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Sample records for superconducting hts paint

  1. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Superconducting Magnets with HTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting Magnets with HTS (1/5), by Justin Schwartz (North Carolina State University).   Monday, June 25, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 30-7-018 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium ).   More information here.

  2. Simulation of an HTS Synchronous Superconducting Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this work we present a simulation of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. As many other electrical rotating machines, superconducting generators are exposed to ripple fields that could be produced from a wide variety of sources: short circuit, load change, etc. Unlike...... regular conductors, superconductors, experience high losses when exposed to AC fields. Thus, calculation of such losses is relevant for machine design to avoid quenches and increase performance. Superconducting coated conductors are well known to exhibit nonlinear resistivity, thus making the computation...... of heating losses a cumbersome task. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio of the superconducting materials involved adds a penalty in the time required to perform simulations. The chosen strategy for simulation is as follows: A mechanical torque signal together with an electric load is used to drive the finite...

  3. Simulation of an HTS Synchronous Superconducting Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a simulation of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. As many other,electrical rotating machines, superconducting generators are exposed to ripple fields that could be produced from a wide variety of sources: short circuit, load change, mechanical...... torque fluctuations, etc. Unlike regular conductors, superconductors, experience high losses when exposed to AC fields. Thus, calculation of such losses is relevant for machine design to avoid quenches and increase performance. Superconducting coated conductors are well known to exhibit nonlinear...... resistivity, thus making the computation of heating losses a cumbersome task. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio of the superconducting materials involved adds a penalty in the time required to perform simulations. The chosen strategy for simulation is as follows: A mechanical torque signal together...

  4. Superconducting Electronics Research at CSIRO Australia——20 Years after Discovery of HTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Du; Cathy P. Foley; Keith L. Leslie

    2008-01-01

    CSIRO has had a long-term research effort in superconductivity, in particular, since the discovery of HTS which promised big prospects. Significant progress has been made in research and development of HTS electronic devices and systems for practical applications such as mineral and exploration as well as some niche applications in emerging science and technology areas. This article presents an overview of the CSIRO research activities in HTS supercon- ducting electronics since 1987, outlining the HTS junction and device technology as well as various application systems developed by the group.

  5. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  6. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenhofer, J [Siemens AG, Automation and Drives, Large Drives (Germany); Grundmann, J; Klaus, G; Nick, W [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, PO Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: wolfgang.nick@siemens.com

    2008-02-15

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ('conventional') components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  7. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  8. Current distribution and stability of LTS/HTS hybrid superconducting conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current distribution and stability of a hybrid LTS/HTS superconductor, consisting of multifilamentary NbTi/Cu and Bi2223/Ag tapes, were numerically analyzed according to power-law models. The results showed that most of current passed through the LTS and the current increased in the HTS with temperature rise when the transport current was below the critical current of the hybrid conductor. The quench propagation velocity of the hybrid conductor was smaller but its minimum quench energy was larger than those of LTS conductors, indicating that the stability of the hybrid superconducting conductor was effectively improved and a high engineering current density was simultaneously achieved. Finally, a hybrid sample, made by soldering Bi2223/Ag tape onto NbTi/Cu conductor, was prepared and tested successfully at helium temperature. The experimental results qualitatively agreed with the simulated ones.

  9. Static Measurements on HTS Coils of Fully Superconducting AC Electric Machines for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Hunker, Keith R.; Hartwig, Jason; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing the high efficiency and high-power density superconducting (SC) electric machines in full support of electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems for a future electric aircraft. A SC coil test rig has been designed and built to perform static and AC measurements on BSCCO, (RE)BCO, and YBCO high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire and coils at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. In this paper, DC measurements on five SC coil configurations of various geometry in zero external magnetic field are measured to develop good measurement technique and to determine the critical current (Ic) and the sharpness (n value) of the super-to-normal transition. Also, standard procedures for coil design, fabrication, coil mounting, micro-volt measurement, cryogenic testing, current control, and data acquisition technique were established. Experimentally measured critical currents are compared with theoretical predicted values based on an electric-field criterion (Ec). Data here are essential to quantify the SC electric machine operation limits where the SC begins to exhibit non-zero resistance. All test data will be utilized to assess the feasibility of using HTS coils for the fully superconducting AC electric machine development for an aircraft electric propulsion system.

  10. Current Sharing Technology in Transmission Conductors of Cold Dielectric High Temperature Superconducting Cables Using Second-generation HTS Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiahui; BAO Xuzheng; QIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    The cold dielectric high temperature superconducting (CD HTS) cable has multilayer conductors. The non-uniform AC current distribution in these multilayer conductors will increase the AC loss and decrease the current transmission efficiency. So it is important to understand the current sharing among layers in order to fully exploit the performance of the HTS cable.

  11. The decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk superconducting actuator by AC controlled magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Uwani, Y., E-mail: gen422310@s.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Joo, J.H.; Kawamoto, R. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Jo, Y.S. [Center for Applied Superconductivity Technology, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Seongju-dong, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet, having stable levitation and suspension properties according to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulks to develop a non-contract transportation device which moves freely in space. It is certain for our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in a clean room where silicon wafers, which do not like mechanical contact and dust, are manufactured. The proposed actuator consists of the trapped HTS bulk as a mover and two-dimensionally arranged electromagnets as a stator. Up to now, the electromagnets consisted with iron core and copper coil were used as a stator, and each electromagnet was individually controlled using DC power supplies. In our previous work, the unstable movement characteristics of HTS bulk were observed under the DC operation, and the AC electromagnets driven with AC controlled current was proposed to solve these problems. In general, the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk was decayed by a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, it needs to optimize the shapes of AC electromagnets and operating patterns, the decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in the HTS bulk mover by the AC magnetic field should be cleared. In this paper, the influences of the frequency, the overall operating time, the strength of magnetization field and drive current against the decay of trapped magnetic field were experimentally studied using the fabricated AC electromagnets.

  12. Study of recovery characteristics of 2nd generation HTS tapes with different stabilizers for resistive type superconducting fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Jie, E-mail: 1988725sheng@163.com; Zeng, Weina; Ma, Jun; Yao, Zhihao; Li, Zhuyong; Jin, Zhijian; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Three methods of measuring the recovery time of HTS tapes are compared. • Four tapes with different stabilizers were tested to compare their recovery characteristics. • The HTS tapes with thinner stabilizers have better recovery characteristics. • Encapsulation makes the recovery characteristics of HTS tapes worse. • The results can be reference of the re-reclosed operation time interval. - Abstract: The resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is one of the most important superconducting power applications nowadays. As known, this type of SFCL is settled directly in the power transmission line. When a short fault happens, the temperature of the superconductors in the SFCL will increase sharply due to the huge generated heat. This means the superconductors need time to recover the superconducting properties and be ready for the next short fault. So the recovery characteristics become one of the most crucial features of the resistive type SFCL. In this paper, several different kinds of measuring methods are presented to calculate the recovery time of the HTS tapes, and comparison of these methods is also carried out by a standard test. On basis of this, samples with different kinds of stabilizers are used to explore the influence of stabilizer on their recovery characteristics. In addition, the influence of the encapsulation technology is also discussed in this paper.

  13. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsia, Mohit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PVK Institute of Technology, Anantpur, 515 001 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T{sub c} > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific

  14. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsia, Mohit; Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2017-05-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific heat increase significantly. It can be concluded that higher heat transfer rate and lower pumping power can be achieved with SCAR as coolant in the HTS cables.

  15. First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Hurte, J; Sitko, M; Willering, G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.

  16. Multi-scale model of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters based on 2G HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Charles-Henri; Sirois, Frédéric; Lacroix, Christian; Didier, Gaëtan

    2017-01-01

    In order to plan the integration of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in power systems, accurate models of SFCLs must be made available in commercial power system transient simulators. In this context, we developed such a model for the EMTP-RV software package, a power system transient simulator widely used by power utilities. The model can be used with any resistive-type SFCL (rSFCL) made of high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, which are discretized in ‘electro-thermal elements’. Those elements consist solely of electric circuit components, and are used to represent portions of tape of various sizes and dimensions (a ‘multi-scale’ approach). Both the electrical and thermal behaviors of the tape are modeled, including interfacial effects, nonlinear properties of materials and heat transfer to the surrounding environment. Such a multi-scale model can simulate accurately both the local quench dynamics of HTS tapes (microscopic scale) and the global impact of the rSFCL on the power system (macroscopic/system scale). In this paper, the model is used to compute phenomena such as propagation velocity of a hot spot and heat diffusion through the thickness of the tape. Results were verified by comparing EMTP-RV results with finite element simulations. In addition to the development of the multi-scale model itself, which is the major contribution of this paper, the use of the model allowed us to determine the conditions of validity of the commonly used ‘homogenization’ of the thermal properties across the tape thickness. Indeed, when the current flowing into the rSFCL is slightly above its critical current I c (and up to 2{I}{{c}}), very important errors in the power waveforms arise, leading to potentially wrong decisions of protection systems. Homogenized thermal models should thus be used with great care in practice.

  17. Studies of selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example: tape SF12050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jędryka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In presented paper were characterized selected properties of high-temperature superconducting tape 2G HTS SF series - the example of the tape SF12050. Design/methodology/approach: As part of the study smples of tape SF12050 were made. At first made to measure of chemical compsition and compared with manufacturer’s information about that kind of tape. Second step of researcher were research about adhesion of the individual layers of SF12050. After then research was made about tensile strengtht what is the justification utility, as these tapes are subjected to tension at the time of their formation and winding on the transformer core. Findings: As a result of research obtained information on the chemical composition, scratch resistance, adhesion of coating on the tape and about tensile strength. On the last step studies were conducted about critical currents - Ic. Research limitations/implications: These results allow to identify the suitability of these tapes for use on a wide scale - in particular, the winding of the transformer cores. Originality/value: On the basis of studies have demonstrated applications for which the tape may be used SF12050. Given its properties – scratch resistance and tensile strenght reistance, and information about critical current, was indicated best use of that tape for trnasformers production.

  18. Characteristics of persistent-current mode of HTS coil on superconducting electromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.Y., E-mail: cylee@krri.re.kr [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.; Han, Y.J.; Kang, B. [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Y.D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suwon University, Bongdang Eup, Hwaseong Si 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Jo, H.C.; Jang, J.Y.; Ko, T.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The levitation gap of an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system affects the current decay rate of superconducting electromagnet. The presence of iron core provides a significant benefit in the PCM performance of SC coil. The increased levitation gap of the EMS model with the SC-EM could negatively affect the design of SC-EM operated in PCM. This paper investigates the way in which the levitation gap of an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system affects the current decay rate of superconducting electromagnet (SC-EM) operated in persistence-current mode (PCM). Using inductance analyzed from the magnetic circuit of an EMS model, the current decay rate caused by the variation in the levitation gap was simulated. In order to experimentally verify the simulation results, we fabricated a small-scale EMS model with SC coil operated in PCM and measured the current decay rates at different levitation gaps. The result showed that the presence of iron core provides a significant benefit in the PCM performance of SC coil, but the benefit decreased as the levitation gap increases. This study revealed that the increased levitation gap of the EMS model with the SC-EM could negatively affect the design of SC-EM operated in PCM.

  19. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  20. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    energy has been put into expanding painting physically by exploring painting’s relations to objects, space, place, and ‘the everyday’. The text focuses on works of art that are conceived as an installation based on the medium of painting, including works by Slovak artists Dorota Sadovská and Daniel...... a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much....... Text in English (pp. 66-83) and Slovak (pp. 44-65)....

  1. HTS 20 M 600 a link assembled

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2013-01-01

    The final deliverable of the EuCARD Task 7.5 activity is a 20 m long Superconducting Link made of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) cables of the type and in quantity as required for the powering of the LHC superconducting circuits fed from LHC P7 (50 cables rated at 600 A). Following an intense R&D activity, which included the study of novel concepts of cables made from HTS tape conductor and the development and test of prototype units, the final deliverable was successfully assembled at CERN in May 2013. This document reports on the activity that culminated with the assembly of the 20 m long HTS Superconducting Link.

  2. Study - Radiation Shielding Effectiveness of the Prototyped High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) 'Artificial' Magnetosphere for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The high temperature superconductor (HTS) is being used to develop the magnets for the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR ) propulsion system and may provide lightweight magnetic radiation shielding to protect spacecraft crews from radiation caused by GCR and SPEs on missions to Mars. A study is being planned to assess the radiation shielding effectiveness of the artificial magnetosphere produced by the HTS magnet. VASIMR is an advanced technology propulsion engine which is being touted as enabling one way transit to Mars in 90 days or less. This is extremely important to NASA. This technology would enable a significant reduction in the number of days in transit to and from Mars and significantly reduce the astronauts exposure to a major threat - high energy particles from solar storms and GCR during long term deep space missions. This paper summarizes the plans for the study and the subsequent testing of the VASIMR technology onboard the ISS slated for 2013.

  3. Towards the Design of Power Switches Utilizing HTS Material

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Beduz, C; Mess, K H; Yang, Y

    2008-01-01

    Conventional superconducting switches for power applications, which operate at liquid helium temperature, generally utilize Nb-Ti superconductor in a cupro-nickel matrix. For superconducting circuits based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) that work at higher temperatures, the associated superconducting switches must also be based on HTS. This paper addresses the issues concerning the requirements and the appropriate design of HTS switches, including approaches to fast triggering.

  4. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  5. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  6. Statistical analysis for HTS coil considering inhomogeneous Ic distribution of HTS tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hong Woo; Lee, Ji Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Critical current of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coil is influenced by its own self magnetic field. Direction and density distribution of the magnetic field around the coil are fixed after the shape of the coil is decided. If the entire part of the HTS tape has homogeneous Ic distribution characteristic, quench would be initiated in fixed location on the coil. However, the actual HTS tape has inhomogeneous Ic distribution along the length. If the Ic distribution of the HTS tape is known, we can expect the spot within the HTS coil that has the highest probability to initiate the quench. In this paper, Ic distribution within the HTS coil under self-field effect is simulated by MATLAB. In the simulation procedure, Ic distribution of the entire part of the HTS tape is assume d to follow Gaussian-distribution by central limit theorem. The HTS coil model is divided into several segments, and the critical current of each segment is calculated based on the-generalized Kim model. Single pancake model is simulated and self-field of HTS coil is calculated by Biot-Savart's law. As a result of simulation, quench-initiating spot in the actual HTS coil can be predicted statistically. And that statistical analysis can help detect or protect the quench of the HTS coil.

  7. Current distribution among layers of single phase HTS cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. B.; Wang, Y. S.; Pi, W.; Ju, P.; Wang, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable shows high application prospect in modern power transmission, as it is superior over conventional transmission lines in high engineering current density and environmental friendliness. Its configuration is generally composed of several HTS layers designed with the principle of uniform current distribution, but there are few experimental results to verify the distribution. In this paper, a HTS cable model was designed based on the principle of uniform current, and the current distributions among layers in an HTS cable model were measured by Rogowski coils. The results provide an important basis for design of multi-layer HTS cable.

  8. Analysis and experimental validation of an HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with HTS magnetic suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jianxun, E-mail: jxjin@uestc.edu.cn [Center of Applied Superconductivity and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Zheng Luhai [Center of Applied Superconductivity and Electrical Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Guo Youguang; Xu Wei; Zhu Jianguo [Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, PO Box 123, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    An HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with an HTSLSM drive is developed. The feasibility of combining an HTSLSM with an HTS magnetic suspension system has been verified. Three different PMGs are studied by ECS method and experiment verification to obtain an optimal one. The prototype has been tested to obtain the performance and thrust characteristics of the HTSLSM. The measurement results benefit the optimal design and control scheme development for an HTSLSM. A high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear propulsion system composed of a single-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in its middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been developed. The HTSLSM uses an HTS bulk magnet array on the moving secondary, and the field-trapped characteristics of the HTS bulk using different magnetized methods have been measured and compared to identify their magnetization capability. In order to generate a large levitation force for the system, three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) have been numerically analyzed and experimentally verified to obtain an optimal PMG. Based on comprehensive experimental prototype tests, the results show that the HTS linear propulsion system can run with stable magnetic suspension having a constant air-gap length, and the thrust characteristics versus the exciting current, working frequency and the air-gap length have also been obtained. This work forms the basis for developing a practical HTS linear propulsion system by using HTS bulks both for propulsion and suspension.

  9. HTS nonlinearities in microwave disk resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Carlos; Mateu, Jordi; Shaw, Timothy J.; O'Callaghan, Juan M.

    2002-08-01

    This article describes a procedure for the calculation of the intermodulation behavior of the TM0 1 0 mode in high temperature superconducting (HTS) disk resonators from a description of the local HTS nonlinearities. Successful cross-checks are performed by comparing the theoretical results with experimental measurements and simulations based on the multiport harmonic balance algorithm for a specific model of HTS nonlinearity. The application of this procedure to the determination of nonlinear material parameters from disk resonator measurements is illustrated and compared to theoretical predictions.

  10. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    many of HTS properties are not known and need to be tested with a specific purpose in mind not just for different types of HTS conductors but also for the same type of HTS conductors made by different manufactures. To address some of these challenges, we have constructed a laboratory prototype HTS...

  11. A Simplified Model to Calculate AC Losses in Large 2G HTS Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech;

    2015-01-01

    AC losses are of great significance to quantify the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) devices. This paper presents a simplified model to calculate AC losses in large 2G HTS coils, which serves as a baseline to study HTS large scale applications such as electric machines. The m...

  12. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  13. A study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for HTS wind power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Minwon; Go, Byeong-Soo; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-05-01

    YBCO or REBCO coated conductor (2G) materials are developed for their superior performance at high magnetic field and temperature. Power system applications based on high temperature superconducting (HTS) 2G wire technology are attracting attention, including large-scale wind power generators. In particular, to solve problems associated with the foundations and mechanical structure of offshore wind turbines, due to the large diameter and heavy weight of the generator, an HTS generator is suggested as one of the key technologies. Many researchers have tried to develop feasible large-scale HTS wind power generator technologies. In this paper, a study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for large-scale wind power generators is discussed. A 12 MW class large-scale wind turbine and an HTS generator are designed using 2G HTS wire. The total length of the 2G HTS wire for the 12 MW HTS generator is estimated, and the essential prerequisites of the 2G HTS wire based generator are described. The magnetic field distributions of a pole module are illustrated, and the mechanical stress and strain of the pole module are analysed. Finally, a reasonable price for 2G HTS wire for commercialization of the HTS generator is suggested, reflecting the results of electromagnetic and mechanical analyses of the generator.

  14. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  15. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Amit

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties.

  16. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  17. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  18. Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  19. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  20. Superconducting generators for wind turbines: design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic content of high temperature superconductors (HTS) field winding in air-core high temperature superconducting synchronous machine (HTS SM) has been addressed in order to investigate tendency of HTS SM towards mechanical oscillation and additional loss caused by higher flux harmonic...

  1. Thermal analysis for the HTS stator consisting of HTS armature windings and an iron core for a 2.5 kW HTS generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Lai, L.-F.; Wu, M.-S.; Yu, X.-Y.; Han, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Most present demonstrations of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors/generators are partially superconducting, only installing HTS coils on the rotor as excitation windings. The possible applicability of HTS armature windings is an interesting research topic because these windings can certainly increase the power density attributed to a potentially high armature loading capacity. In this study, we analysed the thermal behaviours of a developed 2.5 kW-300 rpm synchronous generator prototype that consists of an HTS stator with Bi-2223-Ag armature windings on an iron core and a permanent magnet (PM) rotor. The entire HTS stator, including the iron core, is cooled with liquid nitrogen through conduction cooling. The rated frequency is set at 10 Hz to reduce AC loss. The properties of the HTS windings and the iron core are characterized, and the temperatures in the HTS stator under different operation conditions are measured. The estimated iron loss is 11.5 W under operation in 10 Hz at liquid nitrogen temperature. Conduction cooling through the silicon iron core is sufficient to cool the iron core and to compensate for the temperature increment caused by iron loss. The stable running capacity is limited to 1.6 kW when the armature current is 12.6 A (effective values) due to the increasing temperature in the slots as a result of the AC loss in the HTS coils. The thermal contact between the HTS coils and the cooling media should be improved in the future to take away the heat generated by AC loss.

  2. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  3. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  4. Modeling and simulation of HTS cables for scattering parameter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Chang, Seung Jin; Lee, Chun-Kwon; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2016-11-01

    Most of modeling and simulation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are inadequate for high frequency analysis since focus of the simulation's frequency is fundamental frequency of the power grid, which does not reflect transient characteristic. However, high frequency analysis is essential process to research the HTS cables transient for protection and diagnosis of the HTS cables. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach for modeling and simulation of HTS cables to derive the scattering parameter (S-parameter), an effective high frequency analysis, for transient wave propagation characteristics in high frequency range. The parameters sweeping method is used to validate the simulation results to the measured data given by a network analyzer (NA). This paper also presents the effects of the cable-to-NA connector in order to minimize the error between the simulated and the measured data under ambient and superconductive conditions. Based on the proposed modeling and simulation technique, S-parameters of long-distance HTS cables can be accurately derived in wide range of frequency. The results of proposed modeling and simulation can yield the characteristics of the HTS cables and will contribute to analyze the HTS cables.

  5. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  6. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...

  7. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  8. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  9. US Navy superconductivity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1991-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of the Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion) use LTS materials while space applications (millimeter wave electronics) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment to be conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity.

  10. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  11. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  12. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The authors designed and fabricated a D-shape coil based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. • The toroid-type magnet consisted of 30 D-shape double pancake coil (DDC)s. The total length of the wire was 2.32 km. • The conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. • The maximum cooling temperature of reactor magnet is 5.5 K. • The inductance was 408 mH in the steady-state condition (300 A operating). - Abstract: This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  13. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  14. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The authors developed the 400 mH, 400 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor system. • The target temperature, inductance and operating current are under 20 K at magnet, 400 mH and 400 A, respectively. All target performances of the HTS DC reactor were achieved. • The HTS DC reactor was conducted through the interconnection operation with a LCC type HVDC system. • Now, the authors are studying the 400 mH, 1500 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase HTS DC reactor. - Abstract: This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  15. Test results of a HTS power transformer connected to a power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Honda, K.; Hayashi, H.; Tsutsumi, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K.; Bohno, T.; Tomioka, A.; Yagi, Y.; Maruyama, H.; Ohashi, K.

    2002-08-01

    A 22 kV/6.9 kV-1 MVA high- Tc superconducting (HTS) power transformer has been developed as a prototype with single-phase part of a 3 MVA HTS power transformer. The prototype unit is cooled by a continuous subcooled liquid nitrogen (LN 2) supply system with cryocoolers. During the field tests, the HTS transformer was connected to a distribution line at Imajuku substation (Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.) in Fukuoka, and inrush-current test and a long-term operation test were implemented. The test results demonstrated the HTS power transformer's applicability to a power grid.

  16. Mobile conduction-cooled HTS SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Chen, L.; Guo, F.; Fang, J.; Wen, J.

    2010-11-01

    An immovable 35 kJ/7 kW high-Tc superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) system had been developed in the Electric Power System Dynamic Simulation Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2005. In order to adapt for on-site experimental conditions, the mechanical configuration of the magnet is reinforced and the SMES system is assembled in a special container to be freighted to the actual power system for the feasibility study on different applications at different sites. The mobile HTS SMES system had withstood various kinds of poor road surfaces and then arrived at the experimental site on August 18, 2009. In this paper, the reconstructed configuration and the shock absorption of the magnet are presented. The field test results show that the mobile SMES system can operate on the power network at different locations and suppress effectively power fluctuation of the generator terminal.

  17. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and su...

  18. Modelling, Construction, and Testing of a Simple HTS Machine Demonstrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, modeling and experimental testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototype employing second generation (2G) coated conductors in the field winding. The prototype is constructed in a simple way, with the purpose of having an inexpensive w...

  19. Advances in HTS materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tixador, P

    2009-01-01

    HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) offer great opportunities to reach higher magnetic flux densities when compared with LTS (Low Temperature Superconductor). The upper generally accepted limit of 23 T using Nb3Sn can be overstep with HTS. HTS Bi-2212 round wires have shown critical current densities as higher than 1000 MA/m2 under 45 T at 4.2 K. The road for very high fields is open. The round shape suits rather well for magnets, especially with high current specifications since the “classical” high current cables (Rutherford, CIC) require elementary round conductor. The absence of current anisotropy in round conductor is another advantage. The YBaCuO coated conductors (HTS second generation conductors) show large opportunities for high fields. Their higher mechanical performances (IBAD process) compared to Bi conductor bring advantages for high field magnets. The protection of HTS magnet is an identified issue since degradations have been observed in several magnets after a quench. A state of the art ...

  20. Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2011-03-28

    This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-02-01

    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  2. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  3. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  4. Current distribution among layers of single phase HTS cable conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.B., E-mail: yeaber@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of HV and EMC Beijing, State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, No. 2 Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Wang, Y.S., E-mail: yswang@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of HV and EMC Beijing, State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, No. 2 Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Pi, W., E-mail: ppiiwei@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of HV and EMC Beijing, State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, No. 2 Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Ju, P., E-mail: jupeng-cool@153.com [Key Laboratory of HV and EMC Beijing, State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, No. 2 Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Wang, Y.S., E-mail: wangyixuan@epri.sgcc.com.cn [Power System Department, China Electric Power Research Institute, No. 15 Qinghexiaoying East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100198 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A 1.5 m long HTS model cable with 4 layers designed by the uniform current principle has been built. • It is testified that the current distribution is influenced by the proximity effect. • The magnetic flux density and current density have been analyzed. • AC losses of tested current are larger than those of uniform current. - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable shows high application prospect in modern power transmission, as it is superior over conventional transmission lines in high engineering current density and environmental friendliness. Its configuration is generally composed of several HTS layers designed with the principle of uniform current distribution, but there are few experimental results to verify the distribution. In this paper, a HTS cable model was designed based on the principle of uniform current, and the current distributions among layers in an HTS cable model were measured by Rogowski coils. The results provide an important basis for design of multi-layer HTS cable.

  5. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  6. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  7. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  8. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  9. Structural Parameter Optimization of Multilayer Conductors in HTS Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mao; Jie Qiu; Xin-Ying Liu; Zhi-Xuan Wang; Shu-Hong Wang; Jian-Guo Zhu; You-Guang Guo; Zhi-Wei Lin; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design optimization of the structural parameters of multilayer conductors in high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is reviewed. Various optimization methods, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO), the genetic algorithm (GA), and a robust optimization method based on design for six sigma (DFSS), have been applied to realize uniform current distribution among the multi- layer HTS conductors. The continuous and discrete variables, such as the winding angle, radius, and winding direction of each layer, are chosen as the design parameters. Under the constraints of the mechanical properties and critical current, PSO is proven to be a more powerful tool than GA for structural parameter optimization, and DFSS can not only achieve a uniform current distribution, but also improve significantly the reliability and robustness of the HTS cable quality.

  10. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingyong; Wang, Jiasu; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiansi; Dong, Hao; Wang, Yuxin; Shao, Senhao

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  11. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  12. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    for different tape parameters Ici, ni and Ci, where Ici, ni and Ci are critical current, n - value and price of the ith tape respectively and i=1, 2, 3…, further optimization with respect to cost vs. HTS losses has been performed. Allowing for different types of HTS tapes in the coils, a guidance to which tape....... The proposed coil design is optimized with respect to minimizing the perpendicular field while still maximizing the amplitude of fundamental space harmonic. This guarantees the lowest HTS loss density and best utilization of expensive HTS material in the field winding of the SM. Additionally, accounting...

  13. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  14. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  15. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  16. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  17. Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

    2010-11-01

    The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer's thermal stability are discussed.

  18. Armature reaction effects on HTS field winding in HTS machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the in influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS fled winding. Presented experimental results have confrmed the HTS feld winding...

  19. Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Knoll, David [Ultera – A Southwire / nkt cables Joint Venture

    2010-01-01

    Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

  20. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2012-01-01

    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Maglev Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia-Su; Wang, Su-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Three high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev measurement systems were successfully developed in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory (ASCLab) of Southwest Jiaotong University, P. R. China. These systems include liquid nitrogen vessel, Permanent Magnet Guideway (PMG), data collection and processing, mechanical drive and Autocontrol features. This chapter described the three different measuring systems along with their theory of operations and workflow. The SCML-01 HTS Maglev measure...

