Sample records for superconducting composites cu-2

  1. Strain control of composite superconductors to prevent degradation of superconducting magnets due to a quench: I. Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox multifilament round wires (United States)

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Jaroszynski, Jan; Schwartz, Justin; Shen, Tengming


    The critical current of many practical superconductors is sensitive to strain, and this sensitivity is exacerbated during a quench that induces a peak local strain which can be fatal to superconducting magnets. Here, a new method is introduced to quantify the influence of the conductor stress and strain state during normal operation on the margin to degradation during a quench, as measured by the maximum allowable hot spot temperature T allowable, for composite wires within superconducting magnets. The first conductor examined is Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire carrying high engineering critical current density, J E, of 550 A mm-2 at 4.2 K and 15 T. The critical axial tensile stress of this conductor is determined to be 150 MPa and, in the absence of Lorentz forces, T allowable is greater than 450 K. With increasing axial tensile stress, σ a, however, T allowable decreases nonlinearly, dropping to 280 K for σ a = 120 MPa and to 160 K for σ a = 145 MPa. T allowable(σ a) is shown to be nonlinear and independent of magnetic field from 15 to 30 T. T allowable(σ a) dictates the balance between magnetic field generation, which increases with the magnet operating current and stress, and the safety margin, which decreases with decreasing T allowable, and therefore has important engineering value. It is also shown that T allowable(σ a) can be predicted accurately by a general strain model, showing that strain control is the key to preventing degradation of superconductors during a quench.

  2. Symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (United States)

    Kelley, R. J.; Ma, Jian; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    We analyzed the symmetry of the superconducting-phase condensate of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox with photoemission at high energy and angular resolution. The result unambiguously demonstrates that the photohole must include non-s-wave components. Under the hypothesis of a pure d-wave symmetry, this would be identified as dxz+dyz. Our superconducting state data are, specifically, incompatible with pure d2x-y2 symmetry. Mixed symmetries, however, cannot be excluded as long as they include a non-s-wave component. We specifically observe a change in the symmetry of electronic states between the normal state and the superconducting state.

  3. Co-doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox: Anderson localization and superconductivity (United States)

    Onellion, M.; Quitmann, C.; Ma, J.; Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    Cobalt-doping of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox beyond a critical level of 1.5-1.7 at % produces both a large decrease in the superconducting transition critical temperature and all of the classic symptoms of Anderson localization. These include: a negative slope of the ab-plane resistivity vs temperature, no dispersing states near the Fermi level and a decrease of the photoemission signal in the same region.

  4. Superconductivity of up to 80 K for Tb-123 - TbSr2Cu2.7Mo0.3O7


    Awana, V. P. S.; Kishan, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E; WATANABE, T.; Karppinen, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Malik, S K; Yelon, W. B.; Ganesan, V; Narlikar, A. V.


    The Tb-123 phase has been synthesized in single-phase form with the composition TbSr2Cu2.7Mo0.3O7 by solid-state reaction route and its phase purity is confirmed by neutron powder diffraction experiments. As-synthesized sample does not show superconductivity down to 5 K. An unusually high antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (TN) of around 7 K is seen for Tb. After 120-atm-O2 post-annealing, bulk superconductivity is achieved in the compound at around 30 K, without any significant effect on...

  5. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy on Superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 Thin Film (United States)

    Zeng, Wensheng; Qiu, Ping; Yan, Shaolin; Li, Zengfa; Zhang, Guangyin


    We have prepared single-phase superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 thin film by dc magnetron sputtering process and measured x-ray photoelectron spectra of the film at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. From the relative intensities of the Ba3d, Tl4f. O1s and Cu2p spectra taken at different take-off angles, we have concluded that there is an adventitious contamination (nonsuperconducting phase) surface layer. After excluding contributions from these spurious phases, we have tentatively assigned which core-level shifts should be caused by the superconducting phase transition.

  6. Photocatalytic performance of Cu2O composite octahedra prepared by a propanetriol-reduced process (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Xiangfu


    Cu2O and Ag/Cu2O composite octahedra were synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction of CuAc2 with urea in H2O-propanetriol binary solution by adjusting the quantity of AgNO3 at 180 °C for 10 h. The influence of reaction temperature and time on the morphology and phase of the products was investigated, and a possible growth mechanism of Cu2O octahedron was also proposed. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared Cu2O and Ag/Cu2O octahedra for the degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution were studied. The results show that they are effective photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange, and the photocatalytic ability of Ag/Cu2O composite is stronger than that of Cu2O octahedra, which are expected to be useful in the treatment of wastewaters.

  7. Localized electronic states and photoemission superconducting condensate in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+x (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Quitmann, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    We present the first detailed angle-resolved photoemission evidence that there are two types of carriers that contribute to the photoe-mission superconducting condensate in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+x. Our data indicate that both itinerant and somewhat localized normal state carriers can contribute to the formation of Cooper pairs.

  8. Effect of Cu2O morphology on photocatalytic hydrogen generation and chemical stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite. (United States)

    Zhu, Lihong; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Ziyu; Liu, Kejia; Gao, Hong


    Improving photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO2/Cu2O composite is a challenge in generating hydrogen from water. In this paper, the TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid composite was prepared via a microsphere lithography technique, which possesses a remarkable performance of producing H2 under UV-vis light irradiation, in comparison with pure TiO2 film, Cu2O film and TiO2 film/Cu2O film. More interesting is that in TiO2 film/Cu2O microgrid, photo-corrosion of Cu2O can be retarded. After deposition of Pt on its surface, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O microgrid in producing H2 is improved greatly.

  9. Localized electronic states and the superconducting gap in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+y (United States)

    Quitmann, C.; Ma, Jian; Kelley, R. J.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    Angle-resolved photoemission data taken on some Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+y single crystals exhibit the formation of a superconducting gap in the absence of a quasiparticle normal state band. We observe the opening of the superconducting gap in the same regions of the Brillouin zone for which it is observed for samples that do exhibit a quasiparticle normal state. The absence of a dispersing quasiparticle normal state indicates that the normal state electronic states in these samples are almost localized in real space. Our data suggest that two types of carriers can coexist, and contribute to forming a superconducting gap, in these materials.

  10. Co-doped Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x: Anderson localization and superconductivity (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Ma, Jian; Quitmann, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Onellion, M.


    Cobalt-doping of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x beyond a critical level of 1.5-1.6 at % produces both a large decrease in the superconducting transition critical temperature and all of the classic symptoms of Anderson localization. These include: a negative slope of the abplane resistivity vs temperature, no dispersing states near the Fermi level and a decrease of the photoemission signal in the same region. The correlation between Anderson localization and high-temperature superconductivity at low doping levels supports a non-local interaction for the paring mechanism, such as antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations.

  11. Quasiparticles in the superconducting state of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (United States)

    Kaminski; Mesot; Fretwell; Campuzano; Norman; Randeria; Ding; Sato; Takahashi; Mochiku; Kadowaki; Hoechst


    Recent improvements in momentum resolution lead to qualitatively new angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results on the spectra of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (Bi2212) along the (pi,pi) direction, where there is a node in the superconducting gap. We now see the intrinsic line shape, which indicates the presence of true quasiparticles at all Fermi momenta in the superconducting state, and lack thereof in the normal state. The region of momentum space probed here is relevant for charge transport, motivating a comparison of our results to conductivity measurements by infrared reflectivity.

  12. Synthesis of p-Cu2O/rGO composite films for enhancing photocurrent of p-Cu2O and H2 generation (United States)

    Samarakoon, S. P. A. U. K.; Karunarathna, P. G. D. C. K.; Hemachandra, K. A. S. K.; Fernando, C. A. N.


