cavity cell for improved damping characteristics, has also been designed and cold-tested with promising results. In either case, eight cavities would be operated CW in a single cryomodule at 2K to produce an electron bunch chirp of 4MV at a frequency of 2.815 GHz. Detailed analysis of multipactoring (MP), Lorentz force detuning (LFD), and the thermal properties of the baseline design has led to an engineering specification of the basic parameters of the cryomodule.

  9. CryoModule Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CMTFis able to test complete SRF cryomodules at cryogenic operating temperatures and with RF Power. CMTF will house the PIP-II Injector Experiment allowing test of...

  10. The LHC Superconducting RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the largest high energy physics laboratory worldwide, is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the existing 27 km circumference LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider tunnel. For the LHC, superconducting cavities, operating at 4.5 K, will provide the required acceleration field for ramping the beam energy up to 7 TeV and for keeping the colliding proton beams tightly bunched. Superconducting cavities were chosen, not only because of their high acceleration field leading to a small contribution to the machine impedance, but also because of their high stored energy which minimises the effects of periodic transient beam loading associated with the high beam intensity (0.5 A). There will be eight single-cell cavities per beam, each delivering 2 MV (5.3 MV/m) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industrial firms, using niobium on copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A complete cavity prototype assembly in...

  11. Superconducting rf development at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Clifft, B.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Givens, J.; Potter, J.; Crandall, K. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac began operation in 1978 and has operated nearly continuously since that time, while undergoing a series of upgrades and expansions, the most recent being the ``uranium upgrade`` completed earlier this year and described below. In its present configuration the ATLAS linac consists of an array of 64 resonant cavities operating from 48 to 145 MHz, which match a range of particle velocities .007 < {beta} = v/c < .2. The linac provides approximately 50 MV of effective accelerating potential for ions of q/m > 1/10 over the entire periodic table. Delivered beams include 5 {minus} 7 pnA of {sup 238}U{sup 39+} at 1535 MeV. At present more than 10{sup 6} cavity-hours of operation at surface electric fields of 15 MV/m have been accumulated. Superconducting structure development at ATLAS is aimed at improving the cost/performance of existing low velocity structures both for possible future ATLAS upgrades, and also for heavy-ion linacs at other institutions. An application of particular current interest is to develop structures suitable for accelerating radioactive ion beams. Such structures must accelerate very low charge to mass ratio beams and must also have very large transverse acceptance.

  12. Eccentric superconducting rf cavity separator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggus, J.R.; Giordano, S.T.; Halama, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerator apparatus is described having an eccentric-shaped, iris-loaded deflecting cavity for an rf separator for a high energy high momentum, charged particle accelerator beam. In one embodiment, the deflector is superconducting, and the apparatus of this invention provides simplified machining and electron beam welding techniques. Model tests have shown that the electrical characteristics provide the desired mode splitting without adverse effects

  13. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  14. Superconducting niobium in high rf magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.

    1988-01-01

    The benefit of superconducting cavities for accelerator applications depends on the field and Q/sub 0/ levels which can be achieved reliably in mass producible multicell accelerating structures. The presently observed field and Q/sub 0/ limitations are caused by anomalous loss mechanisms which are not correlated with the intrinsic properties of the pure superconductor but rather due to defects or contaminants on the superconducting surface. The ultimate performance levels of clean superconducting cavities built from pure Nb will be given by the rf critical field and the surface resistance of the superconductor. In the first part of this paper a short survey is given of the maximum surface magnetic fields achieved in single-cell cavities. The results of model calculations for the thermal breakdown induced by very small defects and for the transition to the defect free case is discussed in part 2. In the last chapter, a discussion is given for the rf critical field of Nb on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau Theory. It is shown that not only purity but also the homogeneity of the material should become important for the performance of superconducting Nb cavities at field levels beyond 100mT. Measurement results of the upper critical field for different grades of commercially available Nb sheet materials are given. 58 references, 20 figures, 1 table

  15. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  16. The LEP2 superconducting RF system

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, A; Brunner, O; Ciapala, Edmond; Frischholz, Hans; Geschonke, Günther; Peschardt, E; Sladen, J

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade of LEP2 energy to beyond the W boson production threshold required the progressive installation of a completely new radio-frequency (RF) accelerating system. The new system used superconducting (SC) cavities, which complemented and partially replaced the original LEP1 RF system based on conventional copper cavity technology. The final system consisted of 56 copper and 288 SC cavities and provided a peak acceleration of more than 3600 MV/turn. This paper describes the main elements of the SC system and reviews the 5 years of LEP2 operation at gradients well beyond the design specification. Also presented are some of the main performance limitations and problems encountered together with the various solutions and procedures found to eliminate them or reduce their effects.

  17. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-T c oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs

  18. Theory of RF superconductivity for resonant cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An overview of a theory of electromagnetic response of superconductors in strong radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields is given with the emphasis on applications to superconducting resonant cavities for particle accelerators. The paper addresses fundamentals of the BCS surface resistance, the effect of subgap states and trapped vortices on the residual surface resistance at low RF fields, and a nonlinear surface resistance at strong fields, particularly the effect of the RF field suppression of the surface resistance. These issues are essential for the understanding of the field dependence of high quality factors Q({B}a)˜ {10}10{--}{10}11 achieved on the Nb cavities at 1.3-2 K in strong RF fields B a close to the depairing limit, and the extended Q({B}a) rise which has been observed on Ti and N-treated Nb cavities. Possible ways of further increase of Q({B}a) and the breakdown field by optimizing impurity concentration at the surface and by multilayer nanostructuring with materials other than Nb are discussed.

  19. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-{Tc} oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Magnetic shielding for superconducting RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, M.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ueki, R.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic shielding is a key technology for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities. There are basically two approaches for shielding: (1) surround the cavity of interest with high permeability material and divert magnetic flux around it (passive shielding); and (2) create a magnetic field using coils that cancels the ambient magnetic field in the area of interest (active shielding). The choice of approach depends on the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field, residual magnetic field tolerance, shape of the magnetic shield, usage, cost, etc. However, passive shielding is more commonly used for superconducting RF cavities. The issue with passive shielding is that as the volume to be shielded increases, the size of the shielding material increases, thereby leading to cost increase. A recent trend is to place a magnetic shield in a cryogenic environment inside a cryostat, very close to the cavities, reducing the size and volume of the magnetic shield. In this case, the shielding effectiveness at cryogenic temperatures becomes important. We measured the permeabilities of various shielding materials at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (4 K) and studied shielding degradation at that cryogenic temperature.

  1. Design and development of cryo-module test system for 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunt, A.C.S.; Anupam Kumar Sinha, B.; Aravind, T.C.; Mishra, D.V.K.; Sinha, E.A.K.; Mukesh Goyal, F.; Tejas Rane, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is a major cryogenic system designed and developed at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC under Indian Institutions and Fermi Lab Collaboration (IIFC). It is necessary test bed to measure the performance of superconducting RF cavities in Cryomodule. CMTS is required to test 1.3 GHz LCLS-II Cryomodule for Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), USA. Feed Cap and End Cap sub systems of Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is designed and developed at CDM, BARC. Feed cap and End cap are 2K liquid helium distribution system for LCLS-II RF Cavity Bath and insulated by intermediate radiation shields maintained at 5K and 40K and Multilayer Insulation. The whole distribution system is enclosed in horizontal vacuum shells of approximately 1100 mm in diameter and 3000 mm in total length. This development was very challenging as many design considerations and decisions for 2K cryogenic requirements have been made and implemented. Also intricate mounting of ceramic sensors both internally and externally (surface mounted) for very low temperature measurements, low temperature epoxy bonding and multi-layer insulation wrapping were successfully completed. (author)

  2. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  3. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  4. Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Tomohiko; Shinozawa, Seiichi; Abe, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Junki; Murakami, Hirohiko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

  5. Superconducting rf and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beam-cavity interactions can limit the beam quality and current handling capability of linear and circular accelerators. These collective effects include cumulative and regenerative transverse beam breakup (BBU) in linacs, transverse multipass beam breakup in recirculating linacs and microtrons, longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities in storage rings, and a variety of transverse and longitudinal single-bunch phenomena (instabilities, beam breakup, and energy deposition). The superconducting radio frequency (SRF) environment has a number of features which distinguish it from room temperature configuration with regard to these beam-cavity interactions. Typically the unloaded Qs of the lower higher order modes (HOM) are at the 10 9 level and require significant damping through couplers. High gradient CW operation, which is a principal advantage of SRF, allows for better control of beam quality, which for its preservation requires added care which respect to collective phenomena. Gradients are significantly higher than those attainable with copper in CW operation but remain significantly lower than those obtainable with pulsed copper cavities. Finally, energy deposition by the beam into the cavity can occur in a cryogenic environment. In this note those characteristics of beam-cavity interactions which are of particular importance for superconducting RF cavities are highlighted. 6 refs., 4 figs

  6. Tuner Design for PEFP Superconducting RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yazhe; An, Sun; Zhang, Liping; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity will be used to accelerate a proton beam after 100 MeV at 700 MHz in a linac of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) and its extended project. In order to control the SRF cavity's operating frequency at a low temperature, a new tuner has been developed for the PEFP SRF cavities. Each PEFP superconducting RF cavity has one tuner to match the cavity resonance frequency with the desired accelerator operating frequency; or to detune a cavity frequency a few bandwidths away from a resonance, so that the beam will not excite the fundamental mode, when the cavity is not being used for an acceleration. The PEFP cavity tuning is achieved by varying the total length of the cavity. The length of the cavity is controlled differentially by tuner acting with respect to the cavity body. The PEFP tuner is attached to the helium vessel and drives the cavity Field Probe (FP) side to change the frequency of the cavity

  7. Suppression of multipacting in high power RF couplers operating with superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P.N., E-mail: ostroumov@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Morris, D.; Larter, T.; Plastun, A.S.; Popielarski, J.; Wei, J.; Xu, T. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Capacitive input couplers based on a 50 Ω coaxial transmission line are frequently used to transmit RF power to superconducting (SC) resonators operating in CW mode. It is well known that coaxial transmission lines are prone to multipacting phenomenon in a wide range of RF power level and operating frequency. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) being constructed at Michigan State University includes two types of quarter wave SC resonators (QWR) operating at 80.5 MHz and two types of half wave SC resonators (HWR) operating at 322 MHz. As was reported in ref. [1] a capacitive input coupler used with HWRs was experiencing strong multipacting that resulted in a long conditioning time prior the cavity testing at design levels of accelerating fields. We have developed an insert into 50 Ω coaxial transmission line that provides opportunity to bias the RF coupler antenna and protect the amplifier from the bias potential in the case of breakdown in DC isolation. Two of such devices have been built and are currently used for the off-line testing of 8 HWRs installed in the cryomodule.

  8. Status of Tristan superconducting RF program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, S.; Akai, K.; Arinaga, M.

    1988-01-01

    The TRISTAN accelerator complex consists of an injector linac system, an accumulation ring (AR) and a main colliding beam ring (MR). The injector linac system is composed of a 2.5 GeV main linac, a 200 MeV high current (10 A) linac for positron generation and a 250 MeV positron preaccelerator. These linacs are now operated with a pulse width of 2 nsec and a repetition rate of 20 pps, which is raised to 50 pps in the near future. The TRISTAN AR is used as a beam accumulator and energy booster for the TRISTAN MR, and additionally it can be operated as an electron-positron collider and as a storage ring for the synchrotron radiation research. The electron (positron) beam of 50 mA (10 mA) peak current is injected from the main linac. The accumulation rate of positrons is now typically 5 mA/min. There are 8 RF cavity sections in two long straight sections, of which 6 sections are occupied by 11 cell APS cavities and 2 sections are used for the beam test of the superconducting cavities. The TRISTAN MR was designed so that it could achieve as high energy as possible for its size, therefore it has very long straight sections for RF cavities. The normal conducting cavities, which are 9-cell APS type and have a shunt impedance of 22.5 M Omega/m, are distributed to 3 straight sections. The remaining straight section named NIKKO division, is allotted to the superconducting cavities. MR accelerated the first electron beam to 25.5 GeV on 24th of October 1986. The energy upgrading program was approved in 1986 and the construction of 32 5-cell superconducting cavities and a 4.5 KW helium refrigerator system started. It is expected that the accelerating field and the Q value are better than 5 MV/m and 1 x 10 9 , respectively. 8 references, 13 figures, 4 tables

  9. Upgrade of the Cryogenic CERN RF Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pirotte, O; Brunner, O; Inglese, V; Koettig, T; Maesen, P; Vullierme, B

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented.

  10. Upgrade of the cryogenic CERN RF test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotte, O.; Benda, V.; Brunner, O.; Inglese, V.; Maesen, P.; Vullierme, B.; Koettig, T.

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented

  11. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  12. RF properties of superconducting Pb electroplated onto Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of Pb as a superconducting material for high power rf applications are reviewed. The most common method of producing Pb superconducting resonators, which is by electrodeposition of a thin layer on a Cu substrate, is described, and some suggestions for further development are presented. 56 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  13. Adaptive compensation of Lorentz force detuning in superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Lorentz force can dynamically detune pulsed Superconducting RF cavities and considerable additional RF power can be required to maintain the accelerating gradient if no effort is made to compensate. Fermilab has developed an adaptive compensation system for cavities in the Horizontal Test Stand, in the SRF Accelerator Test Facility, and for the proposed Project X.

  14. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1993-01-01

    A large cryogenic system has been designed, constructed and operated in the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at KEK for 508 MHz, 32x5-cell superconducting RF cavities. A 6.5 kW, 4.4 K helium refrigerator with 5 turbo-expanders on the ground level supplies liquid helium in parallel to the 16 cryostats in the TRISTAN tunnel through about 250 m long multichannel transfer line. Two 5-cell cavities are coupled together, enclosed in a cryostat and cooled by about 830 L pool boiling liquid helium. A liquid nitrogen circulation system with a turbo-expander has been adopted for 80 K radiation shields in the multichannel transfer line and the cryostats to reduce liquid nitrogen consumption and to increase the operation stability of the system. The cryogenic system has a total of about 18 000 hours of operating time from the first cool down test in August 1988 to November 1991. The design principle and outline of the cryogenic system and the operational experience are presented. (orig.)

  15. Linear collider applications of superconducting RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The most promising technology for producing interactions of electrons and positrons in TeV energy range is the linear collider. In the linear collider each and every collision of charged particles depends on the production of the charges at rest and then the acceleration of those charges to full energy. The particles that exit the interaction region are discharded. A consequence of this mode of operation is that the luminosity of the machine is ultimately determined by the efficiency with which AC power can be converted into beam power. The consideration of superconducting cavities is motivated by the need for high efficiency. Thus, the high emittance around a beam collider and low emittance around beams are discussed first in the present report. Flat beams are then addressed focusing on the characteristics of the source, final focus, and beam stability. The beam stability, in particular, is discussed in detail in relation to the multiple bunch transverse stability, wake field induced energy spread, trapped modes, pulse width, duty cycle, RF power, and refrigerator power. (N.K.)

  16. European infrastructures for R&D and test of superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryo-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, W

    2011-01-01

    The volume is copyright CERN and can be distributed under CC-BY license. The need for a European facility to build and test superconducting RF accelerating structures and cryo‐modules (SRF test facility) was extensively discussed during the preparation of EuCARD [1,2]. It comprised a distributed network of equipment across Europe to be assessed and, if needed, completed by hardware. It also addressed the quest for a deeper basic understanding, a better control and optimisation of the manufacture of superconducting RF structures with the aim of a substantial improvement of the accelerating gradient, a reduction of its spread and a cost minimisation. However, consequent to EU budget restrictions, the proposal was not maintained. Instead, a more detailed analysis was requested by a sub‐task inside the EuCARD Network [3] AccNet ‐ RFTech [4]. The main objective of this “SRF sub‐task” consists of intensifying a collaborative effort between European accelerator labs. The aim focused on planning and later...

  17. Electron Source based on Superconducting RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianmu

    High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a Continuous Wave (CW) mode can provide high peak current as well as the high average current which are required for many advanced applications of accelerators facilities, for example, electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and Free-Electron Lasers (FELs). Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) has many advantages over other electron-injector technologies, especially when it is working in CW mode as it offers higher repetition rate. An 112 MHz SRF electron photo-injector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for electron cooling experiments. The gun utilizes a Quarter-Wave Resonator (QWR) geometry for a compact structure and improved electron beam dynamics. The detailed RF design of the cavity, fundamental coupler and cathode stalk are presented in this work. A GPU accelerated code was written to improve the speed of simulation of multipacting, an important hurdle the SRF structure has to overcome in various locations. The injector utilizes high Quantum Efficiency (QE) multi-alkali photocathodes (K2CsSb) for generating electrons. The cathode fabrication system and procedure are also included in the thesis. Beam dynamic simulation of the injector was done with the code ASTRA. To find the optimized parameters of the cavities and beam optics, the author wrote a genetic algorithm Python script to search for the best solution in this high-dimensional parameter space. The gun was successfully commissioned and produced world record bunch charge and average current in an SRF photo-injector.

  18. Design of RF structures for a superconducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) programme in India is a 1 GeV, high intensity CW proton accelerator that will be superconducting after the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), i.e. after 3 MeV. The superconducting linac will consist of various superconducting structures like Half Wave Resonators, Spoke Resonators and elliptical cavities, operating at RF frequencies of 162.5 MHz, 325 MHz and 650 MHz. The paper will discuss the optimization of the electromagnetic design of the various superconducting structures. (author)

  19. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souli, M.

    2007-07-01

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q c in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  20. Fundamental of cryogenics (for superconducting RF technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Pierini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This review briefly illustrates a few fundamental concepts of cryogenic engineering, the technological practice that allows reaching and maintaining the low-temperature operating conditions of the superconducting devices needed in particle accelerators. To limit the scope of the task, and not to duplicate coverage of cryogenic engineering concepts particularly relevant to superconducting magnets that can be found in previous CAS editions, the overview presented in this course focuses on superconducting radio-frequency cavities.

  1. Laboratory report on RF superconductivity at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kui, Zhao; Baocheng, Zhang; Lifang, Wang; Jin, Yu; Rongli, Geng; Genfa, Wu; Tong, Wang; Jinhu, Song; Chia-erh, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The activities on RF superconductivity at Peking University in the past two years are reported. Two 1.5 GHz Nb cavities were successfully fabricated using Chinese Nb sheets in 1994. One of the cavities has been measured, and the results are given. A laser driven DC electron gun has been designed and constructed which is the pre-testing device of photo-electron gun using superconducting cavity. A series of experiments on the cathode and cavity will be performed in the near future. Two superconducting accelerating devices are being considered for two projects in China. (R.P.)

  2. Karlsruhe: En route to a superconducting r.f. separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    A superconducting r.f. separator is under construction at Karlsruhe for use at the SPS in the beam-line to the Omega spectrometer. Tests on a section of the first 3 m deflector have given results close to the desired parameters.

  3. Improving superconducting RF technology for high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the state of the art is given. It shows recent proofs of success of the technology. An important R and D effort remains to be done in order to collect all the expectable benefits of RF superconductivity. (author)

  4. Superconducting rf cavities for accelerator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proch, D.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a review of superconducting cavities for accelerator application (β = 1). The layout of a typical accelerating unit is described and important parameters are discussed. Recent cavity measurements and storage ring beam tests are reported and the present state of the art is summarized

  5. A design and performance analysis tool for superconducting RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilcher, T.; Simrock, S.N.; Merminga, L.; Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting rf systems are usually operated with continuous rf power or with rf pulse lengths exceeding 1 ms to maximize the overall wall plug power efficiency. Typical examples are CEBAF at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the TESLA Test Facility at DESY. The long pulses allow for effective application of feedback to stabilize the accelerating field in presence of microphonics, Lorentz force detuning, and fluctuations of the beam current. In this paper the authors describe a set of tools to be used with MATLAB and SIMULINK, which allow to analyze the quality of field regulation for a given design. The tools include models for the cavities, the rf power source, the beam, sources of field perturbations, and the rf feedback system. The rf control relevant electrical and mechanical characteristics of the cavity are described in form of time-varying state space models. The power source is modeled as a current generator and includes saturation characteristics and noise.An arbitrary time structure can be imposed on the beam current to reflect a macro-pulse structure and bunch charge fluctuations. For rf feedback several schemes can be selected: Traditional amplitude and phase control as well as I/Q control. The choices for the feedback controller include analog or digital approaches and various choices of frequency response. Feed forward can be added to further suppress repetitive errors. The results of a performance analysis of the CEBAF and the TESLA Linac rf system using these tools are presented

  6. Submacropulse electron-beam dynamics correlated with higher-order modes in Tesla-type superconducting rf cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observations of submacropulse beam centroid oscillations correlated with higher order modes (HOMs which were generated by off-axis electron beam steering in TESLA-type superconducting rf cavities. The experiments were performed at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST facility using its unique configuration of a photocathode rf gun injecting beam into two separated nine-cell cavities in series with corrector magnets and beam position monitors (BPMs located before, between, and after them. Oscillations of ∼100  kHz in the vertical plane and ∼380  kHz in the horizontal plane with up to 600-μm amplitudes were observed in a 3-MHz micropulse repetition rate beam with charges of 100, 300, 500, and 1000  pC/b. However, the effects were much reduced at 100  pC/b. The measurements were based on HOM detector circuitry targeting the first and second dipole passbands, rf BPM bunch-by-bunch array data, imaging cameras, and a framing camera. Calculations reproduced the oscillation frequencies of the phenomena in the vertical case. In principle, these fundamental results may be scaled to cryomodule configurations of major accelerator facilities.

  7. Status of superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    For several reasons, a brief historical review seems appropriate at this time. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the first acceleration of beam with a superconducting cavity will occur shortly [1,2,3]. Also, the scope of accelerator applications of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) devices has, within the last few months, begun to increase rapidly [4] - to the point that it seems likely that early expectations for this technology will largely be fulfilled. Since the object is to accelerate beam, a simple one parameter measure of the technology is the total of how much beam has been accelerated. Figure 1 shows the total accumulated voltage in tests and/or operation of superconducting accelerating cavities with beam, up to the time indicated, as reported in the open literature [4-35]. This parameter has been divided into two terms: first, the subtotal for electron accelerating velocity-of-light structures, and second the subtotal for low-velocity, ion accelerating structures. To restate: each of these terms represents as a function of time an integrated, accumulative total voltage produced by SRF hardware and demonstrated with beam. 56 refs., 4 figs

  8. Superconducting RF Development at Nuclear Science Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amit

    2005-01-01

    A Superconducting Linac is being installed as a booster for the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC). The accelerating structure for this linac is a Nb QWR cavity, designed and fabricated as a joint collaboration between NSC and ANL, USA. Initial cavities required for the first linac module were fabricated at ANL. For fabrication of cavities required for future modules a Superconducting Resonator Fabrication Facility has been set up at NSC. Three quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavities have been fabricated using the in-house facility. This facility has been used for repairs on the resonators which sprung leaks. Fabrication of fifteen resonators for the second and third linac modules is under progress. Eight resonators along with a superconducting solenoid has been installed in the first linac cryostat and tested for energy gain with a pulsed beam of 90 MeV Si from the Pelletron. Acceleration of the ions to 96 MeV was measured downstream and beam transmission through the linac was measured...

  9. Elliptical superconducting RF cavities for FRIB energy upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Contreras, C.; Plastun, A. S.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Taylor, A.; Wei, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Q.; Gonin, I. V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-physics design of a five cell, βG = 0 . 61, 644 MHz superconducting elliptical cavity being developed for an energy upgrade in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is presented. The FRIB energy upgrade from 200 MeV/u to 400 MeV/u for heaviest uranium ions will increase the intensities of rare isotope beams by nearly an order of magnitude. After studying three different frequencies, 1288 MHz, 805 MHz, and 644 MHz, the 644 MHz cavity was shown to provide the highest energy gain per cavity for both uranium and protons. The FRIB upgrade will include 11 cryomodules containing 5 cavities each and installed in 80-meter available space in the tunnel. The cavity development included extensive multi-physics optimization, mechanical and engineering analysis. The development of a niobium cavity is complete and two cavities are being fabricated in industry. The detailed design of the cavity sub-systems such as fundamental power coupler and dynamic tuner are currently being pursued. In the overall design of the cavity and its sub-systems we extensively applied experience gained during the development of 650 MHz low-beta cavities at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) for the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) II.

  10. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  11. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  12. First prototype Copper-Niobium RF Superconducting Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is the first RF superconducting cavity made of copper with a very thin layer of pure niobium deposited on the inner wall by sputtering. This new developpment lead to a considerable increase of performance and stability of superconducting cavities and to non-negligible economy. The work was carried out in the ISR workshop. This technique was adopted for the LEP II accelerating cavities. At the centre is Cristoforo Benvenuti, inventor of this important technology, with his assistants, Nadia Circelli and Max Hauer, carrying the sputtering electrode. See also 8209255, 8312339.

  13. Superconducting RF activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Barnes, P.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chojnacki, E.; Ehrlich, R.; Flynn, G.; Graber, J.; Hartung, W.; Hays, T.; Kaplan, R.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The decision was made to try to increase the luminosity of CESR as high as possible with a single magnet ring. This, the Phase-III plan, can yield a luminosity of 1 x 10 33 with 45 bunches in each beam for a total current in each beam of 0.5 amperes. This plan utilizes four superconducting, single cell cavities. The use of only four SC accelerating cells as compared to the present twenty normal conducting cells decreases both the broad band and narrow band impedances sufficiently to allow stable operation at these half ampere current levels. (R.P.)

  14. Superconducting RF Cavities Past, Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaveri, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades many laboratories around the world, notably Argonne (ANL), TJNAF (formerly CEBAF), CERN, DESY and KEK, decided to develop the technology of superconducting (SC) accelerating cavities. The aim was either to increase the accelerator energy or to save electrical consumption or both. This technology has been used extensively in the operating machines showing good performances and strong reliability. At present, the technology using bulk niobium (Nb) or Nb coated on copper (Cu) is mature enough to be applied for many different applications, such as synchrotron light sources and spallation neutron drivers. Results, R&D work and future projects will be presented with emphasis on application to linear accelerators.

  15. Basic principles of RF superconductivity and superconducting cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Schmüser, P

    2006-01-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application of superconductors in radio frequency cavities for particle acceleration. For a cylindrical resonator (“pill box cavity”) the electromagnetic field in the cavity and important parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor and shunt impedance are calculated analytically. The design and performance of practical cavities is shortly addressed.

  16. Characterization of a superconducting Pb photocathode in a superconducting rf photoinjector cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Kamps, T; Knobloch, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A; Neumann, A; Schmeißer, M; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Schubert S; Smedley J; Sekutowicz, J; Will, I

    2014-01-01

    Photocathodes are a limiting factor for the next generation of ultrahigh brightness photoinjectors. We studied the behavior of a superconducting Pb cathode in the cryogenic environment of a superconducting rf gun cavity to measure the quantum efficiency, its spatial distribution, and the work function. We will also discuss how the cathode surface contaminants modify the performance of the photocathode as well as the gun cavity and we discuss the possibilities to remove these contaminants.