  2. The Effect of Magnetic Field on HTS Leads What Happens when thePower Fails at RAL?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-02-14

    The key to being able to operate the MICE superconducting solenoids on small coolers is the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads between the first stage of the cooler and the magnet, which operates at around 4.2 K. Because MICE magnets are not shielded, all of the MICE magnets have a stray magnetic field in the region where the coolers and the HTS leads are located. The behavior of the HTS leads in a magnetic field depends strongly on the HTS material used for the leads and the temperature of the cooler first stage temperature. The HTS leads can be specified to operate at the maximum current for the magnet. This report shows how the HTS leads can be specified for use the MICE magnets. MICE magnets take from 1.3 hours (the tracker solenoids) to 3.7 hours (the coupling magnet) to charge to the highest projected operating currents. If the power fails, the cooler and the upper ends of the HTS leads warm up. The question is how one can discharge the magnet to protect the HTS leads without quenching the MICE magnets. This report describes a method that one can use to protect the HTS leads in the event of a power failure at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

  3. Simulation and measurement of a Ka-band HTS MMIC Josephson junction mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Pegrum, Colin; Du, Jia; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-01-01

    We report modeling and simulation results for a Ka band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) Josephson junction mixer. A Verilog-A model of a Josephson junction is established and imported into the system simulator to realize a full HTS MMIC circuit simulation containing the HTS passive circuit models. Impedance matching optimization between the junction and passive devices is investigated. Junction DC I-V characteristics, current and local oscillator bias conditions and mixing performance are simulated and compared with the experimental results. Good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement results.

  4. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau, E-mail: thanchau7787@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@cwnu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeongmo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A model of an HTS DC power cable was developed using real time digital simulator. •The simulations of the HTS DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system were performed. •The transient analysis results of the HTS DC power cable were presented. -- Abstract: The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  5. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, E., E-mail: ueno-eisaku@sei.co.jp; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sumitomo Electric manufactured the HTS field coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor. • The motor was developed and successfully passed the loading test by Kawasaki Heavy. • We tested and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of coils. - Abstract: Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  6. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets; Etude de la stabilite thermoelectronique des conducteurs supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique et contribution a l'etude de la stabilite thermoelectrique des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillaud, F

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  7. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobel, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avrin, W.F. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  8. HTS Nested magnet wound with 12 mm GdBCO tape and 4.4 mm YBCO tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myung Hun; Ku, Myung Hwan; Cha, Guee Soo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyoung Woo [Iljin Electric. Co. LTD, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes are progressing, as HTS tapes evolve from 1st generation to 2nd generation. This paper presents design and construction of a 2nd generation HTS magnet consisting of two nested GdBCO and YBCO pancake coils. Two HTS tapes of different widths were used to wind the HTS nested magnet. Considering that a higher magnetic field is applied to the inner magnet than to the outer magnet, 12 mm GdBCO tape was used for winding the inner magnet, which consisted of four single pancake windings. Eight double pancake windings wound with 4.4 mm YBCO tapes were used for the outer magnet. The test results show that the central magnetic field of the HTS nested magnet was 920 mT. The measured critical currents of the inner and outer magnet at 77K were 80.8 A and 32.6 A, respectively.

  9. An HTS flux pump operated by directly driving a superconductor into flux flow region in the E- J curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTS) flux pumps are capable of compensating the persistent current decay in HTS magnets without electrical contact. In this paper, following work on a low-T c superconducting self-switching flux pump, we propose a new HTS flux pump by directly driving a high-T c superconductor into the flux flow region in the E- J curve. The flux pump consists of a transformer which has a superconducting secondary winding shorted by an YBCO-coated conductor bridge. A high alternating current with a much higher positive peak value than the negative peak value is induced in the secondary winding. The current always drives the bridge superconductor into the flux flow region only at around its positive peak value, thus resulting in flux pumping. The proposed flux pump is much simpler than existing HTS flux pumps.

  10. A Full-Size High-Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    A full-size stationary experimental setup, which is a pole pair segment of a 2 MW high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generator, has been built and tested under the HTS-GEN project in Denmark. The performance of the HTS coil is crucial to the setup, and further to the development ...

  11. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  12. Development of HTS Transformers and a 10 kVA HTS Transformer Prototype Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yuan Chen; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    With the improvement of high temperature superconductor (HTS) practical performance, research and development concerning the applications of HTS transformers have been progressed actively worldwide. This paper provides a comprehensive summary on various HTS transformers, and studies the design of a single-phase 10 kVA (220V/24V) HTS trans- former prototype to verify HTS for practical transformer applications.

  13. AC Losses and Their Thermal Effect in High Temperature Superconducting Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Zou, Shengnan

    2015-01-01

    In transient operations or fault conditions, high temperature superconducting (HTS) machines suffer AC losses which have an influence on the thermal stability of superconducting windings. In this paper, a method to calculate AC losses and their thermal effect in HTS machines is presented. The met...... an HTS machine and its cooling system.......In transient operations or fault conditions, high temperature superconducting (HTS) machines suffer AC losses which have an influence on the thermal stability of superconducting windings. In this paper, a method to calculate AC losses and their thermal effect in HTS machines is presented....... The method consists of three sub-models that are coupled only in one direction. The magnetic field distribution is first solved in a machine model, assuming a uniform current distribution in HTS windings. The magnetic fields on the boundaries are then used as inputs for an AC loss model which has...

  14. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Merrick, S.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  15. Large Scale Applications of HTS in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimbush, Stuart C.

    New Zealand has one of the longest-running and most consistently funded (relative to GDP) programmes in high temperature superconductor (HTS) development and application worldwide. As a consequence, it has a sustained breadth of involvement in HTS technology development stretching from the materials discovery right through to burgeoning commercial exploitation. This review paper outlines the present large scale projects of the research team at the newly-established Robinson Research Institute of Victoria University of Wellington. These include the construction and grid-based testing of a three-phase 1 MVA 2G HTS distribution transformer utilizing Roebel cable for its high-current secondary windings and the development of a cryogen-free conduction-cooled 1.5 T YBCO-based human extremity magnetic resonance imaging system. Ongoing activities supporting applications development such as low-temperature full-current characterization of commercial superconducting wires and the implementation of inductive flux-pump technologies for efficient brushless coil excitation in superconducting magnets and rotating machines are also described.

  16. Operational characteristics analysis of a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor for an LCC type HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Go, B. S.; Dinh, M. C.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Daejeon University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Many kinds of high temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to its several advantages. In particular, the advantages of HTS devices are maximized under the DC condition. A line commutated converter (LCC) type high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system requires large capacity of DC reactors to protect the converters from faults. However, conventional DC reactor made of copper causes a lot of electrical losses. Thus, it is being attempted to apply the HTS DC reactor to an HVDC transmission system. The authors have developed a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor and a model-sized LCC type HVDC system. The HTS DC reactor was operated to analyze its operational characteristics in connection with the HVDC system. The voltage at both ends of the HTS DC reactor was measured to investigate the stability of the reactor. The voltages and currents at the AC and DC side of the system were measured to confirm the influence of the HTS DC reactor on the system. Two 5 mH copper DC reactors were connected to the HVDC system and investigated to compare the operational characteristics. In this paper, the operational characteristics of the HVDC system with the HTS DC reactor according to firing angle are described. The voltage and current characteristics of the system according to the types of DC reactors and harmonic characteristics are analyzed. Through the results, the applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is confirmed.

  17. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  18. Development of the Current Bypassing Methods into the Transverse Direction in Non-insulation HTS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, S. B.; Ikoma, H.; Kanemoto, D.

    In the case of motors and generators, the benefits of using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils can be represented by the reduction of 50% in both losses and sizes compared to conventional machines. However, it is hard to establish quench detection and protection devices for the HTS coils applied to the rotors of motors and generators. So, the stability of the coils is lower than for the quiescent coils applied to NMR, MRI and so on. Therefore, it is important to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils. We have studied the methods to improve the self-protection ability of HTS coils by removing the layer-to-layer insulation and inserting metal tape instead of the electrical insulation. The operating current in the non-insulated HTS coil was bypassed into the transverse direction by the generated normal region because of their electrical contact among the winding. In this study, we examined the method to control the current bypassing on layer-to-layer for controlling the inductance of the non-insulated HTS coil. The current bypassing properties on non-insulated HTS coil wound with 2G wires will be discussed.

  19. Fabrication and test of an axial-field HTS rotating machine with integrated magnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolisy, B.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) electrical machines have high torque density with a very high efficiency. Torque tubes are usually used to transmit the torque from the cold to the warm environment which results in thermal losses and mechanical problems. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to transmit the torque of the HTS machine through an integrated HTS magnetic coupling. A prototype has been constructed and tested showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The machine and the coupling share the same HTS rotor while the torque produced by the machine is transmitted to the load via a permanent magnets rotor. This solution allows the reduction of the thermal losses and a natural protection against overload during fault. The electromagnetic design is carried out using 3D finite elements (FE). The HTS material electrical behavior is described using a power law so it was possible to determine the operating current of the HTS coils of the device. Many test results such as U(I) curves of the HTS coils, static torque, back-EMF and on-load characteristics are presented and checked by the FE computations.

  20. HTS step-edge Josephson junction terahertz harmonic mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia; Weily, Andrew R.; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Foley, Cathy P.; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-02-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) terahertz (THz) frequency down-converter or mixer based on a thin-film ring-slot antenna coupled YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)/MgO step-edge Josephson junction is reported. The frequency down-conversion was achieved using higher order harmonics of an applied lower frequency (19-40 GHz) local oscillator signal in the Josephson junction mixing with a THz signal of over 600 GHz, producing a 1-3 GHz intermediate frequency signal. Up to 31st order of harmonic mixing was obtained and the mixer operated stably at temperatures up to 77 K. The design details of the antenna, HTS Josephson junction mixer, the matching and isolation circuits, and the DC and RF performance evaluation are described in this paper.

  1. Modeling the current distribution in HTS tapes with transport current and applied magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazawa, Takashi; Rabbers, Jan-Jaap; Shevchenko, Oleg A.; Haken, ten Bennie; Kate, ten Herman H.J.; Maeda, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    A numerical model is developed for the current distribution in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2 Ca2Cu3Ox-Ag, subjected to a combination of a transport current and an applied magnetic field. This analysis is based on a two-dimensional formulation of Maxwell's equations in te

  2. Report on discussions with utility engineers about superconducting generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    This report relates to a series of discussions with electric utility engineers concerning the integration of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generators into the present electric power system. The current and future interest of the utilities in the purchase and use of HTS generators is assessed. Various performance and economic factors are also considered as part of this inspection of the utility prospects for HTS generators. Integration of HTS generators into the electric utility sector is one goal of the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI). The SPI, a major part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, features vertical teaming of a major industrial power apparatus manufacturers, a producer of HTS wire, and an end-user with assistance and technical support for the national laboratories. The SPI effort on HTS generators is headed by a General Electric Corporation internal team comprised of the Corporate Research Laboratories, Power Generation Engineering, and Power Systems Group. Intermagnetics General corporation, which assisted in the development of the superconducting coils, is the HTS wire and tape manufacturer. Additional technical support is provided by the national laboratories: Argonne, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge, and the New York State Institute on Superconductivity. The end-user is represented by Niagara-Mohawk and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  3. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...

  4. Superconducting Machines at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;

    2011-01-01

    Two high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototypes constructed at the Technical University of Denmark are presented. The construction process is presented and the excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental results are presented for one of the prototypes.......Two high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototypes constructed at the Technical University of Denmark are presented. The construction process is presented and the excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental results are presented for one of the prototypes....

  5. The Basic Properties of PPLP for HTS DC Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    In order to develop high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable, it is important to understand the cooling system, high voltage insulation and materials at cryogenic temperature. Especially, the basic properties of insulating materials must be solved for the long life, reliability and compact of system. In this paper, we will discuss mainly on the electrical and the mechanical properties of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The polarity effect of DC and impulse voltage, the volume resistivity and the space charge distribution and frost were studied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength of PPLP at LN2 (77 K) and room temperature (300 K) were studied.

  6. SVPWM Techniques and Applications in HTS PMSM Machines Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Guang Wang; Jian-Xun Jin; You-Guang Guo; Jian-Guo Zhu

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM), and discusses a method for implementing the SVPWM based on MATLAB/SIMULINK, as well as modeling of AC servo system with permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Simulation results show that the model is effective, and the method provides a frame of reference for software and hardware designs which can be applied in high temperature superconducting (HTS) flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and linear motor (LM).key wordsFlywheel energy storage system (FESS), linear motor (LM), modeling and simulation, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM).

  7. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  8. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, E.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-01

    Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  9. R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads%R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕延芳

    2011-01-01

    The HTS current leads of superconducting magnets for large scale fusion devices and high energy particle colliders can reduce the power consumption for cooling by 2/3 compared with conventional leads. The resistive sections of high-rated current leads are usually made of a heat exchanger cooled by gas flow. The supply of the cooling mass flow incurs more than 90% of the cooling cost for the HTS leads. The mass flow rate requirement depends not only on the length and material of the resistive heat exchanger, but also on the heat transfer coefficient and HEX surface, the joint resistance at the cold end of a sheet-stack HEX with a larger specific presented in the paper. The test results of efficiency can be achieved. and its cooling approach. The design and operation surface and a much smaller hydraulic diameter are an HTS lead optimized for 8 kA show that a 98.4%

  10. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  11. Painted Pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a six week art class project for elementary school children that lasted for six weeks. Explains that the students painted sunflowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh over the rust spots of a pickup truck. Reports that the painting served as great publicity for the art classes. (CMK)

  12. Monster Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  13. Painted Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  14. Monster Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggler, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on monsters wherein students were charged with painting an imaginary character and, in so doing, demonstrated mastery of expression, organization of space, control of paint media, and application of the elements of art. Students discovered how color and line could be used to convey expression. The media…

  15. A nontrivial factor in determining current distribution in an ac HTS cable-proximity effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A superconductor has zero resistance at the superconducting state. This unique property creates many exceptional phenomena, of which some are known and the others are not. Our experiments with multilayer high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable samples revealed a new phenomenon that alternating current had a tendency to flow in the inner and outer layers of the cables. We attribute the cause of this phenomenon to the electromagnetic interaction in an infinite electrical conductivity medium and term it "super-proximity-effect". This effect will greatly affect the performance of a multilayer superconducting cable and other superconducting devices which are involved with alternating current transportation.

  16. The surface discharge and breakdown characteristics of HTS DC cable and stop joint box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-09-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable system consists of a HTS cable and cable joint. The HTS DC cable should be electrically connected in joint boxes because of the unit length of HTS cable is limited to several-hundred meters. In particular, the stop joint box (SJB) must be developed for a compact cooling system. Polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) and epoxy maybe used as insulating materials for HTS DC cable and SJB. To develop a HTS DC cable, it is necessary to develop the cryogenic insulation technology, materials and the joint methods. In this paper, we will mainly discuss on the DC and impulse characteristics of epoxy and PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The surface discharge characteristics of epoxy included fillers, PPLP and epoxy with PPLP composite (epoxy + PPLP) were measured under 0.4 MPa. Also, the PPLP-insulated mini-model cable was fabricated and then DC, impulse and DC polarity reversal breakdown strength of mini-model cable under 0.4 MPa were investigated.

  17. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  18. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukoyama, S., E-mail: mukoyama@ch.furukawa.co.j [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Ichihara 290-8555 (Japan); Yagi, M. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Ichihara 290-8555 (Japan); Masuda, T. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka 554-0024 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ishiyama, A. [Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Showa Cable System Co. Ltd., Sagamihara 229-1133 (Japan); Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I{sub c} and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  19. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  20. Low resistance splices for HTS devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the preparation methodology and performance evaluation of low resistance splices made of the second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS). These splices are required in a broad spectrum of HTS devices including a large aperture, high-field solenoid built in the laboratory to demonstrate a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. Several pancake coils are assembled in the form of a nested solenoid, and each coil requires a hundred meters or more of 2G (RE)BCO tape. However, commercial availability of this superconductor with a very uniform physical properties is currently limited to shorter piece lengths. This necessitates us having splices to inter-connect the tape pieces within a pancake coil, between adjacent pancake coils, and to attach HTS current leads to the magnet assembly. As a part of the optimization and qualification of splicing process, a systematic study was undertaken to analyze the electrical performance of splices in two different configurations suitable for this magnet assembly: lap joint and spiral joint. The electrical performance is quantified in terms of the resistance of splices estimated from the current-voltage characteristics. It has been demonstrated that a careful application of this splicing technique can generate lap joints with resistance less than 1 nΩ at 77 K.

  1. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

  2. Testing of an HTS Power Cable Made from YBCO Tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed, built, and tested a 1.25-m-long, prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable made from second-generation YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO)-coated conductor tapes. Electrical tests of this cable were performed in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. DC testing of the HTS cable included determination of the V-I curve with a critical current of about 2100 A, which was consistent with the critical currents of the two layers of 4.4-mm wide YBCO tapes. AC testing of the cable was conducted at currents up to about 1500 Arms. The ac losses were determined calorimetrically by measuring the response of a calibrated temperature sensor placed on the former and electrically by use of a Rogowski coil with a lock-in amplifier. Over-current testing was conducted at peak current values up to 4.9 kA for pulse lengths of 0.3-0.5 s. Test results are compared to earlier data from a 1.25-m-long power cable made from 1-cm-wide YBCO tapes and also comparable BSCCO cables. This commercial-grade HTS cable demonstrated the feasibility of second-generation YBCO tapes in an ac cable application.

  3. Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Williams, P.M.; Boenig, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    We are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS-high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.

  4. Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.

  5. Temperature Distribution Analysis of JAERI 60 kA HTS Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun; T.Isono

    2003-01-01

    High temperature suprerconductor (HTS)current lead has an advantage in reducing electric power consumption of a refrigerator for a large current superconducting magnet system such as a fusion device. A fusion device requires more than 20 pairs of large current leads and each current capacity is about 60 kA. The conventional 60 kA current lead needs 100 kW electric power for refrigeration and a 2/3 reduction is available by the application of a HTS current lead.

  6. A computer-aided method for postproduction tuning of HTS filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo Tao; Fang Lan; Yan Shaolin; Zhao Xinjie; Zhou Tiege; You Shitou; Ma Weigang; Yue Hongwei; Xie Qinglian [Department of Electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The empirical tuning of high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters is usually time-consuming and expensive. A computer-aided tuning method is presented in this paper. By means of optimization, the method diagnoses detuning of individual resonators quantitatively in the tuning process, and then by using neural network models the method is able to give the operator a decision on how much the corresponding tuning screws should be tuned. So, compared with the empirical tuning method, this method can be used to tune the HTS filters accurately with less time and cost.

  7. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists' knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not "waiting for HTS". If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  8. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  9. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D. S.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Baughman, R. J.; Bourcier, R. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.; Halloran, J. W.; Neal, N. J.; Capone, D. W.

    1990-04-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. Two promising processing technologies that were utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors are reported. First, melt spun YBa2Cu3O7 fibers rapid thermal processed for 1 to 8 sec at 950 to 1075 C have (Tc)'s to 92 K, J(sub c)'s to 1100 A/sq cm and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa2Cu3O7. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting compositions give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi(1.7)Pb(0.3)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 were made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100 K and improved magnetic hysteresis above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneals near 850 C appears to significantly improve these materials.

  10. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  11. Space qualification mechanical tests of HTS filters for satellite application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JianDong; LI Hong; GU ChangZhi; LUO Qiang; SUN QinFen; WANG XiaoLin; SUN YiFan; WANG ZhiBing; WANG YunFei; LUO Sheng; HE YuSheng; SUN Liang; LI ShunZhou; MENG QingDuan; ZHANG Qiang; LI Fei; ZHANG XueQiang; LI ChunGuang; HE AiSheng

    2007-01-01

    High performance high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filters have been designed and constructed for satellite application. The filters are actually a superconducting integration of an 8-pole band-pass filter with an adjustable band-stop filter onto a single piece of LaAlO3 substrate (with dimension of 0.5×45×20 mm3). Typical results of the filters,i.e.,Filters A (made by YBCO) & B (made by TBCCO) will be reported. The measured responses of Filter A showed excellent specifications,e.g.,an insertion loss less than 0.1 dB,a return loss better than -22.5 dB in pass-band,band-edge steepness greater than 12 dB/MHz and out-of-band rejection at a certain band deeper than -110 dB. To satisfy the requirement of rocket launch and space operation,three filters of the above design have undergone mechanical environmental simulation tests for space qualification. Detailed analysis of the response curves of Filter B measured before and after the tests showed that no noticeable change in the performance can be found. All the filters passed the rigorous ground simulation tests,which is the first time in China for HTS devices and provided a solid foundation for satellite applications of high-temperature superconductors in the near future.

  12. The radio-frequency HTS SQUID for magnetic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Khvostov, S S; Garbuz, A S; Shnyrkov, V I

    2003-01-01

    The spectral density of magnetic flux noise S subPHI sup 1 sup / sup 2 (f) for HTS RF SQUIDs with a pumping frequency of 390-457 Mhz within triple-layer permalloy and superconducting shields are investigated. The superconducting interferometers of 100 centre dot 100 mm, are fabricated by the thin film technology with ramp-edge type Josephson junctions YBaCuO-PrBaCuO-YBaCuO. It is shown that with a cooled preamplifier the energy resolution of SQUIDs makes up to 4 centre dot 10 sup - sup 3 sup 0 J/Hz at 'white' noise (at frequencies above 1 kHz) and is mainly defined by inherent noise of the HTS interferometer and the shields. At low frequencies the noises related to exterior fields that penetrate directly into the shields, are dominant. At frequencies above 1 kHz, the ferromagnetic antenna of the SQUID microscope increases the intrinsic noise of the magnetometer up to 8 centre dot 10 sup - sup 3 sup 0 J/Hz.

  13. Effect of a silver contact layer on the annealing and quench behaviour of HTS tapes; Einfluss einer Silberkontaktschicht auf das Belade- und Quenchverhalten von HTS-Bandleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handke, Joerg

    2009-10-14

    The present thesis deals with the optimization of HTS band conductors of the 2nd generation. Thereby on the one hand the charging behaviour of the superconducting layers should be improved in a continuous process. On the other hand the electrical stabilization of coated conductors for the application in superconducting current limiters was studied. It was shown that for both question formulations the configuration of the band concerning the epitactical metal layer plays a deciding role, so that the two first independent seeming problems can be viewed in a common context.

  14. Frequency dependence of magnetic shielding performance of HTS plates in mixed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Atsushi; Yokono, Takafumi [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokono, Takafumi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Information Sciences and Electronics

    2000-06-01

    The magnetic shielding performance of the high-Tc superconducting (HTS) plate is investigated numerically. The behavior of the shielding current density in the HTS plate is expressed as the integral-differential equation with a normal component of the current vector potential as a dependent variable. The numerical code for solving the equation has been developed by using the combination of the Newton-Raphson method and the successive substitution method and, by use of the code, damping coefficients and shielding factors are evaluated for the various values of the frequency {omega}. The results of computations show that the HTS plate has a possibility of shielding the high-frequency magnetic field with {omega} > or approx. 1 kHz. (author)

  15. Controller design and test results for a four axis HTS coil based Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tong [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: tzhou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Xing Huawei [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-04-15

    Controller design and experimental results are reported in this paper for a four axis high temperature superconductivity (HTS) coil based electromagnetic levitation (Maglev) system. The HTS coils are made of Bi2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes. It has been experimentally proved that the designed controller works satisfactorily, although the physical parameters of a HTS coil based electromagnet (HTSEM) vary significantly with the frequency of the input voltage. A performance comparison has also been made between the classical lead-lag compensator and the modern H{sub {approx}} loop-shaping controller. It becomes clear that robust control theories are capable of providing a controller with better performances, which is in a good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, it implies that the particular parameter variation characteristics can be simply dealt with by the available robust control theories that are naturally existent in a HTSEM.

  16. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.j [Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S. [Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz {sup 1}H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  17. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [Japan Science and Technology Agency–Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JST–CREST), Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  18. Analysis of mechanical characteristics of superconducting field coil for 17 MW class high temperature superconducting synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.

  19. Recent progress of HTS cable project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2008-09-01

    A lot of developments of HTS wires and their applications have been conducted since the discovery of HTS materials in the world. It has been recently reported that critical current of BSCCO wires improved to more than 200 A at 77 K and a large amount of wire was provided with high quality as industrial products. This improvement can be expected to accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications such as an HTS cable, HTS motor and so on. As the proofs of such trends, Sumitomo Electric constructed two HTS cable systems and started their operations in the USA and Korea last year. One of them is the HTS cable in Albany, NY, which has a capacity of 34.5 kV and 800 A and 350 m in length. It has been operated in a real grid without any trouble for 9 months. The other is the HTS cable in Korea, which has a capacity of 22.9 kV and 1250 A and 100 m in length. Its operation also started in the KEPCO testing yard last year. These results demonstrate reliance and stability of its operation. Recently, a new national project of an HTS cable has just started in Japan to demonstrate the operation in a real grid and study the system operations including a monitoring method, an alarm system, a maintenance method, etc. This paper reports the results of Albany and Korea projects and an outline of the new project.

  20. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  1. Field gradient calculation of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Geon Woo; Kim, Jin Sub; Song, Seung Hyun; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Seung [JH ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, On You [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To obtain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurement of membrane protein, an NMR magnet is required to generate high intensity, homogeneity, and stability of field. A High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is a promising alternative to a conventional Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) NMR magnet for high field, current density, and stability margin. Conventionally, an HTS coil has been wound by several winding techniques such as Single-Pancake (SP), Double-Pancake (DP), and layer-wound. The DP winding technique has been frequently used for a large magnet because long HTS wire is generally difficult to manufacture, and maintenance of magnet is convenient. However, magnetic field generated by the slanted turns and the splice leads to field inhomogeneity in Diameter of Spherical Volume (DSV). The field inhomogeneity degrades performance of NMR spectrometer and thus effect of the slanted turns and the splice should be analyzed. In this paper, field gradient of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice was calculated using Biot-Savart law and numerical integration. The calculation results showed that magnetic field produced by the slanted turns and the splice caused significant inhomogeneity of field.

  2. Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

    A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

  3. Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

    2009-06-01

    A 1 MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30 K (-243 °C). Influence of an important parameter, synchronous reactance, has been analyzed on the machine performances such as voltage variation and output power during motor and generator operation. The developed motor was also analyzed by three-dimensional electromagnetic FEM (finite element method) to get magnetic field distribution, inductance, electromagnetic stress and so forth. This motor is aimed to be utilized for industrial application such as large motors operating in large plants. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of Neon thermosiphon mechanism and the stator (armature) coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper also describes evaluation of some electrical parameters from performance test results which were obtained at steady state in generator and motor mode of our HTS machine.

  4. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground...

  5. Progress of 275 kV-3 kA YBCO HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Wang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Saito, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    2011-11-01

    A 275 kV-3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. AC loss reduction of a two-layer HTS conductor was undertaken by removing the edges of YBCO tapes with low critical current density. The HTS conductor using these tapes was fabricated, and low loss of 0.235 W/m at 3 kA rms was achieved. The 275 kV-3 kA cable was designed, and the 2 m model cables were fabricated. This cable had 325 mm 2 copper stranded former inside the HTS conductor and a 310 mm 2 copper shield layer on the HTS shield layer for over-current protection. These cables withstood an over-current of 63.0 kA for 0.6 s, which is the worst situation for 275 kV systems. The partial discharge (PD) and V- t characteristics of a liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system have been integrated into the design of the insulation for the 275 kV cable. The results revealed that the PD inception stress (PDIE) did not depend on the insulation thickness, and that lifetime indices of V- t characteristics at PD inception were as high as about 80-100.

  6. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  7. Effect of corrugated characteristics on the liquid nitrogen temperature field of HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. M.; Li, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Gao, C.; Qiu, M.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    In the high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system, liquid nitrogen is usually chosen to be the coolant because of its low saturation temperature and large latent heat of vaporization. Thus, it is very important for superconducting cables that the liquid nitrogen temperature field keeps stable. However, the cryostat is usually made of flexible corrugated pipes and multi-layer insulation materials. The characteristics (e.g. wave pitch and wave depth) of corrugated pipes may have an effect on the heat exchange between cable and liquid nitrogen, even the whole temperature field of liquid nitrogen. In this paper, a two-dimensional model for 30 m long HTS cable has been modified to analyze the effect of corrugated characteristics on the temperature field of liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen temperature difference between the outlet and the inlet of passage gradually increases as the wave pitch of the corrugated tube decreases and the wave depth increases.