    Composites of p type cuprous oxide (p-Cu2O) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared by depositing an rGO layer on top of nano-sized Cu2O particles prepared on a Cu substrate. These synthesized composites help to enhance the photocurrent over that of bare Cu2O, which means rGO acts as an excellent electron acceptor to separate electrons from Cu2O particles. Here the p-Cu2O layer was fabricated using thermal oxidation and the rGO layer was fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The samples thus fabricated were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, time development of the photocurrent of photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. H2 evolution was observed using a gas chromatograph system.

  13. Superconducting transition in ruthenocuprate RuSr2GdCu2O8 viewed from the studies of the imaginary part of ac susceptibility (United States)

    Zivkovic, I.; Drobac, D.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Prester, M.


    We have measured two structurally similar superconducting systems, RuSr2GdCu2O8 and GdBa2Cu3O7 by means of high-resolution ac susceptibility. The real and the imaginary part of ac susceptibility of both bulk-ceramic and powdered samples have been studied down to the very small magnetic-field levels. We show that there are significant differences in the evolution of superconductivity in the two studied superconducting systems. In particular, we show that the superconducting transition in the grains in RuSr2GdCu2O8 system is masked with intrinsic magnetism of complex origin.

  14. Temperature Dependence of the Superconducting Gap Anistropy in Bi_2 Sr_2CaCu_2O8+x (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Quitmann, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    Detailed data on the momentum-resolved temperature dependence of the superconducting gap of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O8+x are presented, complemented by similar data on the intensity of the photoemission superconducting condensate spectral area. The gap anisotropy between the Gamma-overline{M} and Gamma-X directions increases markedly with increasing temperature, contrary to what happens for conventional anisotropic-gap superconductors, such as lead. Specifically, the size of the superconducting gap along the Gamma-X direction decreases to values indistinguishable from zero at temperatures for which the gap retains virtually full value along the Gamma-overline{M} direction. These data rule out the simplest type of d-wave order parameter.

  15. Fractal-based modeling of the stress-strain relation of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/AgMg superconducting round wires (United States)

    Gou, Xiaofan; Schwartz, Justin


    Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/AgMg (Bi2212) multi filamentary superconducting round wires (RWs) can be only potential candidate for constructing the superconducting magnet with higher magnetic field (>25T). Very complicated microstructure of Bi2212 RWs has been found by recent SEM studies, and then the vital problems of Characterization of this unique microstructure and further exploration of the correlation of macro electromechanical properties with this microstructure arise. In this paper, it is firstly found that the rough surface of individual filaments can be well characterized by fractals. On the geometrical model with the fractal simulation of the rough surface, stress-strain relation of Bi2212 RWs has been investigated. The modelling result with considering the rough surface has a better agreement to the experimental data. At the request of the authors, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, the above paper in AIP Proceedings has been retracted (as of 26 November 2013) due to a prior publication by the authors which reports similar data/results. That paper was first published in volume 26 (issue 5) of the journal Superconductor Science and Technology and was published on 4 April 2013: Fractal analysis of the role of the rough interface between Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox filaments and the Ag matrix in the mechanical behavior of composite round wires The authors wish to apologize for any inconvenience caused by publication of their AIP Proceedings article.

  16. Nodal quasiparticle lifetime in the superconducting state of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (United States)

    Corson; Orenstein; Oh; O'Donnell; Eckstein


    We have measured the complex conductivity sigma of a Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) thin film between 0.2 and 0.8 THz. We find sigma in the superconducting state to be well described as the sum of contributions from quasiparticles, condensate, and order parameter fluctuations which draw 30% of the spectral weight from the condensate. An analysis based on this decomposition yields a quasiparticle scattering rate on the order of k(B)T/Planck's over 2pi for temperatures below T(c).

  17. Electrochemical performance of electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ composites (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Li, Fangfei; Hanlon, Ashley M.; Berda, Erik B.; Liu, Xincai; Wang, Ce; Chao, Danming


    Electroactive poly(amic acid)-Cu2+ (EPAA-Cu) composites on substrates were successfully prepared via nucleophilic polycondensation followed by the use of an immersing method. Analysis of the structure properties of EPAA-Cu composites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR). A significant current enhancement phenomenon of EPAA-Cu/ITO electrodes was found as evident from cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. In addition, Cu2+ ions were incorporated into the composites and had a positive effect on their electrochromic behaviors decreasing their switching times. The anticorrosive performance of EPAA-Cu composites coatings on the carbon steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were also investigated in detail using tafel plots analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The anticorrosive ability of these coatings significantly enhanced through the incorporation of Cu2+ ions.

  18. EPR and speciation simulation study of Cu2+ complexes in an amine-based aqueous precursor system used for preparation of superconducting YBCO coatings. (United States)

    Lommens, Petra; Feys, Jonas; Vrielinck, Henk; De Buysser, Klaartje; Herman, Gerrit; Callens, Freddy; Van Driessche, Isabel


    In this work, we investigate the chemistry for an aqueous acetate-triethanolamine-ammonia based YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) (YBCO) precursor system. These precursor solutions are suited for the chemical solution deposition of superconducting YBCO layers on top of single crystal SrTiO(3) or buffered NiW tapes. The development of this kind of precursor inks often involves trial-and-error experimenting and thus is very time-consuming. To reduce labwork to the minimum, the theoretical prediction of pH stability limits and the complexation behaviour of the different metal ions and complexants in the inks are very important. For this purpose, we simulated, based on literature values, the complexation behaviour of Cu(2+) in the aqueous precursor solutions as a function of pH. To validate the used model, we performed potentiometric pH titrations for solutions with similar composition and checked the correctness of fit between experiment and model. The generated complexometric results are coupled with X-band EPR spectra to further confirm the results. EPR spectra for fully prepared precursor solutions as well as for Cu(2+) reference solutions containing only one type of ligand (acetate, triethanolamine or ammonia) were investigated as a function of pH. We find that, in line with speciation simulation, only acetates are actively complexing the Cu(2+) ions at pH values below 7, while when reaching higher pH levels mainly triethanolamine complexes are formed. Over the entire pH range, no trace of free Cu(2+)or Cu(OH)(2), possibly creating precipitation during gelation and thus complicating further processing, could be found.

  19. Superconducting correlations above Tc in the pseudogap state of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ cuprates revealed by angular-dependent magnetotunneling (United States)

    Jacobs, Th.; Katterwe, S. O.; Krasnov, V. M.


    We present an angular-dependent magnetotunneling technique, which facilitates unambiguous separation of superconducting (supporting circulating screening currents) and nonsuperconducting (not supporting screening currents) contributions to the pseudogap phenomenon in layered Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ cuprates. Our data indicate persistence of superconducting correlations at temperatures up to 1.5 Tc in a form of both phase and amplitude fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. However, despite a profound fluctuations region, only a small fraction of the pseudogap spectrum is caused by superconducting correlations, while the dominating part comes from a competing nonsuperconducting order, which does not support circulating orbital currents.

  20. Excellent magnetocaloric properties in RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) compounds and its composite materials (United States)

    Zhang, Yikun; Yang, Yang; Xu, Xiao; Geng, Shuhua; Hou, Long; Li, Xi; Ren, Zhongming; Wilde, Gerhard


    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of ternary intermetallic RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) compounds and its composite materials have been investigated in detail. Both compounds undergo a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at its own Curie temperatures of TC ~ 48.5 and 15 K for Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd, respectively, giving rise to the large reversible MCE. An additionally magnetic transition can be observed around 16 K for Dy2Cu2Cd compound. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) are estimated to be 17.0 and 20.8 J/kg K for Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd, for a magnetic field change of 0-70 kOe, respectively. A table-like MCE in a wide temperature range of 10-70 K and enhanced refrigerant capacity (RC) are achieved in the Dy2Cu2Cd - Tm2Cu2Cd composite materials. For a magnetic field change of 0-50 kOe, the maximum improvements of RC reach 32% and 153%, in comparison with that of individual compound Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd. The excellent MCE properties suggest the RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) and its composite materials could be expected to have effective applications for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  1. Evidence for K-substitution in the Tl-sites of superconducting Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O χ: Neutron diffraction studies (United States)

    Sequeira, A.; Rajagopal, H.; Gopalakrishnan, I. K.; Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Phatak, G. M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Iyer, R. M.