  17. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  18. HOM Dampers or not in SUPERCONDUCTING RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  19. Operating experience with high beta superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The number of installed and operational β=1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the U.S. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed

  20. Operating experience with high beta superconducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The number of installed and operational β = 1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the US. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed

  1. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    CERN Document Server

    Cantergiani, E.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A.T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulicforming (EHF). InEHF, half-cells areobtainedthrough ultrahigh-speed deformation ofblank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHFon high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half- cells produced by EHFand by spinning have been compared in terms of damage...

  2. HOM Coupler Optimisation for the Superconducting RF Cavities in ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R; Calaga, R

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the world’s most powerful next generation neutron source. It consists of a linear accelerator, target, and instruments for neutron experiments. The linac is designed to accelerate protons to a final energy of 2.5 GeV, with an average design beam power of 5 MW, for collision with a target used to produce a high neutron flux. A section of the linac will contain Superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities designed at 704 MHz. Beam induced HOMs in these cavities may drive the beam unstable and increase the cryogenic load, therefore HOM couplers are installed to provide sufficient damping. Previous studies have shown that these couplers are susceptible to multipacting, a resonant process which can absorb RF power and lead to heating effects. This paper will show how a coupler suffering from multipacting has been redesigned to limit this effect. Optimisation of the RF damping is also discussed.

  3. Preparation and handling of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Takaaki

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines the recent preparation methods for superconducting cavities used in various laboratories and universities, and reports the problems of the cavity fabrication at KEK as an example of mass production. Preparation and handling are first addressed, focusing on material, fabrication, surface treatment, rinsing, clean environment, and heat treatment. Cavity production at KEK is then described, centering on defects on the surface and clean environments. Field gradients of more than 20 MV/m have been obtained by 1.5-3 GHz single cavities, for multi-cell cavities Eacc of 10 MV/m are available at any frequency range. The successful construction of thirty-two cavities for TRISTAN at KEK is due to the careful checking of the surface and quality control of all processes against the surface defects and contaminations. Eacc of 5 MV/m has been achieved by 94 % of the TRISTAN cavities at the first cold test, but 6 % of them had to be reworked because of the surface defects. These defects could not be detected by an X-ray photograph or visual inspections during the fabrication processes. (N.K.)

  4. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2013-06-11

    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  5. Status of rf superconductivity at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovich, P.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the status of hardware development for the linac portion of the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator system (ATLAS). The ATLAS superconducting linac consists of an independent-phased array of 45 superconducting niobium resonators of the split-ring type. The linac has been operating in its present form since 1985, on a 24-hours per day, 5 days per week schedule. An upgrade of the ATLAS system is currently under construction the positive-ion injector (PII). The PII system will consist of an ECR positive-ion source mounted on a high-voltage platform injecting a very-low-velocity superconducting linac. The completed system will provide for the acceleration of beams of mass up to uranium, and will replace the tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector for ATLAS. The status of resonator development for the superconducting linac is reported in this paper. Accelerating gradients in the existing ATLAS linac are currently limited by excessive heating and rf loss in the fast-tuning system associated with each superconducting resonator. Development of an upgraded fast-tuning system is also reported here. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. RF tuning system for superconducting cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Aditya; Som, S.; Pal, Saikat; Seth, S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Prasad, J.S.; Raj, P.R.; Manna, S.K.; Banerjee, M.; Krishnaiah, K.V.; Maskawade, S.; Saha, M.S.; Biswas, S.; Panda, Umashakar

    2009-01-01

    The RF system of Superconducting cyclotron at VECC has operational frequency 9-27 MHz. It has three numbers of tunable rf amplifier cavities as well as six numbers of tunable Main resonant cavities. RF tuning system takes care of movement of nine stepper motor based sliding short movement and hydraulic driven three coupling capacitors and three trimmer capacitors. The PC-based stepper motor controlled sliding short movement system has positional accuracy of around 20 micron and PC-based hydraulically driven couplers and trimmers system has 10 micron positional accuracy. The RF power is capacitively coupled to the dee (accelerating electrode) of the main resonant cavity through Coupler (Coupling capacitor). The coupling capacitor is used to match the impedance of the main resonant cavity to the 50 Ohm output impedance of final RF power amplifier. Trimmer capacitor operates in closed loop for the adjustment of cavity phase variation arising due to temperature variation and beam loading of the cavity. Coupler can travel 100 mm. and trimmer has 20 mm. travels. A PLC based PID control system has been developed for positional control of the coupler and trimmer. One position control mode of trimmer is same as coupling capacitor and another is velocity control mode. Velocity control mode operates in close-loop. The positional data of different frequencies of nine stepper motors and three coupling capacitors are stored in a database. (author)

  7. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renzhuo [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; White, Michael [Fermilab; Hurd, Joseph [Fermilab; Atassi, Omar Al [Fermilab; Bossert, Richard [Fermilab; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Makara, Jerry [Fermilab; Theilacker, Jay [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  8. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  9. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.-I.; Regan, Amy; Wang, Y.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller

  10. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, S I; Wang, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller.

  11. RF Characterization of Niobium Films for Superconducting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aull† , S; Doebert, S; Junginger, T; Ehiasarian, AP; Knobloch, J; Terenziani, G

    2013-01-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconductors shows a complex dependence on the external parameters such as temperature, frequency or radio-frequency (RF) field. The Quadrupole Resonator modes of 400, 800 and 1200 MHz allow measurements at actual operating frequencies of superconducting cavities. Niobium films on copper substrates have several advantages over bulk niobium cavities. HIPIMS (High-power impulse magnetron sputtering) is a promising technique to increase the quality and therefore the performance of niobium films. This contribution will introduce CERNs recently developed HIPIMS coating apparatus. Moreover, first results of niobium coated copper samples will be presented, revealing the dominant loss mechanisms.

  12. Early prototype of a superconducting RF cavity for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    As early as 1979, before LEP became an approved project, studies were located in the ISR Division. Although Cu-cavities were foreseen, certainly for the 1st energy-stage, superconducting cavities were explored as a possible alternative for the 2nd energy-stage. This began with very basic studies of manufacture and properties of Nb-cavities. This one, held by Mr.Girel, was made from bulk Nb-sheet, 2.5 mm thick. It was dimensioned for tests at 500 MHz (LEP accelerating RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 8004204, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  13. Design Topics for Superconducting RF Cavities and Ancillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H

    2014-01-01

    RF superconductivity has become a major subfield of accelerator science. There has been an explosion in the number of accelerator applications and in the number of laboratories engaged. The first lecture at this meeting of the CAS presented a review of fundamental design principles to develop cavity geometries to accelerate velocity-of-light particles (β = v/c ~ 1), moving on to the corresponding design principles for medium-velocity (medium-β) and low-velocity (low-β) structures. The lecture included mechanical design topics. The second lecture dealt with input couplers, higher-order mode extraction couplers with absorbers, and tuners of both the slow and fast varieties

  14. Design Topics for Superconducting RF Cavities and Ancillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padamsee, H [Cornell University, CLASSE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RF superconductivity has become a major subfield of accelerator science. There has been an explosion in the number of accelerator applications and in the number of laboratories engaged. The first lecture at this meeting of the CAS presented a review of fundamental design principles to develop cavity geometries to accelerate velocity-of-light particles (β = v/c ~ 1), moving on to the corresponding design principles for medium-velocity (medium-β) and low-velocity (low-β) structures. The lecture included mechanical design topics. The second lecture dealt with input couplers, higher-order mode extraction couplers with absorbers, and tuners of both the slow and fast varieties.

  15. Muon spin rotation studies of niobium for superconducting rf applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grassellino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate superconducting properties of niobium samples via application of the muon spin rotation/relaxation (μSR technique. We employ for the first time the μSR technique to study samples that are cut out from large and small grain 1.5 GHz radio frequency (rf single cell niobium cavities. The rf test of these cavities was accompanied by full temperature mapping to characterize the rf losses in each of the samples. Results of the μSR measurements show that standard cavity surface treatments like mild baking and buffered chemical polishing performed on the studied samples affect their surface pinning strength. We find an interesting correlation between high field rf losses and field dependence of the sample magnetic volume fraction measured via μSR. The μSR line width observed in zero-field-μSR measurements matches the behavior of Nb samples doped with minute amounts of Ta or N impurities. A lower and an upper bound for the upper critical field H_{c2} of these cutouts is found.

  16. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergiani, E.; Atieh, S.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulic forming (EHF). In EHF, half-cells are obtained through ultrahigh-speed deformation of blank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHF on high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half-cells produced by EHF and by spinning have been compared in terms of damage created in the material during the forming operation. The damage was assessed through hardness measurements, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) measurements, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses. It was found that EHF does not worsen the damage of the material during forming and instead, some areas of the half-cell have shown lower damage compared to spinning. Moreover, EHF is particularly advantageous to reduce the forming time, preserve roughness, and to meet the final required shape accuracy.

  17. MECHANICAL CAVITY DESIGN FOR 100MV UPGRADE CRYOMODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Wilson; G. Ciovati; E. F. Daly; J. Henry; R. Hicks; J. Hogan; D. Machie; P. Kneisel; C. Reece; J. Sekutowicz; T. Whitlatch

    2003-01-01

    To achieve up to 6 GeV, each cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator currently provides about 30 MV of acceleration. To raise the accelerator energy to 12 GeV, ten additional cryomodules capable of providing over 100 MV of acceleration are required. A prototype of the 100 MV cryomodule has been designed, is presently under construction, and will be completed in 2004. This prototype cryomodule comprises two new cavity designs, four cavities of the low loss design and four cavities of the high gradient design. Although the cavity shapes were designed for their RF properties, the mechanical implications must be considered. In addition to the new cavity shapes, changes have also been made to the cavity end dish assemblies, weld joints, and stiffening rings. This paper will present the results of the stress and vibration analyses used for designing the cryomodule

  18. Cryomodule development for the CEBAF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; E. Feldl; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; V. Nguyen; H. L. Phillips; J. Preble; W. J. Scheider; D. X. Wang; M. Wiseman

    1999-01-01

    Long term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. In support of these plans, an Upgrade Cryomodule capable of providing more than three times the voltage of the original CEBAF cryomodule specification within the same length is under development. Development activities have been focused on critical areas thought to have maximum impact on the overall design. These have included the cavity structure, rf power coupling, cavity suspension, alignment, cavity tuning, and beamline interface. It has been found that all design and development areas are tightly coupled and can not be developed independently. Substantial progress has been made toward an integrated design for the Jefferson Lab Upgraded Cryomodule

  19. Cerenkov Radiator Driven by a Superconducting RF Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, B.R.; Harris, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Niowave, Inc., and Boeing have recently demonstrated operation of the first superconducting RF electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator structure. In preliminary tests, this gun has produced 10 ps long bunches with charge in excess of 78 pC, and with beam energy up to 396 keV. Initial testing occurred at Niowave's Lansing, MI facility, but the gun and diagnostic beam line are planned for installation in California in the near future. The design of the diagnostic beam line is conducive to the addition of a Cerenkov radiator without interfering with other beam line operations. Design and simulations of a Cerenkov radiator, consisting of a dielectric lined waveguide will be presented. The dispersion relation for the structure is determined and the beam interaction is studied using numerical simulations. The characteristics of the microwave radiation produced in both the short and long bunch regimes will be presented.

  20. Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation of Sinusoidal Disturbances in Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kandil, T H; Hartung, W; Khalil, H; Popielarski, J; Vincent, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    A control method, known as adaptive feedforward cancellation (AFC) is applied to damp sinusoidal disturbances due to microphonics in superconducting RF (SRF) cavities. AFC provides a method for damping internal, and external sinusoidal disturbances with known frequencies. It is preferred over other schemes because it uses rudimentary information about the frequency response at the disturbance frequencies, without the necessity of knowing an analytic model (transfer function) of the system. It estimates the magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal disturbance inputs and generates a control signal to cancel their effect. AFC, along with a frequency estimation process, is shown to be very successful in the cancellation of sinusoidal signals from different sources. The results of this research may significantly reduce the power requirements and increase the stability for lightly loaded continuous-wave SRF systems.

  1. Rf structure of superconducting cyclotron for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni; Matsuki, Seishi; Mashiko, Katuo; Shikazono, Naomoto.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages of fast neutrons in therapeutical application are now widely recognized. Fast neutrons are generated by bombarding a thick beryllium target with high energy protons and deuterons. The AVF cyclotrons which deliver 50 MeV protons and 25 MeV deuterons are commonly used and are commercially available now. At the treatment usually rotational irradiation is taken to prevent an injury to normal tissue from the high LET effect of fast neutrons. The construction cost of both cyclotrons and isocentric irradiation installation are relatively high, so that the spread of neutron therapy is obstructed. A superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy application was proposed by a Chalk River group. This low cost design allows the installation to be a dedicated facility located in a hospital, and small size allows installations of the complete cyclotron in a rotatable gantry. The design studies of the superconducting cyclotron based on this idea are going on at Kyoto University. The full scale model experiments for a rf structure of the cyclotron were carried out. (author)

  2. High temperature superconducting films by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, A.M.; Ballentine, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have produced sputtered films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by rf magnetron sputtering from an oxide target consisting of loose reacted powder. The use of a large 8-inch stoichiometric target in the magnetron mode permits films located above the central region to be free of negative-ion resputtering effects, and hence yields reproducible, uniform stoichiometric compositions for a wide range of substrate temperatures. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained either by sputtering at low temperatures followed by an 850 0 C oxygen anneal, or alternatively by depositing onto substrates heated to ∼600 - 650 0 C and cooling in oxygen. Films prepared by the former method on cubic zirconia substrate consist of randomly oriented crystallites with zero resistance above 83 K. Those deposited on zirconia at medium temperatures without the high-temperature anneal contain smooth partially oriented crystallites, with a slightly depressed T/sub c/ ∼75K. Finally, superconducting films have been deposited on MgO using a BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ powder target

  3. Experiment for transient effects of sudden catastrophic loss of vacuum on a scaled superconducting radio frequency cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesandro, A.; Theilacker, J.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Safe operation of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities require design consideration of a sudden catastrophic loss of vacuum (SCLV) adjacent with liquid helium (LHe) vessels and subsequent dangers. An experiment is discussed to test the longitudinal effects of SCLV along the beam line of a string of scaled SRF cavities. Each scaled cavity includes one segment of beam tube within a LHe vessel containing 2 K saturated LHe, and a riser pipe connecting the LHe vessel to a common gas header. At the beam tube inlet is a fast acting solenoid valve to simulate SCLV and a high/low range orifice plate flow-meter to measure air influx to the cavity. The gas header exit also has an orifice plate flow-meter to measure helium venting the system at the relief pressure of 0.4 MPa. Each cavity is instrumented with Validyne pressure transducers and Cernox thermometers. The purpose of this experiment is to quantify the time required to spoil the beam vacuum and the effects of transient heat and mass transfer on the helium system. Heat transfer data is expected to reveal a longitudinal effect due to the geometry of the experiment. Details of the experimental design criteria and objectives are presented.

  4. Performance of the FEL cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, M.; Fischer, J.; Preble, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab, formerly known as CEBAF) is building a highly efficient, kilowatt-level infrared free-electron laser, the IR Demo FEL. The IR FEL uses superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate the electron beam that provides energy for the laser. These cavities provide the high-gradient acceleration for the high average currents necessary for a compact FEL design. Currently, a quarter cryomodule injector and a full eight-cavity cryomodule have been installed in the FEL linac. These units were tested as part of the IR FEL commissioning process. The main focus of these tests was to determine the maximum stable operating gradient. The average maximum gradient reached by these ten cavities was 11 Mv/m. Other tests include measurement of cavity parameters such as the unloaded Q (Qo) vs. gradient, the input coupling, calibration of field probes and behavior of the tuner mechanisms. This paper presents the results of those tests

  5. Technical training: RF superconductivity and accelerator cavity applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training

    2016-01-01

    We are happy to announce a new training course organised by the TE-VSC group in the field of the physics and applications of superconductors. The course provides an overview and update of the theory of radiofrequency and superconductors:   RF Superconductivity and Accelerator Cavity Applications https://cern.ch/course/?164VAC19 One timetable only:  Tuesday, 8 March 2016: from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Wednesday, 9 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 10 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Monday, 14 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Tuesday, 15 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Wednesday, 16 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 17 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Target audience: Experts in radiofrequency or solid state physics (PhD level). Pre-requisites: Basic knowledge of quantum physics and superc...

  6. Experimental Studies of Light Emission Phenomena in Superconducting RF Cavitites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, P.L.; /SLAC; Delayen, J.R.; /Jefferson Lab; Fryberger, D.; /SLAC; Goree, W.S.; Mammosser, J.; /Jefferson Lab /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Szalata, Z.M.; II, J.G.Weisend /SLAC

    2009-08-04

    Experimental studies of light emission phenomena in superconducting RF cavities, which we categorize under the general heading of cavity lights, are described. The cavity lights data, which were obtained using a small CCD video camera, were collected in a series of nine experimental runs ranging from {approx} 1/2 to {approx} 2 h in duration. The video data were recorded on a standard VHS tape. As the runs progressed, additional instrumentation was added. For the last three runs a LabVIEW controlled data acquisition system was included. These runs furnish evidence for several, possibly related, light emission phenomena. The most intriguing of these is what appear to be small luminous objects {le} 1.5 mm in size, freely moving about in the vacuum space, generally without wall contact, as verified by reflections of the tracks in the cavity walls. In addition, on a number of occasions, these objects were observed to bounce off of the cavity walls. The wall-bounce aspect of most of these events was clearly confirmed by pre-bounce and post-bounce reflections concurrent with the tracks. In one of the later runs, a mode of behavior was observed that was qualitatively different from anything observed in the earlier runs. Perhaps the most perplexing aspect of this new mode was the observation of as many as seven luminous objects arrayed in what might be described as a macromolecular formation, coherently moving about in the interior of the cavity for extended periods of time, evidently without any wall contact. It is suggested that these mobile luminous objects are without explanation within the realm of established physics. Some remarks about more exotic theoretical possibilities are made, and future plans are discussed.

  7. Theoretical analysis and experimental investigation on performance of the thermal shield of accelerator cryomodules by thermo-siphon cooling of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, T. S.; Kar, S.; Kumar, M.; Choudhury, A.; Chacko, J.; Antony, J.; Babu, S.; Sahu, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Five beam line cryomodules with total 27 superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) cavities are installed and commissioned at IUAC to enhance the energy of heavy ion from 15 UD Pelletron. To reduce the heat load at 4.2 K, liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled intermediate thermal shield is used for all these cryomodules. For three linac cryomodules, concept of forced flow LN2 cooling is used and for superbuncher and rebuncher, thermo-siphon cooling is incorporated. It is noticed that the shield temperature of superbuncher varies from 90 K to 110 K with respect to liquid nitrogen level. The temperature difference can't be explained by using the basic concept of thermo-siphon with the heat load on up flow line. A simple thermo-siphon experimental set up is developed to simulate the thermal shield temperature profile. Mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen is measured with different heat load on up flow line for different liquid levels. It is noticed that small amount of heat load on down flow line have a significant effect on mass flow rate. The present paper will be investigating the data generated from the thermosiphon experimental set up and a theoretical analysis will be presented here to validate the measured temperature profile of the cryomodule shield.

  8. Dependence of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium on the magnitude of the rf field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Utilizing difference in temperature dependencies we decoupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and residual components of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium at all rf fields up to B{sub rf}{approx}115 mT. We reveal that the residual resistance decreases with field at B{sub rf} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 mT and strongly increases in chemically treated niobium at B{sub rf}>80 mT. We find that BCS surface resistance is weakly dependent on field in the clean limit, whereas a strong and peculiar field dependence emerges after 120 Degree-Sign C vacuum baking.

  9. Low-Level RF Control of Microphonics in Superconducting Spoke-Loaded Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Z.A.; Kelly, M.P.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Shepard, K.W.; Davis, G.; Delayen, Jean; Doolittle, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of cw RF frequency control and RF phase-stabilization experiments performed with a piezoelectric fast tuner mechanically coupled to a superconducting, 345 MHz, < = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity operating at 4.2K. The piezoelectric fast tuner damped low-frequency microphonic-noise by an order of magnitude. Two methods of RF phase-stabilization were characterized: overcoupling with negative phase feedback, and also fast mechanical tuner feedback. The = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity RF field amplitude and phase errors were controlled to ±0.5% and ±30 respectively.

  10. Digital base-band rf control system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating field in superconducting cavities has to be stabilized in amplitude and phase by a radio-frequency (rf control system. Because of their high loaded quality factor superconducting cavities are very susceptible for microphonics. To meet the increased requirements with respect to accuracy, availability, and diagnostics, the previous analog rf control system of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC has been replaced by a digital rf control system. The new hardware consists of two components: An rf module that converts the signal from the cavity down to the base-band and a field-programmable gate array board including a soft CPU that carries out the signal processing steps of the control algorithm. Different algorithms are used for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities. To improve the availability of the control system, techniques for automatic firmware and software deployment have been implemented. Extensive diagnostic features provide the operator with additional information. The architecture of the rf control system as well as the functionality of its components will be presented along with measurements that characterize the performance of the system, yielding, e.g., an amplitude stabilization down to (ΔA/A_{rms}=7×10^{-5} and a phase stabilization of (Δϕ_{rms}=0.8° for superconducting cavities.

  11. Cs2Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun) is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs2Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  12. Mechanical Design and Fabrication Studies for SPL Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; Aviles Santillana, I; Capatina, O; Renaglia, T; Tardy, T; Valverde Alonso, N; Weingarten, W

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s R&D programme on the Superconducting Proton Linac’s (SPL) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) elliptical cavities made from niobium sheets explores new mechanical design and consequently new fabrication methods, where several opportunities for improved optimization were identified. A stainless steel helium vessel is under design rather than a titanium helium vessel using an integrated brazed transition between Nb and the SS helium vessel. Different design and fabrication aspects were proposed and the results are discussed hereafter.

  13. Multiplacting analysis on 650 MHz, BETA 0.61 superconducting RF LINAC cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, Sudeshna; Som, Sumit; Mandal, Aditya; Ghosh, Surajit; Saha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Design, analysis and development of high-β multi-cell elliptical shape Superconducting RF linac cavity has been taken up by VECC, Kolkata as a part of IIFC collaboration. The project aims to provide the-art technology achieving very high electric field gradient in superconducting linac cavity, which can be used in high energy high current proton linear accelerator to be built for ADSS/SNS programme in India and in Project-X at Fermilab, USA. The performance of this type of superconducting RF structure can be greatly affected due to multipacting when we feed power to the cavity. Multipacting is a phenomenon of resonant electron multiplication in which a large number of electrons build up an electron Avalanche which absorbs RF Energy leading to remarkable power losses and heating of the walls, making it impossible to raise the electric field by increasing the RF Power. Multipacting analysis has been carried out for 650 MHz, β=0.61, superconducting elliptical cavity using 2D code MultiPac 2.1 and 3 D code CST particle studio and the result is presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Conceptual design of cryomodules for RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, M. K.; Kim, W. K.; Jang, H. M.; Choi, C. J.; Jo, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Jeon, D. [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The heavy ion accelerator that will be built in Daejeon, Korea utilizes superconducting cavities operating in 2 K. The cavities are QWR (quarter wave resonator), HWR (half wave resonator), SSR1 (sing spoke resonator1) and SSR2. The main role of the cryomodule is supplying thermal insulation for cryogenic operation of the cavities and maintaining cavities' alignment. Thermal and structural consideration such as thermal load by heat leak and heat generation, cryogenic fluid management, thermal contraction, and so on. This paper describes detailed design considerations and current results have being done including thermal load estimation, cryogenic flow piping, pressure relief system, and so on.

  15. Traveling wave tube oscillator/amplifier with superconducting rf circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasper, L.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a device comprising: an electron gun for producing an electron beam; a collector for collecting the electron beam; a vacuum housing surrounding the electron beam and having an integral slow wave circuit, the circuit being made from superconducting ceramic material; means for maintaining the temperature of the superconducting ceramic below its critical temperature; means for extracting an output signal from the slow wave circuit; means for creating a magnetic field within the vacuum housing so that interaction between the electron beam and the slow wave circuit produces the output signal

  16. Superconducting accelerometer using niobium-on-sapphire rf resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerometer is described which uses a rf niobium-on-sapphire resonator as its sensor element. The accelerometer uses a magnetically levitated spool as a test mass and the spool modulates the inductance of the resonator; its position is servo controlled to maintain the resonator at the external rf excitation frequency. The accelerometer has high sensitivity over the full audio frequency range, but is optimized for frequencies between 100 Hz and 1 kHz, where the calculated displacement sensitivity approaches 10 -15 cm for a 1 Hz measurement bandwidth. The system noise sources are analyzed and possible improvements are discussed

  17. Study of thermal effects in superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousson, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Lesrel, J.; Yaniche, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A high speed thermometric system equipped with 64 fixed surface thermometers is used to investigate thermal effects in several 3 GHz cavities. An evaluation of the time response of our thermometers is presented. A method based on RF signal analysis is proposed to evaluate the normal zone propagation rate during thermal breakdown. (authors)

  18. A Wire Position Monitor System for the ISAC-II Cryomodule Components Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Rawnsley, B; Dutto, G; Fong, K; Laxdal, R E; Ries, T

    2004-01-01

    TRIUMF is developing ISAC-II, a superconducting (SC) linac. It will comprise 9 cryomodules with a total of 48 niobium cavities and 12 SC solenoids. They must remain aligned at liquid He temperatures: cavities to ±400 μm and solenoids to ±200 μm after a vertical contraction of ~4 mm. A wire position monitor (WPM) system based on a TESLA design has been developed, built, and tested with a prototype cryomodule. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by a 215 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPMs. The wire is stretched between the warm tank walls parallel to the beam axis providing a position reference. The sensors, one per cavity and two per solenoid, are attached to the cold elements to monitor their motion during pre-alignment, pumping and cool down. A WPM consists of four 50 Ω striplines spaced 90° apart. A GaAs multiplexer scans the WPMs and a Bergoz card converts the RF signals to DC X and Y voltages. National Ins...

  19. Design and development of RF system for vertical test stand for characterization of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Rajput, Vikas; Baxy, Deodatta; Agrawal, Ankur; Mahawar, Ashish; Adarsh, Kunver; Singh, Pratap; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    RRCAT is developing a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) to test and qualify 1.3 GHz/650 MHz, SCRF Cavities in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) under Indian Institutions' Fermilab Collaboration. The technical details for VTS is being provided by FNAL, USA. The RF System of VTS needs to provide stable RF power to SCRF cavity with control of amplitude, relative phase and frequency. The incident, reflected, transmitted power and field decay time constant of the cavity are measured to evaluate cavity performance parameters (E, Qo). RF Power is supplied via 500 W Solid State amplifier, 1270-1310 MHz being developed by PHPMS, RRCAT. VTS system is controlled by PXI Platform and National Instruments LabVIEW software. Low Level RF (LLRF) system is used to track the cavity frequency using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The system is comprised of several integrated functional modules which would be assembled, optimized, and tested separately. Required components and instruments have been identified and procurement for the same is underway. Inhouse development for the Solid State RF amplifier and instrument interfacing is in progress. This paper describes the progress on the development of the RF system for VTS. (author)

  20. Researches on bake effect on RF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Zhao Kui; Zhu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The Q-slope at high gradient affects the performance of superconducting cavity greatly. Recent researches show that low temperature (100-150) degree C heat treatment (bake) has positive effects on the performance of superconducting cavities. A lot of cavity tests are analyzed based on bake treatment. The average gradient E acc,max and E acc at Q=1 x 10 10 are increased by more than 3.5 MV/m. Q at E acc,max is increased and the Q-slope is improved. Analysis on bake temperature shows that higher bake temperature leads to higher Q value. Comparison of BCP and EP cavities shows that at least 60-80 μm EP is needed for BCP surface. More than 10-15 μm removal of the surface by BCP will degrade the performance of an EP cavity. Oxygen diffusion model is used to illustrate bake effect. (authors)

  1. Microscopic Investigation of Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anlage, Steven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Our overall goal is to contribute to the understanding of defects that limit the high accelerating gradient performance of Nb SRF cavities. Our approach is to develop a microscopic connection between materials defects and SRF performance. We developed a near-field microwave microscope to establish this connection. The microscope is based on magnetic hard drive write heads, which are designed to create very strong rf magnetic fields in very small volumes on a surface.