  8. Vacuum-Insulated, Flexible Cryostats for Long HTS Cables: Requirements, Status, and Prospects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Maguire, J. F. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Weber, C. S. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2008-01-01

    Several high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable demonstration projects have begun operation on the electric grid in the last few years with the liquid nitrogen-cooled cable contained in one or more vacuum-insulated, flexible cryostats with lengths up to 600 meters. These grid demonstration projects are prototypes of the anticipated commercial market which will require superconducting cable lengths in the multiple kilometer range with the vacuum-jacketed cryostats in underground ducts providing acceptable thermal insulation for decades. The current state-of-the art for flexible cryostats (installation constraints, heat loads with a good and degraded vacuum, impact of cable bends, getter lifetime and reliability) is discussed. Further development needed to meet the challenging commercial HTS cable application is outlined.

  9. High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage and Its Power Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yuan Chen; Jian-Xun Jin; Kai-Meng Ma; Ju Wen; Ying Xin; Wei-Zhi Gong; An-Lin Ren; Jing-Yin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power inductor and its control technology have been studied and analyzed in the paper. Based on the results of simulations and practical experiments, a controlled release scheme has been proposed and verified for developing a practical HTS SMES prototype.

  10. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  11. Short Circuits of a 10-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Direct Drive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits take...

  12. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  13. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  14. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  15. Measurement of the magnetic moment in a cold worked 304 stainless steel using HTS SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dwkim1@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, D.W.; Angani, C.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Timofeev, V.P. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave, Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Cheong, Y.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The magnetic properties of stainless steel have been investigated using a radio frequency (RF) high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device)-based susceptometer. The nuclear grade 304 stainless steel is nonmagnetic at a normal condition but it changes to a partially ferromagnetic state associated with martensitic transformation under a plastic deformation. The magnetic moment of the 304 stainless steels was increased with an increasing cold work rate, and decreased with an increasing annealing temperature. The change of mechanical properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) are also analyzed in terms of deformation-induced martensitic transformation.

  16. AC loss evaluation of an HTS insert for high field magnet cooled by cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    AC losses in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert coil for 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet during its initial energization are numerically calculated under the assumption of slab approximation. The HTS insert consisting of 68 single pancakes wound using coated conductors generates a central magnetic field of 11.5 T in addition to the contribution of 14.0 T from a set of low temperature superconducting (LTS) outsert coils. Both the HTS insert and the LTS coils are cooled using cryocoolers, and energized simultaneously up to the central field of 25.5 T with a constant ramp rate for 60 min. The influences of the magnitudes and orientations of locally applied magnetic fields, magnetic interactions between turns and transport currents flowing in the windings are taken into account in the calculations of AC losses. The locally applied fields are separated into axial and radial components, and the individual contributions of these field components to the AC losses are simply summed up to obtain the total losses. The AC losses due to the axial fields become major in the beginning of energization, whereas the total losses monotonically increase with time after the AC losses due to the radial fields become major.

  17. Thermal and mechanical properties of advanced impregnation materials for HTS cables and coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrets, N.; Otten, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Kario, A.; Goldacker, W.

    2015-12-01

    In the growing field of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) applications, finding an appropriate impregnation material for cables and coils remains a challenging task. In HTS cables and coils, tapes have to be able to withstand mechanical loads during operation. Impregnation is playing a role as mechanical stabilization. However, material properties usually change significantly when going to low temperatures which can decrease performance of superconducting devices. For example, a large mismatch in thermal expansion between a conductor and impregnation material at low temperatures can lead to delamination and to degradation of the critical current. Impregnation materials can insulate tapes thermally which can lead to damage of the superconducting device in case of quench. Thus, thermal conductivity is an important property which is responsible for the temperature distribution in a superconducting cable or in a coil. Due to Lorentz forces acting on structural materials in a superconducting device, the mechanical properties of these materials should be investigated at operating temperatures of this device. Therefore, it is important to identify an advanced impregnation material meeting all specific requirements. In this paper, thermal and mechanical properties of impregnation material candidates with added fillers are presented in a temperature range from 300 K to 4 K.

  18. Lattice parameters guide superconductivity in iron-arsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Lance M. N.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of superconducting materials has led to their use in technological marvels such as magnetic-field sensors in MRI machines, powerful research magnets, short transmission cables, and high-speed trains. Despite such applications, the uses of superconductors are not widespread because they function much below room-temperature, hence the costly cooling. Since the discovery of Cu- and Fe-based high-temperature superconductors (HTS), much intense effort has tried to explain and understand the superconducting phenomenon. While no exact explanations are given, several trends are reported in relation to the materials basis in magnetism and spin excitations. In fact, most HTS have antiferromagnetic undoped ‘parent’ materials that undergo a superconducting transition upon small chemical substitutions in them. As it is currently unclear which ‘dopants’ can favor superconductivity, this manuscript investigates crystal structure changes upon chemical substitutions, to find clues in lattice parameters for the superconducting occurrence. We review the chemical substitution effects on the crystal lattice of iron-arsenide-based crystals (2008 to present). We note that (a) HTS compounds have nearly tetragonal structures with a-lattice parameter close to 4 Å, and (b) superconductivity can depend strongly on the c-lattice parameter changes with chemical substitution. For example, a decrease in c-lattice parameter is required to induce ‘in-plane’ superconductivity. The review of lattice parameter trends in iron-arsenides presented here should guide synthesis of new materials and provoke theoretical input, giving clues for HTS.

  19. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  20. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  1. An introduction to the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G HTS motor for the ship propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heejong; Kim, Yeong-Chun; Park, Heui-Joo; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Minwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor for the ship propulsion application at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction. The purpose of this 2G HTS propulsion motor is to launch the business area for marine applications such as surface ship, submarine, merchant ship etc. The principles and interpretation of the magnetic field for 2G HTS motor and permanent magnet type motors are similar on the basis of 3D design and production. The most important component of an HTS motor is the rotor, which is composed of HTS coil, non-ferrous metal, torque disk, damper, and hollow shaft. A HTS rotor using hastelloy-based 2G HTS coils was designed and built. Open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics of the superconducting motor were investigated and compared with the analysis results at reduced excitation to verify the design. Preliminary testing of a 2G HTS motor has been conducted at a few hundred kilowatts as per the design. Through these results, we anticipate that most of the design criteria can be satisfied. However, we have faced several issues during the testing of the motor and these issues need to be resolved in order to take the design further.

  2. Progress on applications of high temperature superconducting microwave filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunguang, Li; Xu, Wang; Jia, Wang; Liang, Sun; Yusheng, He

    2017-07-01

    In the past two decades, various kinds of high performance high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters have been constructed and the HTS filters and their front-end subsystems have been successfully applied in many fields. The HTS filters with small insertion loss, narrow bandwidth, flat in-band group delay, deep out-of-band rejection, and steep skirt slope are reviewed. Novel HTS filter design technologies, including those in high power handling filters, multiband filters and frequency tunable filters, are reviewed, as well as the all-HTS integrated front-end receivers. The successful applications to various civilian fields, such as mobile communication, radar, deep space detection, and satellite technology, are also reviewed.

  3. A compactly integrated cooling system of a combination dual 1.5-MW HTS motors for electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Hyeon, C. J.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, D. K. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S. [Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.; Park, Y. G.; Jeon, H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Quach, H. L. [Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, Can Tho University of Technology, Can Tho (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    The high temperature superconducting (HTS) contra-rotating propulsion (CRP) systems comprise two coaxial propellers sited on behind the other and rotate in opposite directions. They have the hydrodynamic advantage of recovering the slipstream rotational energy which would otherwise be lost to a conventional single-screw system. However, the cooling systems used for HTS CRP system need a high cooling power enough to maintain a low temperature of 2G HTS material operating at liquid neon (LNe) temperature (24.5 - 27 K). In this paper, a single thermo-syphon cooling approach using a Gifford-McMahon (G-M) cryo-cooler is presented. First, an optimal thermal design of a 1.5 MW HTS motor was conducted varying to different types of commercial 2G HTS tapes. Then, a mono-cryogenic cooling system for an integration of two 1.5 MW HTS motors will be designed and analyzed. Finally, the 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation of thermal characteristics was also performed.

  4. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiufang [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Nie, Xinyi [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liang, Yilang [School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Lu, Falong [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Yan, Zhongming, E-mail: wangxiufanghappy@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, Yu [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigated a kind of system architecture with three coils which the repeater is copper coil or HTS coil. • We simulated the different repeater system and obtained the magnetic field distribution at different distance. • We used helical coil instead of pancake coil which does not use capacitors. • HTS intermediate coil has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance than copper intermediate coil. - Abstract: Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  5. Large Scale Assembly and Characterization of BI-2223 HTS Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, Amalia; Mathot, Serge; Taylor, T; Brambilla, R

    2007-01-01

    The powering of the LHC machine requires more than 1000 High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads. These leads contain, at their cold end, HTS conductors made of stacks of Bi-2223 tape with gold-doped silver matrix. CERN specified and purchased 31 km of this material, which was delivered on spools in unit lengths of 100 to 300 m. On reception the tape was inspected, cut into short length and vacuum soldered into stacks. All stacks were characterized in liquid nitrogen using a measuring procedure and set-up specifically developed for this purpose. Contact resistance values and critical currents at different electric field criteria were measured, from which the n-values have been extrapolated from the experimental V-I characteristics. This paper reports on the assembly and electrical characterization (up to 800 A) of more than ten thousand Bi-2223 stacks. Three types of stack were made from tape from two manufacturers. The assembly and soldering procedures and the set-up for the series electrical cha...

  6. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  7. Enhanced quench propagation in 2G-HTS coils co-wound with stainless steel or anodised aluminium tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Chico, A. B.; Martínez, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Navarro, R.

    2016-08-01

    Early quench detection and thermal stability of superconducting coils are of great relevance for practical applications. Magnets made with second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes present low quench propagation velocities and therefore slow voltage development and high local temperature rises, which may cause irreversible damage. Since quench propagation depends on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity, this may be used to achieve an improvement of the thermal stability and robustness of 2G-HTS coils. On pancake type coils, the thermal conductivity along the tapes (coil’s azimuthal direction) is mostly fixed by the 2G-HTS tape characteristics, so that the reduction of anisotropy relies on the improvement of the radial thermal conductivity, which depends on the used materials between superconducting tapes, as well as on the winding and impregnation processes. In this contribution, we have explored two possibilities for such anisotropy reduction: by using anodised aluminium or stainless steel tapes co-wound with the 2G-HTS tapes. For all the analysed coils, critical current distribution, minimum quench energy values and both tangential and radial quench propagation velocities at different temperatures and currents are reported and compared with the results of similar coils co-wound with polyimide (Kapton®) tapes.

  8. ToxCast HTS Assay Development and Retrofitting: Strategies ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods Slide presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods.

  9. Design of HTS transmit filter using step impedance resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N., E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.j [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Nakagawa, Y. [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have designed a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmit filter with step impedance resonators (SIRs). A transmit filter using half-wavelength straight-line resonators requires substantial spacing between adjacent resonators. This means that the filter needs a large substrate and that the number of poles is limited. Using SIRs overcomes this problem because SIRs are compact and have weak coupling. An electromagnetic simulator based on the moment method was used to design the SIR filter, which has a center frequency of 5 GHz and a bandwidth of 120 MHz. Simulation showed that it is approximately 19% smaller than a conventional half-wavelength straight-line resonator filter. Additionally, the maximum surface current is approximately 17% less than that of the conventional filter.

  10. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  11. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  12. A Novel Electrical Insulating Material for 275 kV High-Voltage HTS Cable with Low Dielectric Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, N.; Nishimachi, S.; Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Liu, J.; Yagi, M.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables at high voltage operation, the electrical insulation technique in consideration of the dielectric loss reduction becomes crucial. In this paper, we focused on a Tyvek/polyethylene (PE) sheet, instead of the conventional polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). We obtained the dielectric characteristics (epsilonr, tanδ) and partial discharge inception strength (PDIE) of PPLP, Tyvek and Tyvek/PE. We pointed out that the dielectric loss of 275 kV HTS cable with Tyvek/PE insulation will be reduced to 21 % of that with PPLP, and the total electrical loss including the AC loss will be reduced to 41 %.

  13. Characteristics of the magnetic field distribution on compact NMR magnets using cryocooled HTS bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Takano, R.; Nakano, T.; Imai, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hahn, S.Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT, NW14-3117, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Recently, the performance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved rapidly. So, various applications using HTS bulks such as motors, bearings and flywheels have been investigated by many research groups. A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of the HTS bulk more than 11.7 T (500 MHz {sup 1}H NMR frequency) has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is cost-effective compared with conventional NMR magnets and then expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of the compact NMR magnets, spatial field homogeneity of the large trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk annuli is a crucial issue because the behavior of a trapped field is highly non-linear and, as a result, a technique to improve the field homogeneity such as active/passive shimming now becomes more challenging compared with that of the conventional counterparts. This paper presents the magnetic field distributions in single and three assembled HTS bulk annuli measured by a 3-axis and multi-arrayed Hall sensor under two different cryogenic environments: (1) in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) and (2) dry cooling by a cryocooler. The spatial homogeneity changes with various operating temperatures were investigated and the effect of critical current density enhancement by lowering the operating temperature on the field homogeneity improvement was discussed in detail.

  14. Advanced superconducting power cable for MV urban power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Merschel, Frank [RWE Deutschland AG, Essen (Germany); Noe, Mathias [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the technology of superconducting power cable systems has progressed such that the technical hurdles preparing for commercial applications have been mastered. Several field tests of large scale prototypes for the applications of superconducting cables as well as superconducting fault current limiters have been successfully accomplished and the technology of such systems is ready for commercialization. The presentation will give a detailed overview of the German AmpaCity project. An overview will be given on the development, manufacturing and installation of the 10 kV, 40 MVA HTS system consisting of a fault current limiter and of a 1 km cable in the city of Essen. Since it is the first time that a one kilometer HTS cable system is installed together with an HTS fault current limiter in a real grid application between two substations within a city center area, AmpaCity serves as a lighthouse project. In addition it is worldwide the longest installed HTS cable system so far. It is expected that relatively large technical advances will be made in the future of the comparatively new HTS technology, which in turn will bring associated cost reductions. For this reason, the AmpaCity pilot project in the downtown area of Essen in Germany will be an important step on the way to achieving more widespread application of HTS technology.

  15. AC Losses and Their Thermal Effect in High-Temperature Superconducting Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Zou, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    In transient operations or fault conditions, hightemperature superconducting (HTS) machines suffer ac losses, which have an influence on the thermal stability of superconducting windings. In this paper, a method to calculate ac losses and their thermal effect in HTS machines is presented....... The method consists of three submodels that are coupled only in one direction. The magnetic field distribution is first solved in a machine model, assuming a uniform current distribution in HTS windings. The magnetic fields on the boundaries are then used as inputs for an ac loss model that has a homogeneous...... approximation and solves the H formulation. Afterward, the computed ac losses are considered as the heat source in a thermal model to study the temperature profile in HTS windings. The method proposed is able to evaluate ac losses and their thermal effect, thus providing a reference to design an HTS machine...

  16. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  17. Protecting Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Micr . Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 2075 –2084, 1999. 9, 10, 29 [26] U...P. Li, “A unique extraction of metamaterial parameters based on kramers-kronig relationship,” IEEE Trans. Micr . Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 10, pp

  18. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, D.K. [Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Ultra High-Speed Train Research Department, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K., E-mail: tkko@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}).

  19. A new method of reconstructing current paths in HTS tapes with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlivaev, Alexey; Rudnev, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new method for calculating current paths in high-temperature superconductive (HTS) tapes with various defects including cracks, non-superconducting inclusions, and superconducting inclusions with lower local critical current density. The calculation method is based on a model of critical state which takes into account the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field. The method allows us to calculate the spatial distribution of currents flowing through the defective HTS tape for both currents induced by the external magnetic field and transport currents from an external source. For both cases, we performed simulations of the current distributions in these tapes with different types of defects and have shown that the combination of the action of the magnetic field and transport current leads to a more detailed identification of the boundaries and shape of the defects. The proposed method is adapted for calculating modern superconductors in real superconducting devices and may be more useful as compared to the conventional magnetometric diagnostic studies, when the tape is affected by the magnetic field only.

  20. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro [Department of Electronic Control Engineering, Hiroshima National College of Maritime Technology, 4272-1, Higashino, Ohsakikamijima-cho, Toyota-gun, Hiroshima 725-0231 (Japan); Kimura, Yosuke [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. Technical Institute System Technology Development Centre 1-1, Kawasaki-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: ida@hiroshima-cmt.ac.j [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  1. First Electrical Characterization of Prototype 600 A HTS Twisted-pair Cables at Different Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Y; Bailey, W; Beduza, C; Ballarino, A

    2012-01-01

    Following the development of twisted-pair cables prepared with High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes and their initial tests at 4.2 K in liquid helium at CERN, the cable samples of 2 m lengths were subsequently tested in flowing helium gas at temperatures between 10 K and 77 K at University of Southampton. A cryostat with optimized hybrid HTS current leads was purposely built for the tests up to 2.5 kA. The cryostat has two separate helium flow conduits, each accommodating a twisted pair and allowing independent temperature control. With the completion of the tests on the twisted-pair cables, a 5 m long semi-flexible Nexans cryostat was also set up for the testing of prototype HTS links assembled at CERN. The link, which is optimized for application to the remote powering of LHC 600 A electrical circuits, consists of a compact multi-cable assembly with up to 25 twisted-pair 600 A HTS tapes. The cables are cooled by a forced-flow of helium gas the inlet temperature of which can be changed in order to co...

  2. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  3. Operating characteristics of contactless power transfer for electric vehicle from HTS antenna to normal conducting receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Do, E-mail: ydchung@ssc.ac.kr [Suwon Science College, Hwasung-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Young [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Park, Young Gun [Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Seong Woo [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, DaeJeon-si 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    As contactless power transfer (CPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUCPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density and high quality factor Q value, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy and improved efficiency in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a reasonable option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS transmitted antenna coils within 40 cm distance at radio frequency (RF) generator of 60 W, 370 kHz. In addition, we achieved impedance matching conditions for different material coils between HTS and normal conductors.

  4. Position control of active magnetic levitation using sphere-shaped HTS bulk for inertial nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, K.; Riku, K.; Agatsuma, K.; Ueda, H.; Ishiyama, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have developed an active magnetic levitation system that comprises a field-cooled disk-shaped or sphere-shaped HTS bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets. In this system, the levitation height of HTS bulk can be controlled by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. Further, the application of the vertical noncontact levitation system is expected due to its levitation stability without mechanical supports. We assume that this system is applied to inertial nuclear fusion. However, one of the important issues is to achieve position control with high accuracy of the fusion fuel in order to illuminate the target evenly over the entire surface. Therefore, this system is applied to the levitation and position control of a sphere-shaped superconducting capsule containing nuclear fusion fuel. In this study, we designed and constructed a position control system for the sphere-shaped HTS bulk with a diameter of 5 mm by using numerical simulation based on hybrid finite element and boundary element analysis. We then carried out the experiment of levitation height and position control characteristics of the HTS bulk in this system. With regard to position control, accuracies within 59 ?m are obtained.

  5. Thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a HTS NMR magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Se Hwan; Hong, Yong Jun; Yeom, Han Kil; Ko, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The superconducting NMR magnets have used cryogen such as liquid helium for their cooling. The conduction cooling method using cryocoolers, however, makes the cryogenic cooling system for NMR magnets more compact and user-friendly than the cryogen cooling method. This paper describes the thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a 400 MHz HTS NMR magnet, focusing on the magnet assembly. The highly thermo-conductive cooling plates between HTS double pancake coils are used to transfer the heat generated in coils, namely Joule heating at lap splice joints, to thermal link blocks and finally the cryocooler. The conduction cooling structure of the HTS magnet assembly preliminarily designed is verified by thermal and structural analysis. The orthotropic thermal properties of the HTS coil, thermal contact resistance and radiation heat load are considered in the thermal analysis. The thermal analysis confirms the uniform temperature distribution for the present thermal design of the NMR magnet within 0.2 K. The mechanical stress and the displacement by the electromagnetic force and the thermal contraction are checked to verify structural stability. The structural analysis indicates that the mechanical stress on each component of the magnet is less than its material yield strength and the displacement is acceptable in comparison with the magnet dimension.

  6. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 2-Towards to Practical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    After discovering high temperature super- conducting materials 20 years ago, the preparation of applicable HTS materials has been pursued along with HTS mechanism and characteristic study. At present, the focus on the applied HTS technology has been moving to the industrial preparations from the laboratory research stage, and the technology has been well verified for practical applications from small to large scales. The fabrication techniques of engineering HTS materials are being industrialized; and various HTS devices are also on the way towards practical applications. This paper provides a comprehensive summary on the applied high temperature superconductivity with regard to various applicable HTS materials, their preparation techniques and charac- terization, and applications in a wide range.

  7. Emerging boom in nano magnetic particle incorporated high-Tc superconducting materials and technologies - A South African perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With a strategy to establish and embrace the emerging nano particle incorporated superconductivity technology (based on the HTS materials and nano magnetic particles) in South Africa, the author has initiated the following research activity in South...

  8. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  9. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin, E-mail: ruben.fair@converteam.co [Advanced Technology Group, Converteam, Rugby, CV21 1BD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  10. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  11. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J C; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Härö, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A

    2015-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  12. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J; DeRijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Haro, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A

    2014-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  13. Numerical calculation of primary slot leakage inductance of a Single-sided HTS linear induction motor used for linear metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Wen, Yinghong; Li, Weili; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Zhang, Xiaochen; Lv, Gang

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, the numerical method calculating asymmetric primary slot leakage inductances of Single-sided High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is presented. The mathematical and geometric models of three-dimensional nonlinear transient electromagnetic field are established and the boundary conditions are also given. The established model is solved by time-stepping Finite Element Method (FEM). Then, the three-phase asymmetric primary slot leakage inductances under different operation conditions are calculated by using the obtained electromagnetic field distribution. The influences of the special effects such as longitudinal end effects, transversal edge effects, etc. on the primary slot leakage inductance are investigated. The presented numerical method is validated by experiments carried out on a 3.5 kW prototype with copper wires which has the same structures with the HTS LIM.

  14. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  15. Results from the Danish high temperature superconducting power cable project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying approxim......For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying...

  16. Huashan rock paintings and other simitar paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the rechest rock paintings in the world. The Huashan rock paintings features color paintings, quite different from those in the North China areas where petroglyphs were created by engraving, chiseling,incising,or grinding,such as those in Inner Mongolia and Helan Mountains in Gansu.The rock paintings at Ulanchabu of Inner Mongolia are regarded as works of the Neolithic age,bronze age and iron age ,featuring mainly such grassland animals as

  17. Alternative Design Concepts for Multi-Circuit HTS Link Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting cables for power transmission usually contain two conductors for DC application, or three conductors for AC, with high voltage insulation. In contrast, for some applications related to accelerators it is convenient to transfer high currents via superconducting links feeding a number of circuits at relatively low voltage, of the order of a kilovolt, over distances of up to a few hundred meters. For power transmission applications based on cooling via sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, suitable HTS conductors are only available in the form of tape, and a multi-layer variant can be envisaged for the multi-circuit links. However, where cooling to temperatures of the order of 20 K is feasible, MgB2 conductor, available in the form of both tape and wire, can also be envisaged and in the latter case used to assemble round cables. There are, therefore, two distinct topologies - based on the use of wires or tapes - that can be envisaged for use in applications to multi-circuit link systems. In this paper the ...

  18. Design and testing of the HTS bearing for a 10 kWh flywheel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A. C.; Strasik, M.; McCrary, K. E.; Johnson, P. E.; Gabrys, J. W.; Schindler, J. R.; Hawkins, R. A.; Carlson, D. L.; Higgins, M. D.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    Flywheels are of interest for a wide range of energy storage applications, from support of renewable resources to distributed power applications and uninterruptible power systems (UPS) (Day et al 2000 Proc. EESAT 2000 (Orlando, FL, Sept. 2000)). The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings for such systems has significant advantages for applications requiring large amounts of energy to be stored with low parasitic losses and with minimal system maintenance. As flywheel systems increase in size, it becomes a significant challenge to provide adequate stiffness in these bearings without exceeding the strength limits of rotating magnet assemblies. The Boeing Company is designing and building a prototype flywheel of 10 kWh total stored energy and has focused much effort on the HTS bearing system. This paper will describe the general structure of the bearing and the steps taken to optimize its magnetic and structural performance and show recent test results.

  19. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  20. Influence of Off-Centre Operation on the Performance of HTS Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Y.; He, D.; Zheng, J.; Ye, C.; Xu, Y.; Sun, R.; Che, T.; Deng, Z.

    2014-03-01

    Owing to instinctive self-stable levitation characteristics, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev using bulk high-temperature superconductors attracts more and more attention from scientists and engineers around the world. In this paper, the levitation force relaxation and guidance force characteristics of a Y-Ba-Cu-O levitation unit with different eccentric distances (EDs) off the center of the permanent magnet guideway were experimentally investigated under field-cooling (FC) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the levitation force slightly increases at small EDs firstly, but degrades with further increasing of EDs. However, the maximum guidance force and its stiffness exhibit enhancement in moderate ED range. The results demonstrate that a properly designed initial FC eccentric distance is important for the practical applications of HTS maglev according to specific requirements like running in curve lines.

  1. Performance and analysis of wireless power charging system from room temperature to HTS magnet via strong resonance coupling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. W.; Kim, J. S. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. Y. [Korea Railroad Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The technology of supplying the electric power by wireless power transfer (WPT) is expected for the next generation power feeding system since it can supply the power to portable devices without any connectors through large air gap. As such a technology based on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is possible to deliver the large power and recharge them seamlessly; it has been considered as a noble option to wireless power charging system in the various power applications. Recently, various HTS wires have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors, MAGLEV, and other electrical power components. However, since the HTS magnets have a lower index n value intrinsically, they are required to be charged from external power system through leads or internal power system. The portable area is limited as well as the cryogen system is bulkier. Thus, we proposed a novel design of wireless power charging system for superconducting HTS magnet (WPC4SM) based on resonance coupling method. As the novel system makes possible a wireless power charging using copper resonance coupled coils, it enables to portable charging conveniently in the superconducting applications. This paper presented the conceptual design and operating characteristics of WPC4SM using different shapes' copper resonance coil. The proposed system consists of four components; RF generator of 370 kHz, copper resonance coupling coils, impedance matching (IM) subsystem and HTS magnet including rectifier system.

  2. Example based painting generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-wen; YU Jin-hui; XU Xiao-dong; WANG Jin; PENG Qun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for generating paintings on photographic images with the style encoded by the example paintings and adopt representative brushes extracted from the example paintings as the painting primitives. Our system first divides the given photographic image into several regions on which we synthesize a grounding layer with texture patches extracted from the example paintings. Then, we paint those regions using brushes stochastically chosen from the brush library, with further brush color and shape perturbations. The brush direction is determined by a direction field either constructed by a convenient user interactive manner or synthesized from the examples. Our approach offers flexible and intuitive user control over the painting process and style.

  3. Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2012-01-01

    (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down......In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... to somewhere between 4K and 50K, depending on what type of superconductor is employed, which poses a significant challenge both from a construction and operation point of view. The high temperature superconductors can facilitate a higher operation temperature and simplified cooling, but the current price...

  4. Tangka Painting of Gesar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMBIAN; GYAMCO

    2002-01-01

    Rope and other patterns on pottery unearthed from the Karub cultural sites, dating back some 5,000 years, are considered to be the earliest examples of painting art known so far. Rock paintings believed to have come later constitute the embryo of Tibetan painting art.Tangka painting is closely related to frescoes in terms of painting art. Tangka is created to reproduce what is painted in the fresco. Cultures prevalent in China’s hinterland, India and Nepal exerted deep influence on Tibetan painting art.Both Princess Wencheng and Princess Jincheng brought the Han Chinese culture into Tibet, which proved to be a boon for the development of Tibetan painting art. With construction of the Potala Palace, Jokhang, Qamzhub and other monasteries, Tibetan painting art developed apace. Frescoes in Jokhang Monastery, Qamzhub Monastery and Potala Palace, still visible today, feature a simple nature, with rich colors and concise lines, while figures were painted in an

  5. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for micro-SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Buckles, W. E.; Weber, B. R.; Yang, S. T.

    As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Superconductivity, Inc., are developing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads for application to micro-superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. Two 1500-A HTS leads have been designed and constructed. The performance of the current lead assemblies is being evaluated in a zero-magnetic-field test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of evaluations performed to data are presented.