    A comparison of the Rietveld profile refinement of neutron diffraction data of the superconducting compounds Tl-2122 (i.e. Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O χ) and Tl 1K 1Ca 1Ba 2Cu 2O y provides evidence that nearly half of the Tl-sites belonging to the pure Tl-2122 structure get substituted by K-ions in Tl 1K 1Ca 1Ba 2Cu 2O y. The consequence of this is reflected in a substantial movement of Ba-ions towards the plane of the O(2)-ions in the K-substituted compound.

  2. Double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film as composite photocathode (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Qiang, Y. H.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gu, X. Q.


    A solvothermal method was used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles. CZTS/CZTSe bilayer films have been fabricated via a layer-by-layer blade coating process on the fluorine dope tin oxide (FTO) substrates. We converted conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) into double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells with the replacement of the Pt-coated counter electrode with the as-prepared films as composite photocathodes. Compared with conventional DSSCs, the cells show an increased short circuit current and power conversion efficiency.

  3. Oxygenation and superconductivity of Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8- x (United States)

    Wu, Nae-Lih; Chu, H. T.


    Oxygenation of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8- x between 250°C and 800°C was studied. The curves which plotted the amount of oxygen adsorbed as a function of oxygenation temperature indicated the presence of two oxygen adsorption processes, including one which prevailed at temperature below 400°C and the other between 500°C and 700°C. When the compound was oxygenated consecutively at increasing temperatures, the Tc of the oxide first increased and then decreased, exhibiting a maximum after oxygenation at 400°C. The Tc increased almost linearly with the amounts of oxygen adsorbed below 400°C but showed no unique (one-to-one) correlation with the overall oxygen content of the oxide.

  4. Effects of doping on superconducting gap anisotropy in Bi_2Sr2 CaCu_2O8+x (United States)

    Onellion, Marshall; Ma, Jian; Quitmann, Christoph; Kelley, R. J.; Kendziora, C.; Larosa, S.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    We report on recent fabrication of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+x single crystals that span the phase diagram from insulators, all of the underdoped part, and as far into the overdoped part as a superconducting transition temperature, T_c=55K.[1,2] Optimally doped and overdoped samples exhibit narrow susceptibility transition widths. However, the c-axis between insulators-underdoped-optimally doped materials is almost identical, indicating that oxygen is added and removed from different part of the unit cell.[1,2] We have studied the superconducting gap anisotropy for optimally doped and overdoped samples. We find that the ratio gap along the (0,π)direction to that along the (π,π) is 20:1 for optimally doped or slightly underdoped samples, consistent with earlier report. The gap along the (π,π) direction is indistiguishable from zero. However, for somewhat overdoped samples, the gap anisotropy is 2:1, with the smaller gap 10meV, definitely non-zero.

  5. Superconductivity in 2-2-3 system Y2Ba2Cu2O(8+delta) (United States)

    Joshi, H. H.; Baldha, G. J.; Jotania, R. B.; Joshi, S. M.; Mohan, H.; Pandya, P. B.; Pandya, H. N.; Kulkarni, R. G.


    Researchers synthesized a new high T(sub c) 2-2-3 superconductor Y2Ba2Cu3O(8+delta) by a special preparation technique and characterized it by ac-susceptibility measurements. Diamagnetism and Meissner effect sets in at low fields and superconducting transition onsets at 90 K. The systematic investigation of the real and imaginary components of ac-susceptibility as a function of temperature and applied ac magnetic field reveals that the magnetic behavior is that of a granular type superconductor.

  6. Bulk superconductivity in Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 and TlBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 9 phases (United States)

    Sulpice, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Tournier, R.; Hervieu, M.; Maignan, A.; Martin, C.; Michel, C.; Provost, J.


    Well-crystallized Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 phases have been observed superconducting or normal below 108 K depending on their stoichiometry. This observation is an evidence that a (Cu IL&.zbnd;O -) mixed valence induced by vacancies or substitution on different sites gives rise to superconductivity in this phase. The new phase TlBa 2Ca 2CuO 9 which intrinsically contains a mixed valence has been observed as having a sharp transition to bulk superconductivity in the Meissner effect at a critical temperature of 120 K. This temperature is much higher than the recently observed one.

  7. One-pot self-assembly of Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel for aqueous photocatalysis (United States)

    Cai, Jingyu; Liu, Wenjun; Li, Zhaohui


    Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite aerogel was fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal method using glucose as a reducing agent and cross-linker. The as-obtained Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel showed superior photocatalytic activity for MO degradation owing to its improved light absorption capability, enhanced adsorption toward pollutant and the RGO promoted charge carrier separation. The Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel can also be facilely separated from the reaction system for recycling, which makes it especially appealing for using as a visible light responsive photocatalyst in aqueous photocatalysis.

  8. Vertical temperature boundary of the pseudogap under the superconducting dome in the phase diagram of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ (United States)

    Loret, B.; Sakai, S.; Benhabib, S.; Gallais, Y.; Cazayous, M.; Méasson, M. A.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G. D.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Paul, I.; Civelli, M.; Sacuto, A.


    Combining electronic Raman scattering experiments with cellular dynamical mean field theory, we present evidence of the pseudogap in the superconducting state of various hole-doped cuprates. In Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ we track the superconducting pseudogap hallmark, a peak-dip feature, as a function of temperature T and doping p , well beyond the optimal one. We show that, at all temperatures under the superconducting dome, the pseudogap disappears at the doping pc, between 0.222 and 0.226, where also the normal-state pseudogap collapses at a Lifshitz transition. This demonstrates that the superconducting pseudogap boundary forms a vertical line in the T -p phase diagram.

  9. Scanning Josephson tunneling microscopy of single-crystal Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta} with a conventional superconducting tip. (United States)

    Kimura, Hikari; Barber, R P; Ono, S; Ando, Yoichi; Dynes, R C


    We have performed both Josephson and quasiparticle tunneling in vacuum tunnel junctions formed between a conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscope tip and overdoped Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta} single crystals. A Josephson current is observed with a peak centered at a small finite voltage due to the thermal-fluctuation-dominated superconducting phase dynamics. Josephson measurements at different surface locations yield local values for the Josephson I_{C}R_{N} product. Corresponding energy gap measurements were also performed and a surprising inverse correlation was observed between the local I_{C}R_{N} product and the local energy gap.

  10. Surface composition deviation of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivative powdered samples (United States)

    Harel, S.; Guillot-Deudon, C.; Choubrac, L.; Hamon, J.; Lafond, A.


    Powdered samples of Cu2ZnSnS4 derivatives prepared through a solid-state route were investigated by both bulk (electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and surface-sensitive (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) methods. We observe a deviation in composition between the surface and the bulk for all non-stoichiometric samples (both Cu-poor and Cu-rich). This behavior has already been observed for slightly Cu-poor CZTS thin films and is reminiscent of that of CIGSe compounds.