  2. RF Coupler Design for the TRIUMF ISAC-II Superconducting Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, R L; Harmer, P; Laxdal, R E; Mitra, A K; Sekatchev, I; Waraich, B; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    An RF Coupler for the ISAC-II medium beta (β=0.058 and 0.071) superconducting quarter wave resonators was designed and tested at TRIUMF. The main goal of this development was to achieve stable operation of superconducting cavities at high acceleration gradients and low thermal load to the helium refrigeration system. The cavities will operate at 6 MV/m acceleration gradient in overcoupled mode at a forward power 200 W at 106 MHz. The overcoupling provides ±20 Hz cavity bandwidth, which improves the stability of the RF control system for fast helium pressure fluctuations, microphonics and environmental noise. Choice of materials, cooling with liquid nitrogen, aluminum nitride RF window and thermal shields insure a small thermal load on the helium refrigeration system by the Coupler. An RF finger contact which causedμdust in the coupler housing was eliminated without any degradation of the coupler performance. RF and thermal calculations, design and test results on the coupler are p...

  3. Effect of the Tuner on the Field Flatness of SNS Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, A

    2004-01-01

    Field flatness in a multi-cell superconducting cavity affects not only the net accelerating voltage, but also the peak surface field and the Lorenz Force detuning coefficient. Our measurement indicates that the field flatness changes both external Q of the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) and external Q of the Field Probe (FP). The field amplitude tilts linearly to the distance between the cell center and the cavity’s geometry center (pivot point). The tilt rate has been measured in a cryomodule cold (2 K) test, being about 2%/100 kHz, relative the field flatness at the cavity’s center frequency of 805 MHz. Bead-pull measurements confirmed that the field flatness change is 2.0%/100 kHz for a medium β cavity with helium vessel, and 1.72%/100 kHz without helium vessel. These results matched the predictions of simulations using ANSYS and SUPERFISH. A detailed analysis reveals that longitudinal capacitive gap deformation is the main cause of the frequency change. Field flatness change ...

  4. High-Q operation of superconducting rf cavities: Potential impact of thermocurrents on the rf surface resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For many new accelerator applications, superconducting radio frequency systems are the enabling technology. In particular for CW applications, much effort is being expended to minimize the power dissipation (surface resistance of niobium cavities. Starting in 2009, we suggested a means of reducing the residual resistance by performing a thermal cycle [O. Kugeler et al., in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity (2009, p. 352], a procedure of warming up a cavity after initial cooldown to about 20 K and cooling it down again. In subsequent studies [J. M. Vogt, O. Kugeler, and J. Knobloch, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 102002 (2013], this technique was used to manipulate the residual resistance by more than a factor of 2. It was postulated that thermocurrents during cooldown generate additional trapped magnetic flux that impacts the cavity quality factor. Here, we present a more extensive study that includes measurements of two additional passband modes and that confirms the effect. In this paper, we also discuss simulations that support the claim. While the layout of the cavity LHe tank system is cylindrically symmetric, we show that the temperature dependence of the material parameters results in a nonsymmetric current distribution. Hence a significant amount of magnetic flux can be generated at the rf surface.

  5. Fabrication and tests and RF control of the superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.; Girard, J.; Girma, J.L.; Leconte, P.; Lussignol, Y.; Moreau, R.; Passerieux, J.P.; Ramstein, G.; Wartski, L.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators used in the Saclay linac are discussed. The outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for the two designs, but internal structures are different: full wave helix with three gaps behavior; or half wave with two gaps behavior. All cavities (34 full wave, 16 half) were tested for field and mounted in the machine cryostats. Cavity fabrication and performance are summarized. Vibration tests and Rf control are described. It is argued that helix resonators can overcome problems due to vibration. The very low lock out time percentage measured in an acceleration test with 21 cavities supports this confidence

  6. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  7. Engineering and Cryogenic Testing of the ISAC-II Medium Beta Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, G; Laxdal, R E; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I

    2004-01-01

    The medium beta section of the ISAC-II Heavy Ion Accelerator consists of five cryomodules each containing four quarter wave bulk niobium resonators and one superconducting solenoid. A prototype cryomodule has been designed and assembled at TRIUMF. The cryomodule vacuum space contains a mu-metal shield, an LN2 cooled, copper, thermal shield, plus the cold mass and support system. This paper will describe the design goals, engineering choices and fabrication and assembly techniques as well as report the results of the initial cold tests. In particular we will summarize the alignment procedure and the results from the wire position monitoring system.

  8. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  9. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  10. Commissioning of the 400 MHz LHC RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond; Baudrenghien, P; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Linnecar, T; Maesen, P; Molendijk, J; Montesinos, E; Valuch, D; Weierud, F

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the 400 MHz superconducting RF system in LHC is finished and commissioning is under way. The final RF system comprises four cryo-modules each with four cavities in the LHC tunnel straight section round IP4. Also underground in an adjacent cavern shielded from the main tunnel are the sixteen 300 kW klystron RF power sources with their high voltage bunkers, two Faraday cages containing RF feedback and beam control electronics, and racks containing all the slow controls. The system and the experience gained during commissioning will be described. In particular, results from conditioning the cavities and their movable main power couplers and the setting up of the low level RF feedbacks will be presented.

  11. Microphonics detuning compensation in 3.9 GHZ superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben Carcagno

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical vibrations can detune superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities unless a tuning mechanism counteracting the vibrations is present. Due to their narrow operating bandwidth and demanding mechanical structure, the 13-cell 3.9GHz SCRF cavities for the Charged Kaons at Main Injector (CKM) experiment at Fermilab are especially susceptible to this microphonic phenomena. We present early results correlating RF frequency detuning with cavity vibration measurements for CKM cavities; initial detuning compensation results with piezoelectric actuators are also presented

  12. Microphonics detuning compensation in 3.9 GHZ superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben Carcagno et al.

    2003-10-20

    Mechanical vibrations can detune superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities unless a tuning mechanism counteracting the vibrations is present. Due to their narrow operating bandwidth and demanding mechanical structure, the 13-cell 3.9GHz SCRF cavities for the Charged Kaons at Main Injector (CKM) experiment at Fermilab are especially susceptible to this microphonic phenomena. We present early results correlating RF frequency detuning with cavity vibration measurements for CKM cavities; initial detuning compensation results with piezoelectric actuators are also presented.

  13. The elbe accelerator facility starts operation with the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2010-01-01

    As the first superconducting rf photo-injector (SRF gun) in practice, the FZD 3+1/2 cell SRF gun is successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE. This setting will improve the beam quality for ELBE users. It is the first example for an accelerator facility fully based on superconducting RF technology. For high average power FEL and ERL sources, the combination of SRF linac and SRF gun provides a new chance to produce beams of high average current and low emittance with relative low power consumption. The main parameters achieved from the present SRF gun are the final electron energy of 3 MeV, 16 μA average current, and rms transverse normalized emittances of 3 mm mrad at 77 pC bunch charge. A modified 3+1/2 cell niobium cavity has been fabricated and tested, which will increase the rf gradient in the gun and thus better the beam parameters further. In this paper the status of the integration of the SRF gun with the ELBE linac will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will ...

  14. Present status and future directions of the JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, EJ.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimori, M.; Sawamura, M.; Hajima, R.; Nagai, R.; Kikuzawa, N.; Nishimori, N.; Shizuma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 2.34kW FEL light and l00kW electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in February 2000. Twice larger output than the present program goal of 1kW was achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 2 years program goal is the 100kW class FEL light and a few MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility. Finally, several applications, table-top superconducting rf linac based FELs, and an X-ray FEL R and D will be discussed as a next-five years program at JAERI-FEL laboratory. (author)

  15. Pre-tuning of TRISTAN superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Suzuki, Toshiji; Iino, Yohsuke.

    1990-01-01

    Pre-tuning of thirty-two TRISTAN superconducting cavities has been done. In this paper are described the pre-tuning system and the results of all the cavities. The average field flatness was 1.4 % after pre-tuning. From our experience, the followings are important, 1) to evacuate the cavity during the process of the pre-tuning to avoid the uncertainty in evacuation, 2) pre-tuning is needed after annealing because it causes changes of the cell length and the field profile and 3) field flatness sometimes changes when expanded and 4) cells should not be expanded more than 1.5 mm after pre-tuning since inelastic deformation occurs. (author)

  16. Investigation and reduction of excess low-frequency noise in rf superconducting quantum interference devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, M.; Heiden, C.; Clarke, J.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the low-frequency excess noise of rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), fabricated from thin niobium films and operated at 4.2 K, with rf bias frequencies of 0.15, 1.7, and 3 GHz. When the SQUIDs were operated in an open-loop configuration in the absence of low-frequency flux modulation, the demodulated rf voltage exhibited a substantial level 1/f noise, which was essentially independent of the rf bias frequency. As the rf bias frequency was increased, the crossover frequency at which the 1/f noise power was equal to the white noise power moved to higher frequencies, because of the reduction in white noise. On the other hand, when the SQUID was flux modulated at 50 kHz and operated in a flux locked loop, no 1/f noise was observed at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. A detailed description of how the combination of rf bias and flux modulation removes 1/f noise due to critical current fluctuations is given. Thus, the results demonstrate that the 1/f noise observed in these SQUIDs is generated by critical current fluctuations, rather than by the hopping of flux vortices in the niobium films

  17. Cs_{2}Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Xiang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs_{2}Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs_{2}Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  18. Development of a Solid State RF Amplifier in the kW Regime for Application with Low Beta Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Christian; Borisov, A; Kolesov, Sergej; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Projects based on the use of low beta superconducting cavities for ions are under operation or development at several labs worldwide. Often these cavities are individually driven by RF power sources in the kW regime. For an ongoing project a modular 2 kW, 176 MHz unconditionally stable RF amplifier for CW and pulsed operation was designed, built, and tested. Extended thermal analysis was used to develop a water cooling system in order to optimize the performance of the power transistors and other thermally loaded components. The paper will outline the design concept of the amplifier and present first results on the test of the amplifier with a superconducting cavity.

  19. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  20. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E.C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R and D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R and D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  1. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E. C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Xu, Wencan

    2010-12-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  2. Research on DC-RF superconducting photocathode injector for high average power FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Hao Jiankui; Hu Yanle; Zhang Baocheng; Quan Shengwen; Chen Jiaer; Zhuang Jiejia

    2001-01-01

    To obtain high average current electron beams for a high average power Free Electron Laser (FEL), a DC-RF superconducting injector is designed. It consists of a DC extraction gap, a 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity and a coaxial input system. The DC gap, which takes the form of a Pierce configuration, is connected to the 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity. The photocathode is attached to the negative electrode of the DC gap. The anode forms the bottom of the ((1)/(2)) cavity. Simulations are made to model the beam dynamics of the electron beams extracted by the DC gap and accelerated by the superconducting cavity. High quality electron beams with emittance lower than 3 π-mm-mrad can be obtained. The optimization of experiments with the DC gap, as well as the design of experiments with the coaxial coupler have all been completed. An optimized 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity is in the process of being studied and manufactured

  3. Lessons Learned from the Jefferson Lab - SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Hogan; Edward Daly; John Fischer; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    In light of the recent developments with the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the recommendation to utilize ''Cold'' technology for this future particle accelerator, this paper will present the lessons learned from the recently concluded Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodule production run at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Over the past twenty years Jefferson Lab has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more SRF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The knowledge gained from the design and fabrication of the SNS prototype, eleven - 0.61 (medium) beta and the twelve - 0.81 (high) beta cryomodules, will prove to be an effective asset to the ILC project. After delivery of the final production cryomodule in March 2005, design and fabrication data will be collected, evaluated and presented to make this information beneficial for future particle accelerator projects. Recommendations with respect to these findings will also be presented as an integral part of this paper

  4. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator; Etude et developpement d'un coupleur de puissance pour les cavites supraconductrices destinees aux accelerateurs de protons de haute intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M

    2007-07-15

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q{sub c} in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  5. On active disturbance rejection based control design for superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, John; Morris, Dan; Usher, Nathan [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Gao, Zhiqiang, E-mail: z.gao@csuohio.edu [Center for Advanced Control Technologies, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115-2214 (United States); Zhao Shen; Nicoletti, Achille; Zheng Qinling [Center for Advanced Control Technologies, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115-2214 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are key components of modern linear particle accelerators. The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is building a 3 MeV/u re-accelerator (ReA3) using SRF cavities. Lightly loaded SRF cavities have very small bandwidths (high Q) making them very sensitive to mechanical perturbations whether external or self-induced. Additionally, some cavity types exhibit mechanical responses to perturbations that lead to high-order non-stationary transfer functions resulting in very complex control problems. A control system that can adapt to the changing perturbing conditions and transfer functions of these systems would be ideal. This paper describes the application of a control technique known as 'Active Disturbance Rejection Control' (ARDC) to this problem.

  6. Development of L-band niobium superconducting RF cavities with high accelerating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Ono, Masaaki; Kako, Eiji; Shishido, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suzuki, Takafusa; Higuchi, Tamawo.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting RF cavity is a candidate for the TeV energy e + /e - linear collider of next generation if the accelerating field is improved to 25-30 MV/m and much cost down is achieved in cavity fabrication. Since 1990, KEK has continued R and D of L-band niobium superconducting cavities focusing on the high field issue. A serious problem like Q-degradation due to vacuum discharge came out on the way, however, it has been overcome and presently all of cavities which were annealed at 1400degC achieved the accelerating field of >25 MV/m with enough Qo value. Recent results on single cell cavities are described in this paper. (author)

  7. Physics and chemistry of niobium materials in the context of superconducting RF cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities excel over the normal conducting RF cavities in the long pulse or continuous wave high energy particle accelerations, and niobium (Nb) is currently the material of choice for fabrication of such SCRF cavities. However the accelerating gradients attained in the Nb SCRF cavities deployed in various high energy particle accelerators are significantly below the theoretical limit predicted by the superconducting properties of Nb. Thus it is very important to understand the physics and chemistry of Nb materials in some details so as to maximize the SCRF cavity performance. This abstract will discuss some issues which help in the development of high gradient and energy efficient Nb SCRF cavities in a cost effective manner. (author)

  8. Structural and superconducting properties of sputter-deposited niobium films for applications in RF accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, M A

    2000-01-01

    The present work presents the results of a systematic study of superconducting and structural properties of niobium films sputter deposited onto the inner walls of radiofrequency copper resonators. The measured superconducting quantities include the surface resistance, the critical temperature, the penetration depth and the upper and lower critical fields. In addition to films grown with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne and Ar-Ne mixtures) and to films grown on substrates prepared under different conditions, the study also includes massive niobium cavities. The surface resistance is analysed in terms of its dependence on the temperature and on the rf field amplitude and, when possible, compared to theoretical predictions. In general, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. All experimental results are presented in the form of a simple, but adequate parameterisation. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially uncorrelated with the other variables, but strongly dependent on the macroscop...

  9. Latest Development in Superconducting RF Structures for beta=1 Particle Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Kneisel

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting RF technology is since nearly a decade routinely applied to different kinds of accelerating devices: linear accelerators, storage rings, synchrotron light sources and FEL's. With the technology recommendation for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a year ago, new emphasis has been placed on improving the performance of accelerating cavities both in Q-value and in accelerating gradients with the goal to achieve performance levels close to the fundamental limits given by the material parameters of the choice material, niobium. This paper will summarize the challenges to SRF technology and will review the latest developments in superconducting structure design. Additionally, it will give an overview of the newest results and will report on the developments in alternative materials and technologies

  10. Digital Low-Level RF Controls for Future Superconducting Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The requirements for RF Control Systems of Superconducting Linear Colliders are not only defined in terms of the quality of field control but also with respect to operability, availability, and maintainability of the RF System, and the interfaces to other subsystems. The field control of the vector-sum of many cavities driven by one klystron in pulsed mode at high gradients is a challenging task since severe Lorentz force detuning, microphonics and beam induced field errors must be suppressed by several orders of magnitude. This is accomplished by a combination of local and global feedback and feedforward control. Sensors monitor individual cavity probe signals, and forward and reflected wave as well as the beam properties including beam energy and phase while actuators control the incident wave of the klystron and individual cavity resonance frequencies. The operability of a large llrf system requires a high degree of automation while the high availability requires robust algorithms, redundancy, and extremel...

  11. Progress on the high-current 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Astefanous, C.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2012-01-01

    The 704 MHz high current superconducting cavity has been designed with consideration of both performance of fundamental mode and damping of higher order modes. A copper prototype cavity was fabricated by AES and delivered to BNL. RF measurements were carried out on this prototype cavity, including fundamental pass-band and HOM spectrum measurements, HOM studies using bead-pull setup, prototyping of antenna-type HOM couplers. The measurements show that the cavity has very good damping for the higher-order modes, which was one of the main goals for the high current cavity design. 3D cavity models were simulated with Omega3P code developed by SLAC to compare with the measurements. The paper describes the cavity design, RF measurement setups and results for the copper prototype. The progress with the niobium cavity fabrication will also be described.

  12. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  13. Conceptual design of the RF accelerating cavities for a superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Calabretta, L.; Di Giacomo, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Battaglia, D.; Piazza, L.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron accelerating ions up to 250 A MeV, for medical applications and radioactive ions production is being studied at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The radio frequency (RF) system, working in the fourth harmonic, is based on four normal conducting radio frequency cavities operating at 93 MHz. This paper describes an unusual multi-stem cavity design, performed with 3D electromagnetic codes. Our aim is to obtain a cavity, completely housed inside the cyclotron, with a voltage distribution ranging from 65 kV in the injection region to a peak value of 120 kV in the extraction region, and having a low power consumption

  14. Preparation of niobium coated copper superconducting rf cavities for the large electron positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Bloess, D.; Chiaveri, E.; Hilleret, N.; Minestrini, M.; Weingarten, W.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1980 development work has been carried out at CERN aiming at producing niobium coated superconducting RF cavities in the framework of the foreseen LEP energy upgrading above the initial 55 GeV. During 1987 a 4-cell LEP cavity without coupling ports has been successfully coated for the first time. Meanwhile, cathodes for coating the coupling ports were built and tested. The effort has been subsequently directed to preparing at least one (possibly 2) coated cavity(ies) to be installed in LEP during 1989. In this paper the various production steps of these cavities are reconsidered in view of industrial production

  15. Fabrication, tests, and RF control of the 50 superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators are currently in use in the linac Outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for both designs but internal structures are different full wave helix (λ) with three gaps behavior or half-wave (λ/2) with two gaps behavior. The λ structure is based on a Karlsruhe design. All cavities (34 λ and 16 λ/2) are now fabricated, tested for field, and mounted in the eight machine cryostats. Resonator characteristics are listed. Frequencies are multiples of the low energy bunching frequency (13.5 MHz). The high magnetic fields arise at the welds joining helix to can (λ/2) or half-helices together (λ)

  16. Thermal Emittance Measurement of the Cs2Te Photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The thermal emittance of the photocathode is an interesting physical property for the photoinjector, because it decides the minimum emittance the photoinjector can finally achieve. In this paper we will report the latest results of the thermal emittance of the Cs2Te photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF gun. The measurement is performed with solenoid scan method with very low bunch charge and relative large laser spot on cathode, in order to reduce the space charge effect as much as possible, and meanwhile to eliminate the wake fields and the effect from beam halos.

  17. Proc. of the workshop on pushing the limits of RF superconductivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K-J., Eyberger, C., editors

    2005-04-13

    For three days in late September last year, some sixty experts in RF superconductivity from around the world came together at Argonne to discuss how to push the limits of RF superconductivity for particle accelerators. It was an intense workshop with in-depth presentations and ample discussions. There was added excitement due to the fact that, a few days before the workshop, the International Technology Recommendation Panel had decided in favor of superconducting technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC), the next major high-energy physics accelerator project. Superconducting RF technology is also important for other large accelerator projects that are either imminent or under active discussion at this time, such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) for nuclear physics, energy recovery linacs (ERLs), and x-ray free-electron lasers. For these accelerators, the capability in maximum accelerating gradient and/or the Q value is essential to limit the length and/or operating cost of the accelerators. The technological progress of superconducting accelerators during the past two decades has been truly remarkable, both in low-frequency structures for acceleration of protons and ions as well as in high-frequency structures for electrons. The requirements of future accelerators demand an even higher level of performance. The topics of this workshop are therefore highly relevant and timely. The presentations given at the workshop contained authoritative reviews of the current state of the art as well as some original materials that previously had not been widely circulated. We therefore felt strongly that these materials should be put together in the form of a workshop proceeding. The outcome is this report, which consists of two parts: first, a collection of the scholarly papers prepared by some of the participants and second, copies of the viewgraphs of all presentations. The presentation viewgraphs, in full color, are also available from the Workshop

  18. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  19. Cold Test Results of the ISAC-II Medium Beta High Gradient Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, R E; Clark, G S; Fong, K; Mitra, A K; Poirier, R L; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I; Stanford, G; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    Many proposals (RIA, Eurisol, ISAC-II) are emerging for a new generation of high gradient heavy ion accelerators. The ISAC-II medium beta cryomodule represents the first realized application that encorporates many new techniques to improve the performance over machines presently being used for beam delivery. The machine lattice, compatible with multi-charge acceleration, uses high field (9T) superconducting solenoids with bucking coils for active fringe field compensation. The bulk niobium quarter wave medium beta cavity produces 6 MV/m over an effective length of 18cm with a peak surface field of ~30 MV/m. TRIUMF has developed a mechanical tuner capable of both coarse (kHz) and fine (Hz) frequency adjustments of the cavity. The demonstrated tuner resolution is better than 0.1 μm (0.6 Hz). A new rf coupling loop has been developed that operates at 200 Watts forward power with less than 0.5 Watt of power being added to the helium load. Cold alignment in ISAC-II has been done with rf pick-ups using a ...

  20. Evidence for preferential flux flow at the grain boundaries of superconducting RF-quality niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Z.-H.; Lee, P. J.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2018-04-01

    The question of whether grain boundaries (GBs) in niobium can be responsible for lowered operating field (B RF) or quality factor (Q 0) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is still controversial. Here, we show by direct DC transport across planar GBs isolated from a slice of very large-grain SRF-quality Nb that vortices can preferentially flow along the grain boundary when the external magnetic field lies in the GB plane. However, increasing the misalignment between the GB plane and the external magnetic field vector markedly reduces preferential flux flow along the GB. Importantly, we find that preferential GB flux flow is more prominent for a buffered chemical polished than for an electropolished bi-crystal. The voltage-current characteristics of GBs are similar to those seen in low angle grain boundaries of high temperature superconductors where there is clear evidence of suppression of the superconducting order parameter at the GB. While local weakening of superconductivity at GBs in cuprates and pnictides is intrinsic, deterioration of current transparency of GBs in Nb appears to be extrinsic, since the polishing method clearly affect the local GB degradation. The dependence of preferential GB flux flow on important cavity preparation and experimental variables, particularly the final chemical treatment and the angle between the magnetic field and the GB plane, suggests two more reasons why real cavity performance can be so variable.

  1. Dynamic compensation of an rf cavity failure in a superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Biarrotte

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An accelerator driven system (ADS for transmutation of nuclear waste typically requires a 600 MeV–1 GeV accelerator delivering a proton flux of a few mA for demonstrators, and of a few tens of mA for large industrial systems. Such a machine belongs to the category of the high-power proton accelerators, with an additional requirement for exceptional “reliability”: because of the induced thermal stress to the subcritical core, the number of unwanted “beam trips” should not exceed a few per year, a specification that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. In order to meet this extremely high reliability, the accelerator needs to implement, to the maximum possible extent, a fault-tolerance strategy that would allow beam operation in the presence of most of the envisaged faults that could occur in its beam line components, and in particular rf systems’ failures. This document describes the results of the simulations performed for the analysis of the fault-tolerance capability of the XT-ADS superconducting linac in the case of an rf cavity failure. A new simulation tool, mixing transient rf behavior of the accelerating cavities with full 6D description of the beam dynamics, has been developed for this purpose. Fast fault-recovery scenarios are proposed, and required research and development is identified.

  2. Experimental Study of an 805 MHz Cryomodule for the Rare Isotope Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, T L; Compton, C; Hartung, W; Johnson, M; Marti, F; Popielarski, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac will use superconducting, 805 MHz, 6-cell elliptical cavities with geometric β values of 0.47, 0.61 and 0.81. Each elliptical cavity cryomodule will have four cavities [1]. Room temperature sections between each cryomodule will consist of quadrupole doublets, beam instrumentation, and vacuum systems. Michigan State University (MSU) has designed a compact cryostat that reduces the tunnel cross-section and improves the linac real estate gradient. The cold mass alignment is accomplished with a titanium rail system supported by adjustable nitronic links from the top vacuum plate, and is similar to that used for existing MSU magnet designs. The same concept has also been designed to accommodate the quarter-wave and half-wave resonators with superconducting solenoids used at lower velocity in RIA. Construction of a prototype β=0.47 cryomodule was completed in February 2004 and is presently under test in realistic operating conditions. Experimental ...

  3. Upgrade of the cryogenic infrastructure of SM18, CERN main test facility for superconducting magnets and RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, A.; Dhalla, F.; Gayet, P.; Serio, L.

    2017-12-01

    SM18 is CERN main facility for testing superconducting accelerator magnets and superconducting RF cavities. Its cryogenic infrastructure will have to be significantly upgraded in the coming years, starting in 2019, to meet the testing requirements for the LHC High Luminosity project and for the R&D program for superconducting magnets and RF equipment until 2023 and beyond. This article presents the assessment of the cryogenic needs based on the foreseen test program and on past testing experience. The current configuration of the cryogenic infrastructure is presented and several possible upgrade scenarios are discussed. The chosen upgrade configuration is then described and the characteristics of the main newly required cryogenic equipment, in particular a new 35 g/s helium liquefier, are presented. The upgrade implementation strategy and plan to meet the required schedule are then described.

  4. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  5. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  6. The JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FELS and THEIR cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, we need a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for academic and industrial uses in almost all fields. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, the JAERI FEL group and I have developed an industrial FEL driven by a compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the JAERI FEL and cryogenics will cover market-requirements for the industrial FELs, some answers from the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off cryostat concept and operational experiences over these 9 years, our discovery of the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra-short pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (author)

  7. Material options for the superconducting rf system of the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aull, Sarah; Butterworth, Andy; Schwerg, Nikolai

    2018-01-01

    The design of the superconducting RF (SRF) systems of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) machine variants requires a thorough comparison of the different options for cavity material, oper- ating temperature and frequency. We collected representative SRF performance data at different frequencies and temperatures of bulk niobium as the standard technology and of niobium thin films as a potential alternative and develop a perspective for future performance for all material- frequency-temperature combinations as function of accelerating gradient. Based on this perspective, we estimate the corresponding cryogenic grid power for the different FCC machines showing the most favourable accelerating gradients for the different materials and operating temperatures. Further- more, we discuss advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the different technology options to be taken into consideration.