  6. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  7. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  8. A HTS dipole insert coil constructed

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

  9. Virtual high throughput screening (vHTS) - A perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Sangeetha; Mehrotra, Monica; Gupta, Dinesh,

    2008-01-01

    With the exponential rise in the number of viable novel drug targets, computational methods are being increasingly applied to accelerate the drug discovery process. Virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS) is one such established methodology to identify drug candidates from large collection of compound libraries. Although it complements the expensive and time consuming High Throughput Screening (HTS) of compound libraries, vHTS possess inherent challenges. The successful vHTS requires the car...

  10. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of insulation materials for HTS power devices at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyung Seop; Diaz, Mark Angelo [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In superconducting power devices including power cables in which high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes are utilized, a reliable electrical insulation should be achieved for its maximum performance. For an efficient design of HTS superconducting devices, a comparative evaluation of the mechanical and thermal propperties for various insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures is required. Especially, in the process of the property evaluation of the sheet-shaped insulation materials, anisotropy according to the machining direction should be considered because the mechanical and thermal properties are significantly influenced by the sample orientation. In this study, the cryogenic thermal and mechanical properties of various insulation material sheets such as PPLP, Cryoflex, Teflon, and Kapton were determined considering sample orientation. All samples tested at cryogenic temperature showed significantly higher tensile strength as compared with that of room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength at both temperature conditions significantly depended upon the sample orientation. The thermal properties of the insulation materials exhibited a slight difference among samples depending on the orientation: for the PPLP and Cryoflex, the CD orientation showed larger thermal contraction up to 77 K as compared to the MD one. MD samples in PPLP and Cryoflex showed a lower CTE and thermal contraction which made it more promising as an insulation material due to its comparable CTE with HTS CC tapes.

  11. H-formulation for simulating levitation forces acting on HTS bulks and stacks of 2G coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, F.; Sotelo, G. G.; Junior, R. de Andrade; Sirois, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques to model high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are used throughout the world. At the same time, the use of superconductors in transportation and magnetic bearings promises an increase in energy efficiency. However, the most widespread simulation technique in the literature, the H-formulation, has not yet been used to simulate superconducting levitation. The goal of this work is to present solutions for the challenges concerning the use of the H-formulation to predict the behavior of superconducting levitators built either with YBCO bulks or stacks of 2G wires. It is worth mentioning the originality of replacing bulks with HTS stacks in this application. In our simulation methodology, the movement between the HTS and the permanent magnet was avoided by restricting the simulation domain to the HTS itself, which can be done by applying appropriate boundary conditions and analytical expressions for the source field. Commercial finite element software was used for the sake of ease of implementation. Simulation results were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. We conclude that the H-formulation is suitable for problems involving moving objects and is a good alternative to other approaches for simulating superconducting magnetic bearings.

  12. A new ring-shape high-temperature superconducting trapped-field magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Li, Xiaojian; Patel, Jay; Yuan, Weijia

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new trapped-field magnet made of second-generation high-temperature superconducting (2G HTS) rings. This so-called ring-shape 2G HTS magnet has the potential to provide much stronger magnetic fields relative to existing permanent magnets. Compared to existing 2G HTS trapped- field magnets, e.g. 2G HTS bulks and stacks, this new ring-shape 2G HTS magnet is more flexible in size and can be made into magnets with large dimensions for industrial applications. Effective magnetization is the key to being able to use trapped-field magnets. Therefore, this paper focuses on the magnetization mechanism of this new magnet using both experimental and numerical methods. Unique features have been identified and quantified for this new type of HTS magnet in the field cooling and zero field cooling process. The magnetization mechanism can be understood by the interaction between shielding currents and the penetration of external magnetic fields. An accumulation in the trapped field was observed by using multiple pulse field cooling. Three types of demagnetization were studied to measure the trapped-field decay for practical applications. Our results show that this new ring-shape HTS magnet is very promising in the trapping of a high magnetic field. As a super-permanent magnet, it will have a significant impact on large-scale industrial applications, e.g. the development of HTS machines with a very high power density and HTS magnetic resonance imaging devices.

  13. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  14. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  15. Results from the Danish high temperature superconducting power cable project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying approxim...

  16. The characteristics of spatial homogeneity and strength of magnetic field for compact NMR magnets using stacked HTS bulks with various gap lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kimoto, T.; Imai, M.; Yano, Y.; Joo, J.H. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hahn, S.; Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 170 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomita, M. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk. In design of a compact NMR magnet which consists of the stacked HTS bulk annuli, the issues of strength, spatial homogeneity and temporal stability by trapped magnetic fields are very important. This paper presents a study on the effects of magnetization field strength and gap length between stacked bulks for the compact HTS bulk NMR applications. Four-stacked HTS bulk magnet with ID 20 mm and OD 60 mm was prepared to investigate the optimized configuration. The thickness of each HTS bulk is 5 mm, and the gap lengths from 0 mm to 10 mm were used as parameters in analysis and experiment, respectively. Four-stacked HTS bulk magnets with various gap lengths were tested at two different background magnetic fields of 0.5 T and 2 T at 77 K. The optimized axial gap length was found out by analytical results, and the better magnetic field homogeneity and temporal decay property of trapped magnetic field were obtained by lower magnetization field in this experiments.

  17. Conceptual design of cooling anchor for current lead on HTS field coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyeon, C. J.; Kim, J. H.; Quach, H. L. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    The role of current lead in high-temperature superconducting synchronous machine (HTSSM) is to function as a power supply by connecting the power supply unit at room temperature with the HTS field coils at cryogenic temperature. Such physical and electrical connection causes conduction and Joule-heating losses, which are major thermal losses of HTSSM rotors. To ensure definite stability and economic feasibility of HTS field coils, quickly and smoothly cooling down the current lead is a key design technology. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a novel concept of a cooling anchor to enhance the cooling performance of a metal current lead. The technical concept of this technology is the simultaneously chilling and supporting the current lead. First, the structure of the current lead and cooling anchor were conceptually designed for field coils for a 1.5 MW-class HTSSM. Then, the effect of this installation on the thermal characteristics of HTS coils was investigated by 3D finite element analysis.

  18. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    in the cable, potentially affecting public acceptance of the project. A way out would be to substantially reduce AC losses from 1 down to about 0.1W/m per phase at rated current of 3 kArms, frequency of 50Hz and temperature of 77K. In this paper we discuss a strategy towards this ambitious goal, a concept......Requirements for a 6km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop...... design of the single phase cable 3 kA conductor made of YBCO tapes and present corresponding experimental and simulation data supporting the developed approach leading directly to this goal. HTS cable model was made that show a drastically reduced AC loss. The low loss was achieved by using appropriate...

  19. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government's financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  20. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2017-06-01

    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  1. Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ∅ 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

  2. Inhomogeneity effects in HTS coated conductors used as resistive FCLs in medium voltage grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Dutoit, Bertrand

    2012-09-01

    For resistive fault current limiters (RFCLs) based on high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CCs), inhomogeneity, in terms of critical current and geometrical imperfections such as stabilizer and substrate thicknesses, plays a very important role and it may limit the penetration of such devices into the electrical market. This paper presents an electrothermal model, developed in SimPowerSystem™, able to describe the transient response of HTS-CC candidates with different degrees of inhomogeneity, both in terms of critical current and of stabilizer thickness. Critical current inhomogeneity has been modeled with Gaussian distributions. The layer thicknesses used in the simulations have been chosen by fitting the temperature dependence of real tape resistances. Our approach considers relative inhomogeneity positions as well as thermal conduction along the HTS-CC length. The model is tuned using experimental measurements made on ReBaCuO coated conductors. A new dynamical thermal calibration of the model is proposed using finite element method calculations. Inhomegeneity effects with different possible faults (e.g. three phase and single phase short-circuit) are presented.

  3. A study on electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the field coil in HTS motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kadota, T.; Joo, J.H.; Sano, H.; Murase, S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Lee, S.H.; Hong, J.P. [Department of Automotive Engineering, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.M.; Kwon, Y.K.; Jo, Y.S. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1, Seongju-dong, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors electromagnetically consist of a rotator wound with HTS wires and an armature with conventional copper wires like Litz wire. The HTS rotor windings, as field coils, consist of a straight part and an end-ring part. Because a major rotation torque is induced by an interaction between magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors in the straight part, most of mechanical stresses in the motor occur at the straight part. An end-ring is placed in the edge of the straight part and used to connect to each adjacent straight-part coils. The magnetic fields by coil currents concentrate on the end-ring part, therefore, it is expected that the critical current of the entire coil, straight and end-ring, can be determined by the magnitude of the field in the end-ring. This paper deals with the overall J{sub c} degradation in the end-ring part by self-field generated from the coil. In addition to electromagnetic analyses, we have performed a numerical analysis in order to evaluate mechanical stresses in the straight part of field coil by armature reaction on steady-state operation. The analytical results will be presented in this paper.

  4. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  5. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  6. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  7. Fabrication of HTS dc Bias Coil for 35 kV/90 MVA SFCL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yin Zhang; Wei-Zhi Gong; Zheng-Jian Cao; Hui Hong; Bo Tian; Yang Wang; Jian-Zhong Wang; Xiao-Ye Niu; Ying Xin

    2008-01-01

    For a saturated iron core fault current limiter, superconductor is the only suitable material to make the dc bias coil, especially when the device is used in a high voltage power grid. Commonly, supercon- ducting wires are used to wind the dc bias coil. Since the performance of the wires changes greatly under magnetic fields, the calculation of the field spatial distraction is essential to the optimization of the superconducting magnet. A superconducting coil with 141000 ampere-turns magnetizing capacity made of 17600 meters of BSCCO 2223 HTS tapes was fabricated. This coil was built for a 35 kV/90 MVA saturated iron-core fault current limiter. Computer simulations on magnetic field distribution were carried out to optimize the structural design, and experiments were done to verify the performance of the coil. The configuration and the key parameters of the coil will be reported in this paper.

  8. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  9. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  10. Raman spectroscopy of manganite (CMR) and cuprate (HTS) oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Malde, N

    2002-01-01

    This thesis discusses Raman scattering measurements on colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite and high temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprate oxides. We have examined the influence of oxygen partial pressure (PO sub 2) on the Raman active phonon modes in infinite layer (n = infinity) manganite thin films. The 230cm sup - sup 1 and 600cm sup - sup 1 phonon frequencies were found to monotonically harden as function of PO sub 2 , therefore serving as good indicators of oxygen stoichiometry. Temperature dependent Raman scattering measurements on two La sub 0 sub . sub 7 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3 (n = infinity) thin films with different structural distortions (induced by deoxygenation) revealed that the 480cm sup - sup 1 and 610cm sup - sup 1 phonon peak intensities were correlated with the d.c resistivity in both films. This could help clarify the role played by phonons on carrier localisation (for T>T sub c) that has been suggested to explain the CMR effect. The controversial origin of the 'FM-like' o...

  11. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  12. Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Roden, Mark L [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American Electric Power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 132/13.8 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype with full scale terminations tested at ORNL was conducted prior to the manufacture and installation of the AEP triaxial cable. These prototypes were used to demonstrate the crucial operating conditions including steady state operation at the 3000 Arms design current, high voltage operation, high voltage withstand and 110 kV impulse, and overcurrent fault capability. A summary of the results from the thermal analysis and testing conducted by Ultera and ORNL will be presented. Some analysis of the cable thermal-hydraulic response based on the testing that were used to determine some of the cable cryogenic system requirements are also presented.

  13. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  14. Reproducibility of HTS-SQUID magnetocardiography in an unshielded clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, U; Schrey, F; Haueisen, J; Dörrer, L; Schreiber, J; Liehr, M; Schwarz, G; Solbrig, O; Figulla, H R; Seidel, P

    2001-07-01

    A new technology has been developed which measures the magnetic field of the human heart (magnetocardiogram, MCG) by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) sensors. These sensors can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen without electromagnetic shielding. We tested the reproducibility of HTS-MCG measurements in healthy volunteers. Unshielded HTS-MCG measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers in left precordial position in two separate sessions in a clinical environment. The heart cycles of 10 min were averaged, smoothed, the baselines were adjusted, and the data were standardized to the respective areas under the curves (AUC) of the absolute values of the QRST amplitudes. The QRS complexes and the ST-T intervals were used to assess the reproducibility of the two measurements. Ratios (R(QRS), R(STT)) were calculated by dividing the AUC of the first measurement by the ones of the second measurement. The linear correlation coefficients (CORR(QRS), CORR(STT)) of the time intervals of the two measurements were calculated, too. The HTS-MCG signal was completely concealed by the high noise level in the raw data. The averaging and smoothing algorithms unmasked the QRS complex and the ST segment. A high reproducibility was found for the QRS complex (R(QRS)=1.2+/-0.3, CORR(QRS)=0.96+/-0.06). Similarly to the shape of the ECG it was characterized by three bends, the Q, R, and S waves. In the ST-T interval, the reproducibility was considerably lower (R(STT)=0.9+/-0.2, CORR(STT)=0.66+/-0.28). In contrast to the shape of the ECG, a baseline deflection after the T wave which may belong to U wave activity was found in a number of volunteers. HTS-MCG devices can be operated in a clinical environment without shielding. Whereas the reproducibility was found to be high for the depolarization interval, it was considerably lower for the ST segment and for the T wave. Therefore, before clinically applying HTS-MCG systems to the detection of repolarization

  15. Long-term operating characteristics of Japan’s first in-grid HTS power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Tetsutaro, E-mail: nakano.tetsutaro@tepco.co.jp [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1 Egasaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8510 (Japan); Maruyama, Osamu; Honjo, Shoichi [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1 Egasaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8510 (Japan); Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hirose, Masayuki [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., 1-1-3 Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-004 (Japan); Shimoda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Yaguchi, Hiroharu; Machida, Akito [Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd., 2000 Tatsuzawa, Moriya-shi, Ibaraki 302-0018 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The in-grid operation had continued for more than one year without serious troubles. • The LN{sub 2} temperature and pressure were controlled stably within the preset range. • No degradation of I{sub c} occurred against the designed value after in-grid operation. • The degradation rate of cooling power differed among the refrigerators. - Abstract: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd and Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd have jointly conducted the first in-grid demonstration test of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in Japan, from FY2007 to FY2013. The objective of this project is to evaluate the reliability, stability and other characteristics of the system. The cable structure used in this project is the type of three-in-one cable. As a coolant, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen flows through the gap between the corrugated cryostat and the three cable cores. This structure can realize compactness and reduce heat invasion compared with three single-core HTS cables housed in separate cryostats. The cooling system consists of six refrigerators, two circulation pumps and a reservoir tank. Each refrigerator has a cooling power of 1.0 kW at 77 K, 0.8 kW at 67 K. The number of operating refrigerators is controlled so that the coolant temperature at the cable inlet is kept to preset value. The HTS cable was connected to the live electricity grid from October 29, 2012 to December 25, 2013. In-grid operation continued for more than one year without any accidental interruption of operation or other operating issues. During this time, we studied the operating performance of the HTS cable in dependence on the sub-cooled LN{sub 2} temperature.

  16. Economical Aspects of Superconducting Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Masayoshi

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to resolve technical problems with power grids because they put large-capacity, low-loss power transmission into a compact package. One problem is replacing old 275-kV oil filled (OF) cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulated vinyl sheath cables (XLPE cables). This is difficult because XLPE cable has a lower transmission capacity than OF cable. In addition, the high concentration of public infrastructure underground makes it extremely difficult to build new ones. However, if 66-kV HTS cables can be installed inside existing underground conduits and can achieve a power capacity equivalent to conventional 275-kV cables, construction costs could be significantly reduced. Moreover, if XLPE cables are used for a 1,000 MVA-class transmission line, then three circuits of nine 275-kV single-core cables would be required, which would incur a transmission loss of 90 W/m/cct. Three circuits of three 66-kV Three-in-One HTS cables, however, with an AC loss of 1 W/m/ph@3 kA, heat invasion of 2 W/m, and cooling system efficiency of 0.1, would reduce transmission loss to less than three-fifths that of XLPE cables.

  17. Two-dimensional superconductivity in the cuprates revealed by atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

    2016-10-01

    Various electronic phases displayed by cuprates that exhibit high temperature superconductivity continue to attract much interest. We provide a short review of several experiments that we have performed aimed at investigating the superconducting state in these compounds. Measurements on single-phase films, bilayers, and superlattices all point to the conclusion that the high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) in these materials is an essentially quasi-two dimensional phenomenon. With proper control over the film growth, HTS can exist in a single copper oxide plane with the critical temperatures as high as that achieved in the bulk samples.

  18. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  19. Investigation and comparison of AC losses on stabilizer-free and copper stabilizer HTS tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Boyang; Li, Jing; Geng, Jianzhao; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Xiuchang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Qihuan; Ma, Jun; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the measurement and simulation of Alternating Current (AC) losses on the Stabilizer-free and Copper Stabilizer High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Tapes: SuperPower SF12100 and SCS12050. The AC loss measurement utilised electrical method to obtain overall losses with AC transport currents. The 2D H-formulation by COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to simulate the real geometry and multi-layer HTS tapes. Ferromagnetic AC losses of substrate have been assumed to be ignored as the substrates of SF12100 and SCS12050 are non-magnetic. Hysteresis AC losses in the superconducting layer, and eddy-current AC losses in copper stabilizer, silver overlayer and substrate were concerned in this investigation. The measured AC losses were compared to the AC losses from simulation, with 3 cases of different AC frequency 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. The eddy-current AC losses of copper stabilizer at frequency 1000 Hz were determined from both experiment and simulation. The estimation of AC losses with frequency at 10,000 Hz was also carried out using simulation method. Finally, the frequency dependence of AC losses from Stabilizer-free Tape and Copper Stabilizer Tape were compared and analysed.

  20. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  1. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  2. Experimental Investigation and Modelling for the Optimisation of Conduction Cooled HTS Hybrid Current Leads for SMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It′s important that HTS tapes have lower thermal conductivity and higher transversal resistivity in order to reduce the heat leaks conducted along the tapes and AC losses in the high temperature superconducting system conduction-cooled by GM coolers. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of pure Ag and AgAu alloys sheath materials on the properties of Bi(2223) multifilamentary tapes and the optimisation of conduction-cooled hybrid current leads made from copper and Bi(2223)/Ag or Bi(2223)/AgAu tapes. The thermal conductivity of the tapes were measured by cryogenic steady heat flux method and the resistance was measured by using standard DC four-probe method at low temperature. The results showed that the reduction of thermal conductivity by the addition of Au into the sheath material of Bi(2223) tapes was 650%, 750% and 850% lower than that of pure Ag sheathed Bi(2223) tapes and the increase of resistivity was 4.9, 10 and 19.4 times higher than that of pure Ag for the addition of 2.20%, 5.70% and 10.70%Au(atom ratio) respectively. And the study also attempts to optimise thermodynamically the conduction-cooled hybrid current lead by using a developed model, which took the irreversibility of commercial GM coolers, the contact resistance and thermal conductance into account. Predictions from the model showed that AgAu alloys were suitable candidate materials to replace Ag as sheath material of Bi(2223) tapes applied in HTS current leads. In addition, Bi(2223)/AgAu was a suitable material to be applied as the HTS section of hybrid current leads in conduction-cooled superconducting electric systems.

  3. Modeling AC ripple currents in HTS coated conductors by integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Francesco; Xu, Zhihan

    2016-12-01

    In several HTS applications, the superconducting tapes experience the simultaneous presence of DC and AC excitations. For example in high-current DC cables, where the transport current is not perfectly constant, but it exhibits some ripples at different frequencies introduced by the rectification process (AC-DC conversion). These ripples give rise to dissipation, whose magnitude and possible influence on the device's cooling requirements need to be evaluated. Here we report a study of the AC losses in a HTS coated conductor subjected to DC currents and AC ripples simultaneously. The modeling approach is based on an integral equation method for thin superconductors: the superconducting tape is modeled as a 1-D object with a non-linear resistivity, which includes the dependence of the critical current density Jc on the magnetic field. The model, implemented in a commercial finite-element program, runs very fast (the simulation of one AC cycle typically takes a few seconds on standard desktop workstation): this allows simulating a large number of cycles and estimating when the AC ripple losses stabilize to a constant value. The model is used to study the influence of the flux creep power index n on the stabilization speed and on the AC loss values, as well as the effect of using a field-dependent Jc instead of a constant one. The simulations confirm that the dissipation level should not be a practical concern in HTS DC cables. At the same time, however, they reveal a strong dependence of the results upon the power index n and the form of Jc , which spurs the question whether the power-law is the most suitable description of the superconductor's electrical behavior for this kind of analysis.

  4. Development of a single-phase 330kVA HTS transformer using GdBCO tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Daoyu; Li, Zhuyong; Hong, Zhiyong; Jin, Zhijian

    2017-08-01

    With the mature of manufacture process and technology of high temperature superconductors, the critical current and stability are gradually increased. High temperature superconductors could be used in transformer, current limiter, generator, magnet and etc. This paper focuses on development and characteristic tests of a single-phase high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transformer with capacity of 330 kVA by using GdBCO tapes, which is 1/3 model of a 1 MVA / 10 kV / 0.4 kV HTS transformer. The specifications of iron core, HTS windings and cryostat are described in detail. The iron core is made of silicon steel plate. The arrangement of HTS windings are based on experimental and simulated results. The cryostat with a room temperature bore is manufactured using nonmetallic materials. Several characteristic tests and insulation tests are performed in liquid nitrogen of 77 K. The efficiency and AC loss at rated load is 99.90% and 243.7 W, respectively. In addition, an overload test was also performed.

  5. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiufang; Nie, Xinyi; Liang, Yilang; Lu, Falong; Yan, Zhongming; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  6. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.D., E-mail: ydchung@suwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suwon University, Bongdang Eup, Hwaseong Si 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  7. Engineering of second generation HTS coated conductor architecture to enhance the normal zone propagation velocity in various operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C.; Sirois, F.; Fournier Lupien, J.-H.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of operating conditions, critical current and stabilizer geometry on the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) of second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) are investigated using finite element simulations. The NZPV of tapes with a low interfacial resistance between the HTS and stabilizer layers are first compared with tapes with a current flow diverter (CFD) architecture. Our results indicates that the CFD concept increases the NZPV for the whole range of operating temperatures investigated (10-77 K). In particular, for an operating temperature of 77 K and an operating current of 0.9I c, our numerical results indicate that the NZPV of a 2G HTS CC with a CFD architecture and a 2 μm thick stabilizer layer could reach a value of 50 m s-1. Furthermore, numerical simulations realized on the effect of the stabilizer geometry on the NZPV of 2G HTS CCs revealed that putting most of the stabilizer on the substrate side can enhance the NZPV by a factor of 7 or more, even for tape with thick stabilizer (20 μm or more). This is particularly promising for improving quench detection in applications requiring a thick stabilizer such as superconducting coils.

  8. Predictive 1-D thermal-hydraulic analysis of the prototype HTS current leads for the ITER correction coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R.; Bauer, P.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.; Zappatore, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of the prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads (CLs) for the ITER correction coils, which will operate at 10 kA. A copper heat exchanger (HX) of the meander-flow type is included in the CL design and covers the temperature range between room temperature and 65 K, whereas the HTS module, where Bi-2223 stacked tapes are positioned on the outer surface of a stainless steel hollow cylindrical support, covers the temperature range between 65 K and 4.5 K. The HX is cooled by gaseous helium entering at 50 K, whereas the HTS module is cooled by conduction from the cold end of the CL. We use the CURLEAD code, developed some years ago and now supplemented by a new set of correlations for the helium friction factor and heat transfer coefficient in the HX, recently derived using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Our analysis is aimed first of all at a "blind" design-like prediction of the CL performance, for both steady state and pulsed operation. In particular, the helium mass flow rate needed to guarantee the target temperature at the HX-HTS interface, the temperature profile, and the pressure drop across the HX will be computed. The predictive capabilities of the CURLEAD model are then assessed by comparison of the simulation results with experimental data obtained in the test of the prototype correction coil CLs at ASIPP, whose results were considered only after the simulations were performed.

  9. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...

  10. Method of forming an HTS article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Zhang, Xun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a superconducting article includes providing a substrate tape, forming a superconducting layer overlying the substrate tape, and depositing a capping layer overlying the superconducting layer. The capping layer includes a noble metal and has a thickness not greater than about 1.0 micron. The method further includes electrodepositing a stabilizer layer overlying the capping layer using a solution that is non-reactive to the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer has an as-formed critical current I.sub.C(AF) and a post-stabilized critical current I.sub.C(PS). The I.sub.C(PS) is at least about 95% of the I.sub.C(AF).

  11. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  12. Study on Recovery Performance of High Tc Superconducting Tapes for Resistive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    kar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Dixit, Manglesh; Singh, Kuwar Pal; Gupta, Alok; Balasubramanyam, P. V.; Sarangi, S. K.; Rao, V. V.

    Recent advances in reliable production of long length high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes have resulted in commercial application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in electrical utility networks. SFCL gives excellent technical performance when compared to conventional fault current limiters. The fast self-recovery from normal state to superconducting state immediately after the fault removal is an essential criterion for resistive type SFCL operation. In this paper, results on AC over-current testing of 1st generation (1G) Bi2223 tapes and 2nd generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors operating at 77 K are reported. From these results, the recovery time is estimated for different available HTS tapes in the market. The current limiting tests have also been performed to study the effective current limitation. Further, the recovery characteristics after the current limitation are quantitatively discussed for repetitive faults for different time intervals in the range of 100 ms to few seconds.

  13. Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

    This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

  14. New facility for testing LHC HTS power leads

    CERN Document Server

    Rabehl, Roger Jon; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D; Pischalnikov, Y; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M

    2005-01-01

    A new facility for testing HTS power leads at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has been designed and operated. The facility has successfully tested 19 pairs of HTS power leads, which are to be integrated into the Large Hadron Collider Interaction Region cryogenic feed boxes. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. HTS power lead test results from the commissioning phase of the project are also presented.

  15. Judgments of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure of the judgements of paintings was investigated. In the preliminary study, the subjects were asked to describe their subjective experience of paintings producing a list of attributes. The set of 76 most frequent attributes was selected and transformed into a bipolar 7-step scale (e.g. beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, interesting-boring etc. In the central part of the study, 200 subjects judged paintings on 76 scales. The paintings were grouped into two subgroups, A (200 paintings and B (200 paintings. This part of the study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, 200 subjects judged one of the 200 paintings from the subgroup A (each painting was judged only by one subject, whereas in the second step the same 200 subjects judged 200 paintings from the subgroup B (each painting was judged only by one subject.. Two simple data matrices, A and B, and one complex matrix A + B (string out matrix: matrix B is continued under the matrix A were obtained. The factor analyses (Promax and Orthoblique rotation have shown the consistency of a four factor extraction for three matrices (A, B i A+B using both rotation methods: Evaluation (clever, balanced, interesting, etc., Potency (rich, dense, relaxing etc., Cognitive factor (clear, ordinary, stimulative, etc. and Dynamics (provoking, tense, creative.

  16. High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2003-04-01

    New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  17. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S., E-mail: alexlee.zn@gmail.com; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  18. Superconductivity program for electric systems, Superconductivity Technology Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, annual progress report for fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, J.O.; Newnam, B.E. [eds.; Peterson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    Development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has undergone tremendous progress during the past year. Kilometer tape lengths and associated magnets based on BSCCO materials are now commercially available from several industrial partners. Superconducting properties in the exciting YBCO coated conductors continue to be improved over longer lengths. The Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI) projects to develop HTS fault current limiters and transmission cables have demonstrated that HTS prototype applications can be produced successfully with properties appropriate for commercial applications. Research and development activities at LANL related to the HTS program for Fiscal Year 1997 are collected in this report. LANL continues to support further development of Bi2223 and Bi2212 tapes in collaboration with American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) and Oxford Superconductivity Technology, Inc. (OSTI), respectively. The tape processing studies involving novel thermal treatments and microstructural characterization have assisted these companies in commercializing these materials. The research on second-generation YBCO-coated conductors produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) over buffer template layers produced by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) continues to lead the world. The applied physics studies of magnetic flux pinning by proton and heavy ion bombardment of BSCCO and YBCO tapes have provided many insights into improving the behavior of these materials in magnetic fields. Sections 4 to 7 of this report contain a list of 29 referred publications and 15 conference abstracts, a list of patent and license activities, and a comprehensive list of collaborative agreements in progress and completed.