  11. Comment on magnetism and superconductivity in rutheno cuprates: RuSr2GdCu2O8 and RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V P S Awana; M Karppinen; H Yamauchi


    Both RuSr2GdCu2O8- (Ru-1212) and RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10- (Ru-1222) exhibits magnetism and superconductivity, as seen by magnetization vs. temperature behavior measured in 5 Oe field. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization data show branching at around 140 K and 100 K with a cusp at 135 K and 80 K and a diamagnetic transition around 20 K and 30 K in the ZFC part, for Ru-1212 and Ru-1222, respectively. The isothermal magnetization possesses a non-linear contribution due to a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures below 50 K for both samples. The resistance vs. temperature behavior of the samples in applied fields of 0, 3 and 7 T confirmed superconductivity, with a different type of broadening of the superconductivity transition under magnetic fields for Ru-1212 from that known for conventional high-c superconductors. The magnetoresistance (MR) is negative above the Ru magnetic ordering temperature at 135 K. Below the Ru magnetic ordering temperature, MR displays a positive peak at low fields and becomes negative at higher fields for Ru-1212. For Ru-1222, MR remains negative both above and below the ordering temperature. A maximum of 2% is observed for the negative MR value at the Ru magnetic ordering temperature. An electron diffraction pattern obtained for the Ru-1212 sample shows two types of superstructure: one has a weak spot at the centre of the - rectangle, and the other only along the direction. Interestingly, Ru-1222 shows only clean - and - planes, without any superstructures.

  12. Superconducting composites materials. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M. (Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 22 - Lannion (FR))


    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs.

  13. Nb Substitution Effects on Superconducting Properties of Ru1−xNbxSr2Eu1.4Ce0.6Cu2O10−δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Maldonado-Mejía


    Full Text Available In order to gain further insight into the role of substitution of Ru by Nb on superconductivity, polycrystalline samples of Ru1−xNbxSr2Eu1.4Ce0.6Cu2O10−δ  (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method. Substitution of Nb at the Ru site in the system takes place isostructurally in the tetragonal structure (space group I4/mmm with full solubility (x = 1.0. Superconductivity exists for all compositions. Resistivity measurements in function of temperature from 0 to 300 K were done using the four-probe technique. It is found that the substitution of Ru5+ for Nb5+ depresses the superconductivity of samples from Tc = 29 K for x = 0.0 to Tc = 5 K for x = 1.0 (where Tc is the critical temperature, when resistivity becomes equal to zero. In the normal state, the dependence of resistivity with temperature, for compositions with x = 0.0 and 0.2, shows a metallic behavior, while for compositions between x = 0.4 and x = 1 it shows a semiconducting behavior. In that way, the density of charge carriers is reduced with niobium doping, leading to the semiconducting behavior. The resistive transition to the superconducting state of all samples is found to be affected by granularity. Samples undergo double superconducting transition.

  14. White-light-controlled resistive switching chearacteristics of TiO2/Cu2O composite nanorods array (United States)

    Sun, Bai; Liu, Yonghong; Lou, Fangming; Chen, Peng


    TiO2/Cu2O composite nanorods array were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by hydrothermal process, and white-light-controlled resistive switching characteristics of Ag/[TiO2/Cu2O]/FTO structure were further investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of the composite nanorods array represent a good rectifying property and bipolar resistive switching behavior. Specially, the resistive switching behavior can be regulated by white-light illuminating at room temperature. This study is helpful for exploring the memory materials and their applications in nonvolatile light-controlled memory devices.

  15. Anelastic characterization and superconducting properties of RuSr2GdCu2O8+δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurelo, A. R.


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the high Tc superconductors, many researches have been carried out on the different properties of these materials, especially on the transition temperature into the superconducting state. The rutheno-cuprates belong to a new class of composites, which were synthesized for the first time by Bauernfeind in 1995. Bernhard and collaborators discovered, in 1999, the coexistence of the ferromagnetism and the superconductivity in this phase, which is known as antagonistic phenomenon in the electromagnetism due to spin-charge interactions established in these states. However, the physical nature of the superconducting and magnetic states is still very obscure. The non-stoichiometric (interstitial oxygen is considered as a possible cause for the non-uniformity of the sample properties. In this paper, results of mechanical spectroscopy in Ru-1212 samples are presented showing complex anelastic spectra, which were attributed to the mobility of the interstitial oxygen atoms in the Ru-1212 lattice.Desde el descubrimiento de los superconductores de alta Tc, muchas investigaciones han sido realizadas sobre las diferentes propiedades de estos materiales, especialmente sobre la temperatura de transición dentro del estado superconductor. Los cupratos de rutenio pertenecen a una nueva clase de compositos, los cuales fueron sintetizados por primera vez por Bauernfeind en 1995. Bernhard y colaboradores descubrieron, en 1999, la coexistencia del ferromagnetismo y la superconductividad en esta fase, lo cual es conocido como un fenómeno antagonistico en el electromagnetismo debido a las interacciones spin-carga establecidas en estos estados. Sin embargo, la naturaleza física de los estados superconductores y magnéticos aun no son muy claros. El oxigeno no-estequiométrico (intersticial es considerado como una causa de la no-uniformidad de las propiedades de la muestra. En este articulo, los resultados de espectroscopia mecánica en muestras

  16. Imaging the impact of single oxygen atoms on superconducting Bi(2+y)Sr(2-y)CaCu2O(8+x). (United States)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gu, Genda; Markiewicz, Robert S; Hoffman, Jennifer E


    High-temperature cuprate superconductors display unexpected nanoscale inhomogeneity in essential properties such as pseudogap energy, Fermi surface, and even superconducting critical temperature. Theoretical explanations for this inhomogeneity have ranged from chemical disorder to spontaneous electronic phase separation. We extend the energy range of scanning tunneling spectroscopy on Bi(2+y)Sr(2-y)CaCu(2)O(8+x), allowing a complete mapping of two types of interstitial oxygen dopants and vacancies at the apical oxygen site. We show that the nanoscale spatial variations in the pseudogap states are correlated with disorder in these dopant concentrations, particularly that of apical oxygen vacancies.

  17. Doping-induced change in the interlayer transport mechanism of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta} near the superconducting transition temperature. (United States)

    Katterwe, S O; Rydh, A; Krasnov, V M


    We perform a detailed study of temperature, bias, and doping dependence of interlayer transport in the layered high temperature superconductor Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+delta}. We observe that the shape of interlayer characteristics in underdoped crystals exhibits a remarkable crossover at the superconducting transition temperature: from thermal activation-type above T_{c} to almost T-independent quantum tunneling-type below T_{c}. Our data provide insight into the nature of interlayer transport and indicate that its mechanism changes with doping: from the conventional single quasiparticle tunneling in overdoped to a progressively increasing Cooper pair contribution in underdoped crystals.

  18. Efficient sorption of Cu(2+) by composite chelating sorbents based on potato starch-graft-polyamidoxime embedded in chitosan beads. (United States)

    Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Apopei Loghin, Diana Felicia; Cocarta, Ana Irina


    Ionic composites based on cross-linked chitosan (CS) as matrix and poly(amidoxime) grafted on potato starch (AOX) as entrapped chelating resin were prepared as beads, for the first time in this work, by two strategies: (1) thorough mixing of previously prepared AOX in the CS solution followed by the bead formation and (2) thorough mixing of the potato starch-g-poly(acrylonitrile) (PS-g-PAN) copolymer in the initial CS solution, followed by bead formation, the amidoximation of the nitrile groups taking place inside the beads. Ionotropic gelation in tripolyphosphate was used to obtain the composite beads, and in situ covalent cross-linking by epichlorohydrin was carried out to stabilize the beads in the acidic pH range. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the swelling ratio values in the acidic pH range confirmed the influence of the synthesis strategy on the structure of the CS/AOX composites. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to reveal the morphology of the novel composites, both before and after their loading with Cu(2+). The binding capacity of Cu(2+) ions as a function of sorbent composition, synthesis strategy, pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration of Cu(2+), and temperature was examined in batch mode. The main difference between the composites prepared with the two strategies consisted of the higher sorption capacity and the much faster settlement of the equilibrium sorption for the composite prepared by the in situ amidoximation of PS-g-PAN. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Sips isotherms were applied to fit the sorption equilibrium data. The maximum equilibrium sorption capacity, qm, evaluated by the Langmuir model at 25 °C was 133.15 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the first strategy and 238.14 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the second strategy, at the same AOX content. The pseudo-second order kinetic model well fitted the sorption kinetics data

  19. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.