  8. Design and results of the radio frequency quadrupole RF system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippe, J.; Marsden, E.; Marrufo, O.; Regan, A.; Rees, D.; Ziomek, C.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) entered into a joint venture to design and develop a 600 kW amplifier and its low-level controls for use in the Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating cavity of the SSC. The design and development work has been completed. After being tested separately, the high power amplifier and low level RF control system were integrated and tested on a test cavity. Results of that tests are given. Tests were then carried out on the actual RFQ with and without the presence of the accelerated beam. Results of these tests are also given, along with the phase and amplitude information

  9. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  10. New technology of lead-tin plating of superconducting RF resonators for the ANU LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, N.R.; Weisser, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The RF accelerating resonators for the ANU superconducting LINAC have been re-plated with lead-tin and their performance substantially improved. The re-plating was at first derailed by the appearance of dendrites on the surface. This problem was overcome by a new combination of two techniques. Rather than the standard process of chemically stripping the old Pb and hand polishing the Cu substrate the unsatisfactory Pb surface was mechanically polished and then re-plated. This is enormously easier, faster and doesn't put at risk the thin cosmetic electron beam welds or the repaired ones. Reverse pulse plating was then used to re-establish an excellent superconducting surface. Average acceleration fields of 3.5 to 3.9 MV/m have been achieved. The re-plated resonators will double the energy gain of the accelerator significantly extending capability of the facility research. Lead-tin plating provides fast adequate results with modest equipment and at relatively low cost. SUNY re-plated six high-beta SLRs with 2 microns of Pb-Sn using a modern, commercial, methane-sulfonate process (Lea Ronal Solderon MHS-L) and a simple open-air procedure. This proven success motivated ANU to adopt MSA chemistry and to re-plate the first SLR in November 1998 followed by re-plating all twelve SLRs by November 2002. This increased the booster energy gain by almost 100%

  11. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation

  12. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation.

  13. Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Superconducting RF Cavity Fabrication, Processing and 2 K Characterization at RRCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S. C.; Raghavendra, S.; Jain, V. K.; Puntambekar, A.; Khare, P.; Dwivedi, J.; Mundra, G.; Kush, P. K.; Shrivastava, P.; Lad, M.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-02-01

    An extensive infrastructure facility is being established at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) for a proposed 1 GeV, high intensity superconducting proton linac for Indian Spallation Neutron Source. The proton linac will comprise of a large number of superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities ranging from low beta spoke resonators to medium and high beta multi-cell elliptical cavities at different RF frequencies. Infrastructure facilities for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and performance characterization at 2 K are setup to take-up manufacturing of large number of cavities required for future projects of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). RRCAT is also participating in a DAE’s approved mega project on “Physics and Advanced technology for High intensity Proton Accelerators” under Indian Institutions-Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). In the R&D phase of IIFC program, a number of high beta, fully dressed multi-cell elliptical SCRF cavities will be developed in collaboration with Fermilab. A dedicated facility for SCRF cavity fabrication, tuning and processing is set up. SCRF cavities developed will be characterized at 2K using a vertical test stand facility, which is already commissioned. A Horizontal Test Stand facility has also been designed and under development for testing a dressed multi-cell SCRF cavity at 2K. The paper presents the infrastructure facilities setup at RRCAT for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and testing at 2K.

  14. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  15. Linear beam dynamics and ampere class superconducting RF cavities at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaga, Rama R.

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a hadron collider designed to collide a range of ions from protons to gold. RHIC operations began in 2000 and has successfully completed five physics runs with several species including gold, deuteron, copper, and polarized protons. Linear optics and coupling are fundamental issues affecting the collider performance. Measurement and correction of optics and coupling are important to maximize the luminosity and sustain stable operation. A numerical approach, first developed at SLAC, was implemented to measure linear optics from coherent betatron oscillations generated by ac dipoles and recorded at multiple beam position monitors (BPMs) distributed around the collider. The approach is extended to a fully coupled 2D case and equivalence relationships between Hamiltonian and matrix formalisms are derived. Detailed measurements of the transverse coupling terms are carried out at RHIC and correction strategies are applied to compensate coupling both locally and globally. A statistical approach to determine BPM reliability and performance over the past three runs and future improvements also discussed. Aiming at a ten-fold increase in the average heavy-ion luminosity, electron cooling is the enabling technology for the next luminosity upgrade (RHIC II). Cooling gold ion beams at 100 GeV/nucleon requires an electron beam of approximately 54 MeV and a high average current in the range of 50-200 mA. All existing e-Coolers are based on low energy DC accelerators. The only viable option to generate high current, high energy, low emittance CW electron beam is through a superconducting energy-recovery linac (SC-ERL). In this option, an electron beam from a superconducting injector gun is accelerated using a high gradient (˜ 20 MV/m) superconducting RF (SRF) cavity. The electrons are returned back to the cavity with a 180° phase shift to recover the energy back into the cavity before being dumped. A design and development of a half

  16. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models

  17. Displacement of cryomodule in CADS injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fengfeng; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2017-06-15

    As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.

  18. Mechanical Design of a New Injector Cryomodule 2-Cell Cavity at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guangfeng G. [JLAB; Henry, James E. [JLAB; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Wang, Haipeng [JLAB; Wiseman, Mark A. [JLAB; Yang, Shuo [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    As a part of Jefferson Lab’s 12 GeV upgrade, a new injector superconducting RF cryomodule is required. This unit consists of a 2-cell and 7-cell cavity, with the latter being refurbished from an existing cavity. The new 2-cell cavity requires electromagnetic design and optimization followed by mechanical design analyses. The electromagnetic design is reported elsewhere. This paper aims to present the procedures and conclusions of the analyses on cavity tuning sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, upset condition pressure induced stresses, and structural vibration frequencies. The purposes of such analyses include: 1) provide reference data for cavity tuner design; 2) examine the structural integrity of the cavity; and 3) evaluate the 2-cell cavity’s resistance to microphonics. Design issues such as the location of stiffening rings, effect of tuner stiffness on cavity stress, choice of cavity wall thickness, etc. are investigated by conducting extensive finite element analyses. Progress in fabrication of the 2-cell cavity is also reported.

  19. RF Design and Operating Performance of the BNL/AES 1.3 GHz Single Cell Superconducting RF Photocathode Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Michael; Kneisel, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Burrill, Andrew; Hahn, H.; Rao, Triveni; Zhao, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years Advanced Energy Systems and BNL have been collaborating on the development and testing of a fully superconducting photocathode electron gun. Over the past year we have begun to realize significant results which have been published elsewhere (1). This paper will review the RF design of the gun under test and present results of its performance under various operating conditions. Results for cavity quality factor will be presented for various operating temperatures and cavity field gradients. We will also discuss future plans for testing using this gun.

  20. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm 2 ) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-T c superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it

  1. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] superconducting accelerator: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator is a CW linac based on rf superconductivity and making use of multiple recirculation. Its major components are a 50 MeV injector, two linac segments of 0.5 GeV energy gain each, and recirculator arcs connecting the two linac segments. Each linac segment consists of 25 cryomodules, separated by warm sections with quadrupoles, steering magnets, and beam diagnostics. Each cryomodule contains 8, 1500 MHz, 5-cell, Cornell type cavities with waveguide couplers for fundamental power and HOM damping, each cavity being powered by its own klystron. Recirculator arcs are vertically stacked, large radius, strong focusing beam lines that minimize synchrotron radiation effects. A high quality (ΔE/E ∼ 10 -4 , ε ∼ 10 -9 m) beam of 200μA, 100% duty factor, with 0.5 GeV ≤ E ≤ 4.0 GeV will be generated

  2. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  3. Mechanical design of 56 MHz superconducting RF cavity for RHIC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, C.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Chang, X.; McIntyre, G.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wu, Q.

    2011-03-28

    A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Cavity operating at 4.4K is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator with beam transmission along the centerline. This cavity will increase collision luminosity by providing a large longitudinal bucket for stored bunches of RHIC ion beam. The major components of this assembly are the niobium cavity with the mechanical tuner, its titanium helium vessel and vacuum cryostat, the support system, and the ports for HOM and fundamental dampers. The cavity and its helium vessel must meet equivalent safety with the ASME pressure vessel code and it must not be sensitive to frequency shift due to pressure fluctuations from the helium supply system. Frequency tuning achieved by a two stage mechanical tuner is required to meet performance parameters. This tuner mechanism pushes and pulls the tuning plate in the gap of niobium cavity. The tuner mechanism has two separate drive systems to provide both coarse and fine tuning capabilities. This paper discusses the design detail and how the design requirements are met.

  4. Development of high pressure rinsing set up for 650 MHz, 5- cell superconducting RF cavity cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Bose, A.; Kokil, S.V.; Rajput, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Md Hussain; Sahu, A.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is an ultra-cleanliness process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting RF cavities. Any dust particle or chemical residue on the interior of cavity causes field emission. Jets of high pressure (80-100 bar) ultra pure water dislodge surface contaminants that normally resist removal with conventional rinsing procedures, leading to substantial reduction in field emission and better cavity performance. For cleaning of 650 MHz, 5-cell SRF cavities, a high pressure rinsing set up has been developed at RRCAT. The HPR tool has a rotating wand coaxial with the vertically mounted SRF cavity that is moving up and down. Fan style spray nozzles are attached to the end of the rotating wand and the water jets emerging from spray nozzles scan the entire internal surface of the cavity. The set-up was installed in a specially built clean area meeting cleanliness class 100 standards. The ultrapure water with resistivity 2 ≥ 18 MΩ-cm required for rinsing is obtained from a dedicated water purification system installed for this purpose. The paper describes the salient design and constructional details of the high pressure rinsing set up. Characterization of water jet parameters based on the momentum transfer between the water jet and a load cell is also presented. (author)

  5. Piezoelectric Tuner Compensation of Lorentz Detuning in Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean Delayen; Davis, G.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed operation of superconducting cavities can induce large variations of the resonant frequency through excitation of the mechanical modes by the radiation pressure. The phase and amplitude control system must be able to accommodate this frequency variation; this can be accomplished by increasing the capability of the rf power source. Alternatively, a piezo electric tuner can be activated at the same repetition rate as the rf to counteract the effect of the radiation pressure. We have demonstrated such a system on the prototype medium beta SNS cryomodule with a reduction of the dynamic Lorentz detuning during the rf pulse by a factor of 3. Piezo electric tuners can also be used to reduce the level of microphonics in low-current cw accelerators. We have measured the amplitude and phase of the transfer function of the piezo control system (from input voltage to cavity frequency) up to several kHz

  6. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  7. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  8. Frontier applications of rf superconductivity for high energy physics in the TeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.; Padamsee, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present understanding of the fundamental nature of matter is embodied in the standard theory. This theory views all matter as composed of families of quarks and leptons with their interactions mediated by the family of force-carrying particles. Progress in particle accelerators has been a vital element in bringing about this level of understanding. Although the standard theory is successful in relating a wide range of phenomena, it raises deeper questions about the basic nature of matter and energy. Among these are: why are the masses of the various elementary particles and the strengths of the basic forces what they are? It is expected that over the next decade a new generation of accelerators spanning the 100 Gev mass range will shed light on some of these questions. These accelerators, will provide the means to thoroughly explore the energy regime corresponding to the mass scale of the weak interactions to reveal intimate details of the force carrying particles, the weak bosons, Z0 and W+-. Superconducting rf technology will feature in a major way in the electron storage rings. Current theoretical ideas predict that to make further progress towards a more fundamental theory of matter, it will be necessary to penetrate the TeV energy regime. At this scale a whole new range of phenomena will manifest the nature of the symmetry breaking mechanism that must be responsible for the differences they observe in the familiar weak and electromagnetic forces. History has shown that unexpected discoveries made in a new energy regime have proven to be the main engine of progress. The experimental challenge to accelerator designers and builders is clear. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  9. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Quanling; Xu, Fengyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiangchen; Chen, Anbin; Wei, Xiaotao; Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu

    2014-01-01

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects

  10. Status of the SNS superconducting linac and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H- ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS generates neutrons by the spallation reaction with the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade and has been operating with beam for almost two years. As the first operational pulsed superconducting linac, many of the aspects of its performance were unknown and unpredictable. A lot of experiences and data have been gathered on the pulsed behavior of cavities and cryomodules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures during the commissioning of its components and beam operations. This experience is of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam, the performance of the superconducting linac and the future plans will be presented.

  11. BNL 703 MHz SRF cryomodule demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Dalesio, L.; Dottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hoff, L.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary results of the testing of the 703 MHz SRF cryomodule designed for use in the ampere class ERL under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The preliminary cavity tests, carried out at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, demonstrated cavity performance of 20 MV/m with a Qo of 1 x 10 10 , results we expect to reproduce in the horizontal configuration. This test of the entire string assembly will allow us to evaluate all of the additional cryomodule components not previously tested in the VTA and will prepare us for our next milestone test which will be delivery of electrons from our injector through the cryomodule to the beam dump. This will also be the first demonstration of an accelerating cavity designed for use in an ampere class ERL, a key development which holds great promise for future machines

  12. Nonlinear Near-Field Microwave Microscopy for RF Defect Localization in Nb-Based Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin

    2011-03-01

    Niobium Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are very sensitive to localized defects that give rise to quenches at high accelerating gradients. In order to identify these defects via scanning microscopy, and to further understand the origins of the quench under high radio frequency excitation (1-3 GHz), a scanning probe with localized and up to ~ 200 mT RF magnetic field is required for low temperature microscopy to achieve sub-micron resolution. For this purpose, we developed a micro loop probe on silicon substrate with outer diameter 20 μ m and inner diameter 17 μ m and successfully fabricated it by lithography. The probe has been used to identify a signal arising from the nonlinear Meissner effect in a Nb thin film. In addition, a magnetic write head is another promising candidate to achieve this goal of understanding localized defect behavior under high RF magnetic field at low temperatures. We will discuss and compare both types of probe for nonlinear scanning microscopy and RF defect localization in superconductors. We acknowledge the support of DOE/HEP.

  13. On a possibility of using a superconducting cavity in the RF system of the storage ring LESR-N100

    CERN Document Server

    Androsov, V P; Telegin, Yu P

    2002-01-01

    In the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology the design project of the 200 MeV electron storage ring LESR-N100 is under development. The essential feature of this facility is the large beam energy spread (of about 1%). To ensure a reasonable beam lifetime the RF-system should provide the accelerating voltage of about 0.5 MV, while the total energy losses do not exceed approx 700 eV/turn. The power dissipated in two 700 MHz normal-conducting (NC) cavities much exceeds the power transmitted to the beam. We considered a possibility to use in LESR-N100 a high-Q superconducting RF-cavity (SRF-cavity) in which the dissipated power is the same order of magnitude as the beam-transmitted power. The studies show that the system with SRF-cavity cannot operate in the standard mode when the cavity is matched to the power transmission line at some nominal beam current. The optimal operation mode with high overcoupling is proposed that requires the RF-power one order of magnitude less than in the case of Nc-cavities.

  14. Superconducting cavity development at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore pursuing a program on 'R and D Activities for High Energy Proton Linac based Spallation Neutron Source'. Spallation neutron source (SNS) facility will provide high flux pulse neutrons for research in the areas of condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and engineering. This will complement the existing synchrotron light source facility, INDUS-2 at RRCAT and reactor based neutron facilities at BARC. RRCAT is also participating in approved mega project on 'Physics and Advanced Technology for High Intensity Proton Accelerator' to support activities of Indian Institutions - Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). The SNS facility will have a 1 GeV superconducting proton injector linac and 1 GeV accumulator ring. The linac will comprise of large number of superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities operating at different RF frequencies housed in suitable cryomodules. Thus, an extensive SCRF cavity infrastructure setup is being established. In addition, a scientific and technical expertise are also being developed for fabrication, processing and testing of the SCRF cavities for series production. The paper presents the status of superconducting cavity development at RRCAT

  15. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  16. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Zanoni, C.

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, a cryomodule is designed to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between the cold mass and the external environment. An overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations, is presented. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.

  17. Overview of superconducting RF technology and its application to high-current linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as copious neutron production like that needed for transmutation of radioactive waste. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs. However, cost effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement

  18. Superconducting linac beam dynamics with high-order maps for RF resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, A A; Pardo, R C; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.177

    2004-01-01

    The arbitrary-order map beam optics code COSY Infinity has recently been adapted to calculate accurate high-order ion-optical maps for electrostatic and radio-frequency accelerating structures. The beam dynamics of the superconducting low-velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab is used to demonstrate some advantages of the new simulation capability. The injector linac involves four different types of superconducting accelerating structures and has a total of 18 resonators. The detailed geometry for each of the accelerating cavities is included, allowing an accurate representation of the on- and off-axis electric fields. The fields are obtained within the code from a Poisson-solver for cylindrically symmetric electrodes of arbitrary geometry. The transverse focusing is done with superconducting solenoids. A detailed comparison of the transverse and longitudinal phase space is made with the conventional ray-tracing code LINRAY. The two codes are evaluated for ease ...

  19. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  20. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  1. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-15

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  2. Study of thermal effects in superconducting RF cavities; Etude des effets thermiques dans le cavites supraconductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousson, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Lesrel, J.; Yaniche, J.F. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    A high speed thermometric system equipped with 64 fixed surface thermometers is used to investigate thermal effects in several 3 GHz cavities. An evaluation of the time response of our thermometers is presented. A method based on RF signal analysis is proposed to evaluate the normal zone propagation rate during thermal breakdown. (authors) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Transient beam loading and rf power distribution in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    Transient beam loading will occur in the SSC at injection as the fifteen individual batches from the High Energy Booster are loaded box-car fashion into the main rings. Periodic transient beam loading will be present also at injection due to the gaps between the successive batches as well as the gap that remains to be filled. Even after the rings have been ''filled'' there will remain the abort gap of 3.1 μsec. This can produce significant modulation of the phase and amplitude of the rf voltage seen by those bunches immediately following it unless corrective measures are taken. Two different methods of reducing this modulation will be discussed, each of which put certain requirements on the rf power distribution system

  4. Preparation of YBaCuO superconducting tape by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukutomi, Masao; Akutsu, Nakao; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Asano, Toshihisa; Maeda, Hiroshi (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan); Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    The effect of buffer layers, conditions of film preparation, and the relation between superconducting characteristics and bombardment of high energy ions on films were discussed in an attempt to fabricate YBaCuO films on metallic substrates by sputtering. Hastelloy-X tapes and Chromel (Ni-10Cr) fine wires were used as metallic substrates, and MgO films as buffer layers, which were provided by sputtering a MgO sintered target and annealing. As a result, superconducting films were favorably obtained on the Hastelloy tapes with the MgO buffer layers, however, counter diffusion at the interface of the film and layer was unavoidable in annealing. C axis-highly oriented film with high zero resistance Tc was obtained in such an arrangement of the target and substrate as to lower the effect of 0{sup {minus}} ion resputtering, resulting in the most favorable Tc=80.4K. YBaCuO superconducting films could be also deposited on a bundle of Chromel fine wires preliminarily. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  6. 3 GHz digital rf control at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator: First results from the baseband approach and extensions for other frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Araz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The low level rf system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC developed 20 years ago and operating since converts the 3 GHz signals from the cavities down to the baseband and not to an intermediate frequency. While designing the new, digital rf control system this concept was kept: the rf module does the I/Q and amplitude modulation/demodulation while the low frequency board, housing an field programmable gate array analyzes and processes the signals. Recently, the flexibility of this concept was realized: By replacing the modulator/demodulators on the rf module, cavities operating at frequencies other than the one of the S-DALINAC can be controlled with only minor modifications: A 6 GHz version, needed for a harmonic bunching system at the S-DALINAC and a 324 MHz solution to be used on a room temperature cavity at GSI, are currently under design. This paper reviews the concept of the digital low level rf control loops in detail and reports on the results gained during first operation with a superconducting cavity.

  7. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  8. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  9. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

  10. Engineering Design and Fabrication of an Ampere-Class Superconducting Photocathode Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three years, Advanced Energy Systems and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have been collaborating on the design of an Ampere- class superconducting photocathode electron gun. BNL performed the physics design of the overall system and RF cavity under prior programs. Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is currently responsible for the engineering design and fabrication of the electron gun under contract to BNL. We will report on the engineering design and fabrication status of the superconducting photocathode electron gun. The overall configuration of the cryomodule will be reviewed. The layout of the hermitic string, space frame, shielding package, and cold mass will be discussed. The engineering design of the gun cavity and removable cathode will be presented in detail and areas of technical risk will be highlighted. Finally, the fabrication sequence and fabrication status of the gun cavity will be discussed

  11. Electron bunch train excited higher-order modes in a superconducting RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Feng; Huang, Sen-Lin; Wang, Fang; Feng, Li-Wen; Zhuang, De-Hao; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Jian-Kui; Quan, Sheng-Wen; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2017-04-01

    Higher-order mode (HOM) based intra-cavity beam diagnostics has been proved effective and convenient in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators. Our recent research shows that the beam harmonics in the bunch train excited HOM spectrum, which have much higher signal-to-noise ratio than the intrinsic HOM peaks, may also be useful for beam diagnostics. In this paper, we will present our study on bunch train excited HOMs, including a theoretical model and recent experiments carried out based on the DC-SRF photoinjector and SRF linac at Peking University. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275014)

  12. Reducing field emission in the superconducting rf cavities for the next generation of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m

  13. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  14. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  15. Mirror-smooth surfaces and repair of defects in superconducting RF cavities by mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C. A. [Fermilab; Cooley, L. D. [Fermilab

    2012-11-22

    Mechanical techniques for polishing the inside surface of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities have been systematically explored. By extending known techniques to fine polishing, mirror-like finishes were produced, with <15 nm RMS (root mean square) roughness over 1 mm2 scan area. This is an order of magnitude less than the typical roughness produced by the electropolishing of niobium cavities. The extended mechanical polishing (XMP) process was applied to several SRF cavities which exhibited equator defects that caused quench at <20 MV m-1 and were not improved by further electropolishing. Cavity optical inspection equipment verified the complete removal of these defects, and minor acid processing, which dulled the mirror finish, restored performance of the defective cells to the high gradients and quality factors measured for adjacent cells when tested with other harmonics. This innate repair feature of XMP could be used to increase manufacturing yield. Excellent superconducting properties resulted after initial process optimization, with quality factor Q of 3 × 1010 and accelerating gradient of 43 MV m-1 being attained for a single-cell TESLA cavity, which are both close to practical limits. Several repaired nine-cell cavities also attained Q > 8 × 109 at 35 MV m-1, which is the specification for the International Linear Collider. Future optimization of the process and pathways for eliminating requirements for acid processing are also discussed.

  16. Development and Testing of a Prototype Tuner for the CEBAF Upgrade Cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Davis; J. Delayen; M. Drury; E. Feldl

    2001-01-01

    An upgrade cryomodule is being developed for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The high-gradient, low-current operation of the superconducting cavities puts stringent requirements on the accuracy of the frequency tuner: a resolution of 1 Hz over a range of 400 KHz. We have developed and tested such a tuner; it consists of a stepper-motor-driven coarse tuner, operating in parallel with a piezo-actuator-driven fine tuner. Tuner test procedures and results are summarized, including frequency resolution, range, and linearity (i.e. frequency vs. tuner position), as well as microphonic effects resulting from tuner operation

  17. Development of superconducting RF cavity at 1050 MHz frequency for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.G.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a prototype superconducting cavity at 1050 MHz and design of associated die punch and machining fixtures for the cavity fabrication. The cavity is of β= 1 and elliptical in shape. The circle-straight line-ellipse-type structure design has been optimized by 'SUPERFISH' - a 2 dimensional code for cavity tuning. The 3 Dimensional EM field analysis of the cavity structure has been done using 'CST' software. The ratio of the maximum surface electric field to the accelerating gradient, E pk /E acc , is optimised to 1.984 and H pk /E acc is optimised to 4.141 mT/(MV/m). Bore radius of the cavity has been chosen such a way so that the cell-to-cell coupling remains as high as 1.85%. The cavity is designed to achieve 25 MV/m accelerating gradient. (author)

  18. The Design of a Five-Cell Superconducting RF Module with a PBG Coupler Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Simakov, Evgenya I.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  19. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  20. Leak Propagation Dynamics for the HIE-ISOLDE Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ady, M; Kersevan, R; Vandoni, G; Ziemianski, D

    2014-01-01

    In order to cope with space limitations of existing infrastructure, the cryomodules of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac feature a common insulation and beam vacuum, imposing the severe cleanliness standard of RF cavities to the whole cryostat. Protection of the linac vacuum against air-inrush from the three experimental stations through the HEBT (High Energy Beam Transport) lines relies on fast valves, triggered by fast cold cathode gauges. To evaluate the leak propagation velocity as a function of leak size and geometry of the lines, a computational and experimental investigation is being carried out at CERN. A 28 m long tube is equipped with cold-cathode gauges. A leak is opened by the effect of a cutting pendulum, equipped with an accelerometer for data acquisition triggering, on a thin aluminium window. The air inrush dynamics is simulated by Finite Elements fluid dynamics in the viscous regime.

  1. Study of field-limiting defects in superconducting RF cavities for electron-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderhold, Sebastian

    2015-02-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency resonators made from niobium are an integral part of many accelerator projects. Their main advantage are the low ohmic losses resulting in the possibility for a long pulse structure and high duty cycles up to continous wave (cw) operation. The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) are based on this technology. In some cases the resonators reach accelerating electric fields close to the theoretical limit of bulk niobium. Yet most resonators are limited at lower fields and mass production for large scale accelerator projects suffers from the spread in the achievable gradient per resonator. The main limitations are field emission and the breakdown of superconductivity (quench). While field emission is mostly attributed to the overall surface cleanliness of the resonator, quench is usually associated with local defects. Optical inspection of the inner surface of the resonators with unprecedented resolution, accuracy and a special illumination has been established at DESY and used to study such local surface defects. More than 30 resonators have been inspected. Distinctive features from these inspections have been catalogued and assessed for their potential risk for the performance of the resonator. Several confirmed quenching defects could be extracted for further analysis and could be traced back to likely origins in the production process. A new, automated set-up for optical inspection of large series of resonators, named OBACHT, has been developed and successfully commissioned. Its design includes the minimal need for operator interference, reproducibility, robustness and versatility, in order to fit the requirements for application both in a laboratory and in a production environment. To facilitate the comparison of the results obtained during the global R and D effort on resonators for the ILC, the ILC global yield database has been established. The yield and selection rules for the

  2. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rašković

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

  3. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  4. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  5. New results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting rf cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Z. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hao, Z. K. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Liu, K. X. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, H. Y. [OTIC, Ningxia (China); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report on the latest results of development on high-efficiency high-gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Several 1-cell cavities made of large-grain niobium (Nb) were built, processed and tested. Two of these cavities are of the Low Surface Field (LSF) shape. Series of tests were carried out following controlled thermal cycling. Experiments toward zero-field cooling were carried out. The best experimentally achieved results are Eacc = 41 MV/m at Q0 = 6.5×1010 at 1.4 K by a 1-cell 1.3 GHz large-grain Nb TTF shape cavity and Eacc = 49 MV/m at Q0 = 1.5×1010 at 1.8 K by a 1-cell 1.5 GHz large-grain Nb CEBAF upgrade low-loss shape cavity.