  19. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity-unexpected discovery, unconventional behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andreone

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   A brief review on some peculiar properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS is presented. Twenty years after the discovery, it appears more and more clear that the behaviour of this new class of materials is remarkably different from what have been re-classified as “conventional” superconductors. In the following we will focus our attention on the study of two phenomena, namely the Josephson effect and the Meissner effect, where the unconventional nature of superconductivity in HTS offers exciting perspectives both for the understanding of the underlying mechanism, so far still unknown, and for the large potential of applications in different areas of superconducting electronics.

  20. Influence of Critical Current Density on Guidance Force Decay of HTS Bulk Exposed to AC Magnetic Field Perturbation in a Maglev Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcai, Zhang; Jianguo, Kong

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, we studied the guidance force decay of the YBCO bulk over the NdFdB guideway used in the High-temperature superconducting maglev vehicle system with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and calculated the guidance force decay as a function of time based on an analytic model. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the critical current density on the guidance force decay of HTS bulk exposed to AC field perturbation in the maglev vehicle system and try to adopt a method to suppress the decay. From the results, it was found that the guidance force decay rate was higher for the bulk with lower critical current density. Therefore, we could suppress the guidance force decay of HTS bulk exposed to AC external magnetic field perturbation in the maglev vehicle system by improving critical current density of the bulk.

  1. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  2. Superconducting transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  3. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jsywang@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk

  4. Superconductivity and superconductive electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M. R.

    1990-12-01

    The Stanford Center for Research on Superconductivity and Superconductive Electronics is currently focused on developing techniques for producing increasingly improved films and multilayers of the high-temperature superconductors, studying their physical properties and using these films and multilayers in device physics studies. In general the thin film synthesis work leads the way. Once a given film or multilayer structure can be made reasonably routinely, the emphasis shifts to studying the physical properties and device physics of these structures and on to the next level of film quality or multilayer complexity. The most advanced thin films synthesis work in the past year has involved developing techniques to deposit a-axis and c-axis YBCO/PBCO superlattices and related structures. The in-situ feature is desirable because no solid state reactions with accompanying changes in volume, morphology, etc., that degrade the quality of the film involved.

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly affe

  7. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... alternative to conventional cables, as they are able to transmit two or more times the energy than a conventional cable. HTS cables with a room temperature dielectric design are especially interesting as a target for replacing overhead lines. Superconducting cables in the overall network are of interest...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...

  8. Development of superconducting transmission cable. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.; Stovall, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hughey, R.L.; Sinha, U.K. [Southwire Co., Carrollton, GA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwire Company is to develop the technology necessary to proceed to commercialization of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. Power transmission cables are a promising near-term electric utility application for high-temperature superconductivity. Present HTS wires match the needs for a three-phase transmission cable: (1) the wires must conduct high currents in self-field, (2) there are no high forces developed, and (3) the cables may operate at relatively low current density. The commercially-available HTS wires, in 100-m lengths, make construction of a full three-phase, alternating current (ac) transmission cable possible. If completed through the pre-commercialization phase, this project will result in a new capability for electric power companies. The superconducting cable will enable delivery with greater efficiency, higher power density, and lower costs than many alternatives now on the market. Job creation in the US is expected as US manufacturers supply transmission cables to the expanding markets in Asia and to the densely populated European cities where pipe-type cable is prevalent. Finally, superconducting cables may enable delivery of the new, diverse and distributed sources of electricity that will constitute the majority of new installed electrical generation in the world during the coming decades.

  9. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten;

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  10. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  11. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  12. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  13. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  14. Analysis of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Tri-Axial High-Temperature Superconducting Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, J. A.; Lue, J. W.; Gouge, M. J.; Fisher, P. W.; Lindsay, D.; Roden, M.

    2004-06-01

    This tri-axial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable design uses three concentric superconducting layers for the phase conductors, separated by a cold dielectric material. The design offers an efficient HTS cable configuration by reducing the amount of superconductor needed and places all three phases in a single cryostat. The tri-axial cable cooling circuit analyzed includes heat loads at the ends for the cable terminations and cable heat loads due to ac, dielectric, and thermal losses. The HTS cable critical current and ac loss are functions of the local temperature that must be determined by the analysis. The radial heat transfer also has an influence on these parameters due to the relatively low thermal conductivity of the dielectric material separating the HTS phases. The study investigates whether the tri-axial cable must be cooled both inside the former and outside of the cable. In this study, the range of operating parameters for a tri-axial HTS cable system and refrigeration requirements are determined based on expected HTS tape performance.

  15. A high T{sub c} superconducting loss-free resistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Dou, S. X. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Center for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Full text: A loss-less resistor (LLR) is introduced as a novel concept with consideration of using a high T{sub c} superconducting (HTS) inductor. This LLR resistor mainly consists of an electronic switch bridge and a inductor L. By controlling the electronic switch bridge, an equivalent resistance R(i) can be generated, and its value is R(i) = (L/i)di/dt, which allows the LLR resistor have a resistive voltage-current characteristic i.e. V(t) = i(t)R, but without thermal loss across this LLR resistor if a superconducting inductor is selected. With a HTS winding and therefore a HTS inductor, this LLR resistor is practically close to loss-free. The LLR resistor can be widely used to replace the conventional resistor in order to save energy and to improve performance of the systems. The HTS wires are identified for this application, by considering their critical currents, ac loss and possibility to make a large HTS inductor winding. To make LLR resistors for practical applications is considered with the existing HTS wires

  16. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    that by introducing one additional power supply, an order of 12% higher MMF was generated (or equivalent HTS savings achieved). Increasing in the number of additional power supplies did not show the same potential for HTS reduction. The implications of an armature reaction impact on the HTS field Winding performance...

  17. Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainslie, M.D., E-mail: mda36@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T.J.; Coombs, T.A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge's superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.

  18. Summary of the First Generation High Temperature Superconducting Wire:Processing, Characterization and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Silver-clad (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x long wires produced by powder-in-tube techniques, which have been recognized as the first generation of the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) wires, are expected to apply widely especially in strong current applications. In this work, the processing, characterization and application of the silver-clad (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x HTS wires are summarized. The HTS wires are fabricated using the combination of powder-in-tube technique, and the resulting wires are fully characterized by the means of chemical analyses, microstructural observation, electrical and magnetic measurements. The relationship among fabrication parameters, chemical and microstructural characteristics, and electrical and magnetic properties are analyzed. Applications of the HTS wires have also been introduced according to their strong current behaviors with various prototype devices made.

  19. Fabrication and laboratory testing of a high-temperature superconducting subsystem for DSC1800 mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    LiuKun; Zhu Mei Hong; Wei Bin; Liu Bang Chang; Zhang Xia; Gao Long Ma; Zhang Guo Yong; He Wen Jun; Gao Bao Xin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a 20-pole high-temperature superconducting (HTS) filter for DSC1800 mobile communications with the pass band from 1710 to 1785 MHz. The test results show that the insertion loss of the pass band is less than 0.3 dB, the out-of-band rejection is better than 65 dB, and the steepness of the band edges is greater than 14 dB MHz sup - sup 1. We also tested an HTS subsystem, which consists of the HTS filter, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with 21 dB gain and a Stirling Cooler, and a traditional subsystem, which consists of a traditional filter and a LNA with 23 dB gain. The results show that the HTS subsystem is much better than the conventional subsystem.

  20. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G BLUSTEIN; C DEYÁ; R ROMAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    The present work depicts synergism anticorrosive behaviour between zinc hypophosphite and zinc phosphate in a commercial pigment mixture. Also, the performance of anticorrosive paints was evaluated. Synergism anticorrosive behaviour was evaluated by corrosion potential and linear polarization measurements in pigment suspensions. The protective layer obtained with this pigment mixture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the anticorrosive properties of the pigment were assessed by incorporating it into alkyd and epoxy paints which were evaluated by salt spray test and electrochemical noise technique. The morphology and the nature of the protective layer grown under the paint film were also studied by SEM. Experimental results showed that improved anticorrosion protection is achieved in paints with reduced zinc phosphate contents as a consequence of the synergistic interaction between zinc hypophosphite and the other components of the pigment mixture. The electrochemical noise technique proved to be adequate to monitor corrosion in painted panels and is able to detectcorrosion under the paint film from very early stages. This paper identified the need to study synergism between anticorrosive pigments to try to reduce the phosphate content in anticorrosive paints.

  1. A temperature-stable cryo-system for high-temperature superconducting MR in-vivo imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Tsang Lin

    Full Text Available To perform a rat experiment using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS surface resonator, a cryostat is essential to maintain the rat's temperature. In this work, a compact temperature-stable HTS cryo-system, keeping animal rectal temperature at 37.4°C for more than 3 hours, was successfully developed. With this HTS cryo-system, a 40-mm-diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 surface resonator at 77 K was demonstrated in a 3-Tesla MRI system. The proton resonant frequency (PRF method was employed to monitor the rat's temperature. Moreover, the capacity of MR thermometry in the HTS experiments was evaluated by correlating with data from independent fiber-optic sensor temperature measurements. The PRF thermal coefficient was derived as 0.03 rad/°C and the temperature-monitoring architecture can be implemented to upgrade the quality and safety in HTS experiments. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the HTS surface resonator at 77 K was higher than that of a professionally made copper surface resonator at 300 K, which has the same geometry, by a 3.79-fold SNR gain. Furthermore, the temperature-stable HTS cryo-system we developed can obtain stable SNR gain in every scan. A temperature-stable HTS cryo-system with an external air-blowing circulation system is demonstrated.

  2. Upgrade of SULTAN/EDIPO for HTS Cable Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Lewandowska, M.

    CRPP hosts two unique conductor test facilities SULTAN (SUpraLeiter TestANlage) and EDIPO (European DIPOle). They allow the test of high current superconductors in high magnetic fields (SULTAN 11 T, EDIPO 12.5 T). In both facilities sample currents up to 100 kA can be supplied by means of a NbTi transformer. Presently the facilities are upgraded for the test of high current high-temperature superconductor (HTS) samples. For HTS conductor testing at temperatures between 20 and 50 K, the heat flux between the HTS sample under test and the NbTi transformer needs to be limited to around 10 W per conductor leg by means of an HTS adapter connecting them. The second required upgrade is the supply of intermediate temperature helium (20-50 K) to the HTS test conductor. It is mandatory that the helium gas coming from the HTS conductor under test can be returned to the cryoplant as cold gas (T < 20 K). To reach this goal a tube-in-tube heat exchanger has been manufactured in which 4.5 K helium coming from the cryoplant is in counter flow with the warm gas leaving the HTS test conductor.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Hollow Titanium Silicalite Zeolite(HTS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Min; Zhu Bin; Shu Xingtian; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    29Si-NMR and 1H-NMR were used to follow up the basic hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TOES) and the results showed that species of monomer, dimer, trimer, cyclic and polymer silicates were formed. The monomer and dimer were favorable for the high activity of zeolite. XRD, 13C CP/MAS and 29Si NMR were used to trace the crystallization process of hollow titanium silicalite zeolites (HTS). The results showed that the induction period of HTS was 80 min, and subsequently it took next 10 min to form HTS and the remaining time of the crystallization period might function for cleaning up the pores and/or washing off the impurities from the HTS zeolite. The catalytic oxidation performance of HTS zeolite is different from that of the acid activity of zeolite in which the conventional definition of crystallinity does not reflect the catalytic oxidation activity proportionally. The synthesized HTS samples were character-ized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis and Raman spectra. It was confirmed that Ti was incorporated into the zeolite framework. The synthesized HTS samples revealed good repeatability and high activity for oxidation of phenol into diphenol.

  4. Miniaturized HTS linear phase filter based on neighboring CQ units sharing resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Hai; Zhou, Liguo; Jiang, Mingyan; Dang, Wei; Ren, Xiangyang; Hou, Fangyan

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method for using neighboring cascaded quadruplet (CQ) units sharing resonators to decrease the order of filter so as to reduce the size of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear phase filter. The main advantage is that it will not reduce the number of the filter’s transmission zeros, and will not increase the difficulty of circuit design and tuning. Based on this method, this paper presents a 10-order HTS linear phase filter with two pairs of transmission zeros on double-sided YBCO/LaAlO3/YBCO films with a size of 20.3 mm × 20.92 mm, a thickness of 0.5 mm and a dielectric constant of 24.04. At 77 K, the filter’s measured center frequency is 830.03 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 MHz, an edge out-of-band rejection greater than 30 dB MHz-1, and a group delay variation of less than ±10 ns over 60% of the filter bandwidth.

  5. Design and Evaluation of 275 kV-3 kA HTS Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Jun, T.; Liu, J.; Nakayama, R.; Hayakawa, N.; Wang, X.; Ishiyama, A.; Amemiya, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Saitoh, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. The cable is expected to be put to practical use as the backbone power line in the future because the capacity of 1.5 GW is about the same as overhead transmission lines. The 30 m cable has been designed on the basis of design values that had been obtained by various voltage tests, AC loss measurement tests, short circuit tests, and other elementary tests. Cable insulation was determined by the design stresses and test conditions based on IEC, JEC (Japan electrical standards), and other HTS demonstrations. This cable was also designed to withstand the short circuit test of 63 kA for 0.6 seconds and to have low losses, including AC loss and dielectric loss of 0.8 W/m at 3kA, 275 kV. Based on the design, a 30 m cable was manufactured, and short samples during this manufacturing process were confirmed to have the designed characteristics. Furukawa Electric prepared a demonstration of the 30 m cable with two terminations and a cable joint. The long-term test under a current of 3 kA, and test voltage determined from 30 years of insulation degradation has been conducted since November 2012 at Shenyang in China.

  6. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oomen, Marijn, E-mail: marijn.oomen@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT T DE HW4, PO Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT T DE HW4, PO Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  7. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  8. A 100-W grade closed-cycle thermosyphon cooling system used in HTS rotating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Brice; Miki, Motohiro; Tsuzuki, Keita; Shinohara, Nobuyuki; Hayakawa, Hironao; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    The cooling systems used for rotating High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) machines need a cooling power high enough to ensure a low temperature during various utilization states. Radiation, torque tube or current leads represent hundreds of watts of invasive heat. The architecture also has to allow the rotation of the refrigerant. In this paper, a free-convection thermosyphon using two Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocoolers is presented. The cryogen is mainly neon but helium can be added for an increase of the heat transfer coefficient. The design of the heat exchangers was first optimized with FEM thermal analysis. After manufacture, they were assembled for preliminary experiments and the necessity of annealing was studied for the copper parts. A single evaporator was installed to evaluate the thermal properties of such a heat syphon. The maximum bearable static heat load was also investigated, but was not reached even at 150 W of load. Finally, this cooling system was tested in the cooling down of a 100-kW range HTS rotating machine containing 12 Bi-2223 double-pancake coils (DPC).

  9. How filaments can reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Francesco; Kario, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Second-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, known also as coated conductors, are very promising tapes for HTS applications, in virtue of their extremely high critical current density, in-field behavior, and mechanical strength. Yet, the extremely large (typically in the range 1000-10 000) width-to-thickness ratio of the superconducting material makes them prone to high power dissipation in the presence of time-varying magnetic fields perpendicular to their flat face—a condition frequently met in several applications. Since the dissipation is directly proportional to the square of the superconductor's width, an obvious way of reducing it is by striating the superconductor into narrow filaments (stripes): in that case, provided that the filaments are electromagnetically uncoupled, the losses are reduced by a factor equal to the number of filaments. In the past two decades, many researchers from groups around the world have tried to apply this idea to practical conductors using different techniques. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of such efforts, focusing on the different approaches to make filamentized conductors, on the effectiveness of the AC loss reduction, and on the applicability of those techniques to long lengths.

  10. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  11. Electrical transport anisotropy of uniaxial polycrystalline samples and the effective medium approximation: An application to HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-García, A.; Muné, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we have applied the effective medium approximation (EMA) to a polycrystalline sample made up of uniaxial crystallites with similar behavior to the high critical temperature superconductors (HTS) at the normal state (σab ≫ σc). As a result the dependence of the anisotropy parameter at the level of the sample, μ =σx /σz , on orientation probability of the grains' a-axes along a certain preferential direction, γxa is obtained. The intrinsic and shape anisotropy parameters of the crystallites constitute input data. In addition, the dependence of the orientation factor, f, which has been introduced in current models on the transport properties of HTS, is calculated as a function of γxa. These results offer a tool to interpret electrical transport measurements at normal state in granular uniaxial superconducting materials with certain texture degree, by means of the correlation between microstructure and electrical transport properties. Moreover, the comparison between the model and some experimental data suggests the presence of intragranular planar defects in the polycrystalline superconductors. They may affect the measurement of paracoherent resistivity and consequently the determination of f mainly in Bi based samples.

  12. U. S. Navy’s Superconductivity Programs; Scientific Curosity To Fleet Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Pickett joined the theory group and together with Klein, Papa and Boyer performed calculations on a few C15 laves phase compounds as well as on...superconducting state (topological phase transitions) was as this limit was approached16. Fig. 3. (Left) Granular film 2D transition (Right) SQUID...the world on promoting systems applications of superconductivity.. The first phase of HTSSE was to obtain simple HTS devices in 1991, just 4 years

  13. High-temperature superconductivity for avionic electronic warfare and radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.A. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Avionics Directorate

    1994-12-31

    The electronic warfare (EW) and radar communities expect to be major beneficiaries of the performance advantages high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) has to offer over conventional technology. Near term upgrades to system hardware can be envisioned using extremely small, high Q, microwave filters and resonators; compact, wideband, low loss, microwave delay and transmission lines; as well as, wideband, low loss, monolithic microwave integrated circuit phase shifters. The most dramatic impact will be in the far term, using HTS to develop new, real time threat identification and response strategy receiver/processing systems designed to utilize the unique high frequency properties of microwave and ultimately digital HTS. To make superconductivity practical for operational systems, however, technological obstacles need to be overcome. Compact cryogenically cooled subsystems with exceptional performance able to withstand rugged operational environments for long periods of time need to be developed.

  14. High-temperature superconducting undulator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Kasa, Matthew; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Welp, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents test results on a prototype superconducting undulator magnet fabricated using 15% Zr-doped rare-earth barium copper oxide high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. On an 11-pole magnet we demonstrate an engineering current density, J e, of more than 2.1 kA mm‑2 at 4.2 K, a value that is 40% higher than reached in comparable devices wound with NbTi-wire, which is used in all currently operating superconducting undulators. A novel winding scheme enabling the continuous winding of tape-shaped conductors into the intricate undulator magnets as well as a partial interlayer insulation procedure were essential in reaching this advance in performance. Currently, there are rapid advances in the performance of HTS; therefore, achieving even higher current densities in an undulator structure or/and operating it at temperatures higher than 4.2 K will be possible, which would substantially simplify the cryogenic design and reduce overall costs.

  15. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  16. Features and Prototypes of HTS High Q Resonant Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2007-01-01

    High Tc superconductor (HTS) technology has been used to develop a unique high Q resonant circuit. Such circuit or device has some special characteristics such as very high voltage generation. Theoretical study and experimental approaches have proceeded for the concept verification. This paper presents the theory about this high Q resonant circuit. The operation principle of the circuit is described. A practical prototype for HTS high voltage generation is also demonstrated. The experiment result shows that very high voltages can be achieved by the developed method using HTS technology.

  17. Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.

  18. Development of a cooling system for superconducting wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Okano, Makoto; Natori, Naotake; Yamasaki, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the cooling system for high-Tc superconducting (HTS) generators for large capacity wind turbines. We have proposed a cooling system with a heat exchanger and circulation pumps to cool HTS field windings designed for 10 MW-class superconducting generators. In the cooling system, the refrigerants in the stationary and rotational systems are completely separated; heat between the two systems exchanges using a rotational-stationary heat exchanger. The refrigerant in rotational system is circulated by highly reliable pumps. We designed the rotational-stationary heat exchanger based on a conventional shell-and tube type heat exchanger. We also demonstrated that heat exchange in cryogenic temperature is possible with a commercially available heat exchanger. We devised a novel and highly reliable cryogenic helium circulation pump with magnetic reciprocating rotation system and verified its underlying principle with a small-scale model.

  19. Experimental study on the double-evaporator thermosiphon for cooling HTS (high temperature superconductor) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghyun; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Youngkwon; Jeong, Sangkwon; Sung, Taehyun; Han, Younghee; Lee, Jeong-Phil; Jung, Seyong

    2009-08-01

    A cryogenic thermosiphons is an efficient heat transfer device between a cryocooler and a thermal load that is to be cooled. This paper presents an idea of thermosiphon which contains two vertically-separated evaporators. This unique configuration of the thermosiphon is suitable for the purpose of cooling simultaneously two superconducting bearings of the HTS (high temperature superconducting) flywheel system at the same temperature. A so-called double-evaporator thermosiphon was designed, fabricated and tested using nitrogen as the working fluid under sub-atmospheric pressure condition. The interior thermal condition of the double-evaporator thermosiphon was examined in detail during its cool-down process according to the internal thermal states. The double-evaporator thermosiphon has operated successfully at steady-state operation under sub-atmospheric pressure. At the heat flow of 10.6 W, the total temperature difference of the thermosiphon was only 1.59 K and the temperature difference between the evaporators was 0.64 K. The temperature difference of two evaporators is attributed to the conductive thermal resistance of the adiabatic section between the evaporators. The method to reduce this temperature difference has been investigated and presented in this paper. The proper area selection of condenser, evaporator 1, and evaporator 2 was studied by using thermal resistance model to optimize the performance of a thermosiphon. The superior heat transfer characteristic of the double-evaporator thermosiphon without involving any cryogenic pump can be a great potential advantage for cooling HTS bulk modules that are separated vertically.

  20. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  1. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  2. Paint for Motherland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On August 15, the Chinese Outstanding Art Exhibition in calligraphy and painting will bc held in mid-ring of Hong Kong, where Olympic equestrian events co-hosted, representing the masterpieces of China mainland artists. The event is a part of exchange during the 2008 Olympic period among Olympic co-hosting cities. The most eyeball-attracting showpiece will be a 960 m2 painting. "Ten Thousand Miles of Motherland", from the hand of Zhao Xiufeng.

  3. Homesickness (Decorative Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally. nchly colored Chinese painting is widely recognized for its line and rhythm. As early as 1.1000 years ago. the Dunhuang frescos of the Tang Dynasty (618907) reached a high level. "Homesickness" represents a female figure thinking about the motherland. The painter uses traditional painting techniques in reference to linn and color. The dragon and phoenix motif in the background represents the 5.000 year-old cultural history of

  4. Scientific Presentations on Superconductivity from 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    homopolar and synchronous superconducting motors to drive the US Navy’s future all-electric ship. HTS wire technology can be used in many of the system...components for these military applications such as motors , power generators, transformers, power converters/inductors, primary power cabling, and high...capability for the YBCO conductor leads to commercialization in electric power applications such as transformers, transmission cables, motors , fault

  5. Analysis of DC Power Transmission Using High Tc Superconducting Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Lian Zhang; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual superconducting DC cable model is designed and its magnetic fields distribution is analyzed with Ansoft/Maxwell soft. A DC Power transmission system is also studied by using the Matlab/Simulink. With the DC Line and AC Ground Fault, the system losses analysis is introduced.The analysis results mainly include the magnetic fields distribution of the HTS cable model with Ansoft/Maxwell, the system loss, the DC Line and AC Ground Fault with Matlab/Simulation.

  6. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly...... affecting public acceptance of the project. In order to solve this problem, a model cryostat was developed consisting of alternating rigid and flexible sections and hydraulic tests were conducted using sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. In the 47 m-long cryostat, containing a full-size HTS cable model, measured....... A flexible dummy HTS cable was inserted into this cryostat and sub-cooled liquid nitrogen was circulated in the annulus between the dummy cable surface and the inner cryostat surface. In the paper details are presented of the cryostat, of the measurement setup, of the experiment and of the results....

  7. Critical current measurement for design of HTS DC power cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    Critical currents of HTS DC power cables were calculated. In the calculation a relationship between critical current density and magnetic flux density proposed by Gömöry et al. [1] was used and the parameters used in the relationship were obtained by the critical current measurements with respect to the external magnetic field for a sample of the HTS tape. Numerical models of cables were composed and their critical currents were calculated, which showed the strong dependence on the arrangement of the HTS tapes in the cable. Critical current measurements of model cables assembled based on the calculations showed that the measured critical currents also depended on the arrangement of the HTS tapes strongly. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results, which showed that the experimental results agreed well with the calculated results.

  8. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  9. Advanced Manufacturing of Superconducting Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senti, Mark W.

    1996-01-01

    The development of specialized materials, processes, and robotics technology allows for the rapid prototype and manufacture of superconducting and normal magnets which can be used for magnetic suspension applications. Presented are highlights of the Direct Conductor Placement System (DCPS) which enables automatic design and assembly of 3-dimensional coils and conductor patterns using LTS and HTS conductors. The system enables engineers to place conductors in complex patterns with greater efficiency and accuracy, and without the need for hard tooling. It may also allow researchers to create new types of coils and patterns which were never practical before the development of DCPS. The DCPS includes a custom designed eight-axis robot, patented end effector, CoilCAD(trademark) design software, RoboWire(trademark) control software, and automatic inspection.

  10. Design of high–order HTS dual–band bandpass filters with receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N., E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.jp

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We have developed two high-order HTS dual-band BPFs with a receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems. • We developed a method for flexibly adjusting the coupling coefficient for the two passbands. • We demonstrated an HTS dual-band BPF receiver subsystem that uses a pulse tube cryocooler and a wideband LNA. • The proposed BPF is evaluated by simulation and measurement with good agreement. - Abstract: We have developed two high-order high-temperature superconducting (HTS) dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) with a receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems. They feature stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with two types of microstrip lines between them. One has a six-pole design, and the other has an eight-pole design. Both were designed to operate at 2.15 GHz with a 43-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the lower passband and at 3.50 GHz with a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the upper one. They were fabricated using YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} thin film on a CeO{sub 2}-bufferd r-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The measured results for both filters agree well with the simulated ones. The HTS dual-band BPF receiver subsystem uses a pulse tube cryocooler and a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA). We measured the frequency response of the six-pole dual-band BPF with and without a wideband LNA with a gain of 10 dB. The measured return losses were close.

  11. The Future of Superconducting Technology for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Colliders constructed and operated - Future High Energy Colliders under Study - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Possible Choices among SC Materials Superconducting Magnets and the Future - Advances in SC Magnets for Accelerators - Nb3Sn for realizing Higher Field - NbTi to Nb3Sn for realizing High Field (> 10 T) - HL-LHC as a critical milestone for the Future of Acc. Magnet Technology - Nb3Sn Superconducting Magnets (> 11 T)and MgB2 SC Links for HL-LHC - HL-LHC, 11T Dipole Magnet - Nb3Sn Quadrupole (MQXF) at IR - Future Circular Collider Study - Conductor development (1998-2008) - Nb3Sn conductor program - 16 T Dipole Options and R&D sharing - Design Study and Develoment for SppC in China - High-Field Superconductor and Magnets - HTS Block Coil R&D for 20 T - Canted Cosine Theta (CCT) Coil suitable with Brittle HTS Conductor - A topic at KEK: S-KEKB IRQs just integrated w/ BELLE-II ! Superconducting RF and the Future - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Poss...

  12. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  13. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  14. Experiments on Paint Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  15. Present status and future trends of R and D for HTS rotational machines in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Osami, E-mail: osami-t@ynu.ac.jp

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • R and D statuses of various HTS rotating machines developed in Japan are overviewed. • Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators conducted in Japan are assessed. • Based on the present R and D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed. • Introduction of iron cores into HTS windings drastically reduces amount of HTS wires and cost of HTS machines. - Abstract: Various HTS rotating machines, from multiple MW class to several 10 kW class, are being developed in Japan. R and D statuses of those machines are reviewed. Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators are also conducted in Japan and their merits and demerits are discussed. Based on the present R and D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed.