    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  20. High-Tc superconductivity in ultrathin Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) down to half-unit-cell thickness by protection with graphene. (United States)

    Jiang, Da; Hu, Tao; You, Lixing; Li, Qiao; Li, Ang; Wang, Haomin; Mu, Gang; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Yu, Guanghui; Zhu, Jie; Sun, Qiujuan; Lin, Chengtian; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng


    High-Tc superconductors confined to two dimension exhibit novel physical phenomena, such as superconductor-insulator transition. In the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) (Bi2212) model system, despite extensive studies, the intrinsic superconducting properties at the thinness limit have been difficult to determine. Here, we report a method to fabricate high quality single-crystal Bi2212 films down to half-unit-cell thickness in the form of graphene/Bi2212 van der Waals heterostructure, in which sharp superconducting transitions are observed. The heterostructure also exhibits a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic due to the Dirac nature of the graphene band structure. More interestingly, although the critical temperature remains essentially the same with reduced thickness of Bi2212, the slope of the normal state T-linear resistivity varies by a factor of 4-5, and the sheet resistance increases by three orders of magnitude, indicating a surprising decoupling of the normal state resistance and superconductivity. The developed technique is versatile, applicable to investigate other two-dimensional (2D) superconducting materials.

  1. Superconducting thin films of Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y (United States)

    Ginley, D. S.; Kwak, J. F.; Hellmer, R. P.; Baughman, R. J.; Venturini, E. L.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.


    We present techniques for preparing unoriented polycrystalline and epitaxial superconducting thin films of the Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y and Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y phases on a wide variety of substrates. The crucial steps determining the properties of the films are shown to be the air sintering and oxygen annealing following the initial metal deposition by electron beam evaporation under a slight oxygen overpressure. A sintered Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O pellet is employed as a source of excess Tl during sintering and annealing of the thin film. The Tl concentration in the final films controls the nature of the intergrain connections. The films are characterized by their structural, chemical, magnetic and transport properties. Zero resistance typically occurs at 97 K for Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O and at 106 K for Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y. Transport critical currents of up to 110 000 A/cm 2 have been obtained at 77 K for unoriented Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y, up to 160 000 A/cm 2 for epitaxial Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and up to 240 000 A/cm 2 for unoriented Tl 2Ca 2Cu 3O y films with little field dependence of the critical current observed.

  2. Phase transition study in a [Cu2HgI4 : 0.AgI] mixed composite system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Noorussaba; Afaq Ahmad


    A novel composite superionic system, [Cu2HgI4 : 0.AgI], ( = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mol wt.%), was prepared. A [Cu2HgI4] system was used as the host. Electrical conductivity was measured to study the transition behaviour at frequencies of 100 Hz, 120 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz in the temperature range 90–170°C using a Gen Rad 1659 RLC Digibridge. Conductivity increased sharply during the – phase transition. Upon increasing the dopant-to-host ratio, the conductivity of the superionic system exhibited Arrhenius (thermally activated)-type behaviour. DTA, DTG, TGA and X-ray powder diffraction were performed to confirm doping effect and transition in the host. The phase transition temperature increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. Activation energies in eV for pre- and post-transition phase behaviour are also reported. Due to an interaction between [Cu2HgI4] and AgI, the addition of AgI to [Cu2HgI4] shifted the phase transition of the host [Cu2HgI4].

  3. A new behaviour of ac losses in superconducting Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8) single crystals. (United States)

    Chockalingam, S P; Sarangi, S; Bhat, S V; Oka, K; Nishihara, Y


    A new ac loss behaviour is observed in the superconducting state of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8) single crystals using a novel technique of measuring dissipation at radio frequencies. It is found that the ac loss in the superconducting state is larger than that in the normal state. This counter-intuitive result is explained in terms of the cumulative effect of repetitive decoupling of intrinsic Josephson junctions in the crystals and analysed in the framework of Ambegaokar-Baratoff theory. The ac losses are studied as a function of temperature, rf amplitude and magnetic field applied at different orientations. A peak in ac losses is observed in the superconducting state along the temperature scale. The amplitude of the peak decreases and shifts towards lower temperature with increasing field and also when the field orientation with respect to the c axis of the crystal changes from the perpendicular to parallel direction. The origin of the peak and its behaviour are discussed in the context of coupling energy of Josephson junctions present in the sample. In the presence of a magnetic field another peak in ac losses arises at temperatures close to T(c), which is associated with the Lorentz-force-driven motion of vortices.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte membranes (United States)

    Bala Sahu, Tripti; Sahu, Manju; Karan, Shrabani; Mahipal, Y. K.; Sahu, D. K.; Agrawal, R. C.


    Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) films: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  x CuO have been reported. NCPE films have been formed by hot-press casting technique using solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film composition: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] as 1st-phase host and nanoparticles of CuO in varying wt.(%) as 2nd-phase active filler. SPE: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] was identified earlier as highest conducting film with room temperature conductivity (σ rt) ~ 3.0 x 10-6 S cm-1, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of pure polymer host PEO with σ rt ~ 3.2  ×  10-9 S cm-1. Filler particle concentration dependent conductivity study revealed NCPE film: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  3%CuO as optimum conducting composition (OCC) exhibiting σ rt ~ 1.14  ×  10-5 S cm-1. Hence, by the fractional dispersal of 2nd-phase active filler into 1st-phase SPE host, σ-enhancement of approximately an order of magnitude has further been obtained. Ion transport behavior in NCPE OCC film has been characterized in terms of basic ionic parameters viz. ionic conductivity (σ), total ionic transference (t ion)/cationic (t +) numbers. Temperature dependent conductivity measurement has also been done to explain the mechanism of ion transport and to compute activation energy (E a). Materials characterization and hence, confirmation of complexation of salt in polymeric host and/or dispersal of filler particles in SPE host have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All-solid-state battery in the cell configuration: Cu (Anode) || SPE host/NCPE OCC film || C  +  I2  +  Electrolyte) (Cathode) has been fabricated and cell performance has been studied under two load resistances viz

  5. Doping-Induced Change of Superconducting Gap Anisotropy in Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O8+δ (United States)

    Kelley, R. J.; Quitmann, C.; Onellion, M.; Berger, H.; Almeras, P.; Margaritondo, G.


    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements were performed on single crystals of Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O8+δ with different oxygen stoichiometries. The data establish that the gap anisotropy (ratio of the gap along Gamma-M to the gap along Gamma-X) can be reversibly changed from ~20:1 (optimal or underdoped) to ~2:1 (overdoped). Differences in sample doping explain the conflicting reports on gap anisotropy in the literature. Possible effects of this change in gap anisotropy on the symmetry of the order parameter are discussed. There remains some ambiguity as to the relation between the order parameter and doping.

  6. Novel anisotropy in the superconducting gap structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+delta) probed by quasiparticle heat transport. (United States)

    Ando, Yoichi; Takeya, J; Abe, Yasushi; Sun, X F; Lavrov, A N


    Since the nature of pairing interactions is manifested in the superconducting gap symmetry, the exact gap structure, particularly any deviation from the simple d(x(2)-y(2)) symmetry, would help in elucidating the pairing mechanism in high- T(c) cuprates. Anisotropic heat transport measurement in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) reveals that the quasiparticle populations are different for the two nodal directions and thus the gap structure must be uniquely anisotropic, suggesting that pairing is governed by interactions with a rather complicated anisotropy. Intriguingly, it is found that the "plateau" in the magnetic-field dependence of the thermal conductivity is observed only in the b-axis transport.