  6. Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. M.; Liu, Kexin; Geng, Rongli

    2014-01-01

    Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6A-1.6 MV/m, 21A-34 MV/m, 32A-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6A-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MPA's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model

  7. Thermal design studies in superconducting rf cavities: Phonon peak and Kapitza conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aizaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal design studies of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities involve two thermal parameters, namely the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of Nb at low temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient at the Nb-He II interface, commonly known as the Kapitza conductance. During the fabrication process of the SRF cavities, Nb sheet is plastically deformed through a deep drawing process to obtain the desired shape. The effect of plastic deformation on low temperature thermal conductivity as well as Kapitza conductance has been studied experimentally. Strain induced during the plastic deformation process reduces the thermal conductivity in its phonon transmission regime (disappearance of phonon peak by 80%, which may explain the performance limitations of the defect-free SRF cavities during their high field operations. Low temperature annealing of the deformed Nb sample could not recover the phonon peak. However, moderate temperature annealing during the titanification process recovered the phonon peak in the thermal conductivity curve. Kapitza conductance measurements for the Nb-He II interface for various surface topologies have also been carried out before and after the annealing. These measurements reveal consistently increased Kapitza conductance after the annealing process was carried out in the two temperature regimes.

  8. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sumption, M.D., E-mail: sumption.3@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Bong, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lim, H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collings, E.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-01-02

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  9. Superconducting RF for Low-Velocity and Intermediate-Velocity Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Terry L

    2005-01-01

    Existing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linacs are used to accelerate ions (protons through uranium) with velocities less than about 15% the speed of light, or electrons with velocities approximately equal to the speed of light. In the last ten years, prototype SRF cavities have completely covered the remaining range of velocities. They have demonstrated that SRF linacs will be capable of accelerating electrons from rest up to the speed of light, and ions from less than 1% up to the speed of light. When the Spallation Neutron Source is operational, SRF ion linacs will have covered the full range of velocities except for v/c ~ 0.15 to v/c ~ 0.5. A number of proposed projects (RIA, EURISOL) would span the latter range of velocities. Future SRF developments will have to address the trade-offs associated with a number of issues, including high gradient operation, longitudinal and transverse acceptance, microphonics, Lorentz detuning, operating temperature, cryogenic load, number of gaps or cells per cavity...

  10. Comparative simulation studies of multipacting in higher-order-mode couplers of superconducting rf cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multipacting (MP in higher-order-mode (HOM couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6–1.6  MV/m, 21–34   MV/m, 32–35  MV/m and >40  MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6–13  MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high-energy pulsed as well as medium-energy continuous wave accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP’s predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CEBAF upgrade, Spallation Neutron Source (SNS, and Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

  11. Status on RF superconductivity at the institute for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevryukova, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of SC cavities started at the Institute for High Energy Physics in September 1980 when the group of technology and study of SC cavities of the Research Institute of Nuclear Physics at Tomsk Polytechnic Institute moved there. At first the group worked at the Linear Accelerator Division, then later, in March 1993 the Federate Problem Laboratory for Technology and Study of the superconducting cavities of the Russian Atomic Ministry was founded at IHEP. The main goal of the SC cavity investigation is to study and develop the suppression methods for emission effects and conditions for thermomagnetic breakdown creation to increase the accelerating fields at SC cavities; also developing the experimental equipment to answer this goal. In this report the following items are enlightened in short: 1. Study and development of methods to suppress emission effects in SC cavities; 2. Study and development of methods to increase the threshold of the thermomagnetic breakdown. 3. Study of new materials and technologies. 4. SVAAP (SC accelerator for the applied purposes) project development. (author)

  12. Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, Kexin [Peking University, Beijing (China); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6-1.6 MV/m, 21-34 MV/m, 32-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

  13. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Sumption, M.D.; Bong, H.J.; Lim, H.; Collings, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  14. Combined adapter for the upgraded cryomodule of the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Shirkov, G.; Sabirov, B.; Dobrushin, L.; Bryzgalin, A.; Pekar, E.; Illarionov, S.; Bedeschi, F.; Basti, A.; Fabbricatore, P.

    2015-01-01

    As part of work on the ILC Project, research was performed on the development of techniques to simplify and make reliable and cheaper the construction of the cryomodules that are core of the main linac. In the current ILC TDR design both the helium vessel surrounding the niobium RF cavities and the connected pipes which channel the exhaust helium gas are made of expensive titanium, one of the few metals that can be welded to niobium by the electron beam technique. In this paper we describe the construction and performance of transition elements, obtained by explosion welding, that can couple the niobium cavity with a stainless steel helium vessel, thus saving large amounts of titanium. A new design, including a minimal titanium intermediate layer, has been built. Preliminary tests yielded a very strong resistance of the bond to extreme temperature shocks from electron beam welding to exposure to cryogenic temperatures. The developed technology allows a trimetallic billet for manufacturing an adapter to be made such that the niobium-titanium bond is free of intermetallic compounds and the effect of the difference in the linear expansion coefficients of the ensemble components is eliminated.

  15. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  16. Commissioning of the Superconducting Linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H-ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS will use the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons to generate neutrons by spallation, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade. The SRF cavities, operated at 805 MHz, were designed, built and integrated into cryomodules at Jefferson Lab and installed and tested at SNS. SNS is also the first proton-like accelerator which uses SRF cavities in a pulse mode. Many of the details of the cavity performance are peculiar to this mode of operation, which is also being applied to lepton accelerators (TESLA test facility and X-FEL at DESY and the international linear collider project). Thanks to the low frequency of the SNS superconducting cavities, operation at 4.2 K has been possible without beam energy degradation, even though the cavities and cryogenic systems were originally designed for 2.1 K operation. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam and the performance of the superconducting linac will be presented

  17. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  18. Surface Characterization of Impurities in Superconducting Niobium for Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities used in Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Prateek

    Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for

  19. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  20. Cryogenic System for the Cryomodule Test Stand at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Michael J. [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab

    2017-10-09

    This paper describes the cryogenic system for the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS) at the new Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) located at Fermilab. CMTS is designed for production testing of the 1.3 GHz and 3.9GHz cryomodules to be used in the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLSII), which is an upgrade to an existing accelerator at Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC). This paper will focus on the cryogenic system that extends from the helium refrigeration plant to the CMTS cave. Topics covered will include component design, installation and commissioning progress, and operational plans. The paper will conclude with a description of the heat load measurement plan.

  1. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  2. Commissioning and First Results from the Fermilab Cryomodule Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, Elvin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    A new test stand dedicated to SRF cryomodule testing, CMTS1, has been commissioned and is now in operation at Fermilab. The first device to be cooled down and powered in this facility is the prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule assembled at Fermilab for LCLS-II. We describe the demonstrated capabilities of CMTS1, report on steps taken during commissioning, provide an overview of first test results, and survey future plans.

  3. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  4. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  5. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  6. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shahid, E-mail: shahid.ahmed@ieee.org [BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, Haryana 123413 (India); Mammosser, John D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar–O{sub 2} (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM{sub 010}-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  7. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D.

    2015-07-01

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar-O2 (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM010-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  8. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D.

    2015-01-01

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar–O 2 (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM 010 -mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper

  9. Final Commissioning of the Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator at IUAC, Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Tripti Sekhar; Choudhury, Anup; Chacko, Jacob; Kar, Soumen; Antony, Joby; Babu, Suresh; Kumar, Manoj; Mathuria, D. S.; Sahu, Santosh; Kanjilal, Dinakar

    The superconducting linac as a booster of the 15UD Pelletron accelerator was partly commissioned with one linac module housing eight quarter wave bulk niobium cavities along with the superbuncher and rebuncher cryomodules. Subsequently two more linac cryomodules were added to have in total 24 cavities for acceleration. In addition, a new Linde helium refrigerator of capacity 750 W @ 4.2 K was installed in parallel to the earlier CCI refrigerator. The new refrigerator was integrated with the earlier cryogenics network system through a specially designed liquid helium distribution line without any valve box. The cooling philosophy with this new system is modified to have a faster cool down rate in the critical zone (150 - 70 K) to avoid Q disease. The helium gas pressure fluctuation in the cavities is reduced significantly to have stable RF locking. The full linac is being operated and beams with higher energy are being delivered to the users. The present paper will highlight the performance of the new cryogenic system with respect to cool down rate, and helium pressure fluctuation.

  10. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D

    2015-07-01

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar-O2 (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM010-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  11. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  12. The path to high Q-factors in superconducting accelerating cavities: Flux expulsion and surface resistance optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Martina

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  13. HIE-Isolde: Commissioning and first results of the Mathilde system monitoring the positions of cavities and solenoids inside cryomodules

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, Guillaume; Klumb, Francis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The new superconducting HIE-ISOLDE Linac replaced most of pre-existing REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. This upgrade involves the design, construction, installation and commissioning of 4 high-β cryomodules. Each high-β cryomodule houses five superconducting cavities and one superconducting solenoid. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, located inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The Monitoring and Alignment Tracking for HIE-ISOLDE (MATHILDE) system has been developed to fulfil the alignment and monitoring needs for components exposed to non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. MATHILDE is based on opto-electronic sensors (HBCAM) observing, through high quality viewports, spher...

  14. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  15. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  16. SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO-FREQUENCY MODULES TEST FACILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R and D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R and D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project

  17. Investigation of a 2K superfluid liquid helium refrigerator system and research of superconducting RF cavities. Report from the short visiting and research program aboard supported by the Japanese education ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The author visited at Jefferson Lab for two months from July 5 '99 to September 2 by the short visit and research program financed by the Japanese Education Ministry for the investigation the CEBAF 2K refrigerator system and research superconducting RF cavities. Here, the result will be presented. (author)

  18. Updating the CSNS injector linac to 250 MeV with superconducting double-spoke cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhihui; Fu Shinian

    2015-01-01

    In order to update the beam power from 100 kW to 500 kW in the China Spallation neutron source (CSNS) Phase Ⅱ, one of the important measures is to replace the 80 m long beam transport line between the present 80 MeV linac injector and the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) to another kind of acceleration structure. In this paper, we proposed a scheme based on 324 MHz double-spoke superconducting cavities. Unlike the superconducting elliptical cavity and normal conducting coupled cavity linac (CCL) structure, the double-spoke cavity belongs to the TE mode structure and has a smaller transverse dimension compared with that of the TH mode one. It can work at base frequency as the drift tube Linac (DTL) section, so that the cost and complexity of the RF system will be much decreased, and the behaviors of the beam dynamics are also improved significantly because of the low charge density and larger longitudinal acceptance. Furthermore, because of the relatively longer interactive length between the charged particle and the electromagnetic field per cell, it needs relatively less cell numbers and it has larger velocity acceptance compared with the double frequency TH structures. The superconducting section consists of 14 periods, each of which includes 3 superconducting cavities encapsulated in one cryomodule and a doublet in room temperate. The general considerations on cavity and beam dynamics design are discussed and the main results are presented. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the Qualification-Tests Performance of the Superconducting Cavities for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R; Ozelis, O

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This consists of 11 medium-beta (β=0.61) cyomodules of 3 cavities each, and 12 high-beta (β=0.81) cryomodules of 4 cavities each. Before assembly into cavity strings the cavities undergo individual qualification tests in a vertical cryostat (VTA). In this paper we analyze the performance of the cavities during these qualification tests, and attempt to correlate this performance with cleaning, assembly, and testing procedures. We also compare VTA performance with performance in completed cryomodules.

  20. Operation of a high-gradient superconducting radio-frequency cavity with a non-evaporable getter pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, G.; Geng, R.; Lushtak, Y.; Manini, P.; Maccallini, E.; Stutzman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps in particle accelerators has increased significantly over the past few years because of their large pumping speed, particularly for hydrogen, compared to the size of the pump. A concern about using such pumps in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators is the possibility of shedding particulates which could then migrate into the SRF cavities and produce field emission, therefore degrading the cavity performance. One option to mitigate such issue is to use sintered getter materials which intrinsically offer superior mechanical and particle retention properties. In this article we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of a high-gradient SRF cavity after being evacuated several times with an NEG pump equipped with sintered getter disks and placed in close proximity to the cavity. The results showed that the cavity performance was not affected by the pump up to the quench gradient of 34 MV/m. As a result of this study, two such NEG pumps have been installed next to a cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator to maintain ultra-high vacuum in the SRF cryomodule and two adjacent warm girder sections.

  1. Operation of a high-gradient superconducting radio-frequency cavity with a non-evaporable getter pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G., E-mail: gciovati@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Geng, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Lushtak, Y.; Manini, P.; Maccallini, E. [SAES Getters, S.p.A, Viale Italia, 77, 20020 Lainate, MI (Italy); Stutzman, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2017-01-11

    The use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps in particle accelerators has increased significantly over the past few years because of their large pumping speed, particularly for hydrogen, compared to the size of the pump. A concern about using such pumps in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators is the possibility of shedding particulates which could then migrate into the SRF cavities and produce field emission, therefore degrading the cavity performance. One option to mitigate such issue is to use sintered getter materials which intrinsically offer superior mechanical and particle retention properties. In this article we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of a high-gradient SRF cavity after being evacuated several times with an NEG pump equipped with sintered getter disks and placed in close proximity to the cavity. The results showed that the cavity performance was not affected by the pump up to the quench gradient of 34 MV/m. As a result of this study, two such NEG pumps have been installed next to a cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator to maintain ultra-high vacuum in the SRF cryomodule and two adjacent warm girder sections.

  2. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  3. Operating experience with superconducting cavities at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF recirculating superconducting electron linac at Jefferson Lab is now in full operation supporting nuclear physics experiments in three target halls at up to 4.4 GeV. The 330 SRF cavities, operating at 2.0 K, continue to perform well above design specifications, and have accumulated over 8,000,000 operating cavity hours. The authors have to date no evidence of degradation of cavity performance. The SRF cavities have demonstrated excellent reliability. The one klystron per cavity design provides CEBAF with flexibility and redundancy for normal operations. Several techniques have been developed for establishing optimum operating conditions for the 330 independent systems. Operation of the cavities and control systems at the full design current of 1 mA has recently been achieved. The principal constraints on usable gradient for low current operations are (1) discharge at the cold ceramic rf window induced by electron field emission in cavities, (2) tuner controls, and (3) stability of the waveguide vacuum in the region between the warm and cold windows. Several cryomodules have been improved by application of rf helium processing while installed on the beamline

  4. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  5. A new measurement tool for characterization of superconducting rf accelerator cavities using high-performance LTS SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Neubert, R [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Knaack, K [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Wittenburg, K [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Peters, A [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a new system to measure very low currents in an accelerator environment, using a cryogenic current comparator (CCC). In principle a CCC is a conventional current transformer using the high-performance SQUID technology to sense the magnetic fields caused by the beam current. Since the system is sensitive on a pA level, it is an optimum device to detect dark currents of superconducting cavities. The system presented here is designed for the test facilities of the superconducting accelerator modules for the European XFEL at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg. Measurements in a quiet environment showed that an intrinsic noise level of the CCC of 40 pA Hz{sup -1/2} could be achieved.

  6. Impact of cool-down conditions at T_{c} on the superconducting rf cavity quality factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vogt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many next-generation, high-gradient accelerator applications, from energy-recovery linacs to accelerator-driven systems (ADS rely on continuous wave (CW operation for which superconducting radio-frequency (SRF systems are the enabling technology. However, while SRF cavities dissipate little power, they must be cooled by liquid helium and for many CW accelerators the complexity as well as the investment and operating costs of the cryoplant can prove to be prohibitive. We investigated ways to reduce the dynamic losses by improving the residual resistance (R_{res} of niobium cavities. Both the material treatment and the magnetic shielding are known to have an impact. In addition, we found that R_{res} can be reduced significantly when the cool-down conditions during the superconducting phase transition of the niobium are optimized. We believe that not only do the cool-down conditions impact the level to which external magnetic flux is trapped in the cavity but also that thermoelectric currents are generated which in turn create additional flux that can be trapped. Therefore, we investigated the generation of flux and the dynamics of flux trapping and release in a simple model niobium-titanium system that mimics an SRF cavity in its helium tank. We indeed found that thermal gradients along the system during the superconducting transition can generate a thermoelectric current and magnetic flux, which subsequently can be trapped. These effects may explain the observed variation of the cavity’s R_{res} with cool-down conditions.

  7. Engineering, design and prototype tests of a 3.9 GHz transverse-mode superconducting cavity for a radiofrequency-separated kaon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark S. Champion et al.

    2001-01-01

    A research and development program is underway to construct superconducting cavities to be used for radiofrequency separation of a Kaon beam at Fermilab. The design calls for installation of twelve 13-cell cavities operating in the 3.9 GHz transverse mode with a deflection gradient of 5 MV/m. They present the mechanical, cryogenic and vacuum design of the cavity, cryomodule, rf power coupler, cold tuner and supporting hardware. The electromagnetic design of the cavity is presented in a companion paper by Wanzenberg and McAshan. The warm tuning system (for field flatness) and the vertical test system is presented along with test results of bench measurements and cold tests on single-cell and five-cell prototypes

  8. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popielarski, J.; Bierwagen, J.; Bricker, S.; Compton, C.; DeLauter, J.; Glennon, P.; Grimm, T.; Hartung, W.; Harvell, D.; Hodek, M.; Johnson, M.; Marti, F.; Miller, P.; Moblo, A.; Norton, D.; Popielarski, L.; Wlodarczak, J.; York, R.C.; Zeller, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to (ge) 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focusing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  9. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L.; Rogacki, Adam R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of higher order mode (HOM) damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG) coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  10. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Arsenyev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of higher order mode (HOM damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs. Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  11. THE JLAB AMPERE-CLASS CRYOMODULE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Rimmer; Edward Daly; William Hicks; James Henry; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Katherine Wilson; Genfa Wu; Gianluigi Ciovati; Thomas Elliott; Peter Kneisel; Stephen Manning; Robert Manus; Karl Smith; Lynn Vogel; Larry Turlington

    2006-01-01

    For the next generation of compact high-power FELs a new cryomodule is required that is capable of accelerating up to Ampere levels of beam current. Challenges include strong HOM damping, high HOM power and high fundamental-mode power (in operating scenarios without full energy recovery). For efficient use of space a high real-estate gradient is desirable and for economic operation good fundamental-mode efficiency is important. The technology must also be robust and should be based on well-proven and reliable technologies. For Ampere-class levels of beam current both halo interception and beam break-up (BBU) are important considerations. These factors tend to drive the designs to lower frequencies where the apertures are larger and the transverse impedances are lower. To achieve these goals we propose to use a compact waveguide-damped multi-cell cavity packaged in an SNS-style cryomodule

  12. Novel Approach to Linear Accelerator Superconducting Magnet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikhin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting Linear Accelerators include a superconducting magnet system for particle beam transportation that provides the beam focusing and steering. This system consists of a large number of quadrupole magnets and dipole correctors mounted inside or between cryomodules with SCRF cavities. Each magnet has current leads and powered from its own power supply. The paper proposes a novel approach to magnet powering based on using superconducting persistent current switches. A group of magnets is powered from the same power supply through the common, for the group of cryomodules, electrical bus and pair of current leads. Superconducting switches direct the current to the chosen magnet and close the circuit providing the magnet operation in a persistent current mode. Two persistent current switches were fabricated and tested. In the paper also presented the results of magnetic field simulations, decay time constants analysis, and a way of improving quadrupole magnetic center stability. Such approach substantially reduces the magnet system cost and increases the reliability.

  13. Five-cell superconducting RF module with a PBG coupler cell: design and cold testing of the copper prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenyev, Sergey Andreyevich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shchegolkov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boulware, Chase [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Grimm, Terry [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Rogacki, Adam [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-04-29

    We report the design and experimental data for a copper prototype of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator module. The five-cell module has an incorporated photonic band gap (PBG) cell with couplers. The purpose of the PBG cell is to achieve better higher order mode (HOM) damping, which is vital for preserving the quality of high-current electron beams. Better HOM damping raises the current threshold for beam instabilities in novel SRF accelerators. The PBG design also increases the real-estate gradient of the linac because both HOM damping and the fundamental power coupling can be done through the PBG cell instead of on the beam pipe via complicated end assemblies. First, we will discuss the design and accelerating properties of the structure. The five-cell module was optimized to provide good HOM damping while maintaining the same accelerating properties as conventional elliptical-cell modules. We will then discuss the process of tuning the structure to obtain the desired accelerating gradient profile. Finally, we will list measured quality factors for the accelerating mode and the most dangerous HOMs.

  14. A New Vacuum Brazing Route for Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Bhatnagar, V. K.; Yedle, K.; Ram Sankar, P.; Sindal, B. K.; Kumar, K. V. A. N. P. S.; Singh, M. K.; Rai, S. K.; Bose, A.; Veerbhadraiah, T.; Ramteke, S.; Sridhar, R.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S. C.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes a new approach for vacuum brazing of niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints for application in superconducting radiofrequency cavities. The study exploited good wettability of titanium-activated silver-base brazing alloy (CuSil-ABA®), along with nickel as a diffusion barrier, to suppress brittle Fe-Nb intermetallic formation, which is well reported during the established vacuum brazing practice using pure copper filler. The brazed specimens displayed no brittle intermetallic layers on any of its interfaces, but instead carried well-distributed intermetallic particles in the ductile matrix. The transition joints displayed room temperature tensile and shear strengths of 122-143 MPa and 80-113 MPa, respectively. The joints not only exhibited required hermeticity (helium leak rate high vacuum but also withstood twelve hour degassing heat treatment at 873 K (suppresses Q-disease in niobium cavities), without any noticeable degradation in the microstructure and the hermeticity. The joints retained their leak tightness even after undergoing ten thermal cycles between the room temperature and the liquid nitrogen temperature, thereby establishing their ability to withstand service-induced low cycle fatigue conditions. The study proposes a new lower temperature brazing route to form niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints, with improved microstructural characteristics and acceptable hermeticity and mechanical properties.

  15. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports on RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach will be with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. The author pays close attention to electron- positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. Circular machines, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, etc. have usually not been limited by the RF power available and the machine builders have usually had their RF power source requirements met off the shelf. The main challenge for the RF scientist has been then in the areas of controls. An interesting example of this is in the Conceptual Design Report of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) where the RF system is described in six pages of text in a 700-page report. Also, the cost of that RF system is about one-third of a percent of the project's total cost. The RF system is well within the state of the art and no new power sources need to be developed. All the intellectual effort of the system designer would be devoted to the feedback systems necessary to stabilize beams during storage and acceleration, with the main engineering challenges (and costs) being in the superconducting magnet lattice

  16. Cooling for SC devices of test cryomodule for ADS Injector II at IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Wang, S. Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, S. H.; Liu, Y. Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201204 (China); Guo, X. L. [JiangSu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The superconducting half-wave resonance cavities connected in series with superconducting solenoids will be applied to the Injector II of the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) to be built at the Modern Physics Institute, China. A test system has been developed for the purpose of performance test of the HWR cavities as well as validating the relevant technique for cooling the cavity and the solenoids together. It mainly comprises a cryogenic valve box (TVB), a test cryomodule (TCM1) and transfer lines. The TCM1 includes one HWR cavity, two superconducting solenoids, one cold BPM and their cooling system. The design of the TCM1 cryostat was carried out by the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), CAS. Both the cavity and the solenoids will work at 4.4 K by bath cooling. The fast cooling down for the cavity from around 100 K to 120 K is required to avoid degrading of the cavity performance. After cool down and before energization, the solenoids should be warmed up to above 10 K and re-cooled down for the purpose of degaussing. The TCM1 can not only be cooled by using the dewar-filling system, but also operated by the refrigerator system. For the purpose of reducing the heat loads to the cold mass at 4 K from room temperature, thermal radiation shields cooled by liquid nitrogen flowing in tubing were employed. This paper presents the design details of cooling circuits and thermal shields of the TCM1 as well as related calculations and analyses.

  17. Status report on CERN activities aiming at the production of sputter-coated copper superconducting RF cavities for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Bloess, D.; Chiaveri, E.; Hilleret, N.; Minestrini, M.; Weingarten, W.

    1990-01-01

    To upgrade LEP energy above 55 GeV, the first step will consist in installing 32 SC cavities of 352 MHz frequency at Point 2 of the machine. This operation will be carried out in steps and should be completed by the end of 1991. It has been decided that 8 of the 32 cavities will be Nb coated copper cavities, the crucial part of which (i.e. the cavity proper) will be manufactured and coated at CERN. For the time being, 4 of these 8 cavities have been prepared. They present Q 0 values at low field of about 10 10 , while at the specified operating field of 5 MV/m their Q 0 range between 5 and 7 x 10 9 . In order to carry out assembly, coating and rinsing of cavities in better (i.e. cleaner) conditions, an experimental hall is being prepared, which will become operational after summer 1989, such as to be used for the manufacturing of the second batch of 4 coated cavities. In parallel with this main activity, some work is also being devoted to the study of coatings of higher T c materials, namely NbTiN. Due to the higher T c , these new coatings should present a lower BCS RF resistivity, a necessary condition to obtain higher Q 0 values. The first cavity coated so far with NbTiN (a single cell cavity of 500 MHz frequency) gave encouraging results, which however are not better than what was obtained with a Nb film. (author)

  18. Thermal behaviour analysis of SRF cavities and superconducting HOM couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Junquera, T.

    1993-01-01

    Two individual papers appear in this report, titled Thermal model calculations in superconducting RF cavities, and Thermal study of HOM couplers for superconducting RF cavities. Both were indexed separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  19. Niobium Coatings for the HIE-ISOLDE QWR Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Jecklin, N; Delaup, B; Ferreira, L; Mondino, I; Sublet, A; Therasse, M; Venturini Desolaro, W

    2013-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy at ISOLDE) project is the upgrade of the existing ISOLDE (Isotope Separator On Line DEvice) facility at CERN, which is dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for nuclear physics experiments. A new linear accelerator made of 20 ȕ=10.3% and 12 ȕ=6.3% quarter-wave resonators (QWR) superconducting (SC) accelerating cavities at 101 MHz will be built, and in a first phase two cryomodules of 5 high-ȕ cavities each are scheduled to accelerate first beams in 2015. The cavities are made of a copper substrate, with a sputter-coated superconductive niobium (Nb) layer, operated at 4.5 K with an accelerating field of 6 MV/m at 10W Radio-Frequency (RF) losses (Q=4.5· 108). In this paper we will discuss the baseline surface treatment and coating procedure which allows obtaining the required performance, as well as the steps undertaken in order to prepare series production of the required number of cavities guaranteeing their quality and functional...

  20. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A.; O'Brien, M.; Ahammed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented

  1. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O' Brien, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ahammed, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

    2014-01-29

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented.