  16. Enhancing the design of a superconducting coil for magnetic energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, Gomathinayagam, E-mail: gindu80@gmail.com [EEE Department, Prince Shri Venkateshwara Padmavathy Engineering College, Chennai (India); UmaMaheswaraRao, Theru, E-mail: umesh.theru@gmail.com [Divison of Power Engineering and Management, Anna University, Chennai (India); Chandramohan, Sankaralingam, E-mail: cdramo@gmail.com [Divison of Power Engineering and Management, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • High magnetic flux density of SMES coil to reduce the size. • YBCO Tapes for the construction of HTS magnets. • Relation between energy storage and length of the coil wound by various materials. • Design with a certain length of second-generation HTS. - Abstract: Study and analysis of a coil for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system is presented in this paper. Generally, high magnetic flux density is adapted in the design of superconducting coil of SMES to reduce the size of the coil and to increase its energy density. With high magnetic flux density, critical current density of the coil is degraded and so the coil is wound with High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) made of different materials. A comparative study is made to emphasize the relationship between the energy storage and length of the coil wound by Bi2223, SF12100, SCS12100 and YBCO tapes. Recently for the construction of HTS magnets, YBCO tapes have been used. Simulation models for various designs have been developed to analyze the magnetic field distribution for the optimum design of energy storage. The design which gives the maximum stored energy in the coil has been used with a certain length of second-generation HTS. The performance analysis and the results of comparative study are done.

  17. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  18. Electrical resistivity and XRD measurements on YBCO-PbS HTS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, GND Univ., Amritsar (India)); Shahi, K. (Advanced Centre for Materials Science, IIT Kanpur (India))

    1992-08-16

    Electrical resistivity and XRD measurements are reported for HTS samples with starting composition Y[sub 1]Ba[sub 2](Cu[sub 1] [sub -] [sub x]Pb[sub x])[sub 3]S[sub 3x]O[sub y](0 [<=] x [<=] 0.20). It is elucidated that the substituted compounds (0 < x [<=] 0.05) have improved processibility and normal state properties (e.g., better intergrain linkage) and a peculiar characteristic trend of variation in superconducting properties like transition temperature (T[sub c]) and transition width ([Delta]T[sub c]), at the cost of lowering T[sub c] by hardly a few K. For x > 0.05 samples, however, the evolution of impurity phases like Y[sub 2]Ba[sub 1]Cu[sub 1]O[sub 5] and BaPbO[sub 3] suppresses the superconducting properties. The probable explanation of these results is also discussed. It is found that perhaps the sulphur of PbS substitutes for oxygen in the YBCO-lattice, however, Pb does not, it mainly forms the impurity phase BaPbO[sub 3].

  19. Nanjing Painting & Calligraphy Academy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOUNDED in 1979,the Nanj-ing Painting and CaligraphyAcademy consists of 20 profes-sional painters,over 40 invited paintersand a few brilliant graduates from sev-eral art schools.The academy hasemerged as a major art force,withmost of its members being young andmiddle-aged painters.The academy is composed of aChinese painting research studio,anexhibition section,arts and crafts salessection and an administrative office.In1992 the Nanjing municipal govern-ment made cotributions to the acade-my for the construction of a paintingstudio and an exhibition hall coveringa combined floor area of 1,000 square

  20. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an interior decorative finish in which the pigment is bound with water- soluble glue or size. It is cheap and is sold in powder form for mixing with water. It cannot be used out of doors and will rub off if washed. Where a paint of a different kind has been... galvanised steel. The first is caused by the reactive nature of the zinc surface which damages alkyd paints and the second by the preservative that is often applied to the surface of sheet material during production. Once the steel has been exposed...

  1. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  2. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  3. Oil Paintings by Ou Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ou Yang, professor of the Oil Painting Department of Guangdong Art College, has been pursuing perfection in the field of art for many years. With their rich emotional color, paintings by her do not simply

  4. A Painting Tells Its Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Separated parts of an ancient Chinese painting to be displayed together Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao told a story about a famous Chinese painting Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains at a press conference after the Third Session of the

  5. Superconductivity in the Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Stanislav; Koverya, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    The report contains a brief history of the superconductor’s researches and their applications carried out in the Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (ILTPE) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine since the ILTPE foundation in 1960. The most important results of the researches in the field of the low- and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are stated more detailed. The experimental validation of an electromagnetic radiation of Josephson junctions; the electron pairing and existence of the distant order in the HTS; a creation of the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) on the basis of the HTS; formation and moving of the local frozen magnetic field along the surface of the HTS; the transport properties of new Fe-based superconductors can be referred to such results.

  6. Theoretical/Computational Studies of High-Temperature Superconductivity from Quantum Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0204 Theoretical/Computational Studies of High-Temperature Superconductivity from Quantum Magnetism Jose Rodriguez CALIFORNIA...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Theoretical/Computational Studies of High-Temperature Superconductivity from Quantum Magnetism 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT...SUBJECT TERMS quantum magnetism, HTS, superconductivity 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT UU 18.  NUMBER        OF

  7. Estimating the colors of paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M. M., ed. lit.; João, Catarina A. R.; Amano, Kinjiro; Montagner, Cristina; Melo, Maria J.; Vilarigues, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Observers can adjust the spectrum of illumination on paintings for optimal viewing experience. But can they adjust the colors of paintings for the best visual impression? In an experiment carried out on a calibrated color moni- tor images of four abstract paintings obtained from hyperspectral data were shown to observers that were unfamiliar with the paintings. The color volume of the images could be manipulated by rotating the volume around the axis through the average (a*, b*) point for eac...

  8. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-09-01

    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  9. Dynamic response characteristics of the high-temperature superconducting maglev system under lateral eccentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zheng, Jun; Si, Shuaishuai; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2016-07-01

    Off-centre operation of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems caused by inevitable conditions such as the misregistration of vehicle, crosswind and curve negotiation, may change the distribution of the trapped flux in the HTS bulks and the magnetic interaction between HTS bulks and the PMG. It impacts on the performance of HTS maglev, and more seriously makes the maglev vehicle overturned. Therefore, understanding the performance of the HTS maglev in off-center operation is very important. In this paper, the dynamic response characteristics of a cryostat with twenty-four onboard YBaCuO superconductor bulks were experimentally investigated at different eccentric distances under loads before the initial FC process. Parameters such as vibration accelerations, displacement, natural frequency and dynamic stiffness were acquired and analyzed via the B&K vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. Results suggest that the natural frequency and dynamic stiffness of the maglev vehicle would be obviously reduced with the eccentric distance, posing negative effects on the stability of HTS maglev.

  10. 2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, G; Lubin, T; Mezani, S; Leveque, J, E-mail: gael.male@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France)

    2011-03-15

    An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.

  11. The attenuation of the levitation force of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field on the above NdFeB guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minxian; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the air gaps between the adjacent permanent magnets make the magnetic fields above the NdFeB guideway non-uniform. So it is required to study the characteristics of levitation force of the HTS bulk affected by the non-uniform applied magnetic fields along the moving direction. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of the levitation force relaxation by an experiment in which AC magnetic field generated by an electromagnet is used to simulate the time-varying magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the NdFeB guideway. From the experiment results, it is found that the levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC field, and the attenuation is increased with the amplitude of the AC field, but the attenuation is almost independent of the frequency the AC magnetic field.

  12. Load test of Superconducting Magnetic Bearing for MW-class Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, S.; Nakao, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.; Yamashita, T.; Miyazaki, K.; Shimizu, H.; Sawamura, H.

    2017-07-01

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) stores electrical power as kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel rotor. Since the storage energy of the FESS is proportional to the weight of the rotor and the square of the rotating speed, the heavy weight and high speed rotor leads a FESS to a high power and a high capacity. However a conventional FESS limits in both the rotor weight and the rotating speed because of using mechanical bearings. A superconducting FESS (SFESS) utilizes a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) to levitate and rotate the flywheel rotor that has ton class weight and high speed rotation without mechanical contact. As the SFESS with 300 kW demonstrated at Mt. Komekura in Yamanashi prefecture, the SMB in the SFESS levitated the 4-ton rotor. The SMB consisted of a high temperature superconducting magnet (HTS magnet) and a HTS bulk, and utilized a repulsive force between the HTS magnet and the HTS bulk. The demonstration of the SFESS has been carried out successfully at Mt. Komekura. Now the next step development was started to aim a MW-class SFESS. The MW-class SFESS needs the SMB levitated and withstood a 10 ton-class load. This paper describes a design of the 10 ton-class SMB and the result of the load test of the developed SMB

  13. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  14. Superconductivity applications for infrared and microwave devices; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 19, 20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B. (Editor); Heinen, Vernon O. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on superconductivity applications for IR and microwave devices are presented. The individual topics addressed include: pulsed laser deposition of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films, patterning of high-Tc superconducting thin films on Si substrates, IR spectra and the energy gap in thin film YBa2Cu3O(7-delta), high-temperature superconducting thin film microwave circuits, novel filter implementation utilizing HTS materials, high-temperature superconductor antenna investigations, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors, high-Tc superconducting IR detectors from Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films, Y-Ba-Cu0-O thin films as high-speed IR detectors, fabrication of a high-Tc superconducting bolometer, transition-edge microbolometer, photoresponse of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) granular and epitaxial superconducting thin films, fast IR response of YBCO thin films, kinetic inductance effects in high-Tc microstrip circuits at microwave frequencies.

  15. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J{sub c} in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2`s bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J{sub c} at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices.

  16. Comparison between HTS nonlinearities in patterned and unpatterned thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Jordi; Collado, Carlos; O'Callaghan, Juan M.; Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Team

    2004-03-01

    High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) materials exhibit a surface impedance dependence on the applied field. This behavior still remains not yet fully understood. To overcome this, many experiments have been carried out through the last decade. In general, the experimental work has been done measuring intermodulation products in patterned devices since most of practical devices are based on patterned structures. In this case the nonlinearities might come from many causes -- HTS properties, possible damage due to patterning, shape of resonator, etc.--, which need to be characterized. This raises the question of how representative of HTS properties are the experiments performed on patterned samples. To address this, we propose such a procedure, which is based on obtaining parameters describing the HTS nonlinearities from intermodulation measurements made on unpatterned and patterned thin films. As example, we have characterized the nonlinearities in a one side 10x10 mm^2 YBCO on MgO thin film by measuring the intermodulation products with a rutile-loaded cavity operating at TE_011 mode and a coplanar half-wave resonator. The intermodulation data in both type of measurements can be fitted using closed-form expressions and numerical techniques with identical nonlinear parameters of the HTS.

  17. Impact of paint matrix composition and thickness of paint layer on the activity of photocatalytic paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicate, acrylic and latex photocatalytic paints were analyzed in regards to impact of paint matrix composition and paint layer’s thickness on performance in two photocatalytic tests. These included performances in photocatalytic decomposition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and assessment of photocatalytic activity through use of smart ink test. Silicate photocatalytic paints displayed lower photocatalytic activity in comparison to acrylic and latex photocatalytic paints in both tests, despite the similar content of nanocrystalline TiO2. Measurements of depth of UV light penetration through the paints layer were performed and it appeared, that more porous structure of coating resulted in deeper penetration of UV light. In the case of acrylic paint, the thickness of the photocatalytic layer was around 9 μm, but for silicate paint DR this thickness was higher, around 21 μm.

  18. Paint it nanoblack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2016-08-01

    Ever since our ancestors painted images on the walls of caves, artists have sought pigments to represent the 10 million tints that humans can differentiate. Now they have a new ally: researchers who are using optical design principles, nanotechnology and inspiration from nature to create deeper blacks and purer whites.

  19. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  20. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  1. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  2. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  3. The Farmers’ Woodcut Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Folk art is not constrained by scholastic regulations such as proportion and perspective. Taking rural life as their subject matter, farmers from the Hubei mountains by the Yangtze River’s Xiling Gorge create woodcut paintings with a humorous and unpretentious charm. Recently, more than a hundred works created by these farmer painters were exhibited in the China Art Gallery in Beijing.

  4. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...

  5. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  6. Painting for public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the work of a wildlife artist, Lucas Seaward, in eliciting public opinion on the oilsands industry. He is in the process of creating 20 or more paintings using oil on canvas, not the Chagall or van Gogh sort of oil, but bitumen extracted near Fort McMurray. The paintings are designed for an exhibition to travel across Canada. His aim is to spread awareness that the oilsands industry is working hard towards sustainability and the protection of wildlife. Apart from being evil-smelling, bitumen is stiff, it does not dry quickly, and it wears out paint brushes really fast. Similarly to producers who add a diluent for proper flow, Seaward also found an additive that allowed smooth flow so that he could paint the bitumen in thin layers that dried properly and also was able to produce gradations of color. The idea is to educate the general public out of his personal experience of Fort McMurray and the oilsands industry.

  7. Theoretical estimation of quench occurrence and propagation based on generalized thermoelasticity for LTS/HTS tapes triggered by a spot heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yujin; Guan, Mingzhi; Wang, Xingzhe

    2017-04-01

    The present study deals with the thermal characteristics and mechanical behaviors of low/high temperature superconducting (LTS/HTS) composite tapes during quench processes triggered by a spot heater. Based on the generalized thermoelastic theory, a dynamic thermoelastic model with a relaxation time is developed which takes into account the temperature dependence and finite speed of heat propagation for the superconducting tapes under cryogenic condition. The analyses were performed using the finite element method to solve the coupled differential equations of dynamic heat conduction and elastic equilibrium. The results show that the thermoelastic behaviors exhibit a strong relevance to quench characteristics of the superconductors. As a quench occurs, the thermoelastic strain-rate has an obvious jumping variation with the instant of time of its peak being fortunately coincident with the time at which the critical temperature is reached. Such a jumping change of strain-rate could be a way of estimation and detection of quench occurrence, and the theoretical predictions coincide with the existing experimental observations on thermoelastic strain-rate in LTS magnets. For a HTS tape, the thermoelastic strain-rate or temperature-rate variation and a small jump also are illustrated as the quench occurrence is determined. Additionally, the normal zone propagation velocities for the LTS/HTS tapes are predicted by the critical temperature and thermoelastic strain-rate to show quite good agreements with the results evaluated by Wilson’s formula for a LTS tape or the experimental measurements for a HTS tape. The influences of the relaxation time of heat conduction and thermoelastic coupling on the thermal distribution and strain profile are also discussed in details.

  8. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhanguo; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption.

  9. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  10. Lightweight Design of an HTS Coil for the VASIMR Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tai-Yang Research of Delaware proposes to design and fabricate an HTS double-pancake coil in support of the VASIMR experiment. The proposed HTS coil will implement...

  11. Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.

    The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.

  12. Protein crystallization: from HTS to kilogram-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyushnichenko, Vadim

    2003-11-01

    The first experiments on protein crystallization started randomly during the 19th century. This technique has been widely used for the determination of the tertiary structure of proteins since the 1950s, when an understanding of the physics of protein crystallization began to emerge. In the 1980s and 1990s, research focused on the study of protein crystal growth processes in microgravity environments, which were created in space shuttle experiments. High-throughput screening (HTS) systems were developed that later found broader laboratory applications. The combination of HTS with an engineering approach opens new opportunities for the protein crystallization process to become a robust, scalable, reproducible and economically viable industrial unit operation.

  13. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, Pascal

    2010-11-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be “smart grids”. Superconductivity will offer “smart” devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, …) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, …).

  14. Cryogenic Test of High Temperature Superconducting Current Leads at Enea

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Chambouvet, P; Della Corte, A; Di Zenobio, A; Fiamozzi-Zignani, C; Mayorga, J; Napolitano, M; Turtu, S; Viola, R

    2006-01-01

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider), the accelerator being constructed on the CERN site, involves the operation of more than 8000 superconducting magnets of various current ratings. Essential elements for the powering of these magnets are the HTS current leads. These devices provide the electrical link between the warm cables from/to the power converter and the low temperature superconducting bus bars bringing the current from/to the cryo-magnets. Thus they operate in a temperature range between room temperature and liquid helium temperature. The operation of the LHC will require more than 1000 HTS current leads operating at currents ranging from 600 A to 13000 A. Cryogenic tests of the series of 13000 A and 6000 A HTS current leads are made at ENEA in the framework of a CERN-ENEA collaboration. This report gives an overview of the experimental set-up built in ENEA. The set-up was designed following the typical criterion of a scientific experiment but it was dimensioned to satisfy the schedule of an i...

  15. NORPAS - NORdic program of applied superconductivity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration on many applications. As with any technology trying to find a niche, widespread commercialization can only occur if the new technology can match the performance of an existing technology at a lower cost, or the new technology represents a breakthrough in capabilities, irrespective of cost, in turn enabling functionality previously thought impossible. There are two obvious areas where HTS will have significant benefit. The first is all applications which will notably benefit from a reduction in refrigeration power. The second area is the market of very high field magnets where there is no viable alternative. Applications under consideration for HTS include: (1) Rotating electrical machines (synchronous ac and homopolar dc motors), (2) Underground transmission cables, (3) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), (4) Utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, (5) Commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation. (6) Military applications such as mine clearing, (7) Specialty magnets such as high field inserts

  16. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    . I have demonstrated that by introducing one additional power supply, an order of 12% higher MMF was generated (or equivalent HTS savings achieved). Increasing in the number of additional power supplies did not show the same potential for HTS reduction. The implications of an armature reaction impact...

  17. The Fluctuating Bond Model, a Glue for Cuprate Superconductivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newns, Dennis

    2008-03-01

    Twenty years of research have yet to produce a consensus on the origin of high temperature superconductivity (HTS). The mechanism of HTS - which originates in the CuO2 plane, common to all HTS families - can be constrained by some key experimental facts regarding superconducting and pseudogap behaviors. Superconductivity, involving a Tc of order 100 K, exhibits an unusual d-wave superconducting gap, with Fermi liquid nodal excitations, and an anomalous doping- dependent oxygen isotope shift. A ``pseudogap,'' also with d-symmetry, leads to a dip in the density of states below a characteristic temperature scale T^*, which has a negative isotope shift; we associate the pseudogap with the recently observed spatially inhomogeneous (nanometer- scale) C4 symmetry breaking. The isotope shifts and other evidence imply a key role for oxygen vibrations, but conventional BCS single-phonon coupling is essentially forbidden by symmetry and by the on-site Coulomb interaction U. In a novel approach, we introduce a model based on a strong, local, nonlinear interaction between electrons within the Cu-O-Cu bond in the CuO2 plane, and the oxygen vibrational degrees of freedom, termed the Fluctuating Bond Model (FBM) [D.M. Newns and C.C. Tsuei, Nature Physics 3, 184 (2007)]. In mean field the model predicts a phase manifesting broken C4 symmetry, with a d-type pseudogap, and an upper phase boundary in temperature, with a negative isotope shift, which we identify with T^*. An intrinsic d-wave pairing tendency is found, leading to a transition temperature dome and an anomalous isotope shift similar to that found experimentally. The softening in the oxygen vibrational frequency below Tc, seen in Raman and neutron spectra, has a natural explanation in the FBM. Recent ab initio calculations have been implemented which provide microscopic support for the model.

  18. Development of superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Nagashima, Ken; Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Nakao, Kengo; Horiuch, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    We have been developing a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) that has high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils and bulks for a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) that have an output capability of 300 kW and a storage capacity of 100 kW h (Nagashima et al., 2008, Hasegawa et al., 2015) [1,2]. The world largest-class FESS with a SMB has been completed and test operation has started. A CFRP flywheel rotor that had a diameter of 2 m and weight of 4000 kg had a capability to be rotated at a maximum speed of 6000 min-1. The SMB using superconducting material both for its rotor and stator is capable of supporting the flywheel that had the heavy weight and the high seed rotation mentioned above. This paper describes the design of the SMB and results of the cooling test of the SMB.

  19. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  20. Reducer Selection When Doing Overall Paint Jobs Using Enamel Paints. Lesson Plan No. 1 of Auto Repair and Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyau, Layton M.

    This lesson, which is part of a high school course in auto body repair and painting, deals with selecting a reducer when doing overall paint jobs using enamel paints. Students are taught the general properties of different types of enamel paints and selection of the proper reducer for each type of paint, depending on the weather and the specific…

  1. Anomalous open-circuit voltage from a high-Tc superconducting dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumby, C. W.; Jiang, Zhenan; Storey, J. G.; Pantoja, A. E.; Badcock, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the behavior of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) homopolar dynamo which outputs a DC open-circuit voltage when the stator is in the superconducting state, but behaves as a conventional AC alternator when the stator is in the normal state. We observe that this time-averaged DC voltage arises from a change in the shape of the AC voltage waveform that is obtained from a normal conducting stator. The measured DC voltage is proportional to frequency, and decreases with increasing flux gap between the rotor magnet and the HTS stator wire. We observe that the DC output voltage decreases to zero at large flux gaps, although small differences between the normal-conducting and superconducting waveforms are still observed, which we attribute to screening currents in the HTS stator wire. Importantly, the normalised pulse shape is found to be a function of the rotor position angle only. Based on these observations, we suggest that the origin of this unexpected DC effect can be explained by a model first proposed by Giaever, which considers the impact of time-varying circulating eddy currents within the HTS stator wire. Such circulating currents form a superconducting shunt path which "short-circuits" the high field region directly beneath the rotor magnet, at those points in the cycle when the rotor magnet partially overlaps the superconducting stator wire. This reduces the output voltage from the device during these periods of the rotor cycle, leading to partial rectification of the output voltage waveform and hence the emergence of a time-averaged DC voltage.

  2. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator Using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet. Part 1; Concept and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Garnett; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSCCO 2212 with a magnetostrictive element will be discussed.

  3. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hanany, Shaul [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Matsumura, Tomotake [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Johnson, Bradley [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {approx}10{sup -7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  4. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Hanany, Shaul; Matsumura, Tomotake; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {\\sim }10^{- 7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  5. Development and fundamental characteristics of a YBCO superconducting induction/synchronous motor operated in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishimura, T.; Ogama, Y.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Suzuki, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A high Tc superconducting induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM) is designed, fabricated and tested with the use of YBCO coated conductors for rotor bars. The structure of this motor is the same with that of the squirrel-cage induction motor. The YBCO coated conductor, 10 mm in width, is produced by means of the MOCVD process, and then such tape is divided into four pieces by using a laser cutting machine. Four cut tapes are bundled for one rotor bar, and commercialized Bi-2223/Ag tapes are utilized for end rings. The fabricated HTS rotor is installed in a conventional stator, and then various tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen. It is successfully observed that the fabricated YBCO HTS-ISM has a synchronous torque. The motor also has an almost constant torque curve because of the steep take-off of the electric field versus current density property. Detailed test results are reported and discussed.

  6. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen...... at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator’s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short...... circuits, i.e., three-phase, phase-phase clear of earth, phase-phase-earth, and phase-earth. The stator current, fault torque, and field current under each short circuit scenario are examined. Also included are the forces experienced by the field winding under short circuits. The results show...

  7. HTS dc SQUID based rf amplifier: development concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopenko, G.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept of a rf amplifier based on a directly coupled dc SQUID with bicrystal junctions, which have high saturation power and can be used with SIS mixers or possibly for satellite and cellular phone communications. A novel input resonant circuit is proposed using single layer of HTS...

  8. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  9. Model and Simulation of a HTS Generator under transient response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Use of HTS field windings in electrical rotating machines can increase the torque density by a factor of 2-3 compared to conventional designs. This is highly attractive for large scale applications, such as ship propulsion and wind turbines. However, design considerations have to take into account...

  10. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  11. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transfor...

  12. Shang Yang’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shang yang is a highly representative painter in the contemporary Chinese oil painting circle. In the past few decades, his painting style has changed several times; he abandoned his successful original style and familiar subjects when he turned from realism to abstraction. In the two pieces shown here, the people of the Loess Plateau are depicted as existing as an integral whole with nature, mutually inside and outside of it. Beholden to some techniques from traditional Chinese painting Shang’s

  13. 380 kW synchronous machine with HTS rotor windings--development at Siemens and first test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumüller, H.-W.; Frank, M.; van Hasselt, P.; Frauenhofer, J.; Steinmeyer, F.

    2002-08-01

    Applying HTS conductors in the rotor of synchronous machines allows the design of future motors or generators that are lighter, more compact and feature an improved coefficient of performance. To address these goals a project collaboration was installed within Siemens, including Automation & Drives, Large Drives as a leading supplier of electrical machines, Corporate Technology as a competence center for superconducting technology, and other partners. The main task of the project was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. The rotor was built from racetrack coils of Bi-2223 HTS tape conductor, these were assembled on a core and fixed by a bandage of glass-fibre composite. Rotor coil cooling is performed by thermal conduction, one end of the motor shaft is hollow to give access for the cooling system. Two cooling systems were designed and operated successfully: firstly an open circuit using cold gaseous helium from a storage vessel, but also a closed circuit system based on a cryogenerator. To take advantage of the increased rotor induction levels the stator winding was designed as an air gap winding. This was manufactured and fitted in a standard motor housing. After assembling of the whole system in a test facility with a DC machine load experiments have been started to prove the validity of our design, including operation with both cooling systems and driving the stator from the grid as well as by a power inverter.

  14. Design of high-order HTS dual-band bandpass filters with receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed two high-order high-temperature superconducting (HTS) dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) with a receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems. They feature stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with two types of microstrip lines between them. One has a six-pole design, and the other has an eight-pole design. Both were designed to operate at 2.15 GHz with a 43-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the lower passband and at 3.50 GHz with a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the upper one. They were fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on a CeO2-bufferd r-Al2O3 substrate. The measured results for both filters agree well with the simulated ones. The HTS dual-band BPF receiver subsystem uses a pulse tube cryocooler and a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA). We measured the frequency response of the six-pole dual-band BPF with and without a wideband LNA with a gain of 10 dB. The measured return losses were close.

  15. Mechanical Effects of the Non-Uniform Current Distribution on HTS Coils for Accelerators Wound with REBCO Roebel Cable

    CERN Document Server

    Murtomaeki, Jaako; Kirby, Glen; Rossi, Lucio; Ruuskanen, Janne; Stenvall, Antti; Murtomaeki, Jaako

    2017-01-01

    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 WP10 Future Magnets collaboration is aiming at testing HTS-based Roebel cables in an accelerator magnet. The demonstrator should produce around 17 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Feather-M2 13 T outsert magnet. HTS Roebel cables are assembled from meander shaped REBCO coated conductor tapes. In comparison with fair level of uniformity of current distribution in cables made out of round Nb-Ti or Nb3Sn strands, current distribution within the coils wound from Roebel cables is highly non-homogeneous. It results in nonuniform electromagnetic force distribution over the cable that could damage the very thin REBCO superconducting layer. This paper focuses on the numerical models to describe the effect of the non-homogenous current distribution on stress distribution in the demonstrator magnet designed for the EuCARD-2 project. Preliminary results indicate that the impregnation bonding betweenthecable...

  16. Study on the characteristics of magnetic levitation for permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials with various sizes using stacked HTS bulk annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Matsunaga, J.; Doi, A.; Ikegami, T. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [JST-CREST, K’s Gobancho 6F, 7 Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We achieved the stable levitation of irons by magnetized HTS bulk annuli. ► The relationship between magnetized field and sample size was cleared. ► The iron samples smaller than 1 mm diameter could not levitate stably. ► The spherical solenoid magnet was fabricated to levitate small iron samples. -- Abstract: We achieved stable levitation of cylindrical permanent magnets and irons using stacked ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks with 20 mm ID, 60 mm OD and 50 mm height, and those were magnetized by field cooling method. The levitation characteristics of permanent magnets and iron samples located in the inner space of that levitation system were investigated experimentally. Iron samples with needle-shape and smaller than 1 mm diameter could not levitate stably. However, we found that the high strength of magnetized field was not necessary to levitate small needle-shaped irons. In order to levitate them, we need a uniform magnetic field in radial direction, so, a spherical solenoid magnet that can easily make a homogeneous magnetic field in inner space of HTS bulk annuli was developed. The spherical solenoid magnet, composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters, was designed by an electromagnetic analysis and fabricated.

  17. Design and characteristic investigations of superconducting wireless power transfer for electric vehicle charging system via resonance coupling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. D. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Seung Woo [Dept. of Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    As wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly in the contactless EV charging system. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUWPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a noble option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. Such a system consists of two resonator coils; HTS transmitting antenna (Tx) coil and normal conducting receiver (Rx) coil. Especially, the impedance matching for each resonator is a sensitive and plays an important role to improve transfer efficiency as well as delivery distance. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS and copper antennas, respectively, within 45 cm distance. Thus, we obtained improved transfer efficiency with HTS antenna over 15% compared with copper antenna. In addition, we achieved effective impedance matching conditions between HTS antenna and copper receiver at radio frequency (RF) power of 370 kHz.

  18. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  19. Development of Cryocooled Binary Current Lead in Low Temperature Superconducting Magnet System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. S.; Kim, D. L.; Yang, H. S.