  7. Influence of Milling Time on the Crystallite Size of AlSi5Cu2/SiC Composite Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suśniak M.


    Full Text Available AlSi5Cu2/SiC nanocrystalline composite powder was successfully obtained by mechanical alloying of AlSi5Cu2 chips with reinforcement of 0, 10, 15, 20 wt. % of silicon carbide. X-ray powder diffraction was used to characterize obtained material. Detailed analyses using transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been conducted in order to collaborate the grain size measurement determined from the XRD analyses. Powders produced in a planetary ball mill with milling time: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 hours, have shown shape and size evaluation during mechanical alloying process. It can be seen tendency to decrease the size of the grain as the milling time is increased. It is also noted that the grains of composites (AlSi5Cu2/SiC are smaller than samples prepares without SiC addition. 40 hours of milling lead to formed very small grains of Al phase (20 nm in average in composite powder.

  8. Manufacturing of superconductive silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifi, Behrouz; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten


    Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium...... and current leading properties of the final superconducting fibres. The present work describes studies on alternative packing geometries and process parameters in the flat rolling operations. The aim is to obtain homogenous filaments with advantageous geometry and good texture while avoiding potential defects...

  9. Superconducting gap and order parameter in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (United States)

    Kelley, R. J.; Ma, Jian; Quitmann, C.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    Using angle-resolved photoemission, we observed a nonzero superconducting gap and the presence of a superconducting condensate along all three major symmetry directions. We find that the gap is highly anisotropic, with a gap as small as 1-2 meV along Γ-Y, 4-8 meV along Γ-X, and 14-20 meV along Γ-M. We argue that our data imply either an anisotropic s-wave order parameter or an unconventional, two-component order parameter, and that measuring the size of the gap does not by itself distinguish between the two possibilities. We propose a phenomenological unconventional order parameter, and note the quantitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  10. Emergent loop-nodal s(±)-wave superconductivity in CeCu(2)Si(2): similarities to the iron-based superconductors. (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Michi-To; Arita, Ryotaro


    Heavy-fermion superconductors are prime candidates for novel electron-pairing states due to the spin-orbital coupled degrees of freedom and electron correlations. Superconductivity in CeCu_{2}Si_{2} discovered in 1979, which is a prototype of unconventional (non-BCS) superconductors in strongly correlated electron systems, still remains unsolved. Here we provide the first report of superconductivity based on the advanced first-principles theoretical approach. We find that the promising candidate is an s_{±}-wave state with loop-shaped nodes on the Fermi surface, different from the widely expected line-nodal d-wave state. The dominant pairing glue is magnetic but high-rank octupole fluctuations. This system shares the importance of multiorbital degrees of freedom with the iron-based superconductors. Our findings reveal not only the long-standing puzzle in this material, but also urge us to reconsider the pairing states and mechanisms in all heavy-fermion superconductors.

  11. Electrostatic-assembly three-dimensional CNTs/rGO implanted Cu2O composite spheres and its photocatalytic properties (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Chen, Xiaohua; Ning, Xutao; Chen, Chuansheng; Deng, Weina; Huang, Qun; Zhong, Wenbin


    Carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene oxides (CNTs/rGO) implanting cuprous oxide (Cu2O) composite spheres have been successfully prepared via an electrostatic self-assemble with microwave-assisted. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that the hybrid of CNTs and rGO was implanted into Cu2O matrix and formed a three-dimensional embedded micrometer sphere structure. The possible formation mechanism of this architecture was also proposed. The photocatalytic properties were further investigated by evaluating on photo-degradation of a pollutant methyl orange (MO). The experimental results indicated that this novel architecture enhanced photocatalytic performance with 99.8% decomposition of MO after 40 min in the presence of H2O2 under visible light irradiation, which was much higher than that of pure Cu2O powders (67.9%). This study provides a convenient method for assembling various CNTs/rGO-semiconductor composites in the future applications of water purification as well as optoelectronic fields at a large scale.

  12. Cu2O/ZnO复合光催化剂的制备及对甲基蓝的降解%Preparation of Cu2O/ZnO composite photocatalyst and degradation of methyl blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Cu2O was fixed by ZnO carrier,Cu2O/ZnO composite photocatalyst was prepared by dip-reduction-air oxidation process in this paper.Cu2O/ZnO composite photocatalyst had better light catalytic properties by controlling reactant ratio,drying temperature and drying time.The composite photocatalyst was used to degrade difficult degradation of acid dye methyl blue in the environment of the common.The influence factors of illumination time,catalyst dosing quantity,pH and initial concentration of solution were investigated.The results showed that the removal rate of methyl blue was 92% incandescent lamp irradiation 60 min.%以ZnO为载体,用其固定Cu2O,利用浸渍-还原-空气氧化法制备Cu2O/ZnO复合光催化剂.通过控制投料比、干燥温度和干燥时间等因素,得到了具有较好光催化性能的Cu2O/ZnO复合光催化剂.利用这种复合光催化剂对环境中常见的难降解的酸性染料甲基蓝进行降解,考察了光照时间、催化剂投加量、溶液pH值、溶液的初始质量浓度等因素对光催化性能的影响.结果表明,在白炽灯照射下反应60 min后,甲基蓝的去除率为92%.

  13. Extending Universal Nodal Excitations Optimizes Superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.; Pushp, A.; Parker, C.V.; Pasupathy, A.N.; Gomes, K.K.; Ono, S.; Wen, J.; Xu, Z.; Yazdani, A.


    Understanding the mechanism by which d wave superconductivity in the cuprates emerges and is optimized by doping the Mott insulator is one of the major outstanding problems in condensed-matter physics. Our high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the high-transition temperature (T{sub c}) superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} show that samples with different T{sub c} values in the low doping regime follow a remarkably universal d wave low-energy excitation spectrum, indicating a doping-independent nodal gap. We demonstrate that T{sub c} instead correlates with the fraction of the Fermi surface over which the samples exhibit the universal spectrum. Optimal T{sub c} is achieved when all parts of the Fermi surface follow this universal behavior. Increasing the temperature above T{sub c} turns the universal spectrum into an arc of gapless excitations, whereas overdoping breaks down the universal nodal behavior.

  14. Charge Aspects of Composite Pair Superconductivity (United States)

    Flint, Rebecca


    Conventional Cooper pairs form from well-defined electronic quasiparticles, making the internal structure of the pair irrelevant. However, in the 115 family of superconductors, the heavy electrons are forming as they pair and the internal pair structure becomes as important as the pairing mechanism. Conventional spin fluctuation mediated pairing cannot capture the direct transition from incoherent local moments to heavy fermion superconductivity, but the formation of composite pairs favored by the two channel Kondo effect can. These composite pairs are local d-wave pairs formed by two conduction electrons in orthogonal Kondo channels screening the same local moment. Composite pairing shares the same symmetries as magnetically mediated pairing, however, only composite pairing necessarily involves a redistribution of charge within the unit cell originating from the internal pair structure, both as a monopole (valence change) and a quadrupole effect. This redistribution will onset sharply at the superconducting transition temperature. A smoking gun test for composite pairing is therefore a sharp signature at Tc - for example, a cusp in the Mossbauer isomer shift in NpPd5Al2 or in the NQR shift in (Ce,Pu)CoIn5.

  15. Compositional dependence of charge carrier transport in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells (United States)

    Just, Justus; Nichterwitz, Melanie; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Frahm, Ronald; Unold, Thomas


    Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells deposited by thermal co-evaporation have been characterized structurally and electronically to determine the dependence of the electronic properties on the elemental composition of the kesterite phase, which can significantly deviate from the total sample composition. To this end, the kesterite phase content and composition were determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption measurements. The electronic properties, such as carrier density and minority carrier diffusion length, were determined by electron beam induced current measurements and capacitance-voltage profiling. The charge-carrier transport properties are found to strongly depend on the Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio of the kesterite phase. For the Cu-poor sample, a minority carrier diffusion length of 270 nm and a total collection length of approx. 500 nm are deduced, indicating that current collection should not be an issue in thin devices.