  2. Analysis of the Cause of High External Q Modes in the JLab High Gradient Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Akcelik, V.; Xiao, L.; Lee, L.; Ng, C.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Wang, H.; Marhauser, F.; Sekutowicz, J.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab

    2008-06-27

    The Renascence cryomodule [1] installed in CEBAF in 2007 consists of 8 cavities as shown in Figure 1. The first three cavities (No.1-No.3) in the upstream end are of the Low Loss (LL) shape design, and the remaining 5 cavities (No.4-No.8) on the beam downstream end are the High Gradient (HG) shape design. The fundamental power couplers (FPCs) are the rectangular waveguides, and the little cylindrical structures are the HOM couplers. The locations of the FPC in the last four cavities are mirrored about the beam z axis. Cavities No.4 and No.5 form a back-to-back cavity pair. Among the HG cavities installed in the Renascence cryomodule, the only identifiable difference from their fabrication documentation is that cavity No.5 received an extra EBW pass on one equator weld, specifically cell 5. The non-uniform mechanical tuning required to compensate the fundamental mode tune and flatness for the extra shrinkage of this cell is believed to contribute the most significant differences from the other HG cavities. Beam based instability studies on this cryomodule in CEBAF have shown a significant beam breakup (BBU) threshold current reduction, well below design value. Frequency spectrum peaked by the off-sided beam power indicated the cause is due to abnormal high Q modes in the cavity No.5. Measured beam off-axis position at the cavity No.5 does not correspond to the shunt impedances calculated for an ideal cavity. Low power RF measurements have identified that the problematic modes are in the second dipole band (TM110 like). Three of the modes have external Qs two orders magnitude higher than the others, while the rest of modes in the first two dipole bands are normal in terms of the design values. The cause of this abnormality and the future impact on the BBU was not able to be resolved due to the limitations of information that can be obtained from the measurements. It is important to understand the cause of this abnormality so that effective QA/QC measures can be

  3. RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...

  4. The TESLA RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, S.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA project proposed by the TESLA collaboration in 2001 is a 500 to 800GeV e+/e- linear collider with integrated free electron laser facility. The accelerator is based on superconducting cavity technology. Approximately 20000 superconducting cavities operated at 1.3GHz with a gradient of 23.4MV/m or 35MV/m will be required to achieve the energy of 500GeV or 800GeV respectively. For 500GeV ∼600 RF stations each generating 10MW of RF power at 1.3GHz at a pulse duration of 1.37ms and a repetition rate of 5 or 10Hz are required. The original TESLA design was modified in 2002 and now includes a dedicated 20GeV electron accelerator in a separate tunnel for free electron laser application. The TESLA XFEL will provide XFEL radiation of unprecedented peak brilliance and full transverse coherence in the wavelength range of 0.1 to 6.4nm at a pulse duration of 100fs. The technology of both accelerators, the TESLA linear collider and the XFEL, will be identical, however the number of superconducting cavities and RF stations for the XFEL will be reduced to 936 and 26 respectively. This paper describes the layout of the entire RF system of the TESLA linear collider and the TESLA XFEL and gives an overview of its various subsystems and components

  5. Transport of LCLS-II 1.3 Ghz cryomodule to SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M. W.; Arkan, T.; Peterson, T.; Tang, Z.; Boo, S.; Carrasco, M.; Daly, E.; Huque, N.

    2016-06-30

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These include a prototype built and delivered by each Lab. Another two 3.9 GHz cryomodules will be built, tested and transported by Fermilab to SLAC. Each assembly will be transported over-the-road from Fermilab or Jefferson Lab using specific routes to SLAC. The transport system consists of a base frame, isolation fixture and upper protective truss. The strongback cryomodule lifting fixture is described along with other supporting equipment used for both over-the-road transport and local (on-site) transport at Fermilab. Initially, analysis of fragile components and stability studies will be performed in order to assess the risk associated with over-the-road transport of a fully assembled cryomodule.

  6. Study of an accelerating superconducting module and its feedback loop systems for the MYRRHA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouly, F.

    2011-11-01

    The MYRRHA ( Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications ) project aims at constructing an accelerator driven system (ADS) demonstrator (50 a 100 MWth) to explore the feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation. Such a subcritical reactor requires an extremely reliable accelerator which delivers a CW high power protons beam (600 MeV, 4 mA). The reference solution for this machine is a superconducting linear accelerator. This thesis presents the work - undertaken at IPN Orsay in October 2008 - on the study of a prototypical superconducting module and the feedback control systems of its cavity for the high energy part of the MYRRHA linac. First, the optimization and the design of 5-cell elliptical cavities (β=0,65), operating at 704.4 MHz, are presented. Then, the experimental work focuses on a reliability oriented study of the 'cryo-module' which hold a prototypical 5-cell cavity (β=0,47). In this study, the dynamic behavior of the fast tuning system of the cavity was measured and qualified. The 'field flatness' issue in 'low beta' multi-cell cavity was also brought to light. Finally, a fault-tolerance analysis of the linac was carried out. Toward this goal, a model of the cavity, its RF feedback loop system and its tuning system feedback loop was developed. This study enabled to determine the RF power needs, the tuning system requirements and as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of fast fault-recovery scenarios to minimize the number of beam interruptions in the MYRRHA linac. (author)

  7. LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design - lessons learned from testing at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, J.; Hurd, J.; Orlov, Y.; He, Y.; Bossert, R.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; Atassi, O. Al; Wang, R.; Arkan, T.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; White, M.; Wu, G.; Makara, J.; Ginsburg, C.; Pei, L.; Holzbauer, J.; Hansen, B.; Stanek, R.; Peterson, T.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    Fermilab’s 1.3 GHz prototype cryomodule for the Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade (LCLS-II) has been tested at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Aspects of the cryomodule design have been studied and tested. The cooldown circuit was used to quickly cool the cavities through the transition temperature, and a heater on the circuit was used to heat incoming helium for warmup. Due to the 0.5% slope of the cryomodule, the liquid level is not constant along the length of the cryomodule. This slope as well as the pressure profile caused liquid level management to be a challenge. The microphonics levels in the cryomodule were studied and efforts were made to reduce them throughout testing. Some of the design approaches and studies performed on these aspects will be presented. Fermilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy. This work was supported, in part, by the LCLS-II Project.

  8. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  9. RF and feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1994-01-01

    The radiofrequency system of the Tau Charm Factory accelerating 10 11 particles per bunch and a circulating current of 0.5 A is presented. In order to produce the very short bunches required, the RF system of TCF must provide a large RF voltage (8 MV) at a frequency in the neighbourhood of 400-500 MHz. It appears very attractive to produce the high voltage required with superconducting cavities, for which wall losses are negligible. A comparison between the sc RF system proposed and a possible copper system run at an average 1 MV/m, shows the clear advantage of sc cavities for TCF. (R.P.). 2 figs,. 1 tab

  10. RF system for the super conducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the several types of RF sources used for proton liner accelerators. Also we discus the undesirable characteristics of super-conducting cavities, and the influence of the large beam loading for an accelerating field. We propose the RF system for the super-conducting proton linear accelerators using the Diacrode or IOT taking these effects into account. (author)

  11. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  12. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  13. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  14. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  15. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  16. The fundamental science of nitrogen-doping of niobium superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, Daniel Alfred

    Doping of niobium superconducting RF cavities with impurities has been demonstrated to have the ability to significantly improve the cryogenic efficiency of the accelerating structures. Doping SRF cavities with nitrogen is a relatively simple additional step to cavity preparation that can make drastic improvements in a cavity's intrinsic quality factor, Q0. Nitrogen-doping consists of treating SRF cavities at high temperatures in a low nitrogen-atmosphere. This leads to two important effects: an improvement in Q0 at low fields, and the presence of an "anti-Q slope" in which the cryogenic efficiency of doped cavities actually improves at higher fields. After its initial discovery, nitrogen-doping showed real promise but many fundamental scientific questions remained about the process. Nitrogen-doped cavities consistently quenched at lower fields than un-doped cavities, cooling the cavities through their critical temperature slowly led to poor performance, and the mechanism behind the Q0 improvement was not well understood. This dissertation focuses on addressing these issues. Single-cell 1.3 GHz cavities were prepared with different nitrogen-dopings and their effects studied systematically. It was found that nitrogen-doping drastically lowers the mean free path of the RF penetration layer of the niobium, leading to a lowering of the temperature-dependent BCS resistance, RBCS, at low fields. Theoretical work to predict the anti-Q slope was compared with experimental results to more fundamentally understand the nature of the field dependence of RBCS. Nitrogen-doped cavities were found to have a much larger sensitivity of residual resistance from trapped magnetic flux than un-doped cavities. Fast cool downs with large spatial temperature gradients through Tc were found to more efficiently expel magnetic flux. The full dependence of this sensitivity to trapped magnetic flux was studied as a function of changing mean free path and found to be in good agreement with

  17. Buffer Chemical Polishing and RF Testing of the 56 MHz SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill,A.

    2009-01-01

    The 56 MHz cavity presents a unique challenge in preparing it for RF testing prior to construction of the cryomodule. This challenge arises due to the physical dimensions and subsequent weight of the cavity, and is further complicated by the coaxial geometry, and the need to properly chemically etch and high pressure rinse the entire inner surface prior to RF testing. To the best of my knowledge, this is the largest all niobium SRF cavity to be chemically etched and subsequently tested in a vertical dewar at 4K, and these processes will be the topic of this technical note.

  18. Industrial production of SC RF accelerating cavities at CERCA. Latest results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutes, J.L.; Maccioni, P.

    1996-01-01

    CERCA is one of the most experienced companies throughout the world for the manufacture of superconducting RF accelerating devices. The latest results obtained during the past 2 years on CERCA's superconducting cavities are presented. (K.A.)

  19. Cryogenic testing of the 2.1 GHz five-cell superconducting RF cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Haynes, W. Brian; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terrence L.; Rogacki, Adam R.

    2016-05-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of the multi-cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG) coupler cell. Achieving high average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery-linacs (ERLs). Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam break-up instability, caused by parasitic higher order modes (HOMs) interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The multi-cell cavity was designed and fabricated of niobium. Two cryogenic (vertical) tests were conducted. The high unloaded Q-factor was demonstrated at a temperature of 4.2 K at accelerating gradients up to 3 MV/m. The measured value of the unloaded Q-factor was 1.55 × 108, in agreement with prediction.

  20. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  1. A comparison of L-band and C-band rf guns as sources for inline-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Meyerer, T.

    1994-12-01

    We consider the beam dynamics associated with installing a BNL type 1 1/2 cell L-band or C-band rf gun before two TESLA L-band cryomodules. This system will deliver a 25 MeV electron beam with peak currents on the order of 100 A suitable for further magnetic compression. evaluate the injection systems utilizing the electron beam dynamic code PARMELA from the point of view of minimizing the transverse invariant emittance

  2. Thermal Design and Performance results of the first High-Beta Cryo-module for HIE-ISOLDE at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Valdarno, L; Leclercq, Y; Parma, V; Vandoni, G; Williams, L

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy and Intensity HIE-ISOLDE is a facility under construction at CERN whose target is ultimately, after the installation of six cryo-modules, to produce radioactive ion beams at 10MeV/u maximum energy in order to significantly expand the nuclear physics programme carried out by REX-ISOLDE. Since thermal control is essential to the performance of the whole cryo-module, a combination of a passive (materials, coatings, and surface finishes) and active (cryogenic loops, heaters) control has been designed to keep the cryostat operating within the allowable thermal budget. A numerical model based on Finite Element has been developed in order to generate a faithful global mapping of temperatures and heat fluxes inside the cryo-module. The numerical model, combined with the experimental results of the first test campaign, will serve as an optimization tool for the future cryo-modules in terms of improvement in the global and specific heat loads management.

  3. Superconducting Cavity Development for the CEBAF Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I.E. Campisi; J.R. Delayen; L.R. Doolittle; P.Kneisel; J. Mammosser; L. Phillips

    1999-01-01

    Long-term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. In support of these plans, an Upgrade Cryomodule, capable of providing more than twice the operating voltage of the existing CEBAF modules within the same length, is being developed. In particular, this requires the development of superconducting cavities capable of consistently operating at gradients above 12 MV/m and Q approximately 10 10 . We have engaged in a complete review of all the processes and procedures involved in the fabrication and assembly of cavities, and are modifying our chemical processing, cleaning, and assembly facilities. While we have retained the cell shape of existing CEBAF cavities, the new superconducting structure will be substantially different in several respects, such as the higher-order-modes damping and the fundamental power coupling systems. Design features and experimental results will be presented

  4. Superconductors for pulsed rf accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1985-04-01

    The choice of superconducting materials for accelerator rf cavities has been determined in the past only in part by basic properties of the superconductors, such as the critical field, and to a larger extent by criteria which include fabrication processes, surface conditions, heat transfer capabilities and so on. For cw operated cavities the trend has been toward choosing materials with higher critical temperatures and lower surface resistance, from Lead to Niobium, from Niobium to Nb 3 Sn. This trend has been dictated by the specific needs of storage ring cw system and by the relatively low fields which could be reached without breakdown. The work performed at SLAC on superconducting cavities using microsecond long high power rf pulses has shown that in Pb, Nb, and Nb 3 Sn fields close to the critical magnetic fields can be reached without magnetic breakdown

  5. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    59, No. 5. — journal of. November 2002 physics pp. 849–858. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC ... cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indige- ... Prototype resonator was.

  6. Design of an L-band normally conducting RF gun cavity for high peak and average RF power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V., E-mail: paramono@inr.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Philipp, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Rybakov, I.; Skassyrskaya, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stephan, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-11

    To provide high quality electron bunches for linear accelerators used in free electron lasers and particle colliders, RF gun cavities operate with extreme electric fields, resulting in a high pulsed RF power. The main L-band superconducting linacs of such facilities also require a long RF pulse length, resulting in a high average dissipated RF power in the gun cavity. The newly developed cavity based on the proven advantages of the existing DESY RF gun cavities, underwent significant changes. The shape of the cells is optimized to reduce the maximal surface electric field and RF loss power. Furthermore, the cavity is equipped with an RF probe to measure the field amplitude and phase. The elaborated cooling circuit design results in a lower temperature rise on the cavity RF surface and permits higher dissipated RF power. The paper presents the main solutions and results of the cavity design.

  7. Conceptual design report: superconducting booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Superconducting Booster project includes the construction of a new high-voltage injector and buncher for the existing tandem, a magnetic transport system, an rf linac with superconducting resonators, and a rebuncher-debuncher. The booster will fit in existing space so that a new building is not required. The layout of the accelerator is given in Fig. I-1. The University of Washington is contributing approximately $1 M to this project

  8. Design and construction of the main linac module for the superconducting energy recovery linac project at Cornell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, R.; Bullock, B.; He, Y.; Hoffstaetter, G.; Liepe, M.; O' Connell, T.; Quigley, P.; Sabol, D.; Sears, J.; Smith, E.; Veshcherevich, V. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Science and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, 161 Synchrotron Drive, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cornell University has been designing and building superconducting accelerators for various applications for more than 50 years. Currently, an energy-recovery linac (ERL) based synchrotron-light facility is proposed making use of the existing CESR facility. As part of the phase 1 R and D program funded by the NSF, critical challenges in the design were addressed, one of them being a full linac cryo-module. It houses 6 superconducting cavities- operated at 1.8 K in continuous wave (CW) mode - with individual HOM absorbers and one magnet/ BPM section. Pushing the limits, a high quality factor of the cavities (2⋅10{sup 10}) and high beam currents (100 mA accelerated plus 100 mA decelerated) are targeted. We will present the design of the main linac cryo-module (MLC) being finalized recently, its cryogenic features and report on the status of the fabrication which started in late 2012.

  9. Longitudinal beam dynamics with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Cogburn, R.; Newberger, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Dome-Krinsky-Wang (DKW) diffusion-inaction theory for rf-noise-induced emittance dilution is reviewed and related to recent work on the approximation of stochastic processes by Markov processes. An accurate and efficient numerical procedure is developed to integrate the diffusion equation of the DKW theory. Tracking simulations are undertaken to check the validity of the theory in the parameter range of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and to provide additional information. The study of effects of rf noise is applied to two problems of interest at the SSC: (1) determination of noise tolerance levels in the rf system, and (2) feasibility of beam extraction using crystal channeling

  10. Superconducting cavities for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  11. RF properties of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Delayen, J.R.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lanagan, M.T.; Shepard, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the rf properties of high-T/sub c/ superconductors over a wide range of temperature, frequency, and rf field amplitude. We have tested both bulk polycrystalline samples and thick films on silver substrates. At 150 MHz and 4.2 K, we have measured a surface resistance of 18 μ/sup /OMEGA// at low rf field and 3.6 m/sup /OMEGA// at an rf field of 270 gauss. All samples showed a strong dependence of the surface resistance on rf field; however, no breakdown of the superconducting state has been observed up to the highest field achieved (320 gauss). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-H.; Afanador, R.; Barnhart, D. L.; Crofford, M.; Degraff, B. D.; Doleans, M.; Galambos, J.; Gold, S. W.; Howell, M. P.; Mammosser, J.; McMahan, C. J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Peters, C.; Saunders, J. W.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  13. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; Crofford, Mark T.; Degraff, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  14. Commissioning and Operational Experience With an Intermediate Upgrade Cryomodule for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Powers; Davis, G.; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; Hovater, J.; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    Three cryomodules have been designed and built as intermediate prototypes for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade. This paper will discuss the commissioning and operational experience with the second of these cryomodules, which was installed and commissioned in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW Free Electron Laser Facility. Within the cryomodule are eight 7-cell, 1497 MHz cavities. It was designed to accelerate 1 mA of beam in excess of 70 MV and to have the same footprint as a standard CEBAF cryomodule. The cryomodule was installed in parallel with the FEL beam line in the spring of 2004 and characterized simultaneous with beam delivery. It was installed in the beam line in the early summer of 2004 and has since been operated as part of an energy recovered linac with 5 mA of beam current and 75 MV accelerating gradient for extended periods of time. Additionally, it was operated at 1 mA of beam current and 80 MV of accelerating gradient for several hours without a trip. In the latter operating mode the beam current was limited by the injector setup

  15. RF Group Annual Report 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Betz, M; Brunner, O; Baudrenghien, P; Calaga, R; Caspers, F; Ciapala, E; Chambrillon, J; Damerau, H; Doebert, S; Federmann, S; Findlay, A; Gerigk, F; Hancock, S; Höfle, W; Jensen, E; Junginger, T; Liao, K; McMonagle, G; Montesinos, E; Mastoridis, T; Paoluzzi, M; Riddone, G; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schwerg, N; Shaposhnikova, E; Syratchev, I; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Völlinger, C; Vretenar, M; Wuensch, W

    2012-01-01

    The highest priority for the RF group in 2011 was to contribute to a successful physics run of the LHC. This comprises operation of the superconducting 400 MHz accelerating system (ACS) and the transverse damper (ADT) of the LHC itself, but also all the individual links of the injector chain upstream of the LHC – Linac2, the PSB, the PS and the SPS – don’t forget that it is RF in all these accelerators that truly accelerates! A large variety of RF systems had to operate reliably, often near their limit. New tricks had to be found and implemented to go beyond limits; not to forget the equally demanding operation with Pb ions using in addition Linac3 and LEIR. But also other physics users required the full attention of the RF group: CNGS required in 2011 beams with very short, intense bunches, AD required reliable deceleration and cooling of anti-protons, Isolde the post-acceleration of radioactive isotopes in Rex, just to name a few. In addition to the supply of beams for physics, the RF group has a num...

  16. Technical challenges of superconductivity and cryogenics in pursuing TESLA-TTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng

    1996-01-01

    TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) Collaboration is an international R ampersand D effort towards the development of an e + e - linear collider with 500 GeV center of mass by means of 20 km active superconducting accelerating structures at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. The ultimate challenges faced by the TESLA project are (1) to raise operational accelerating gradients to 25 MV/m from current world level of 5-10 MV/m, and (2) to reduce construction costs (cryomodules, klystrons, etc.) down to $2,000/MV from now about $40,000/MV. The TESLA Collaboration is building a prototype TESLA test facility (TTF) of a 500 MeV superconducting linear accelerator to establish the technical basis. TTF is presently under construction and will be commissioned at DESY in 1997, through the joint efforts of 24 laboratories from 8 countries. Significant progress has been made in reaching the high accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m in superconducting cavities, developing cryomodules and constructing TTF infrastructure, etc. This paper will briefly discuss the challenges being faced and review the progress achieved in the technical area of superconductivity and cryogenics by the TESLA Collaboration

  17. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  18. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  19. Superconducting magnets for a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a muon collider will be dependent on the use of superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets for the μ - μ + collider will be found in the following locations: the π - π + capture system, the muon phase rotation system, the muon cooling system, the recirculating acceleration system, the collider ring, and the collider detector system. This report describes superconducting magnets for each of these sections except the detector. In addition to superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities will be found in the recirculating accelerator sections and the collider ring. The use of superconducting magnets is dictated by the need for high magnetic fields in order to reduce the length of various machine components. The performance of all of the superconducting magnets will be affected the energy deposited from muon decay products. (orig.)

  20. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics

  1. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics. (LEW)

  2. A superconducting focusing solenoid for the neutrino factory linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Lebedev, V.; Strauss, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed linear Accelerator that accelerates muons from 190 MeV to 2.45 GeV will use superconducting solenoids for focusing the muon beam. The accelerator will use superconducting RF cavities. These cavities are very sensitive to stay magnetic field from the focusing magnets. Superconducting solenoids can produce large stray fields. This report describes the 201.25 MHz acceleration system for the neutrino factory. This report also describes a focusing solenoid that delivers almost no stray field to a neighboring superconducting RF cavity

  3. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  4. Thermal Design and Performance results of the first High-Beta Cryo-module for HIE-ISOLDE at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdarno, L; Delruelle, N; Leclercq, Y; Parma, V; Vandoni, G; Williams, L

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy and Intensity HIE-ISOLDE is a facility under construction at CERN whose target is ultimately, after the installation of six cryo-modules, to produce radioactive ion beams at 10MeV/u maximum energy in order to significantly expand the nuclear physics programme carried out by REX-ISOLDE. Since thermal control is essential to the performance of the whole cryo-module, a combination of a passive (materials, coatings, and surface finishes) and active (cryogenic loops, heaters) control has been designed to keep the cryostat operating within the allowable thermal budget. A numerical model based on Finite Element has been developed in order to generate a faithful global mapping of temperatures and heat fluxes inside the cryo-module. The numerical model, combined with the experimental results of the first test campaign, will serve as an optimization tool for the future cryo-modules in terms of improvement in the global and specific heat loads management. (paper)

  5. New developments in RF power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers

  6. Tunnel-diode resonator and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of low-dimensional magnetic and superconducting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeninas, Steven Lee [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis emphasizes two frequency-domain techniques which uniquely employ radio frequency (RF) excitations to investigate the static and dynamic properties of novel magnetic and superconducting materials.

  7. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  8. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  9. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  10. Trends in RF-structure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, H.

    1995-01-01

    New trends in RF structure research are presented. The choice is limited to developments as they are required by the next generation of light sources, particle factories and linear colliders. Therefore, emphasis is put on the suppression of higher order modes either in standing or travelling wave resonators and on the development of superconducting cavities. Finally, a brand new development of very high frequency structures with planar geometry suited for fabrication by lithography is mentioned. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  12. Performance of the 2 × 4-cell superconducting linac module for the THz-FEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kui, Zhou; Chenglong, Lao; Dai, Wu; Xing, Luo; Jianxin, Wang; Dexin, Xiao; Lijun, Shan; Tianhui, He; Xuming, Shen; Sifen, Lin; Linde, Yang; Hanbin, Wang; Xingfan, Yang; Ming, Li; Xiangyang, Lu

    2018-07-01

    A high average power THz radiation facility has been developed by the China Academy of Engineering Physics. It is the first CW THz user facility based on superconducting accelerator technology in China. The superconducting linac module, which contains two 4-cell 1.3 GHz TESLA-like superconducting radio frequency cavities, is a major component of this facility. The expected electron energy gain is 6-8 MeV with a field gradient of 8-10 MV/m. The design and fabrication of the linac module is complete. This paper discusses its assembly and results from cyromodule tests and beam commissioning. At 2 K, the cryomodule works smoothly and stably. Both cavities have achieved effective field gradients of 10 MV/m. In beam loading experiments, 8 MeV, 5 mA electron beams with an energy spread less than 0.2% have been produced, which satisfies our requirements.

  13. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2011-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  14. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  15. Low-velocity superconducting accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews the status of RF superconductivity as applied to low-velocity accelerating properties. Heavy-ion accelerators must accelerate efficiently particles which travel at a velocity much smaller than that of light particles, whose velocity changes along accelerator, and also different particles which have different velocity profiles. Heavy-ion superconducting accelerators operate at frequencies which are lower than high-energy superconducting accelerators. The present paper first discusses the basic features of heavy-ion superconducting structures and linacs. Design choices are then addressed focusing on structure geometry, materials, frequency, phase control, and focusing. The report also gives an outline of the status of superconducting booster projects currently under way at the Argonne National Laboratory, SUNY Stony Brook, Weizmann Institute, University of Washington, Florida State, Saclay, Kansas State, Daresbury, Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Legnaro, Bombay, Sao Paulo, ANU (Canberra), and Munich. Recent developments and future prospects are also described. (N.K.) 68 refs

  16. Beam dynamics studies for transverse electromagnetic mode type rf deflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed three-dimensional simulations of beam dynamics for transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM type rf deflectors: normal and superconducting. The compact size of these cavities as compared to the conventional TM_{110} type structures is more attractive particularly at low frequency. Highly concentrated electromagnetic fields between the parallel bars provide strong electrical stability to the beam for any mechanical disturbance. An array of six 2-cell normal conducting cavities or a single cell superconducting structure is enough to produce the required vertical displacement at the target point. Both the normal and superconducting structures show very small emittance dilution due to the vertical kick of the beam.

  17. Beam dynamics studies for transverse electromagnetic mode type rf deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Deitrick, Kirsten; De Silva, Subashini U.; Delayen, Jean R.; Spata, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael; Hofler, Alicia; Beard, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We have performed three-dimensional simulations of beam dynamics for transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) type RF deflectors: normal- and super-conducting. The compact size of these cavities as compared to the conventional TM 110 type structures is more attractive particularly at low frequency. Highly concentrated electromagnetic fields between the parallel bars provide strong electrical stability to the beam for any mechanical disturbance. An array of six 2-cell normal conducting cavities or a single cell superconducting structure is enough to produce the required vertical displacement at the target point. Both the normal and super-conducting structures show very small emittance dilution due to the vertical kick of the beam.

  18. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STOVALL, J.; NATH, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  20. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  1. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  2. Analysis of Higher Order Modes in Large Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Galek, Tomasz; Brackebusch, Korinna; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities used for accelerating charged particle beams are commonly used in accelerator facilities around the world. The design and optimization of modern superconducting RF cavities requires intensive numerical simulations. Vast number of operational parameters must be calculated to ensure appropriate functioning of the accelerating structures. In this study, we primarily focus on estimation and behavior of higher order modes in superconducting RF cavities connected in chains. To calculate large RF models the state-space concatenation scheme, an efficient hybrid method, is employed.

  3. On the preference of cold RF technology for the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamp, A.

    2005-07-01

    On August 20th 2004 the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) released its recommendation that the Linear Collider be based on Superconducting RF Technology. Following a request of the organizers of this conference we summarise in this article the arguments worked out and presented by the ITRP, which led to this recommendation. The main features of both RF-technologies, the favoured L-band RF system of the superconducting version of the Linear Collider and the X-band-technology anticipated for the normal-conducting alternative are briefly described. (orig.)