    2010-04-01

    The binary current lead cooled by a two-stage cryocooler for an NbTi superconducting magnet was designed, fabricated and tested. A binary current lead comprises a resistive element, conducting the current from a room temperature to an intermediate temperature, and an HTS element, conducting the current down to a liquid helium temperature. The temperatures at the joints between resistive and HTS element as well as HTS element and NbTi coil were measured during cool-down process and in the steady state. Thermal loads at each stage were derived from the measured temperatures and cooling capacity curve of a cryocooler. Since a commercial HTS lead was bolt-jointed to the resistive element and NbTi coil at both ends, contact resistance was unavoidable. When the magnet was charged, the temperature at each joint increased with supplied current depending on the amount of heat generation resulting from the contact resistance. The critical current was observed in our lead due to heat generation, and temperature rising decreased after modifying the shape of joint between HTS element and NbTi coil. The current leads supplied 194 A to generate central magnetic field of 3 T and performed reliably over two weeks.

  20. SUPERCONDUCTING PHOTOCATHODES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMEDLEY, J.; RAO, T.; WARREN, J.; SEKUTOWICZ, LANGNER, J.; STRZYZEWSKI, P.; LEFFERS, R.; LIPSKI, A.

    2005-10-09

    We present the results of our investigation of lead and niobium as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. Quantum efficiencies (QE) have been measured for a range of incident photon energies and a variety of cathode preparation methods, including various lead plating techniques on a niobium substrate. The effects of operating at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and different vacuum levels on the cathode QE have also been studied.

  1. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Rey, C. M.; Dixon, K. D.

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

  2. High temperature superconducting current lead test facility with heat pipe intercepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, P.E.; Prenger, C.; Roth, E.W.; Stewart, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) current lead test facility using heat pipe thermal intercepts is under development at the Superconducting Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility can be configured for tests at currents up to 1,000 A. Mechanical cryocoolers provide refrigeration to the leads. Electrical isolation is maintained by intercepting thermal energy from the leads through cryogenic heat pipes. HST lead warm end temperature is variable from 65 K to over 90 K by controlling heat pipe evaporator temperature. Cold end temperature is variable up to 30 K. Performance predictions in terms of heat pipe evaporator temperature as a function of lead current are presented for the initial facility configuration, which supports testing up to 200 A. Measurements are to include temperature and voltage gradient in the conventional and HTS lead sections, temperature and heat transfer rate in the heat pipes. as well as optimum and off-optimum performance of the conventional lead sections.

  3. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  4. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  5. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  6. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  7. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  8. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  9. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  10. Design and Operating Performance of Cryocooled Helium Thermosiphon Loops for HTS Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenterly, S. W.; Cole, M. J.; Demko, J. A.; Pleva, Edward F.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2004-06-01

    Since the large coils in a cryocooled HTS utility transformer can be located more than a meter away from the cryocooler cold heads, conductive cooling would require very large, heavy thermal links to keep temperature differentials small. Under a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Superconductivity Partnership with Industry (SPI) agreement with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES), SuperPower Inc. (SP), Energy East (EE), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed a closed-loop helium system that couples the coils to the cold heads using natural convection cooling. The loop operates on a single-phase thermosiphon principle at temperatures and pressures from 20 to 45 K and 10 to 20 bars, and needs no external compressor to maintain helium gas circulation. Design procedures for the heat exchangers on both the cold heads and coils and for the interconnecting piping will be summarized. A 30-W cooling loop was successfully operated on a 1-MVA prototype transformer. A 350-W system for a 5/10-MVA prototype transformer has been built and tested with a dummy load over a wide range of heat loads corresponding to the range from normal transformer operation to two times (2×) overload. Later, this system successfully cooled down the 4.5-ton cold mass of the transformer to temperatures below 30 K. Design details of the hardware and performance of the assembled systems will be summarized.

  11. Performance of the HTS bulk magnet in cryocooler system with cyclic temperature variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: kouta@sum.sd.keio.ac.jp; Sawa, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    We have proposed a new cryocooler system for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet. In this system, the cyclic temperature variations are generated. A change of magnetic trapped flux under the cyclic temperature variation is examined in detail. As a result, it has been found that the trapped flux mainly deteriorates at the first temperature rise, but it has been kept almost constant after the first temperature descent and following thermal cycles when the bulk is excited at 100 mT. Moreover it has been found that the change of the trapped flux at the excitation of 130 mT becomes same as the case of 100 mT. The deterioration at the first temperature rise can be explained by the Bean model, but we can find a difference between calculated results by the Bean model and experimental trapped flux distributions near the center of the bulk. Therefore, we take into consideration a two dimensional invasion of the magnetic field to explain the difference. Consequently calculated distributions of the trapped flux become in goal accordance with experimental ones.

  12. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based......, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care...

  13. Large - current V - I measurement of second generation HTS tapes with eliminating the effects of Joule heat%第二代高温超导带材的大电流V-I测量与热效应消除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单雪娇; 白心悟; 朱娇; 桑丽娜; 蔡传兵; 朱红妹; 张义邴

    2012-01-01

    A large - current V -1 measurement system with a current range of 0 - 400 A and under zero applied field for second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes was reported in this paper. HTS tape samples and current carrying electropoles were immersed in liquid nitrogen. Current - voltage scanning, experimental data collecting and data processing were performed automatically by computer based on digital communication interface. By analyzing the electric and heat transportation of HTS tapes, the current electropoles and connections to HTS tape samples were optimized. The influence of the linearly climbing of V -1 curve and Joule heat effect was weakened. The ability of high current scanning, accuracy and stability of the measurement system were enhanced.%介绍了0~400A零外场下高温超导带材大电流V-I测试系统.实验利用计算机自动实现电流/电压扫描、采集并处理数据,测量温度为液氮温区.利用导热分析,优化仪器设计,最大程度地消除V-I测量的爬坡效应和大电流的热效应,提高试样的耐大电流冲击能力、测量精度和稳定性.

  14. Potential impact of superconductivity on power quality enhancment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, B. W.

    1992-02-01

    Electric power quality problems are estimated to cost U.S. industry 26 billion dollars per year in lost production. This paper provides a summary of the problem's magnitude, an overview of the underlying causes, discusses the present methods used by industry to reduce the problem's impact and the associated cost, and examines the potential for superconducting technology to effect alternative solutions. The present market for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and power conditioners is also discussed and the benefits of applying high temperature superconductors (HTS) are summarized.

  15. Flywheel energy storage using superconducting magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, R. G.; Uherka, K.; Hull, J.; Mulcahy, T.

    Storage of electrical energy on a utility scale is currently not practicable for most utilities, preventing the full utilization of existing base-load capacity. A potential solution to this problem is Flywheel Energy Storage (FES), made possible by technological developments in high-temperature superconducting materials. Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC), the research arm of Commonwealth Edison Company, and Argonne National Laboratory are implementing a demonstration project to advance the state of the art in high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing performance and the overall demonstration of efficient Flywheel Energy Storage. Currently, electricity must be used simultaneously with its generation as electrical energy storage is not available for most utilities. Existing storage methods either are dependent on special geography, are too expensive, or are too inefficient. Without energy storage, electric utilities, such as Commonwealth Edison Company, are forced to cycle base load power plants to meet load swings in hourly customer demand. Demand can change by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and result in significant costs to utilities as power plant output is adjusted to meet these changes. HTS FES systems can reduce demand-based power plant cycling by storing unused nighttime capacity until it is needed to meet daytime demand.

  16. Enhanced HTS hit selection via a local hit rate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Bruce A; Xi, Hualin; Mills, James E J

    2009-10-01

    The postprocessing of high-throughput screening (HTS) results is complicated by the occurrence of false positives (inactive compounds misidentified as active by the primary screen) and false negatives (active compounds misidentified as inactive by the primary screen). An activity cutoff is frequently used to select "active" compounds from HTS data; however, this approach is insensitive to both false positives and false negatives. An alternative method that can minimize the occurrence of these artifacts will increase the efficiency of hit selection and therefore lead discovery. In this work, rather than merely using the activity of a given compound, we look at the presence and absence of activity among all compounds in its "chemical space neighborhood" to give a degree of confidence in its activity. We demonstrate that this local hit rate (LHR) analysis method outperforms hit selection based on ranking by primary screen activity values across ten diverse high throughput screens, spanning both cell-based and biochemical assay formats of varying biology and robustness. On average, the local hit rate analysis method was approximately 2.3-fold and approximately 1.3-fold more effective in identifying active compounds and active chemical series, respectively, than selection based on primary activity alone. Moreover, when applied to finding false negatives, this method was 2.3-fold better than ranking by primary activity alone. In most cases, novel hit series were identified that would have otherwise been missed. Additional uses of and observations regarding this HTS analysis approach are also discussed.

  17. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-09-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT.

  18. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative work between painters and writers was a common activity among the New York School poets in the 1950s. Its popularity was a combined result of circumstance and choice. Artistic collaboration served Frank O’Hara and his New York School colleagues in their attempt to escape from...... the academic orthodoxies of New Criticism, the latter decreeing the autonomy of poetry and the harmonious integration of form and content in a signifying poetic whole. By experimenting with the interplay between poetry and other artistic genres, their collaborations with painters seriously tested the limits....... This double strategy contributes to a re-inscription of poetry and painting as sheer physical matter and means of artistic production within that world which they purport to represent in the first place. Thus, it seeks to point to the complicity of both genres in the material processes of cultural production...

  19. Harmonic analysis and field quality improvement of an HTS quadrupole magnet for a heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Kim, Do Gyun; Kim, Jong Won [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, the iron-dominated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) quadrupole magnets are being developed for heavy ion accelerators. Field analyses for iron-dominated quadrupole magnets were based on the normal-conducting (NC) quadrupole magnet early in the development for accelerators. Some conclusions are still in use today. However, the magnetic field of iron-dominated HTS quadrupole magnets cannot fully follow these conclusions. This study established an HTS quadrupole magnet model and an NC quadrupole magnet model, respectively. The harmonic characteristics of two magnets were analyzed and compared. According to the comparison, the conventional iron-dominated quadrupole magnets can be designed for maximum field gradient; the HTS quadrupole magnet, however, should be considered with varying field gradient. Finally, the HTS quadrupole magnet was designed for the changing field gradient. The field quality of the design was improved comparing with the result of the previous study. The new design for the HTS quadrupole magnet has been suggested.

  20. A superconducting direct-current limiter with a power of up to 8 MVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with a nominal voltage of 3.5 kV and a nominal current of 2 kA was developed, produced, and tested. The SFCL has two main units—an assembly of superconducting modules and a high-speed vacuum circuit breaker. The assembly of superconducting modules consists of nine (3 × 3) parallel-series connected modules. Each module contains four parallel-connected 2G high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. The results of SFCL tests in the short-circuit emulation mode with a maximum current rise rate of 1300 A/ms are presented. The SFCL is capable of limiting the current at a level of 7 kA and break it 8 ms after the current-limiting mode begins. The average temperature of HTS tapes during the current-limiting mode increases to 210 K. After the current is interrupted, the superconductivity recovery time does not exceed 1 s.

  1. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, R D; Larbalestier, D; Schwall, R E; Sokolowski, R S; Suenaga, M; Willis, J E O

    1997-01-01

    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view.

  2. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based...

  3. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet, Part 1: Concept and Design. Part 1; Concept and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications, such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Very fast charging and discharging of HTS tubes, as short as 100 microseconds, has been demonstrated. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSSCO 2212 with a

  4. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 50-1 Takeshita, Hitotugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  5. A Full-size High Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    is tested in LN2 first, and then tested in the set-up so that the magnetic environment in a real generator is reflected. The experimental results are reported, followed by a finite element simulation and a discussion on the deviation of the results. The tested and estimated Ic in LN2 are 148 A and 143 A......A full-size stationary experimental set-up, which is a pole pair segment of a 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generator, has been built and tested under the HTS-GEN project in Denmark. The performance of the HTS coil is crucial to the set-up, and further to the development...

  6. High temperature superconducting axial field magnetic coupler: realization and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguerras, L.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.; Rezzoug, A.

    2015-09-01

    Contactless torque transmission through a large airgap is required in some industrial applications in which hermetic isolation is necessary. This torque transmission usually uses magnetic couplers, whose dimension strongly depends on the airgap flux density. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a strong magnetic field may constitute a solution to reduce the size of the coupler. It is also possible to use this coupler to replace a torque tube in transmitting the torque produced by a HTS motor to its load. This paper presents the detailed construction and tests of an axial field HTS magnetic coupler. Pancake coils have been manufactured from BSCCO tape and used in one rotor of the coupler. The second rotor is mainly composed of NdFeB permanent magnets. Several tests have been carried out showing that the constructed coupler is working properly. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the studied coupler has been developed. Airgap magnetic field and torque measurements have been carried out and compared to the FE results. It has been shown that the measured and the computed quantities are in satisfactory agreement.

  7. A Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Polarimeter Using Superconducting Bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, S; Johnson, B; Jones, T; Hull, J R; Ma, K B

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation are expected to significantly increase our understanding of the early universe. We present a design for a CMB polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. The design is optimized for implementation in MAXIPOL, a balloon-borne CMB polarimeter. A prototype bearing, consisting of commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured the coefficient of friction as a function of several parameters including temperature between 15 and 80 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm, and ambient pressure between 10^{-7} and 1 torr. The low rotational drag of the HTS bearing allows rotations for long periods of time with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  8. High-temperature superconducting nanowires for photon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpaia, R. [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); CNR SPIN Institute – Superconductors, Innovative Materials and Devices, UOS–Napoli, I-80100 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II’, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Ejrnaes, M. [CNR SPIN Institute – Superconductors, Innovative Materials and Devices, UOS–Napoli, I-80100 Napoli (Italy); Parlato, L. [CNR SPIN Institute – Superconductors, Innovative Materials and Devices, UOS–Napoli, I-80100 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II’, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Tafuri, F. [CNR SPIN Institute – Superconductors, Innovative Materials and Devices, UOS–Napoli, I-80100 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa, CE (Italy); Cristiano, R. [CNR SPIN Institute – Superconductors, Innovative Materials and Devices, UOS–Napoli, I-80100 Napoli (Italy); Golubev, D. [Low Temperature Laboratory (OVLL), Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: roman.sobolewski@rochester.edu [Institute of Electron Technology, PL-02668 Warszawa (Poland); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States); Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F. [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); and others

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Homogeneous YBCO nanowires have been fabricated for photon detection applications. • Serial-parallel nanowire configuration leads to a large detector active area. • The YBCO nanowires exhibit critical current densities up to 106 A/cm{sup 2}. • The devices have been excited using a 1550-nm wavelength, pulsed laser irradiation. • Photoresponse signals have been measured and analyzed from 4 K up to the device T{sub c}. - Abstract: The possible use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) for realizing superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors is a challenging, but also promising, aim because of their ultrafast electron relaxation times and high operating temperatures. The state-of-the-art HTS nanowires with a 50-nm thickness and widths down to 130 nm have been fabricated and tested under a 1550-nm wavelength laser irradiation. Experimental results presenting both the amplitude and rise times of the photoresponse signals as a function of the normalized detector bias current, measured in a wide temperature range, are discussed. The presence of two distinct regimes in the photoresponse temperature dependence is clearly evidenced, indicating that there are two different response mechanisms responsible for the HTS photoresponse mechanisms.

  9. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  10. Itinerant Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Karchev, Naoum

    2004-01-01

    Superconductivity has again become a challenge following the discovery of unconventional superconductivity. Resistance-free currents have been observed in heavy-fermion materials, organic conductors and copper oxides. The discovery of superconductivity in a single crystal of $UGe_2$, $ZrZn_2$ and $URhGe$ revived the interest in the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The experiments indicate that: i)The superconductivity is confined to the ferromagnetic phase. ii)The ferromag...

  11. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  12. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  13. Overview of the superconducting undulator development program at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalbuoni, S., E-mail: sara.casalbuoni@kit.edu; Cecilia, A.; Gerstl, S.; Glamann, N.; Grau, A.; Holubek, T.; Meuter, C.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Voutta, R. [ANKA, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boffo, C.; Gerhard, Th.; Turenne, M.; Walter, W. [Babcock Noell GmbH, Alfred Nobel Str. 20, 97080 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    Superconducting undulators (SCUs) have the potential to reach higher brilliance and flux with respect to the state of the art permanent magnet insertion devices. ANKA is collaborating with the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG) to realize NbTi conduction cooled planar devices for low emittance light sources, and is developing the instrumentation to characterize the magnetic field properties and to measure the beam heat load to a cold bore needed for the cryogenic design of SCUs. We present here: the most recent results obtained within the ANKA-BNG collaboration, the progress achieved in the development of the instrumentation, and the in house studies on the application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape to the SCU technology.

  14. A numerical study on the feasibility evaluation of a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter applying thyristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Ji Ho; Hwang, Young Jin; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Smart fault current controller (SFCC) proposed in our previous work consists of a power converter, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor, thyristors, and a control unit [1]. SFCC can limit and control the current by adjusting firing angles of thyristors when a fault occurs. SFCC has complex structure because the HTS DC reactor generates the loss under AC. To use the DC reactor under AC, rectifier that consists of four thyristors is needed and it increases internal resistance of SFCC. For this reason, authors propose a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The hybrid type SFCL proposed in this paper consists of a non-inductive superconducting coil and two thyristors. To verify the feasibility of the proposed hybrid type SFCL, simulations about the interaction of the superconducting coil and thyristors are conducted when fault current flows in the superconducting coil. Authors expect that the hybrid type SFCL can control the magnitude of the fault current by adjusting the firing angles of thyristors after the superconducting coil limits the fault current at first peak.

  15. Soldered joints—an essential component of demountable high temperature superconducting fusion magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Yeekin; Surrey, Elizabeth; Hampshire, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Demountable superconducting magnet coils would offer significant benefits to commercial nuclear fusion power plants. Whether large pressed joints or large soldered joints provide the solution for demountable fusion magnets, a critical component or building block for both will be the many, smaller-scale joints that enable the supercurrent to leave the superconducting layer, cross the superconducting tape and pass into the solder that lies between the tape and the conductor that eventually provides one of the demountable surfaces. This paper considers the electrical and thermal properties of this essential component part of demountable high temperature superconducting (HTS) joints by considering the fabrication and properties of jointed HTSs consisting of a thin layer of solder (In52Sn48 or Pb38Sn62) sandwiched between two rare-earth-Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO) second generation HTS coated conductors (CCs). The HTS joints are analysed using numerical modelling, critical current and resistivity measurements on the joints from 300 to 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields up to 12 T, as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. Our results show that the copper/silver layers significantly reduce the heating in the joints to less than a few hundred mK. When the REBCO alone is superconducting, the joint resistivity (R J) predominantly has two sources, the solder layer and an interfacial resistivity at the REBCO/silver interface (∼25 nΩ cm2) in the as-supplied CCs which together have a very weak magnetoresistance in fields up to 12 T. We achieved excellent reproducibility in the R J of the In52Sn48 soldered joints of better than 10% at temperatures below T c of the REBCO layer which can be compared to variations of more than two orders of magnitude in the literature. We also show that demountable joints in fusion energy magnets are viable and need only add a few percent to the total cryogenic cost for a fusion tokamak.

  16. Development and testing of a 2.5 kW synchronous generator with a high temperature superconducting stator and permanent magnet rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Timing; Song, Peng; Yu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Chen; Li, Longnian; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Zeng, Pan; Han, Zhenghe

    2014-04-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) armature windings have the potential for increasing the electric loading of a synchronous generator due to their high current transport capacity, which could increase the power density of an HTS rotating machine. In this work, a novel synchronous generator prototype with an HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor has been developed. It has a basic structure of four poles and six slots. The armature winding was constructed from six double-pancake race-track coils with 44 turns each. It was designed to deliver 2.5 kW at 300 rpm. A concentrated winding configuration was proposed, to prevent interference at the ends of adjacent HTS coils. The HTS stator was pressure mounted into a hollow Dewar cooled with liquid nitrogen. The whole stator could be cooled down to around 82 K by conduction cooling. In the preliminary testing, the machine worked properly and could deliver 1.8 kW power when the armature current was 14.4 A. Ic for the HTS coils was found to be suppressed due to the influence of the temperature and the leakage field.

  17. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  18. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  19. Research, fabrication and applications of Bi-2223 HTS wires

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to cover all aspects of Bi-2223 superconducting wires from fundamental research, fabrication process to applications. This book contains many chapters written by distinguished experts in the world.

  20. Normal domain temperature profile in second generation HTS tape wire

    OpenAIRE

    Malginov, Andrey V; Kuntsevich, Alexander Yu; Malginov, Vladimir A; Fleishman, Leonid S

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the normal zone in high-temperature superconducting wires are extremely important for power applications, such as fault current limiters, motors, cables etc. We studied the temperature distribution and normal domain propagation in high-temperature superconducting YBCO tape with highly resistive substrate. Findings For applied voltages exceeding a certain threshold value the normal domain was found to become unstable and started to propagate along the tape. Conclusions Th...

  1. A 5 GHz high-temperature superconducting reaction-type transmitting filter based upon split open-ring resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futatsumori, S; Hikage, T; Nojima, T [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0814 (Japan); Akasegawa, A; Nakanishi, T; Yamanaka, K [Fujitsu Limited, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan)], E-mail: futatsumori@emwtinfo.ice.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-04-01

    A new kind of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmitting filter based on a reaction-type resonator is presented. The purpose of an HTS reaction-type filter (HTS-RTF) is to eliminate the intermodulation distortion noise generated by microwave power amplifiers such as those employed in mobile base stations. An HTS-RTF enables both higher power handling capability and sharper cutoff characteristics compared to existing planar-type HTS transmitting filters, since a reaction-type resonator does not resonate with high power fundamental signals. To achieve steep skirt characteristics and high power handling capability simultaneously, a 5 GHz three-pole HTS-RTF using a split open-ring resonator is designed. This split open-ring resonator offers low maximum current densities and a high-unloaded Q factor with low radiation. The designed prototype filter has Chebyshev characteristics with a centre frequency of 4.95 GHz and a bandwidth of 1.5 MHz. The HTS-RTF is fabricated using a double-sided YBa{sub 2}C{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin film deposited on a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. The measured filter shows an insertion loss of less than 0.1 dB and a third intermodulation distortion value of -56.7 dBc for a 40 dBm passband signal. In addition, adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) measurements using an actual wideband CDMA signal confirm an ACLR improvement of about 10 dB for a four-carrier signal with power up to 40 dBm.

  2. Electromechanical characterization of superconducting wires and tapes at 77 K

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, Roger

    The strain dependency of the critical current in state-of-the-art cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has been characterized. A universal test machine (UTM) combined with a critical current measurement system has been used to characterize the mechanical and the superconducting properties of conductors immersed in an open liquid nitrogen dewar. A set-up has been developed in order to perform simultaneous measurements of the superconductor lattice parameter changes, critical current, as well as the stress and strain at 77 K in self-field in a high energy synchrotron beamline. The HTS tapes and wires studied were based on YBCO, Bi-2223 and Bi-2212. The YBCO tapes were produced by SuperPower and American Superconductors (AMSC). Two types of Bi-2223 tapes, HT and G, were produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). The Bi-2212 wires were produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) using Nexans granulate precursor, before undergoing a specialized over pressure (OP) processing and heat treatmen...

  3. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  4. Preparation of conduction-cooled HTS coils using Y-123 coated conductors by IBAD/PLD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji, H. [Fujikura Ltd., Material Technology Laboratory, Koto-ku, 1-5-1, Kiba, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: hfuji@fujikura.co.jp; Hanyu, S.; Kakimoto, K.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Material Technology Laboratory, Koto-ku, 1-5-1, Kiba, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a long Y-123 coated conductors by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) method. Now, we can routinely obtained 100 m class Y-123 tapes with over 100 A at 77 K. For power applications using Y-123 conductors, coiling and cooling techniques are important elements. From 2004, we have developed and demonstrated a solenoid type coil that is the most suitable for practical application because it has advantage such as (1) uniformity of magnetic field (2) no joint. In this paper, we describe the development of conduction-cooled HTS test coil that has 14 turn x 22 layers using 100 m Y-123 conductors. In order to use the conduction cooling system, the Y-123 conductors were stabilized for 0.1 mm thick Cu tapes and spacers between the layers consisted of aluminum nitride in the coils. In the demonstration of this coil at 30 K, 40 K, 50 K, 60 K and 77 K by cryo-cooling system, the good cooling and superconducting performances were observed. The central magnetic fields of over 1 T were successfully obtained with operating currents of over 400 A and under 40 K. Furthermore, this coil was operated on additional magnetic fields of 3 T by combination of LTS magnets. The central magnetic fields of 0.5 T were generated from the cooled HTS coils with operating current of 190 A on additional magnetic fields of 3 T by LTS magnets at 30 K. Total magnetic fields were exceeded 3.5 T at 30 K.

  5. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  6. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  7. Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: guchen@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu Menglin [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xing Huawei [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yin Wensheng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zong Jun [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100176 (China); Han Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-06-15

    A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5 m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS coils made of Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape were used to provide the magnetic motive force. Several questions relating to the unique characteristics of the HTS material in a controlled magnetic circuit are discussed. The most important consideration for such applications is that the anisotropic critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag tape depends strongly on the magnetic field. The commercially available FEA software ANSYS was used to simulate the field distribution along the magnetic circuit and HTS coil winding, and thereby identify how the magnetic circuit alters the field distribution in the coil winding and therefore also the critical current. A general optimization process is described for finding the best position in the U-shape iron core to hold the HTS coils. In this process the critical current of the HTS tape and the force-current characteristic of the magnetic circuit are considered synthetically. The results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of HTS material in a typical maglev system and other similar controllability applications.

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging using a high-temperature superconducting resonator in a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for a spontaneous rat brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, In-Tsang; Yang, Hong-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates the peri-tumor signal abnormalities of a spontaneous brain tumor in a rat by using a 4 cm high-temperature superconducting (HTS) surface resonator. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values derived from diffusion tensor imaging reflect the interstitial characteristic of the peri-lesional tissues of brain tumors. Low FA indicates interstitial tumor infiltration and tissue injury, while high FA indicates better tissue integrity. Better delineation of tissue contents obtained by the HTS surface resonator at 77 K may facilitate therapeutic strategy and improve clinical outcomes.

  9. The Study on the Shape of 2-D Stator with Electromagnets and Permanent Magnets for 3-D Superconducting Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, S.; Kim, S. B.; Nakano, H.; Sawae, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop a non-contact transportation device. Probably, the cost of the manufactory will be increased to install the 2-D arranged electromagnets (EM) in a large area because many EMs are needed to cover the area. Therefore, we have been trying to find the method for reducing the number of EMs. In this study, all the EMs except for rotation were replaced in the 2-D arranged permanent magnets (PM), and gap length between PMs were experimentally investigated to improve the dynamic behavior of the mover and to reduce the cost of the manufacturing. As a result, we have succeeded in conveyance of the bulk and reduce the convergence time and maximum overshoot.

  10. Study on magnetic gene transfer using HTS bulk magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Kota, E-mail: nakagawa@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohaku, Yoshihiro; Tamada, Junya; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Nakagami, Hironori [Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishijima, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •DNA–magnetite complexes were prepared as ferromagnetic DNA carrier. •The condition of magnetic field to suppress the diffusion was found by calculation. •The result of model experiment showed the validity of the calculated value. •The results of in vivo experiments showed that the amount of gene expression was significantly increased by magnetic field. -- Abstract: This study aimed to realize local and high-efficient gene expression by suppressing the diffusion of ferromagnetic DNA carriers in a strong magnetic field generated by HTS bulk magnet. DNA–magnetite complexes were prepared as ferromagnetic DNA carrier and the magnetic gene transfer using the DNA carriers was examined. From the results of the simulation and the model experiment, it was shown that the particle diffusion was suppressed within 10 mm in diameter by the magnetic field at 20 mm above the HTS bulk magnet. The results of in vivo experiments showed that the amount of gene expression was significantly increased by magnetic field.