  16. Impact of Precursor Compositions on the Structural and Photovoltaic Properties of Spray-Deposited Cu2 ZnSnS4 Thin Films. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Fujikawa, Shotaro; Harada, Takashi; Chantana, Jakapan; Minemoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shuji; Ikeda, Shigeru


    Pure sulfide Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin films were fabricated on Mo-coated glass substrates by facile spray deposition of aqueous precursor solutions containing Cu(NO3 )2 , Zn(NO3 )2 , Sn(CH3 SO3 )2 , and thiourea followed by annealing at 600 °C. When a precursor solution containing a stoichiometric composition of Cu, Zn, and Sn was used, the resulting Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin film contained a Cu2-x S impurity phase owing to the evaporation of Sn components during the annealing process. The Cu2-x S impurity in the Cu2 ZnSnS4 thin film was removed by reducing the concentration of Cu in the precursor solution. This resulted in an improvement of the structural features (i.e., grain sizes and compactness) as well as the electric properties such as acceptor densities, the nature of the acceptor defects, and carrier lifetimes. A solar cell based on the Cu2 ZnSnS4 film with an empirically optimal composition showed conversion efficiency of 8.1 %. The value achieved was one of the best efficiencies of Cu2 ZnSnS4 -based cells derived from a non-vacuum process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Brianyoungite/Graphene Oxide Coordination Composites for High-Performance Cu(2+) Adsorption and Tunable Deep-Red Photoluminescence. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Shan, Yun; Xiong, Shijie; Shen, Jiancang; Wu, Xinglong


    Graphene oxide (GO) is a good adsorbent for heavy-metal ions because the oxygen functional groups offer active adsorption sites, but a small-size GO with dense oxygen-containing groups has high water solubility causing difficulty in separation. Herein, GO is bound to large brianyoungite (BY) by Zn-O coordination via a hydrothermal reaction that produces BY-GO composites with hollow spherical and flakelike morphologies that are easy to remove. By producing abundant oxygen-containing groups on GO, the Cu(2+) adsorption capacity increases to 1724.1 mg/g, which is the highest value in graphene-related materials. The experimental and theoretical analysis clearly shows that the infrared spectral shifts toward the low-frequency side of C-O-H and O═C-O bending vibrations in the BY-GO composites stem from the Zn(2+) (or Cu(2+)) coordination with O atoms in GO. The BY-GO also exhibits tunable deep-red photoluminescence up to 750 nm with a quantum yield of about 1%, which may be useful in infrared optoelectronic devices and solar energy exploitation. The photoluminescence which is different from that previously reported from chemically derived GO can be attributed to the optical transition in the disorder-induced localized states of the carbon-oxygen functional groups.

  18. Cu2O/累托石纳米复合材料处理模拟染料废水试验%Treating dye wastewater by nano-composites with Cu2O/rectorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段颖姗; 陈云; 张文蓉; 陈金毅; 蔡忠丽; 孙家寿


    The Cu2O/rectorite composite which took the rectoite as the carrier was prepared by liquid phase synthesis and was characterized by means of SEM and XRD. The adsorption performances and photocatalysis properties of the composite was based on the photocatalytic degradation of simulate xylenol orange dye wastewater. The results indicate that the photodegradation efficiency of rectorite / CU2O is 81. 56% when stirring time is 40 min,initial pH of 13;simulate xylenol orange dye wastewater is 20-30 mg/L and the addtion of composite is 5 g/L. The photodegradation rate still reaches 70% even after repeated use for three times.%以累托石为载体,用液相合成法制备和表征了Cu2 O/累托石纳米复合材料,并以吸附降解二甲酚橙的效果,探讨复合材料的吸附及光催化氧化性能.试验结果表明:当模拟二甲酚橙染料废水的初始质量浓度为20~30 mg/L,初始pH值为13,搅拌时间为40 min,纳米累托石/Cu2O复合材料的投加量为5 g/L时,对模拟二甲酚橙染料废水中二甲酚橙的去除率可达81.56%.三次重复使用后的复合材料对二甲酚橙的去除率仍可达70%.

  19. Manufacturing of superconductive silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifi, Behrouz; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten


    Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium......, and copper oxides is inserted into a silver tube and reduced by multi-step drawing. These single-filaments are packed in a new silver tube thus forming a multi-filament containing e.g. 37 single-filaments, which is subsequently reduced by drawing and rolling to tapes approximately 0.2 mm thick by 3 mm wide...

  20. Superconducting properties of (Tl1-xPbx)Sr2CaCu2O7-δ (x = 0.1 - 0.7) prepared using nano-sized PbO (United States)

    Elmasroub, Hanan Saleh; Abd-Shukor, R.


    The effect of Pb substitution on Tl-1212 high Tc superconductor with nominal starting composition (Tl1-xPbx)Sr2CaCu2O7-δ (x = 0.1 - 0.7) has been investigated. Nano-sized PbO (10-30 nm) was used as a starting component. The samples were synthesized using the solid-state reaction technique and studied by powder X-ray diffraction method, electrical resistance measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The resistance-temperature curves showed metallic behavior for all samples. Samples with x = 0.6 showed the highest Tc onset (89 K) and Tc zero (78 K). This sample also showed the highest peak temperature for the derivative of the resistivity (ρ) versus temperature (T) curve, dρ/dT = 85 K. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a major Tl-1212 phase with few weak diffraction lines of the Tl-1201. The deviation of electrical resistivity from linear behavior near the transition temperature was explained in terms of excess conductivity associated with Cooper pair formation. This work showed that nano-sized PbO could be used to enhance the formation of the superconducting Tl-1212 phase.

  1. Removal of Cu 2+ Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Clinoptilolite/Emeraldine Base Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya I. Lavrova


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of in situ synthesized composites consisted of emeraldine base and clinoptilolite on copper ions removal from aqueous medium. Two composite materials (Composite I and Composite II with different quantity of clinoptilolite were synthesised. The influence of the composite dosage, the contact time and the initial copper ions concentration has been studied. The results show that the significant removal of the copper ions becomes at the first minute of the contact between the composite material and the aqueous medium and the longer contact time leads to increasing of the copper ions removal. The removal efficiency at the 1st minute was 57.5% and 77.3% using Composite Iand Composite II, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of 87.3% and 96.8% was achieved at the same dosage of Composite I and Composite II, respectively, at contact time of 360 minutes and temperature of 24 °C.

  2. In situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film: a new way to utilize TiO2 under visible light irradiation. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Ma, Li-Li; Li, Jia-Lin; Yu, Ying


    TiO2/Cu2O composite is prepared by a simple electrochemical method and coated on glass matrix through a spraying method. The obtained composite is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of TiO2/Cu2O composite films with different ratio of TiO2 and Cu2O on photodegradation of the dye methylene blue under visible light is investigated in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film with the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA is much higher than that for the similar system with only TiO2 and Cu2O film respectively. Without the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA, there is no degradation for methylene blue. The exploration of the optimized parameters for the degradation of methylene blue by using TiO2/Cu2O composite film as catalyst under visible light was also carried out. The most significant factor is the amount of Ti02 in the composite, and the second significant factor is the concentration of FeSO4. During the degradation of methylene blue under visible light, TiO2/Cu2O composite film generates H202, and Fenton regent is formed with Fe2+ and EDTA, which is detected in this study. The mechanism for the great improvement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film under visible light is proposed by the valence band theory. Electrons excitated from TiO2/Cu2O composite under visible light are transferred from the conduction band of Cu2O to that of Ti02. The formed intermediate state of Ti 3+ ion is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on the TiO/Cu2O composite film. Additionally, the accumulated electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 are transferred to oxygen on the TiO2 surface for the formation of O2- or O2(2-), which combines with H+ to form H2O2. The evolved H202 with FeSO4 and EDTA forms Fenton reagentto degrade methylene blue. Compared to the traditional Fenton reagent, this new kind of in situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film does not need to