  4. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  5. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  6. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, A.; Ferrari, A.; Tsoulou, E.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wijnands, T.

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements - vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryo-module beam tubes - have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions. (authors)

  7. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, A; Ferrari, A; Tsoulou, E; Vlachoudis, V; Wijnands, T

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements-vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryomodule beam tubes-have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions.

  8. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  9. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  10. Superconducted tour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.

  11. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  12. The influence of chemical treatments on the superconducting properties of technical niobium materials and their effect on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S B; Sahni, V C; Myneni, G R

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a study of superconducting response in the niobium materials used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient (>25 MV m -1 ) superconducting radio frequency (SC-RF) cavities. These results clearly show that the typical surface chemical treatment deployed during the fabrication of SC-RF cavities affects the superconducting properties of pure niobium materials. Such SC-RF cavities operating at 2 K are often found to show anomalous RF losses, causing either a strong degradation of the quality factor or a thermal breakdown for cavity magnetic fields between 1 and 1.5 kOe. The results of our study suggest a correlation between the field for the first flux-line penetration in these chemically treated technical niobium materials and the reported onset field of anomalous losses in the SC-RF cavities.

  13. The influence of chemical treatments on the superconducting properties of technical niobium materials and their effect on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.; Sahni, V. C.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a study of superconducting response in the niobium materials used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient (>25 MV m-1) superconducting radio frequency (SC-RF) cavities. These results clearly show that the typical surface chemical treatment deployed during the fabrication of SC-RF cavities affects the superconducting properties of pure niobium materials. Such SC-RF cavities operating at 2 K are often found to show anomalous RF losses, causing either a strong degradation of the quality factor or a thermal breakdown for cavity magnetic fields between 1 and 1.5 kOe. The results of our study suggest a correlation between the field for the first flux-line penetration in these chemically treated technical niobium materials and the reported onset field of anomalous losses in the SC-RF cavities.

  14. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  15. Characterization of superconducting multilayers samples

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, C Z; Berry, S; Bouat, S; Jacquot, J F; Villegier, J C; Lamura, G; Gurevich, A

    2009-01-01

    Best RF bulk niobium accelerating cavities have nearly reached their ultimate limits at rf equatorial magnetic field H  200 mT close to the thermodynamic critical field Hc. In 2006 Gurevich proposed to use nanoscale layers of superconducting materials with high values of Hc > HcNb for magnetic shielding of bulk niobium to increase the breakdown magnetic field inside SC RF cavities [1]. Depositing good quality layers inside a whole cavity is rather difficult but we have sputtered high quality samples by applying the technique used for the preparation of superconducting electronics circuits and characterized these samples by X-ray reflectivity, dc resistivity (PPMS) and dc magnetization (SQUID). Dc magnetization curves of a 250 nm thick Nb film have been measured, with and without a magnetron sputtered coating of a single or multiple stack of 15 nm MgO and 25 nm NbN layers. The Nb samples with/without the coating clearly exhibit different behaviors. Because SQUID measurements are influenced by edge an...

  16. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J. W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.557378] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1  μmrad, and high average current (hundreds of mA are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun. SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University. Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term operation was demonstrated at FZD [R. Xiang et al., in Proceedings of the 31st International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 09, Liverpool, UK (STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, 2009, p. 488]. In the near future SRF guns are expected to play an important role for linac-driven FEL facilities. In this paper we will review the concepts, the design parameters, and the status of the major SRF gun projects.

  17. Application of superconductivity in cyclotron construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews major concepts and design features of the new class of cyclotrons which use superconducting coils to provide main magnet excitation. The discussion begins with a brief historical review tracing the evolution of these ''superconducting'' cyclotrons and the impact of this application of superconductivity in pushing back traditional cyclotron construction limits. This is followed by a review of the principal phenomena which come into play to set new limits on the operating regime, and the nature of these limits, some of which arise from orbit properties and some of which result from construction intricacies in the coil and in the rf system. Conclusions anticipate a future widely encompassing role in the application of superconductivity to cyclotron

  18. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  19. RF guns: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1990-06-01

    Free Electron Lasers and future linear colliders require very bright electron beams. Conventional injectors made of DC guns and RF bunchers have intrinsic limitations. The recently proposed RF guns have already proven their capability to produce bright beams. The necessary effort to improve further these performances and to gain reliability is now undertaken by many laboratories. More than twenty RF gun projects both thermionic and laser-driven are reviewed. Their specific characteristics are outlined and their nominal performances are given

  20. rf SQUID system as tunable flux qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, B. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)]. E-mail: b.ruggiero@cib.na.cnr.it; Granata, C. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-08-21

    We present a fully integrated rf SQUID-based system as flux qubit with a high control of the flux transfer function of the superconducting transformer modulating the coupling between the flux qubit and the readout system. The control of the system is possible by including into the superconducting flux transformer a vertical two-Josephson-junctions interferometer (VJI) in which the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero by a transversal magnetic field parallel to the flux transformer plane. The proposed system can be also used in a more general configuration to control the off-diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian of the flux qubit and to turn on and off the coupling between two or more qubits.

  1. New achievements in RF cavity manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, G.; Pimiskern, K.; Kaiser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dornier has been engaged in development, manufacturing and testing of Cu-, Cu/Nb- and Nb-cavities for many years. Recently, several different types of RF cavities were manufactured. A prototype superconducting (s.c.) B-Factory accelerating cavity (1-cell, 500 MHz) was delivered to Cornell University, Laboratory of Nuclear Studies. A second lot of 6 s.c. cavities (20-cell, 3000 MHz) was fabricated on contract from Technical University of Darmstadt for the S-DALINAC facility. Finally, the first copper RF structures (9-cell, 1300 MHz) for TESLA were finished and delivered to DESY, two s.c. niobium structures of the same design are in production. Highlights from the manufacturing processes of these cavities are described and first performance results will be reported

  2. B factory rf system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  3. B factory RF system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  4. Superconductivity and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1963-01-01

    For 50 years particle accelerators employing accelerating cavities and deflecting magnets have been developed at a prodigious rate. New accelerator concepts and hardware ensembles have yielded great improvements in performance and GeV/$. The great idea for collective acceleration resulting from intense auxiliary charged-particle beams or laser light may or may not be just around the corner. In its absence, superconductivity (SC) applied both to rf cavities and to magnets opened up the potential for very large accelerators without excessive energy consumption and with other economies, even with the cw operation desirable for colliding beams. HEP has aggressively pioneered this new technology: the Fermilab single ring 1 TeV accelerator - 2 TeV collider is near the testing stage. Brookhaven National Laboratory's high luminosity pp 2 ring 800 GeV CBA collider is well into construction. Other types of superconducting projects are in the planning stage with much background R and D accomplished. The next generation of hadron colliders under discussion involves perhaps a 20 TeV ring (or rings) with 40 TeV CM energy. This is a very large machine: even if the highest practical field B approx. 10T is used, the radius is 10x that of the Fermilab accelerator. An extreme effort to get maximum GeV/$ may be crucial even for serious consideration of funding

  5. Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at ˜30GHz clock frequencies.

  6. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  7. Beam tests and operation of superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai, Kazunori

    1990-01-01

    Beam tests and operation of superconducting cavities conducted since the third workshop on RF superconductivity (Argonne, Sep. 1987) are reported in this paper. The paper is concerned particularly with electron machines. Storage and acceleration of the beam are discussed, focusing on the CERN test in SPS, the DESY test in PETRA, the superconducting injector at Darmstadt, and the KEK beam tests in T-AR. Then, long-term performance of the cavity in the ring is discussed focusing on Eacc (max) and O-value, environmental conditions, and operational experience in T-MR. RF controllability is addressed, centering on the Robinson stability, cavity tuning loop, quench detection and interlocks, recovery procedure, field calibration, and phase adjustment. Higher order modes are also discussed. Superconducting cavities have been operated successfully in accelerators. It has been confirmed that the superconducting cavities can be used stably for experimental use. For more than 5000 hours the cavities have indicated no essential degradation of the cavity performance. The study of long-term performance should be continued in longer range of period. (N.K.)

  8. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  9. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  10. RF Energy Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1980-02-01

    The RF Energy Compressor, REC described here, transforms cw rf into periodic pulses using an energy storage cavity, ESC, whose charging is controlled by 180 0 bi-phase modulation, PSK, and external Q switching, βs. Compression efficiency, C/sub e/, of 100% can be approached at any compression factor C/sub f/

  11. Practical RF system design

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, William F

    2003-01-01

    he ultimate practical resource for today's RF system design professionals Radio frequency components and circuits form the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks. Consequently, both practicing and aspiring industry professionals need to be able to solve ever more complex problems of RF design. Blending theoretical rigor with a wealth of practical expertise, Practical RF System Design addresses a variety of complex, real-world problems that system engineers are likely to encounter in today's burgeoning communications industry with solutions that are not easily available in the existing literature. The author, an expert in the field of RF module and system design, provides powerful techniques for analyzing real RF systems, with emphasis on some that are currently not well understood. Combining theoretical results and models with examples, he challenges readers to address such practical issues as: * How standing wave ratio affects system gain * How noise on a local oscillator will affec...

  12. Design, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration system Supporting Superconducting Radio Frequency Testing at Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Fila, A.; Nguyen, C.; Tatsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC). The FRIB linear accelerator (LINAC) will be comprised of cryomodules each with multiple Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K. A helium refrigeration system was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in the SRF high bay building to test and certify these cavities and cryomodules before installation in the FRIB LINAC tunnel. The helium refrigeration system includes a helium refrigerator which has nominal capacity of 900 W at 4 K, 5000 L liquid helium storage Dewar, helium gas storage, two room temperature vacuum pumps capable of 2.5 g/s each for 2 K testing, purifier, purifier recovery compressor, and the distribution system for liquid nitrogen and helium. The helium refrigeration system is now operational supporting three below grade cavity testing Dewars and one cryomodule testing bunker meeting the required throughput of 1 cavity per day.

  13. Design of a superconducting accelerator for positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Nagayasu; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    A design of a superconducting accelerator for a positron beam with energy of ∼1 MeV for positron annihilation spectroscopy is proposed. The total system can be extremely small with an application of superconducting technology. Both a miniaturization and easy maintenance of the accelerator can be achieved by usage of a small liquidless refrigerator for cooling of a superconducting RF cavity. Moreover, operation duty cycle of the superconducting cavity is ∼100%. The required RF power to drive the system is only ∼10 W, therefore a large-size klystron is not necessary. The designed system including a slow positron source is small (∼2 m 3 ) enough to be used in a general laboratory. (author)

  14. Free electron lasers on superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapierrre, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Analysing the results of several Free Electron Laser experiments, we show that the best accelerator should be a superconducting linear accelerator: it can provide a c.w. high quality beam (energy spread and emittance). The technology of RF superconductivity provide the opportunity to build such an accelerator. In this paper, we present the foreseen results one can expect from a FEL based on such a machine: - Average power > 1 Kw, - Total efficiency > 2.5%, - Tunability between 0.6 and 5 μm [fr

  15. Instrumentation for localized superconducting cavity diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Physics Division; Ge, M. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Iwashita, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2017-01-12

    Superconducting accelerator cavities are now routinely operated at levels approaching the theoretical limit of niobium. To achieve these operating levels more information than is available from the RF excitation signal is required to characterize and determine fixes for the sources of performance limitations. This information is obtained using diagnostic techniques which complement the analysis of the RF signal. In this paper we describe the operation and select results from three of these diagnostic techniques: the use of large scale thermometer arrays, second sound wave defect location and high precision cavity imaging with the Kyoto camera.

  16. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  17. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  18. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  19. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  20. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  1. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  2. Thermal stabilities and optimal operating parameters for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source superconducting linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    The baseline Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator will provide a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a mercury target for the production of neutrons. The main acceleration for the H- beam is provided by 81 superconducting cavities installed in 23 cryomodules operating at 805 MHz. The design of the superconducting linac includes a 2.1 K, 2.5 kW cryogenic plant to maintain the cavities below the helium lambda point for efficient operation at high accelerating gradients. In this paper operating conditions are analyzed rather than the design ones, which still guarantees a high gradient operation without any temperature constraint. From the analysis it appears that the SNS superconducting linac can be operated at temperatures higher than 2.1 K, a fact resulting from both the pulsed nature of the superconducting cavities, the specific configuration of the existing cryogenic plant and the operating frequency. General conditions are also given regarding the operation of pulsed superconducting cavities resonating at different frequencies

  3. Global voltage control for the LEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciapala, E.; Butterworth, A.; Peschardt, E.

    1993-01-01

    The LEG RF system is installed as independent 16 cavity units. In addition to the eight copper cavity units originally installed 12 units with super-conducting cavities are being added for the LEP200 energy upgrade. The total RF voltage determines the synchrotron tune (Qs) and must be controlled precisely during energy ramping. Local function generators in each of the RF units are pre-loaded such that when triggered simultaneously by ramp timing events transmitted over the general timing system the total voltage varies to give the Qs function required. A disadvantage is that loss of RF in a unit at any time after the loading process cannot be corrected. As the number of RF units increases automatic control of the total RF voltage and its distribution around LEP becomes desirable. A global voltage control system, based on a central VME controller, has recently been installed. It has direct and rapid access to the RF units over the LEP time division multiplexing system. Initial tests on operation and performance at fixed energy and during energy ramping are described, as well as the implementation of a Qs loop in which Qs can be set directly using on-line synchrotron frequency measurements

  4. Investigation and Prediction of RF Window Performance in APT Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The work described in this report was performed between November 1996 and May 1997 in support of the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The goal was to write and to test computer programs for charged particle orbits in RF fields. The well-documented programs were written in portable form and compiled for standard personal computers for easy distribution to LANL researchers. They will be used in several APT applications including the following. Minimization of multipactor effects in the moderate β superconducting linac cavities under design for the APT accelerator. Investigation of suppression techniques for electron multipactoring in high-power RF feedthroughs. Modeling of the response of electron detectors for the protection of high power RF vacuum windows. In the contract period two new codes, Trak-RF and WaveSim, were completed and several critical benchmark etests were carried out. Trak-RF numerically tracks charged particle orbits in combined electrostatic, magnetostatic and electromagnetic fields. WaveSim determines frequency-domain RF field solutions and provides a key input to Trak-RF. The two-dimensional programs handle planar or cylindrical geometries. They have several unique characteristics

  5. Production of H- ions by an RF driven multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diameter aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 mTorr and 50 kW of RF power. Attempts have been made to enhance the H - beam current by introducing a small quantity of cesium vapor into the source chamber. It is found that the H - output current can be increased by a factor larger than three if some cesium is applied in the collar around the exit aperture

  6. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  7. Theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up to the 1987 results on high temperature superconductivity. Contents: Phenomenological Theory of Superconductivity; Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity; Theory of Superconducting Alloys; Superconductors in a Magnetic Field; Superconductivity and Magnetic Order; Superconductivity in Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems; and Non-Conventional Superconductivity

  8. Versatile rf controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1985-05-01

    The low level rf system developed for the new Bevatron local injector provides precise control and regulation of the rf phase and amplitude for three 200 MHz linac cavities. The main features of the system are: extensive use of inexpensive, off-the-shelf components, ease of maintenance, and adaptability to a wide range of operation frequencies. The system utilizes separate function, easily removed rf printed circuit cards interconnected via the edge connectors. Control and monitoring are available both locally and through the computer. This paper will describe these features as well as the few component changes that would be required to adapt the techniques to other operating frequencies. 2 refs

  9. Radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Li, Qiang

    2017-12-05

    A radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch is described. A superconductor is closely coupled to a radio frequency (RF) coil. To turn the switch "off," i.e., to induce a transition to the normal, resistive state in the superconductor, a voltage burst is applied to the RF coil. This voltage burst is sufficient to induce a current in the coupled superconductor. The combination of the induced current with any other direct current flowing through the superconductor is sufficient to exceed the critical current of the superconductor at the operating temperature, inducing a transition to the normal, resistive state. A by-pass MOSFET may be configured in parallel with the superconductor to act as a current shunt, allowing the voltage across the superconductor to drop below a certain value, at which time the superconductor undergoes a transition to the superconducting state and the switch is reset.

  10. High Accelerating Field Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R. S.; Saito, K.; Furuta, F.; Saeki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morozumi, Y.; Higo, T.; Higashi, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kazakov, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Ueno, K.; Sato, M.

    2008-06-01

    We have conducted a study of a series of single cell superconducting RF cavities at KEK. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the maximum accelerating field attainable. All of these cavities are of the ICHIRO shape, based on the Low Loss shape. Our results indicate that accelerating fields as high as the theoretical maximum of 50MV/m are attainable.

  11. Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  12. Long term performance of the superconducting cavities of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Desmons, M.; Girard, J.; Letonturier, P.

    1993-12-01

    The Saclay heavy ion superconducting linac has been in operation at full energy since mid 1989. The 50 independent superconducting helix resonators have now accelerated beams for more than 20000 hours. The long term performances of the linac, and more specifically of the superconducting R.F. technology, are discussed: vibrations of the resonators, cryostat design and operation, beam time, vacuum accidents, multipactor during operation due to small leaks, stability of the electric fields, cryogenics operation. 4 figs., 6 refs

  13. Rheumatoid factor (RF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003548.htm Rheumatoid factor (RF) To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  15. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-03-26

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties.

  16. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties

  17. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  18. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  19. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  20. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  1. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs

  2. Fabrication and Testing of the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Reece; Edward Daly; Stephen Manning; Robert Manus; Samuel Morgan; Joseph Ozelis; Larry Turlington

    2005-01-01

    Twelve seven-cell niobium cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade prototype cryomodule Renascence have been fabricated at JLab and tested individually. This set includes four of the ''Low Loss'' (LL) design and eight of the ''High Gradient'' (HG) design. The fabrication strategy was an efficient mix of batch job-shop component machining and in-house EBW, chemistry, and final-step machining to meet mechanical tolerances. Process highlights will be presented. The cavities have been tested at 2.07 K, the intended CEBAF operating temperature. Performance exceeded the tentative design requirement of 19.2 MV/m cw with less than 29 W dynamic heat dissipation. These results, as well as the HOM damping performance will be presented

  3. Fabrication and Testing of the SRF cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. E. Reece; E. F. Daly; S. Manning; R. Manus; S. Morgan; J. P. Ozelis; L. Turlington

    2005-01-01

    Twelve seven-cell niobium cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade prototype cryomodule Renascence have been fabricated at JLab and tested individually. This set includes four of the ''Low Loss'' (LL) design and eight of the ''High Gradient'' (HG) design. The fabrication strategy was an efficient mix of batch job-shop component machining and in-house EBW, chemistry, and final-step machining to meet mechanical tolerances. Process highlights will be presented. The cavities have been tested at 2.07 K, the intended CEBAF operating temperature. Performance exceeded the tentative design requirement of 19.2 MV/m CW with less than 29 W dynamic heat dissipation. These results, as well as the HOM damping performance are presented

  4. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  5. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  6. Melt formed superconducting joint between superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.; Knudsen, B.A.; Rumaner, L.E.; Zaabala, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting joint between contiguous superconducting tapes having an inner laminate comprised of a parent-metal layer selected from the group niobium, tantalum, technetium, and vanadium, a superconductive intermetallic compound layer on the parent-metal layer, a reactive-metal layer that is capable of combining with the parent-metal and forming the superconductive intermetallic compound, the joint comprising: a continuous precipitate of the superconductive intermetallic compound fused to the tapes forming a continuous superconducting path between the tapes

  7. RF-Based Accelerators for HEDP Research

    CERN Document Server

    Staples, John W; Keller, Roderich; Ostroumov, Peter; Sessler, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    Accelerator-driven High-Energy Density Physics experiments require typically 1 nanosecond, 1 microcoulomb pulses of mass 20 ions accelerated to several MeV to produce eV-level excitations in thin targets, the "warm dense matter" regime. Traditionally the province of induction linacs, RF-based acceleration may be a viable alternative with recent breakthroughs in accelerating structures and high-field superconducting solenoids. A reference design for an RF-based accelerator for HEDP research is presented using 15 T solenoids and multiple-gap RF structures configured with either multiple parallel beams (combined at the target) or a single beam and a small stacking ring that accumulates 1 microcoulomb of charge. In either case, the beam is ballistically compressed with an induction linac core providing the necessary energy sweep and injected into a plasma-neutralized drift compression channel resulting in a 1 mm radius beam spot 1 nanosecond long at a thin foil or low-density target.

  8. Disorder in YBa2Cu3O7 by entropy measurements and by rf dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrivos, J.V.; Inthnin, R.; Bustillo, C.; Lei, M.C.; Hellmoldt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments, that characterize the disorder present in Type II superconducting ceramics, are reported Electrochemical measurements at 298>T>150 K>T c ∼ 92 K, in the cell: Cu|CuBr 2 .05 M in CH 3 OH|1:2:3|Pt and/orCu, obtain important thermochemical information, ΔH cell = 30 kJ/mole e - and ΔS cell = 212 J/K/mole e - ± 15%. This suggests that the 1:2:3 phase is disordered. The rf dissipation measurements of superconducting lamellae dispersed in a matrix give information on the effects of the static and rf fields on the mixed state

  9. High Power RF Transmitters for ICRF Applications on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuzhou; Yuan Shuai; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Xinjun; Chen Gen; Cheng Yan; Wang Lei; Ju Songqing; Deng Xu; Qin Chengming; Yang Lei; Kumazawa, R.

    2013-01-01

    An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.

  10. COMPARISON OF RF CAVITY TRANSPORT MODELS FOR BBU SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkyoung Shin,Byung Yunn,Todd Satogata,Shahid Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    The transverse focusing effect in RF cavities plays a considerable role in beam dynamics for low-energy beamline sections and can contribute to beam breakup (BBU) instability. The purpose of this analysis is to examine RF cavity models in simulation codes which will be used for BBU experiments at Jefferson Lab and improve BBU simulation results. We review two RF cavity models in the simulation codes elegant and TDBBU (a BBU simulation code developed at Jefferson Lab). elegant can include the Rosenzweig-Serafini (R-S) model for the RF focusing effect. Whereas TDBBU uses a model from the code TRANSPORT which considers the adiabatic damping effect, but not the RF focusing effect. Quantitative comparisons are discussed for the CEBAF beamline. We also compare the R-S model with the results from numerical simulations for a CEBAF-type 5-cell superconducting cavity to validate the use of the R-S model as an improved low-energy RF cavity transport model in TDBBU. We have implemented the R-S model in TDBBU. It will improve BBU simulation results to be more matched with analytic calculations and experimental results.

  11. Comparison Of RF Cavity Transport Models For BBU Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilkyoung; Yunn, Byung; Satogata, Todd; Ahmed, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    The transverse focusing effect in RF cavities plays a considerable role in beam dynamics for low-energy beamline sections and can contribute to beam breakup (BBU) instability. The purpose of this analysis is to examine RF cavity models in simulation codes which will be used for BBU experiments at Jefferson Lab and improve BBU simulation results. We review two RF cavity models in the simulation codes elegant and TDBBU (a BBU simulation code developed at Jefferson Lab). elegant can include the Rosenzweig-Serafini (R-S) model for the RF focusing effect. Whereas TDBBU uses a model from the code TRANSPORT which considers the adiabatic damping effect, but not the RF focusing effect. Quantitative comparisons are discussed for the CEBAF beamline. We also compare the R-S model with the results from numerical simulations for a CEBAF-type 5-cell superconducting cavity to validate the use of the R-S model as an improved low-energy RF cavity transport model in TDBBU. We have implemented the R-S model in TDBBU. It will improve BBU simulation results to be more matched with analytic calculations and experimental results.

  12. Overview and status of RF systems for the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynk, J.; Grippe, J.; Cutler, R.I.; Rodriguez, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linear Accelerator (Linac) produces a 600-MeV, 35-μs, H-beam at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The beam is accelerated by a series of RF cavities. These consist of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), two bunchers, and four Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tanks at 427.617 MHz, and two bunchers, nine side-coupled Linac modules, and an energy compressor at 1282.851 MHz. The RFQ amplifier and the low-frequency buncher cavity amplifiers use gridded tubes, while the other cavities use klystron amplifier systems. The RF control system consists of a reference line and cavity feedback and feedforward loops for each amplifier. The RF amplifier system for each of these accelerator cavities is described, and the current status of each system is presented

  13. Embedded software for the CEBAF RF Control Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.; Ashkenazi, I.; West, C.; Morgan, B.

    1991-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator control system employs a distributed computer strategy. As part of this strategy, the RF control sub-system uses 342 RF Control Modules, one for each of four warm section beam forming cavities (i.e., choppers, buncher, capture) and 338 superconducting accelerating cavities. Each control module has its own microprocessor, which provides local intelligence to automatically control over 100 parameters, while keeping the user interface simple. The microprocessor controls analog and digital I/O, including the phase and gradient section, high power amplifier (HPA), and interlocks. Presently, the embedded code is used to commission the 14 RF control modules in the injector. This paper describes the operational experience of this complex real-time control system

  14. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  15. The FELIX RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manintveld, P.; Delmee, P.F.M.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Meddens, B.J.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Amersfoort, P.W. van

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the RF system for the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX) is discussed. The RF system provides the input power for a triode gun (1 GHz, 100 W), a prebuncher (1 GHz, 10 kW), a buncher (3 GHz, 20 MW), and two linacs (3 GHz, 8 MW each). The pulse length in the system is 20 μs. The required electron beam stability imposes the following demands on the RF system: a phase stability better than 0.3 deg for the 1 GHz signals and better than 1 deg for the 3 GHz signals; the amplitude stability has to be better than 1% for the 1 GHz and better than 0.2% for the 3 GHz signals. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  16. The state of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of applications based on the phenomena of superconductivity are reviewed. Superconducting materials, large scale applications, the Josephson effect and its applications, and superconductivity in instrumentation, are considered. The influence that superconductivity has had on modern theories of elementary particles, such as gauge symmetry breaking, is discussed. (U.K.)

  17. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  18. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  19. Superconducting resonator used as a beam phase detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sharamentov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam-bunch arrival time has been measured for the first time by operating superconducting cavities, normally part of the linac accelerator array, in a bunch-detecting mode. The very high Q of the superconducting cavities provides high sensitivity and allows for phase-detecting low-current beams. In detecting mode, the resonator is operated at a very low field level comparable to the field induced by the bunched beam. Because of this, the rf field in the cavity is a superposition of a “pure” (or reference rf and the beam-induced signal. A new method of circular phase rotation (CPR, allowing extraction of the beam phase information from the composite rf field was developed. Arrival time phase determination with CPR is better than 1° (at 48 MHz for a beam current of 100 nA. The electronics design is described and experimental data are presented.

  20. Study of luminous spots observed on metallic surfaces subjected to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junquera, T.; Maissa, S.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Bonin, B.; Luong, M.; Safa, H.; Tan, J.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of high gradient superconducting RF cavities for electron accelerators is mainly limited by field emission. Major improvements have been recently obtained using different surface conditioning techniques confirming the involvement of metallic particles in field emission enhancement. Results obtained with an optical apparatus attached to an RF copper cavity equipped with a removable sample which is subjected to high RF fields are presented. Stable light spots are observed on the sample surface and their intensities and optical spectra are measured as a function of the surface electric field. The total emitted current is simultaneously measured by an isolated hollow electrode facing the sample. (K.A.)