  11. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.; Malozemoff, Alexis P.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2004-05-06

    Significant improvements in the properties ofsuperconducting materials have occurred recently. These improvements arebeing incorporated into the latest generation of wires, cables, and tapesthat are being used in a broad range of prototype devices. These devicesinclude new, high field accelerator and NMR magnets, magnets for fusionpower experiments, motors, generators, and power transmission lines.These prototype magnets are joining a wide array of existing applicationsthat utilize the unique capabilities of superconducting magnets:accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider, fusion experiments suchas ITER, 930 MHz NMR, and 4 Tesla MRI. In addition, promising newmaterials such as MgB2 have been discovered and are being studied inorder to assess their potential for new applications. In this paper, wewill review the key developments that are leading to these newapplications for superconducting materials. In some cases, the key factoris improved understanding or development of materials with significantlyimproved properties. An example of the former is the development of Nb3Snfor use in high field magnets for accelerators. In other cases, thedevelopment is being driven by the application. The aggressive effort todevelop HTS tapes is being driven primarily by the need for materialsthat can operate at temperatures of 50 K and higher. The implications ofthese two drivers for further developments will be discussed. Finally, wewill discuss the areas where further improvements are needed in order fornew applications to be realized.

  12. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  13. An overview of Boeing flywheel energy storage systems with high-temperature superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasik, M.; Hull, J. R.; Mittleider, J. A.; Gonder, J. F.; Johnson, P. E.; McCrary, K. E.; McIver, C. R.

    2010-03-01

    An overview summary of recent Boeing work on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings is presented. A design is presented for a small flywheel energy storage system that is deployable in a field installation. The flywheel is suspended by a HTS bearing whose stator is conduction cooled by connection to a cryocooler. At full speed, the flywheel has 5 kW h of kinetic energy, and it can deliver 3 kW of three-phase 208 V power to an electrical load. The entire system, which includes a containment structure, is compatible with transportation by forklift or crane. Laboratory measurements of the bearing loss are combined with the parasitic loads to estimate the efficiency of the system. Improvements in structural composites are expected to enable the operation of flywheels with very high rim velocities. Small versions of such flywheels will be capable of very high rotational rates and will likely require the low loss inherent in HTS bearings to achieve these speeds. We present results of experiments with small-diameter rotors that use HTS bearings for levitation and rotate in vacuum at kHz rates. Bearing losses are presented as a function of rotor speed.

  14. Superconducting magnet system of in-flight separator for a heavy ion accelerator planned in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. W.; Kim, D. G.; Jo, H. C. [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. H. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, K. D.; Sohn, M. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    An in-flight fragment separator, which aims to produce and study rare isotopes, consists of superferric quadrupole triplets and dipole magnets to focus and bend the beams for achromatic focusing and momentum dispersion, respectively. The separator is divided into pre and main stages, and we plan to use superconducting magnets employing high-Tc superconductor (HTS) coils in the pre-separator area, where radiation heating is high. The HTS coils will be cooled by cold He gas in 20-50 K, and in the other area, superferric magnets using low-temperature superconductor (LTS) will be used at 4 K. A few LTS coils were wound and successfully tested in a LHe dewar, and the design of cryostat has been optimized. Development of the HTS coils is ongoing in collaboration with a group at KERI. An HTS coil of racetrack shape was wound and tested in a bath and in a dewar with cryocooler. No degradation on critical current due to coil winding was found.

  15. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  16. The Swimming Pool (oil painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chen Xi was born in 1968 in Chongqing City, Sichuan Province. In 1991, she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree from the Oil Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Her paintings are soaked through with her mixed emotions towards urban life. The city, the concentrated mirror of human civilization, drives the human race further and further away from mother nature Molded ever more strictly by the socialization process, human beings live more and more like commodities. The ever-shrink-

  17. NGAWANG JIGME'S MODERN WASH PAINTINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELZANG; DORJE

    2007-01-01

    Having received a thorough college education.Ngawang Jigme naturally expresses his academic knowledge and skills through his washing paintings.Though he grew up on the plateau cating Tsampa and yak flesh,drinking yak buttered tea,living in the clear atmosphere,sunny sky and mountain scenery,he would hardly be expected to tolerate the monotone world of wash painting,which adopts black and white as its principal theme and acknow ledges"blur impression"as the ultimate aim.He strives for total absorption int...

  18. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by utilization of superconductivity in electric-power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Institute of Electromagnetics

    2004-06-01

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels by between 2008 and 2012. The main source for GHG-emissions is energy production. Superconducting electrical machinery is starting to emerge into the market of power devices. High-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings in generators and transformers can approximately halve the losses compared to conventional devices. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and also reduces GHG-emissions as well. In this paper, the reduction potential of GHG-emissions in the EU by HTS-machinery is calculated. The replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is considered from the environmental point-of- view. The structure of energy production for the EU was investigated and the emission data from different type of power plants were screened. The potential energy savings were converted to saved GHG-emission tonnes. (author)

  19. New paramagnetic peculiarity of the superconductive transition detected by a highly sensitive OFC magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel G.; Kiss, Takanobu; Ohyama, Tomokazu; Inoue, Masayoshi; Movsisyan, Artur A.; Shirinyan, Hovsep G.; Gevorgyan, Vardan S.; Matsushita, Teruo; Takeo, Masakatsu

    2001-12-01

    The improved `LC-resonator' technique (the open-flat coil magnetometer), based on a low-power stable-frequency tunnel diode oscillator with a single-layer open-faced coil, is very sensitive to changes of position. About 1 Å absolute and better than 10-6 relative resolution can be reached in distance change measurements. It is an excellent MHz-range scientific instrument with which one may study weakly expressed fine peculiarities of the superconductive state in small-volume thin plate-like high-Tc superconductors (HTS). It enables changes to be detected of about 1 pH of the HTS film's magnetic inductance (changes of ~1-3 Å of the magnetic penetration depth, λ) with very high (~10-6) relative resolution. Owing to the pick-up coil's flat design, relatively low operation frequency and high relative resolution, the present method has advantages over others. It is essential for non-destructive studies of thin flat HTS materials (with a small signal) especially near Tc (at the beginning of the formation of `Cooper' pairs). Mainly as the result of these advantages a new `paramagnetic' peculiarity of the superconductive transition has been detected in Y-Ba-Cu-O film, which precedes the well known `diamagnetic' ejection. A possible explanation of the observed effect is given, and the influence of some external physical parameters on the effect is revealed and discussed.

  20. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting...

  1. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  2. The YBCO-PbS high-temperature superconducting system. Further investigations. [YBaCuO-PbS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, GND Univ., Amritsar (India)); Sharma, T.P. (Institute of Advanced Studies, Meerut (India). Dept. of Physics); Shahi, K. (Advanced Centre for Materials Science, IIT, Kanpur (India))

    1993-12-16

    Further investigations on the recently reported YBCO-PbS HTS system are reported. The system is found to have conducting BaPbO[sub 3] as a second phase, which fills the intergrain vacant spaces forming a composite-like microstructure. Thermoanalytical investigations revealed that PbS addition enhances the synthesis of the Y-123-phase and lowers the temperature of partial melting of this phase, which is essential to further reduce the voids. The metallurgical reaction occurring during sintering is also determined and investigated. It is shown that these composite superconducting materials have better normal-state, superconducting, and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  3. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  4. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  5. A HTS dc SQUID-NMR: fabrication of the SQUID and application to low-field NMR for fruit quality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Linus U.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have made the detection of low-field (LF) and ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF-NMR) a reality. The latter has been proven to be a potential tool for non-destructive quality testing of horticultural products, amongst many other applications. High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) dc SQUIDS are likely to allow for the development of not only low-cost NMR systems but also prototypes that are mobile and easily maintainable. A HTS dc SQUID was manufactured on an YBCO thin film, using a novel laser based lithography method. The lithography was implemented by a new laser system developed in-house, as a model of low-cost lithography systems. The junctions of the dc SQUID were tested and displayed normal I-V characteristics in the acceptable range for the application. In order to determine the viability of low-field NMR for non-destructive quality measurement of horticultural products, a commercial HTS dc SQUID-NMR system was used to measure quality parameters of banana during ripening. The trend of color change and sugar increase of the banana during ripening were the most highly correlated attributes to the SQUID-NMR measured parameter, average T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time). Further studies were done, that involved processing of the NMR signal into relaxation time resolved spectra. A spectral signature of banana was obtained, where each peak is a T1 value corresponding to a proton pool, and is reported here. These results will potentially lead to deeper understanding of the quality of the samples under study.

  6. Cryogenics Vision Workshop for High-Temperature Superconducting Electric Power Systems Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics, Inc.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems sponsored the Cryogenics Vision Workshop, which was held on July 27, 1999 in Washington, D.C. This workshop was held in conjunction with the Program's Annual Peer Review meeting. Of the 175 people attending the peer review meeting, 31 were selected in advance to participate in the Cryogenics Vision Workshops discussions. The participants represented cryogenic equipment manufactures, industrial gas manufacturers and distributors, component suppliers, electric power equipment manufacturers (Superconductivity Partnership Initiative participants), electric utilities, federal agencies, national laboratories, and consulting firms. Critical factors were discussed that need to be considered in describing the successful future commercialization of cryogenic systems. Such systems will enable the widespread deployment of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) electric power equipment. Potential research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and partnership opportunities for advancing suitable cryogenic systems were also discussed. The workshop agenda can be found in the following section of this report. Facilitated sessions were held to discuss the following specific focus topics: identifying Critical Factors that need to be included in a Cryogenics Vision for HTS Electric Power Systems (From the HTS equipment end-user perspective) identifying R and D Needs and Partnership Roles (From the cryogenic industry perspective) The findings of the facilitated Cryogenics Vision Workshop were then presented in a plenary session of the Annual Peer Review Meeting. Approximately 120 attendees participated in the afternoon plenary session. This large group heard summary reports from the workshop session leaders and then held a wrap-up session to discuss the findings, cross-cutting themes, and next steps. These summary reports are presented in this document. The ideas and suggestions

  7. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  8. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Taube, Michelle; Vila, Anna

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight...

  9. Enhanced multifunctional paint for detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Moses, Edward Ira; Rubenchik, Alexander M.

    2017-03-07

    An enhanced multifunctional paint apparatus, systems, and methods for detecting radiation on a surface include providing scintillation particles; providing an enhance neutron absorptive material; providing a binder; combining the scintillation particles, the enhance neutron absorptive material, and the binder creating a multifunctional paint; applying the multifunctional paint to the surface; and monitoring the surface for detecting radiation.

  10. Modeling and comparison of superconducting linear actuators for highly dynamic motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyn B.J.H. de

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modeling method for AC losses in highly dynamic linear actuators with high temperature superconducting (HTS tapes. The AC losses and generated force of two actuators, with different placement of the cryostats, are compared. In these actuators, the main loss component in the superconducting tapes are hysteresis losses, which result from both the non-sinusoidal phase currents and movement of the permanent magnets. The modeling method, based on the H-formulation of the magnetic fields, takes into account permanent magnetization and movement of permanent magnets. Calculated losses as function of the peak phase current of both superconducting actuators are compared to those of an equivalent non-cryogenic actuator.

  11. Space applications of superconducting microwave electronics at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R. F.; Bhasin, K. B.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Cubbage, C. D.; Chorey, C. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in 1987, NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in efforts to demonstrate its advantages for applications involving microwave electronics in space, especially space communications. The program included thin film fabrication by means of laser ablation. Specific circuitry which was investigated includes microstrip ring resonators at 32 GHz, phase shifters which utilize a superconducting, optically activated switch, an 8x8 32 GHz superconducting microstrip antenna array, and an HTS-ring-resonator stabilized oscillator at 8 GHz. The latter two components are candidates for use in space experiments which are described in other papers. Experimental data on most of the circuits are presented as well as, in some cases, a comparison of their performance with an identical circuit utilizing gold or copper metallization.

  12. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  13. The attenuation of the levitation force of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field on the above NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Minxian, E-mail: liukey_sjtu@263.net [School of Computer Science and Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010 (China); Wang Yan [Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The characteristic of the levitation force relaxation was studied by experiment. The levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC external magnetic field. The decay increases with the amplitude of the A external magnetic field. The decay is almost independent of the frequency of AC field. In the present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the air gaps between the adjacent permanent magnets make the magnetic fields above the NdFeB guideway non-uniform. So it is required to study the characteristics of levitation force of the HTS bulk affected by the non-uniform applied magnetic fields along the moving direction. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of the levitation force relaxation by an experiment in which AC magnetic field generated by an electromagnet is used to simulate the time-varying magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the NdFeB guideway. From the experiment results, it is found that the levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC field, and the attenuation is increased with the amplitude of the AC field, but the attenuation is almost independent of the frequency the AC magnetic field.

  14. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  15. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  16. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  17. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  18. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  19. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  20. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  1. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  2. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  3. Paint the World with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, David

    2010-01-01

    Two classrooms on opposite sides of the world happened to be working on a very similar project at the same time. In both Shanghai, China, and Palm Springs, California, students were learning how to turn their flashlights and other light-emitting objects into paintbrushes. Light painting is a form of long-exposure photography in which the shutter…

  4. Protective link for superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  5. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  6. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  7. Multi-Pole HTS Generators for Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Seiler, Eugen;

    on two different types of coated conductor. In the specific design the allowable current density was 300A/mm^2 for tape 1 and 70A/mm^2 for tape 2. The design is analytical, based on magnetic circuit analysis, which is validated by finite element modelling. The conclusion is that the either price...... laboratory (NREL). The emphasis of the investigation is on cost and mass, where the cost limit for the active material is set at €1M; the active mass limit is set at 40 tons; and the outer diameter is 4.2 meters. The allowable engineering current densities have been estimated by measuring the magnetization...... or the performance of the coated conductor has to improve significantly (by a factor of 10 or more) in order for HTS generators to become feasible in direct drive offshore wind turbines. This price/performance improvement is not unrealistic in the coming decade. Additionally the reliability of such machines...

  8. But when was it painted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstad, E.; Woll, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway, is dedicated to the visual works of the famous Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863 - 1944). Edvard Munch was a symbolist, expressionist painter and printmaker from Oslo, Norway. He was regarded as the pioneer of the amazing Expressionist movement. His art work from the late 1800's is the most well known, but his later work is gradually attracting more attention and is quite an inspiration of many of today's artists. The Munch Museum catalogue for 2008 contains about 1700 paintings of which virtually very few have a precise date. Even when the artist has written the year on the painting itself, there may be a significant uncertainty about this date, and partly due to unclear writing making it difficult to interpret the numbers. This means that other sources need to be applied to verify an accurate date. The climatologist at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can help dating paintings of Munch. E. g. the painting "Standing Woman with Arms Folded". The painting shows a woman in front of a hill with much snow. The location is almost certainty Grimsrød on Jeløya, a property Munch began renting on March 1, 1913. Jeløya is an island at the southeastcoast of Norway near the town Moss. Jeløya has usually not so much snow because it is near by the sea and windy. The last digit in the date is unclear and has been read as both '3' and '5'. The woman in the portrait, Ingeborg Kaurin, was Munch's model up to the beginning of 1915, so both dates are possible. The year written on the painting has been read as both 1913 and 1915, and since 1974 it has usually been interpreted as 1913 (Stenersensamlingen's catalogue 1974). In the project "But when was it painted?" disclose that it could be another year. One way to reconsider when a painting was painted is to study geophysical characteristics and consider historical observations of snow. The method that is used here is to study daily meteorological snow data from this period from the

  9. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified.

  10. LabVIEW and PCI DAQ Card Based HTS Test and Control Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Bin Zhao; Jian-Xun Jin; Pu-Chun Jiang; Wen-Hui Gao; Zi-Lu Liang

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the relevant parameters and related characteristics of the LabVIEW and PCI6221 data acquisition (DAQ) card, describes in detail the approach of building the measure and control platform of virtual instrument (VI) using LabVIEW and PCI6221, specifically discusses the system's application in high temperature superconductor (HTS) research including the test of HTS volt-ampere characteristics and the HTS magnetic energy storage. The experiments prove that the VI test and control system is easy to build and convenient to use.

  11. Simulation and Test for the Thermal Behaviour of a Prototype Synchronous Generator with HTS Armature Windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.-Y.; Qu, T.-M.; Song, P.; Li, L.-N.; Chen, D.-X.; Han, Z.

    A synchronous generator prototype with HTS armature windings and a permanent magnet rotor (HTS-PM) was developed. The temperature evolution during cooling and operation processes of the HTS coils was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). The simulated results coincided well with the temperature measurement data acquired by PT-100 sensors. Cooling time, terminal temperature, contact thermal conductivity, during cooling, as well as the proportion between real and calculated iron loss, contact thermal conductivity, at various rotating speeds during operation, were worked out using the FEM model.

  12. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  13. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  15. Method and Apparatus for measuring Gravitational Acceleration Utilizing a high Temperature Superconducting Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R.

    1998-11-06

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operative temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling maybe accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  16. Radial stiffness improvement of a flywheel system using multi-surface superconducting levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Sinan; Sivrioglu, Selim

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this research study is the maximization of the levitation force in a flywheel system by the use of more than one permanent magnet with a single ring-shaped HTS material. An analytical model for the radial stiffness of the ring HTS-PM is derived using the frozen image approach. The experimental works are carried out for different polarizations of the permanent magnets, and radial stiffness values are obtained from the radial force measurements. The rotational test of the flywheel system is also realized for different cases. Finally, natural frequencies of the flywheel superconducting magnetic bearing system are experimentally obtained for different combinations of the permanent magnets using a frequency analyzer.

  17. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  18. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  19. Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Edwards, M. R.; Berlinger, B.; Brooks, A.; Cohen, S. A.

    2011-01-05

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-Β plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (τfc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (τfc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

  20. Observation of Magnetic Signals from Earthquake Faulting Using High-resolution HTS-SQUID Magnetometer: Feasibility of Super-early Warning of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa, H.; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously. Our research group has also employed the magnetometers for seismomagnetic observations since March 2004. Our observation site happened to be situated at an epicentral distance of 26 km from the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake ofM7.2, NE Japan. In this earthquake, we have reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes (Okubo et al., 2011 EPSL). Magnetic fields began to change almost simultaneously with the onset of the earthquake rupture and grew before the first P wave arrival. Such magnetic signals are most probably generated by the changing stress field due to earthquake rupturing, i.e. the piezomagnetic effect. On the other hand, this observation result suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small. The observed change of geomagnetic field might be approximately less than several hundred pico-tesla. Therefore, to obtain more observation data of "co-faulting" magnetic field change, development of a higher-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. Then, our research group tried to develop the HTS-SQUID (high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device) magnetometer systems for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012 we have introduced long-term precise geomagnetic observations using the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.1 (mark I) at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. Additionally, since October 2014, we have also introduced the new HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). The sampling interval of the magnetometers is 0.02 sec (50Hz). The system clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. A high-resolution accelerometer is also installed at observation point. In this study, we show the observation results of geomagnetic field changes associated

  1. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  2. Fabrication of a high performance acoustic emission (AE) sensor to monitor and diagnose disturbances in HTS tapes and magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Hyung; Song, Jung-Bin; Jeong, Young Hun; Lee, Young-Jin; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Kim, Woo-Seok; Lee, Haigun

    2010-02-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) technique was introduced as a non-destructive method to monitor sudden deformation caused by local heat concentrations and micro-cracks within superconductors and superconducting magnets. However, the detection of AE signals in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape is not easy because of its low signal to noise ratio caused by the noise from boiling liquid cryogen or mechanical vibration from the cryo-cooler. Therefore, high performance piezoelectric ceramics are needed to improve the sensitivity of the AE sensor. The aim of this study was to improve the piezoelectric and dielectric properties to enhance the performance of an AE sensor. This study examined the effects of Nb2O5 addition (0.0 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%) on the properties of high performance piezoelectric ceramics, Pb(Zr0.54 Ti0.46)O3 + 0.2 wt.% Cr2O3, sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h. The performance was examined with respect to the acoustic emission response of AE sensors manufactured using the specimens with various Nb2O5 contents. Superior sensor performance was obtained for the AE sensors fabricated with the specimens containing 1.0 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% Nb2O5. The performance and characteristics of the AE sensors were in accordance with their piezoelectric and dielectric properties.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF CONDUCTOR LAYER CURRENT SHARING CHARACTERISTIC ON AC LOSSES OF COLD DIELECTRIC HTS CABLE%导电层分流特征对高温超导电缆交流损耗影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏占军; 诸嘉慧; 郭立杰; 马学良; 张晓颖; 赵瑞

    2012-01-01

    为了分析导电层分流特征对超导电缆交流损耗分布影响,建立了基于YBCO涂层导体的110kV/3kA冷绝缘高温超导电缆载流数学模型,计算了不同运行温度下超导电缆各导电层电流分布,并根据Monoblock模型及Bean模型计算了超导电缆交流损耗.计算结果表明77K下超导电缆层电流均匀分布时总交流损耗最小;69K时超导电缆总交流损耗最小时,电缆各导电层电流分布不均,超导电缆层电流均匀分布时总交流损耗最小这一观点并不具有普遍性.所提出的计算方法和结果为降低多导电层超导电缆交流损耗提供了新思路.%To analyze the influence of conductor layer current sharing characteristic on AC losses of the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable,the mathematical model of 110kV/3kA cold dielectric (CD) HTS cable based on YBCO coated conductor is set up and also the layer current distribution is calculated. The AC losses of the HTS cable are calculated by Monoblock model and Bean model. Results Show that the uniform layer current distribution can lead to the minimum total AC losses of the HTS cable at 77K. But at 69k the minimum total AC losses were not obtained at the condition of uniform layer current distribution. So the view of the uniform layer current distribution gives the minimum total AC losses of the HTS cable does not have catholicity, this result provide a new idea for reducing AC losses of multilayer HTS cable.

  4. Influence of Proton Irradiation on Angular Dependence of Second Generation (2G)HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Greene, G.; Gupta, R.; Sampson, W.

    2011-05-01

    In the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) the quadrupoles in the fragment separator are exposed to very high radiation and heat loads. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are a good candidate for these magnets because they can be used at {approx}30-50 K and tolerate higher heat generation than Nb-Ti magnets. Radiation damage studies of HTS wires are crucial to ensure that they will survive in a high radiation environment. HTS wires from two vendors were studied. Samples of 2G HTS wires from SuperPower and American Superconductor (ASC) were irradiated with a 42 {mu}A, 142 MeV proton beam from the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The angular dependence of the critical current was measured in magnetic fields at 77K.

  5. Test Results of HTS Coil and Magnet R&D for RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Sampson, William; Schmalzle, Jesse D; Zeller, Al

    2005-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is developing quadrupole magnets for the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) based on commercially available High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). These quadrupoles will be used in the Fragment Separator region and are one of the more challenging elements in the RIA proposal. They will be subjected to several orders of magnitude more energy and radiation deposition than typical beam line and accelerator magnets receive during their entire lifetime. The proposed quadrupoles will operate in the 20-40 K temperature range for efficient heat removal. HTS coils that have been tested so far indicate that the coils meet the magnetic field requirements of the design. We will report the test results of about 10 HTS coils and of a magnetic mirror configuration that simulates the magnetic field and Lorentz force in the proposed quadrupole. In addition, the preliminary design of an HTS dipole magnet for the Fragment Separator region will also be presented.

  6. HTS 63_4_ GROENEWALD.A.Barth and politics _geredigeer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Karl Barth's role in church and politics from 1930 to 1935. 1614. HTS 63(4) 2007 .... Thinking means post- contemplation, cogitare arises from cogere ..... coincide with a specific moment of Christian and German truth. He sets his own.

  7. PCBs in Caulk and Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    4 ~~ I Qi I "!~~~ ~~4 4.00 r· 1 - -OSA (85 %) 7.11 3.27 Raw linseed oil 6.40 Linseed oil , heat-bodied, viscosity Z3 6.40 Titanium dioxide 15.20...Potential PCB sources  Any of these products if manufactured before 1979: ►Capacitors or transformers ►Mineral- oil filled electrical equipment...rubber parts ► Applied dried paints ► Oil -based paints ► Coatings/Sealants ► Caulking ► Adhesives and tapes ► Carbonless copy paper ► Galbestos ► Sound

  8. Paint or color? Bursa example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Susan; Cetinturk, Nihal

    2002-06-01

    While traditional/vernacular color scheme of a city in historical regions should be protected, changes in life style reflect on cityscapes in all ways, in which the role of new materials, paints, etc. cannot be denied. Lack of architectural and urban design studies in this field added to existing countless opportunities of new technology, with the strong desire to trying those by building owners, users and contractors have caused a chaotic situation in the use of color in cities; Bursa with its historical colorful background is no exception. All these form a trial and error phase, with painted or materials applied on surfaces without a sensitive touch to transform them to color. This must be taken in mind that color with its inherent power can bind past, present and future of the city and create an urban sense of place.

  9. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  10. Design of the HTS Fusion Conductors for TF and CS Coils

    OpenAIRE

    Bykovsky, Nikolay; Uglietti, Davide; Wesche, Rainer; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    The main electrical and mechanical requirements for the LTS fusion conductors of DEMO are retained as a starting point for the development of HTS fusion cables. Based on the HTS coated conductor technology, a flat cable design was proposed by CRPP Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) using the strands made of twisted stack of tapes soldered into copper profiles. Analytical modeling of the cable geometry is developed and presented in this work. The model was used to estimate various properties of cable. ...

  11. prototype Roebel cable to be used to wind a HTS accelerator demonstration dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    Barnard, Henry

    2014-01-01

    This is a prototype Roebel cable to be used to wind a HTS accelerator demonstration dipole, a first of its kind, within the scope of EuCARD2 WP10 (Future Magnets). The strips are stainless steel and copper, but the final one will be an HTS tape (YBCO) and copper. This prototype cable was manufactured by KIT within the scope of EuCARD2.

  12. Mechanism of thickness dependence of critical current density in HTS YBCO film and its elimination using nano-engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang

    The most promising characteristic of a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is its ability to carry larger electrical current at liquid nitrogen boiling temperature and strong applied magnetic field with minimal dissipation. Numerous large scale applications such as HTS transmission cables, HTS magnets and HTS motors have been developed using HTS materials. The major limitation that prevents its wide commercialization is its high cost-to-performance ratio. However, the effort to further improve HTS current carrying capability is jeopardized by a mysterious thickness dependence of the critical current density (Jc) --- Jc monotonically decreases with increasing thickness (t) at 77 K and self-field (SF). This poses a great challenge for both HTS applications and the understanding of vortex dynamics. What further complicates this issue is the complex defect structure in HTS films as well as the creep nature of magnetic vortices at a finite temperature. After a systematic study of the temperature and magnetic field effects on Jc--t, we conclude that Jc--t is most likely the result of a collective pinning effect dictated by a random pinning potential. Besides that, thermal fluctuations also alter Jc--t in a predictable way. Therefore, by either modifying the vortex structure or pinning structure, J c--t can be eliminated. Indeed, a thin film J c has been restored in a HTS/insulator/HTS trilayer while the magnetic coupling is weakened. Moreover, Jc--t has been removed when the random distributed point pins are overpowered by strong linear defects.

  13. Washi Painting Exchanges Promote Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2014-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA),a washi painting exchange delegation headed by Umeko Iwai,President of Rainbow Society of Japan,a Hiroshima-based non-profit organization,visited Sichuan Province from November 3 to 5,2013.Rice paper was invented in China in ancient times.When the paper-making

  14. Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

  15. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; George, A.; Shaw, R.; Dawson, L.; Winfield, A.; Steketee, M.; Stockley, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. Next, a study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Finally, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs and current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices.

  16. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytnikov, V. E., E-mail: vsytnikov@gmail.com; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A. [JSC NTTs FSC EES (Russian Federation); Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V. [JSC Irkutskkabel (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  17. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A.; Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  18. Loss measurement and analysis for the prototype generator with HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng, E-mail: songp10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qu, Timing, E-mail: tmqu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Xiaoyu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Longnian; Gu, Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xiaohang [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping [Beijing Zhong Ke San Huan Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Duxing [Department Fis, University Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A novel prototype HTS generator with HTS armature windings was developed. •No-load loss and the iron loss at low temperature were measured. •The total loss at low temperature is much larger than the room temperature case. •The reason for no-load loss increment at low temperature is discussed. -- Abstract: A prototype HTS synchronous generator with a permanent magnet rotor and HTS armature windings was developed. The rated armature frequency is 10 Hz. The cryogenic Dewar is tightly surrounded outside the iron core. Both HTS coils and the iron core were cooled by using conduction cooling method. During the process of no-load running, the no-load loss power data were obtained through the torque measurement. The temperature evolution characteristics of the stator was measured by PT-100 temperature sensors. These results show that the no-load loss power at around 77 K are much larger than that at room temperature. The possible reason for the no-load loss increment is discussed. The ac loss power of one individual HTS coil used in this generator was also tested. Compared with the iron loss power, the ac loss power is rather small and could be neglected.

  19. Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.

    2010-06-01

    A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

  20. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.