  1. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  2. Improved Magnetron Stability and Reduced Noise in Efficient Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    State of the art high-current superconducting accelerators require efficient RF sources with a fast dynamic phase and power control. This allows for compensation of the phase and amplitude deviations of the accelerating voltage in the Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities caused by microphonics, etc. Efficient magnetron transmitters with fast phase and power control are attractive RF sources for this application. They are more cost effective than traditional RF sources such as klystrons, IOTs and solid-state amplifiers used with large scale accelerator projects. However, unlike traditional RF sources, controlled magnetrons operate as forced oscillators. Study of the impact of the controlling signal on magnetron stability, noise and efficiency is therefore important. This paper discusses experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW tubes and verifies our analytical model which is based on the charge drift approximation.

  3. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  4. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. The Jefferson Lab Quality Assurance Program for the SNS Superconducting Linac Construction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Ozelis

    2003-01-01

    As part of a multi-laboratory collaboration, Jefferson Lab is currently engaged in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of 23 cryomodules for the superconducting linac portion of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As with any large accelerator construction project, it is vitally important that these components be built in a cost effective and timely manner, and that they meet the stringent performance requirements dictated by the project specifications. A comprehensive Quality Assurance (QA) program designed to help accomplish these goals has been implemented as an inherent component of JLab's SNS construction effort. This QA program encompasses the traditional spectrum of component performance, from incoming parts inspection, raw materials testing, through to sub-assembly and finished article performance evaluation

  6. RF and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of how applied radiofrequency and magnet technology are used, and could be used, in the nuclear medical field are presented. Specific examples are: 1) the THERAC 25 electron accelerator project; 2) large, high field magnet systems for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); 3) the superconducting cyclotron; and 4. hyperthermia treatment. Emphasis is placed on the example of hyperthermia treatment

  7. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  8. Beyond the RF photogun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, O.J.; Rozenzweig, J.; Travish, G.

    2003-01-01

    Laser-triggered switching of MV DC voltages enables acceleration gradients an order of magnitude higher than in state-of-the-art RF photoguns. In this way ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches may be generated without the use of magnetic compression. The evolution of the bunch during the

  9. Proceedings of CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Superconductivity for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the twenty-seventh specialized course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture (EMFCSC) in Erice, Italy, from 24 April to 4 May 2013. Following recapitulation lectures on basic accelerator physics and superconductivity, the course covered topics related to the design, production and operation of superconducting RF systems and superconducting magnets for accelerators. The participants pursued one of six case studies in order to get ’hands-on’ experience of the issues connected with the design of superconducting systems. A series of topical seminars completed the programme.

  10. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  11. Fiber Optic Based Thermometry System for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [Microxact Inc.

    2013-05-06

    Thermometry is recognized as the best technique to identify and characterize losses in SRF cavities. The most widely used and reliable apparatus for temperature mapping at cryogenic temperatures is based on carbon resistors (RTDs). The use of this technology on multi-cell cavities is inconvenient due to the very large number of sensors required to obtain sufficient spatial resolution. Recent developments make feasible the use of multiplexible fiber optic sensors for highly distributed temperature measurements. However, sensitivity of multiplexible cryogenic temperature sensors was found extending only to 12K at best and thus was not sufficient for SRF cavity thermometry. During the course of the project the team of MicroXact, JLab and Virginia Tech developed and demonstrated the multiplexible fiber optic sensor with adequate response below 20K. The demonstrated temperature resolution is by at least a factor of 60 better than that of the best multiplexible fiber optic temperature sensors reported to date. The clear path toward at least 10times better temperature resolution is shown. The first to date temperature distribution measurements with ~2.5mm spatial resolution was done with fiber optic sensors at 2K to4K temperatures. The repeatability and accuracy of the sensors were verified only at 183K, but at this temperature both parameters significantly exceeded the state of the art. The results of this work are expected to find a wide range of applications, since the results are enabling the whole new testing capabilities, not accessible before.

  12. BNL superconducting RF guns - technology challenges as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Hahn, H.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; McIntyre, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Pate, D.; Rank, J.; Scaduto, J.; Rao, T.; Wu, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhao, Y.; Bluem, H.; Cole, M.; Falletta, M.; Holmes, D.; Peterson, E.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.; Wong, R.; Lewellen, J.; Funk, W.; Kneisel, P.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.; Janssen, D.; Nguyen-Tuong, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and commissioning of a 703.75 MHz SRF photoinjector with a retractable multi-alkali photocathode designed to deliver 0.5A average current at 100% duty factor is the present undertaking of the electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Division of Brookhaven National Labs. This photoinjector represents the state of the art in photoinjector technology, orders of magnitude beyond the presently available technology, and should be commissioned by 2007. The RandD effort presently underway, and the focus of this paper, will address the numerous technological challenges that must be met for this project to succeed. These include the novel physics design of the cavity, the challenges of inserting and operating a multi-alkali photocathode in the photoinjector at these high average currents, and the design and installation of a laser system capable of delivering the required 10s of watts of laser power needed to make this photoinjector operational

  13. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  14. Understanding and application of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung

    1997-02-01

    This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.

  15. RF Power Requirements for PEFP SRF Cavity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    For the future extension of the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) Proton linac, preliminary study on the SRF (superconducting radio-frequency) cavity is going on including a five-cell prototype cavity development to confirm the design and fabrication procedures and to check the RF and mechanical properties of a low-beta elliptical cavity. The main parameters of the cavity are like followings. - Frequency: 700 MHz - Operating mode: TM010 pi mode - Cavity type: Elliptical - Geometrical beta: 0.42 - Number of cells: 5 - Accelerating gradient: 8 MV/m - Epeak/Eacc: 3.71 - Bpeak/Eacc: 7.47 mT/(MV/m) - R/Q: 102.3 ohm - Epeak: 29.68 MV/m (1.21 Kilp.) - Geometrical factor: 121.68 ohm - Cavity wall thickness: 4.3 mm - Stiffening structure: Double ring - Effective length: 0.45 m For the test of the cavity at low temperature of 4.2 K, many subsystems are required such as a cryogenic system, RF system, vacuum system and radiation shielding. RF power required to generate accelerating field inside cavity depends on the RF coupling parameters of the power coupler and quality factor of the SRF cavity and the quality factor itself is affected by several factors such as operating temperature, external magnetic field level and surface condition. Therefore, these factors should be considered to estimate the required RF power for the SRF cavity test

  16. RF control at SSCL - an object oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.; Biggs, R.; Bossom, J.; Chillara, K.; Richter, R.; Wade, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas, the construction of which was stopped in 1994, would have represented a major challenge in accelerator research and development. This paper addresses the issues encountered in the parallel design and construction of the control systems for the RF equipment for the five accelerators comprising the SSC. An extensive analysis of the components of the RF control systems has been undertaken, based upon the Schlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/OOD) methodology. The RF subsystem components such as amplifiers, tubes, power supplies, PID loops, etc. were analyzed to produce OOA information, behavior and process models. Using these models, OOD was iteratively applied to develop a generic RF control system design. This paper describes the results of this analysis and the development of 'bridges' between the analysis objects, and the EPICS-based software and underlying VME-based hardware architectures. The application of this approach to several of the SSCL RF control systems is discussed. ((orig.))

  17. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  18. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Hovater; Hai Dong; Alicia Hofler; George Lahti; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the ne w design will use different receiver-transmitter daughter cards for each frequency. This paper discusses the development of the new RF system and reports on initial results

  19. Design of 250-MW CW RF system for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.

    1997-01-01

    The design for the RF systems for the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) proton linac will be presented. The linac produces a continuous beam power of 130 MW at 1300 MeV with the installed capability to produce up to a 170 MW beam at 1700 MeV. The linac is comprised of a 350 MHz RFQ to 7 MeV followed in sequence by a 700 MHz coupled-cavity drift tube linac, coupled-cavity linac, and superconducting (SC) linac to 1700 MeV. At the 1700 MeV, 100 mA level the linac requires 213 MW of continuous-wave (CW) RF power. This power will be supplied by klystrons with a nominal output power of 1.0 MW. 237 kystrons are required with all but three of these klystrons operating at 700 MHz. The klystron count includes redundancy provisions that will be described which allow the RF systems to meet an operational availability in excess of 95 percent. The approach to achieve this redundancy will be presented for both the normal conducting (NC) and SC accelerators. Because of the large amount of CW RF power required for the APT linac, efficiency is very important to minimize operating cost. Operation and the RF system design, including in-progress advanced technology developments which improve efficiency, will be discussed. RF system performance will also be predicted. Because of the simultaneous pressures to increase RF system reliability, reduce tunnel envelope, and minimize RF system cost, the design of the RF vacuum windows has become an important issue. The power from a klystron will be divided into four equal parts to minimize the stress on the RF vacuum windows. Even with this reduction, the RF power level at the window is at the upper boundary of the power levels employed at other CW accelerator facilities. The design of a 350 MHz, coaxial vacuum window will be presented as well as test results and high power conditioning profiles. The transmission of 950 kW, CW, power through this window has been demonstrated with only minimal high power conditioning

  20. 805 MHz Beta = 0.47 Elliptical Accelerating Structure R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bricker; C. Compton; W. Hartung; M. Johnson; F. Marti; J. Popierlarski; R. C. York; et al

    2008-09-22

    A 6-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity for acceleration in the velocity range of about 0.4 to 0.53 times the speed of light was designed. After single-cell prototyping, three 6-cell niobium cavities were fabricated. In vertical RF tests of the 6-cell cavities, the measured quality factors (Q{sub 0}) were between 7 {center_dot} 10{sup 9} and 1.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 10} at the design field (accelerating gradient of 8 to 10 MV/m). A rectangular cryomodule was designed to house 4 cavities per cryomodule. The 4-cavity cryomodule could be used for acceleration of ions in a linear accelerator, with focusing elements between the cryomodules. A prototype cryomodule was fabricated to test 2 cavities under realistic operating conditions. Two of the 6-cell cavities were equipped with helium tanks, tuners, and input coupler and installed into the cryomodule. The prototype cryomodule was used to verify alignment, electromagnetic performance, frequency tuning, cryogenic performance, low-level RF control, and control of microphonics.

  1. 805 MHz β = 0.47 Elliptical Accelerating Structure R and D. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, S.; Compton, C.; Hartung, W.; Johnson, M.; Marti, F.; Popierlarski, J.; York, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity for acceleration in the velocity range of about 0.4 to 0.53 times the speed of light was designed. After single-cell prototyping, three 6-cell niobium cavities were fabricated. In vertical RF tests of the 6-cell cavities, the measured quality factors (Q 0 ) were between 7 · 10 9 and 1.4 · 10 10 at the design field (accelerating gradient of 8 to 10 MV/m). A rectangular cryomodule was designed to house 4 cavities per cryomodule. The 4-cavity cryomodule could be used for acceleration of ions in a linear accelerator, with focusing elements between the cryomodules. A prototype cryomodule was fabricated to test 2 cavities under realistic operating conditions. Two of the 6-cell cavities were equipped with helium tanks, tuners, and input coupler and installed into the cryomodule. The prototype cryomodule was used to verify alignment, electromagnetic performance, frequency tuning, cryogenic performance, low-level RF control, and control of microphonics.

  2. Experiments on the rf surface resistance of the perovskite superconductors at 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, M.; Klein, N.; Mueller, G.; Piel, H.; Roeth, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of the perovskite superconductors many experiments to explore their physical properties have been performed and various potential applications have been considered. The high critical temperature of more than 90 K obtained with Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ (Y may be substituted by other rare earth elements) makes these superconductors interesting for applications in microwave technology. This has focused the authors interest on the investigation of their rf properties. Due to the sensitivity of the rf surface resistance to surface impurities and remaining non superconducting phases rf measurements are a good means to provide useful information about the quality of sample preparation and about physical properties of the superconductor itself. This contribution reports on the experimental determination of the rf surface resistance of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ and Eu 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ in the normal and superconducting state at 3 GHz. In the first chapter the preparation of the ceramic samples and initial dc experiments are described. The main part of the paper describes the rf measurements which are performed in a superconducting niobium host cavity. The obtained results for both the surface resistance and the high field performance are discussed with respect to the preparation of the samples and regarding possible applications. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  3. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  4. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  5. Racetrack microtron rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Keffeler, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The rf system for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)/Los Alamos cw racetrack microtron is described. The low-power portion consists of five 75-W amplifers that drive two input ports in each of two chopper deflection cavities and one port in the prebuncher cavity. A single 500-kW klystron drives four separate 2380-MHz cavity sections: the two main accelerator sections, a capture section, and a preaccelerator section. The phases and amplitudes in all cavities are controlled by electronic or electromechanical controls. The 1-MW klystron power supply and crowbar system were purchased as a unit; several modifications are described that improve power-supply performance. The entire rf system has been tested and shipped to the NBS, and the chopper-buncher system has been operated with beam at the NBS. 5 refs., 2 figs

  6. RF Gun Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-01-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation

  7. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  8. RF pulse compression development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    The body of this paper discusses the theory and some rules for designing a multistage Binary Energy Compressor (BEC) including its response to nonstandard phase coding, describes some proof-of-principle experiments with a couple of low power BECs, presents the design parameters for some sample linear collider rf systems that could possibly use a BEC to advantage and outlines in the conclusion some planned R and D efforts. 8 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  9. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  10. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  11. Case Studies on Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P

    2014-01-01

    During the CERN Accelerator School 'Superconductivity for accelerators', the students were divided into 18 groups, and 6 different exercises (case studies), involving the design and analysis of superconducting magnets and RF cavities, were assigned. The problems covered a broad spectrum of topics, from properties of superconducting materials to operation conditions and general dimensions of components. The work carried out by the students turned out to be an extremely useful opportunity to review the material explained during the lectures, to become familiar with the orders of magnitude of the key parameters, and to understand and compare different design options. We provide in this paper a summary of the activities related to the case studies on superconducting magnets and present the main outcomes

  12. Case Studies on Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    During the CERN Accelerator School 'Superconductivity for accelerators', the students were divided into 18 groups, and 6 different exercises (case studies), involving the design and analysis of superconducting magnets and RF cavities, were assigned. The problems covered a broad spectrum of topics, from properties of superconducting materials to operation conditions and general dimensions of components. The work carried out by the students turned out to be an extremely useful opportunity to review the material explained during the lectures, to become familiar with the orders of magnitude of the key parameters, and to understand and compare different design options. We provide in this paper a summary of the activities related to the case studies on superconducting magnets and present the main outcomes.

  13. Comparison of Measured and Calculated Coupling between a Waveguide and an RF Cavity Using CST Microwave Studio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Shi; H. Chen; S. Zheng; D. Li; R.A. Rimmer; H. Wang

    2006-06-26

    Accurate predications of RF coupling between an RF cavity and ports attached to it have been an important study subject for years for RF coupler and higher order modes (HOM) damping design. We report recent progress and a method on the RF coupling simulations between waveguide ports and RF cavities using CST Microwave Studio in time domain (Transit Solver). Comparisons of the measured and calculated couplings are presented. The simulated couplings and frequencies agree within {approx} 10% and {approx} 0.1% with the measurements, respectively. We have simulated couplings with external Qs ranging from {approx} 100 to {approx} 100,000, and confirmed with measurements. The method should also work well for higher Qs, and can be easily applied in RF power coupler designs and HOM damping for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities.

  14. Comparison of Measured and Calculated Coupling between a Waveguide and an RF Cavity Using CST Microwave Studio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Shi; H. Chen; S. Zheng; D. Li; R.A. Rimmer; H. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Accurate predications of RF coupling between an RF cavity and ports attached to it have been an important study subject for years for RF coupler and higher order modes (HOM) damping design. We report recent progress and a method on the RF coupling simulations between waveguide ports and RF cavities using CST Microwave Studio in time domain (Transit Solver). Comparisons of the measured and calculated couplings are presented. The simulated couplings and frequencies agree within ∼ 10% and ∼ 0.1% with the measurements, respectively. We have simulated couplings with external Qs ranging from ∼ 100 to ∼ 100,000, and confirmed with measurements. The method should also work well for higher Qs, and can be easily applied in RF power coupler designs and HOM damping for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities

  15. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  16. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-01-15

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.

  17. Pantechnik new superconducting ion source: PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, G.; Bieth, C.; Bougy, W.; Brionne, N.; Donzel, X.; Leroy, R.; Sineau, A.; Vallerand, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Thuillier, T.

    2012-01-01

    The new ECR ion source PantechniK Indian Superconducting Ion Source (PKISIS) was recently commissioned at Pantechnik. Three superconducting coils generate the axial magnetic field configuration, while the radial magnetic field is done with the multi-layer permanent magnets. Special care was devoted to the design of the hexapolar structure, allowing a maximum magnetic field of 1.32 T at the wall of the 82 mm diameter plasma chamber. The three superconducting coils using low temperature superconducting wires are cooled by a single double stage cryo-cooler (4.2 K). Cryogen-free technology is used, providing reliability and easy maintenance at low cost. The maximum installed RF power (18.0 GHz) is of 2 kW. Metallic beams can be produced with an oven (T max = 1400 deg. C) installed with an angle of 5 deg. with respect to the source axis or a sputtering system, mounted on the axis of the source. The beam extraction system is constituted of three electrodes in accel-decel configuration. The new source of Pantechnik is conceived for reaching optimum performances at 18 GHz RF frequencies. PKISIS magnetic fields are 2.1 T axial B inj and 1.32 T radial field in the wall, variable B min with an independent coil and a large and opened extraction region. Moreover, PKISIS integrates modern design concepts, like RF direct injection (2 kW availability), dc-bias moving disk, out-of-axis oven and axial sputtering facility for metal beams. Finally, PKISIS is also conceived in order to operate in a high-voltage platform with minor power consumption.

  18. Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOIDS FOR THE MUON COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,M.A.; EYSSA,Y.; KENNY,S.; MILLER,J.R.; PRESTEMON,S.; WEGGEL,R.J.

    2000-06-12

    The muon collider is a new idea for lepton colliders. The ultimate energy of an electron ring is limited by synchrotron radiation. Muons, which have a rest mass that is 200 times that of an electron can be stored at much higher energies before synchrotron radiation limits ring performance. The problem with muons is their short life time (2.1 {micro}s at rest). In order to operate a muon storage ring large numbers of muon must be collected, cooled and accelerated before they decay to an electron and two neutrinos. As the authors see it now, high field superconducting solenoids are an integral part of a muon collider muon production and cooling systems. This report describes the design parameters for superconducting and hybrid solenoids that are used for pion production and collection, RF phase rotations of the pions as they decay into muons and the muon cooling (reduction of the muon emittance) before acceleration.

  20. Superconducting linac booster for NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Prakash, P.N.; Ajithkumar, B.P.; Ghosh, S.; Changrani, T.; Mehta, R.; Sarkar, A.; Muralidhar, S.; Dutt, R.N.; Kumar, M.; Shepard, K.W.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The progress made in the heavy ion superconducting linac booster project for the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron accelerator is overviewed. Prototypes of the accelerating structure have been fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory and undergone several diagnostic tests. In the first phase heavy ions up to mass 80 will be accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier and in the second phase the mass limit would be increased to 120. The subsystems of the project are the basic accelerating structures, the RF instrumentation and control, the cryogenic system and the beam optics. Preliminary designs for the buncher and linac cryostats have been made. Several prototypes of RF electronics and control modules have been fabricated and tested. (R.P.)

  1. Investigation of superconducting niobium 1170 MHz cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anashin, V.V.; Bibko, S.I.; Fadeyev, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication and experiments with superconducting L-band single cell cavities are described. These cavities model a cell of an accelerating RF structure. The cavities have been fabricated from technical grade and higher purity grade sheet niobium using deep-drawing, electron beam welding and chemical polishing. They have spherical geometry and are excited in the TM 010 mode. A computerized set-up was used for cavity tests. Qo=1.5 x 10 9 and E acc = 4.3 MV/m were obtained in the cavity made of higher purity grade niobium. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  2. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  4. Low frequency rf current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control

  5. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  6. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  7. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  8. Status report on the Karlsruhe prototype superconducting proton linerar accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citron, A.

    1974-01-01

    A short intoduction about linear accelerators in general and the advantage of using superconducting resonators is given. Subsequently some basic efforts on r.f. superconductivity are recalled and the status of technology of surface preparations is reported. The status of the Karlsruhe accelerator is given. In the low energy region some difficulties caused by mechanical instabilities had to be overcome. Protons have been accelerated in this part. Model studies for the subsequent sections of the accelerator have been started and look promising. (author)

  9. Progress in diagnostic techniques for SC [superconducting] cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the very real progress that has been made, the routine performance of superconducting cavities still falls far short of both the theoretical expectations and the performance of afew exceptional examples. It is the task of systematically applied diagnostic techniques to reveal additional information concerning the response of superconducting surfaces to applied RF fields. In this paper we will direct our attention to discussions of recent developments in diagnostic techniqeus, such as thermometry in superfluid helium, and scanning laser acoustic microscopy. 18 refs., 12 figs

  10. Magnetic Materials Characterization and Modeling for the Enhanced Design of Magnetic Shielding of Cryomodules in Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Sanjay [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Particle accelerators produce beams of high-energy particles, which are used for both fundamental and applied scientific research and are critical to the development of accelerator driven sub-critical reactor systems. An effective magnetic shield is very important to achieve higher quality factor (Qo) of the cryomodule of a particle accelerator. The allowed value of field inside the cavity due to all external fields (particularly the Earth’s magnetic field) is ~15 mG or less. The goal of this PhD dissertation is to comprehensively study the magnetic properties of commonly used magnetic shielding materials at both cryogenic and room temperatures. This knowledge can be used for the enhanced design of magnetic shields of cryomodes (CM) in particle accelerators. To this end, we first studied the temperature dependent magnetization behavior (M-H curves) of Amumetal and A4K under different annealing and deformation conditions. This characterized the effect of stress or deformation induced during the manufacturing processes and subsequent restoration of high permeability with appropriate heat treatment. Next, an energy based stochastic model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization behavior of ferromagnetic materials was proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. We show that this model is able to simulate and explain the magnetic behavior of as rolled, deformed and annealed amumetal and A4K over a large range of temperatures. The experimental results for permeability are then used in a finite element model (FEM) in COMSOL to evaluate the shielding effectiveness of multiple shield designs at room temperature as well as cryogenic temperature. This work could serve as a guideline for future design, development and fabrication of magnetic shields of CMs.

  11. Multi-cell superconducting structures for high energy e+ e- colliders and free electron laser linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J

    2008-01-01

    This volume, which is the first in the EuCARD Editorial Series on “Accelerator Science and Technology”, is closely combined with the most advanced particle accelerators – based on Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology. In general, SRF research includes following areas: high gradient cavities, cavity prototyping, thin film technologies, large grain and mono-crystalline niobium and niobium alloys, quenching effects in superconducting cavities, SRF injectors, photo-cathodes, beam dynamics, quality of electron beams, cryogenics, high power RF sources, low level RF controls, tuners, RF power coupling to cavities, RF test infrastructures, etc. The monograph focuses on TESLA structures used in FLASH machine and planned for XFEL and ILC experiments.

  12. Microwave superconductivity for particle accelerators - How the high TC superconductors measure up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Green, K.; Gruschus, J.

    1988-01-01

    Application of superconducting niobium cavities to accelerators for high energy physics, nuclear physics and free electron laser is growing rapidly. Cornell has a long standing effort in the development of superconducting RF accelerator technology. Nb cavities developed here from the basis for constructing the world's highest energy electron accelerator for nuclear physics. These cavities have set a standard against which the behavior of the new superconductors must be compared. From available results on dc critical fields, and the energy gap, it appears that the new materials could make a significant impact on the capabilities of future accelerators. Crucial to this assessment, however, are direct microwave loss measurements, together with measurements of the energy gap and RF frequency dependence as well as the behavior at high RF fields. Latest results on these properties for bulk sintered ceramics, thin films and single crystals at RF frequencies of 1.5 and 6 Ghz are presented

  13. SRF and RF systems for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Polizzo, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Veshcherevich, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Low Energy RHIC electron Cooling (LEReC) is under development at BNL to improve RHIC luminosity at low energies. It will consist of a short electron linac and two cooling sections, one for blue and one for yellow rings. For the first stage of the project, LEReC-I, we will install a 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity and three normal conducting cavities operating at 9 MHz, 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz. The SRF cavity will boost the electron beam energy up to 2 MeV. The warm cavities will be used to correct the energy spread introduced in the SRF cavity. The paper describes layouts of the SRF and RF systems, their parameters and status.

  14. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  15. Recent development on RF-driven multicusp H- ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; De Vries, G.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Saadatmand, K.; Wengrow, A.B.; Williams, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. The source routinely provided 35 keV, 30 mA of beam at 0.1% duty factor. By using a new cesium dispensing system, beam current in excess of 100 mA and e/H - ∼1 have been observed. For pulse mode operation, the rf discharge can be started by means of a xenon flash lamp. Extracted electrons in the beam can be efficiently removed by employing a permanent magnet insert structure. Chopping of the H - beam can be accomplished by applying a pulsed positive voltage on the plasma electrode

  16. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuning of External Q And Phase for The Cavities of A Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Katalev, V V

    2004-01-01

    The RF power required for a certain gradient of a superconducting cavity depends on the beam current and coupling between the cavity and waveguide. The coupling with the cavity may be changed by variation of Qext. Different devices can be used to adjust Qext or phase. In this paper three stub and E-H tuners are compared and their usability for the RF power distribution system for the superconducting accelerator of the European Xray laser and the TESLA linear collider is considered. The tuners were analyzed by using the scattering matrix. Advantages and limitations of the devices are presented.

  18. Simulation Study of Electronic Damping of Microphonic Vibrations in Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicia Hofler; Jean Delayen

    2005-01-01

    Electronic damping of microphonic vibrations in superconducting rf cavities involves an active modulation of the cavity field amplitude in order to induce ponderomotive forces that counteract the effect of ambient vibrations on the cavity frequency. In lightly beam loaded cavities, a reduction of the microphonics-induced frequency excursions leads directly to a reduction of the rf power required for phase and amplitude stabilization. Jefferson Lab is investigating such an electronic damping scheme that could be applied to the JLab 12 GeV upgrade, the RIA driver, and possibly to energy-recovering superconducting linacs. This paper discusses a model and presents simulation results for electronic damping of microphonic vibrations

  19. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  20. rf experiments on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Hooke, W.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of rf experiments are being conducted on PLT in order to explore rf techniques which could improve tokamak performance parameters. Of special importance are the studies of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating, lower hybrid MHD stabilization and electron heating, down-shifted electron cyclotron heating, and fast wave current drive. Ion Bernstein wave heating results at modest power indicate that the particle confinement time could be enhanced relative to that for fast wave heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and neutral beam heating. At these power levels a conclusive determination of energy confinement scaling with power cannot yet be given. Central sawtooth and m = 1 MHD stabilization is being obtained with centrally peaked lower hybrid (LH) current drive and the central electron temperature is peaking to values (approx.5 keV) well outside the bounds of ''profile consistency.'' In this case the electron energy confinement is apparently increased relative to the ohmic value. The production of relativistic electrons via heating at the down-shifted electron cyclotron (EC) frequency is found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and lends support to the use of this method for heating in relatively high magnetic field devices