  3. Electrical potential distribution in terahertz-emitting rectangular mesa devices of high- T c superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}_{8+\\delta } (United States)

    Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Takeo; Saiwai, Yoshihiko; Shibano, Yuki; Katsuragawa, Takuya; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard A.; Kadowaki, Kazuo


    Excessive Joule heating of conventional rectangular mesa devices of the high-transition-temperature {T}{{c}} superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ leads to hot spots, in which the local temperature T({\\boldsymbol{r}})\\gt {T}{{c}}. Similar devices without hot spots are known to obey the ac-Josephson relation, emitting sub-terahertz (THz) waves at frequencies f\\propto V/N, where V is the applied dc voltage or electrostatic potential and N is the number of active junctions in the device. However, it often has been difficult to predict the emission f from the applied V for two reasons: N is generally unknown and therefore has been assumed to be a fitting parameter, and especially when hot spots are present, V could develop a spatial dependence that cannot be accurately determined using two-terminal measurements. To clarify the situation, simultaneous SiC microcrystalline photoluminescence measurements of T({\\boldsymbol{r}}), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of f, and both two and four-terminal measurements of the local V({\\boldsymbol{r}}) were performed. The present four-probe measurements provide strong evidence that when a constant V is measured within the device's superconducting region outside of the hot spot, the only requirement for the accuracy of the ac-Josephson relation is the ubiquitous adjustment of the fitting parameter N. The four-probe measurements demonstrate that the electric potential distribution is strongly non-uniform near to the hot spot, but is essentially uniform sufficiently far from it. As expected, the emission frequency follows the ac-Josephson relation correctly even for low bath temperatures at which the system jumps to inner IV characteristic branches with smaller N values, reconfirming the ac-Josephson effect as the primary mechanism for the sub-THz emission.

  4. On the magnetization relaxation of ring-shaped Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 thin films as determined by superconducting quantum interference device measurements (United States)

    Wen, Hai-hu; Ziemann, Paul; Radovan, Henri A.; Herzog, Thomas


    By using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the temporal relaxation of the magnetization was determined for ring-shaped Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 thin films at various temperatures between 10 K and 80 K in magnetic fields ranging from 2 mT to 0.3 T. Based on these data, a detailed analysis has been performed related to the following methods or models: (1) Fitting the data to the thermally activated flux motion and collective pinning model; (2) Applying the Generalized Inversion Scheme to extract the temperature dependence of the unrelaxed critical current density jc( T) and pinning potential Uc( T); (3) Testing a modified Maley's method to obtain the current dependent activation energy for flux motion; (4) 2D vortex glass scaling. It is found that, for low fields (2 mT, 10 mT, 40 mT) the experimental data can be described by an elastic flux motion, most probably due to 3D single vortex creep. At higher fields (0.1 T, 0.2 T, 0.3 T), the observed behavior can be interpreted in terms of plastic flux motion which is probably governed by dislocation mediated flux creep. These high field data can also be consistently described by the 2D vortex glass scaling with scaling parameters ν2D, T0 and p being consistent with those derived from corresponding transport measurement. Also, results are presented demonstrating the importance of optimizing the scan length of the sample in a moving sample SQUID magnetometer to avoid artifacts.

  5. Effects of lithium (Li) on lithium-cuprous-oxide (Li-Cu2O) composite films grown by using electrochemical deposition for a PEC photoelectrode (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gyoum; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Lee, Won-Jae


    In this study, Li-Cu2O composite films were grown on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) substrates by using the electrochemical deposition method. Various amounts of lithium (Li) were added to grow the Li-Cu2O composite films. We analyzed the morphology, structure, photocurrent density and photo-stability of the Li-Cu2O composite films by using various measurements such as field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and potentiostat/galvanostat measurements, respectively. As a result, the highest XRD Cu2O (111)/ LiO (011) peak intensity ratio was obtained for the 10-wt% sample, which also had the highest photocurrent density value of -5.00 mA/cm2. The highest photocurrent density value for the 10-wt% sample was approximately 5 times greater than that of the 0-wt% sample. As shown by this result, we found that adding Li could improve the photocurrent values of Li-Cu2O composite films.

  6. Nanoscale coherent intergrowthlike defects in a crystal of La1.9Ca1.1Cu2O6 +δ made superconducting by high-pressure oxygen annealing (United States)

    Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.


    Superconductivity with Tc=53.5 K has been induced in a large La1.9Ca1.1Cu2O6 (La-2126) single crystal by annealing in a high partial pressure of oxygen at 1200 °C. Using transmission electron microscopy techniques, we show that a secondary Ca-doped La2CuO4 (La-214) phase, not present in the as-grown crystal, appears as a coherent intergrowthlike defect as a consequence of the annealing. A corresponding secondary superconducting transition near 13 K is evident in the magnetization measurement. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveals a pre-edge peak at the O-K edge in the superconducting La-2126 phase, which is absent in the as-grown crystal, confirming the hole doping by interstitial oxygen.

  7. The electrical and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic-superconducting compound Ru(Gd1.5-xPrxCe0.5Sr2Cu2O10-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khajehnezhad


    Full Text Available   Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering or their mutually exclusive existence in solids is one of the fundamental problems of solid state physics. To determine the effect of Pr substitution for Gd on electrical and magnetic properties of RuGd1.5Ce0.5Sr2Cu2O10-δ (Ru-1222, Ru(Gd1.5-xPrxCe0.5Sr2Cu2O10-δ with x=0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.03 3 , 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.1 have been prepared by the standard solid-state reaction technique. The XRD patterns for various x have been obtained to show their phase purity. The resistivity and magnetoresistivity of samples have been measured at various temperatures and different magnetic fields up to 1.5T . Superconductivity and magnetic parameters such as superconducting transition temperature Tc and magnetic transition Tirr, have been obtained through resistivity curves. The sharp decrease in Tc with x in Ru(Gd1.5-xPrxCe0.5Sr2Cu2O10-δ shows competition between pair breaking by magnetic impurity, hole doping because of different valance of ions, difference in ionic radii and oxygen stoichiometry, which affect on superconducting transition. In Pr substitution for Gd, the small difference between Gd3+ and Pr3+,4+ ionic radii decreases the mean Ru-Ru distance, and as a result, the magnetic exchange interaction can become stronger with increasing x. Both Tc and Tirr decrease with external magnetic field .

  8. ab-plane optical spectra of iodine-intercalated Bi1.9Pb0.1Sr2CaCu2O8+δ: Normal and superconducting properties (United States)

    Liu, H. L.; Tanner, D. B.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    We report on the ab-plane optical reflectance of an iodine-intercalated Bi1.9Pb0.1Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystal in the 80-40 000 cm-1 (10 meV-5 eV) frequency range and at temperatures between 10 and 300 K. As compared to the iodine-free Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ, we find that the visible-ultraviolet interband transitions are strongly modified after intercalation. Estimates of the low-frequency spectral weight indicate that there is an increase of hole concentration in the CuO2 planes. This behavior is a consequence of charge transfer between intercalated iodine atoms and the CuO2 sheets leading to an ionized iodine species. The ab-plane optical conductivity is analyzed in both the one-component and the two-component pictures, suggesting that the intercalated iodine does not have any significant effect on the in-plane scattering rate. In the superconducting state, a sum-rule evaluation finds that the superfluid contains about 25% of the total doping-induced, or nearly 86% of the free-carrier oscillator strength in the normal state. The value of the superconducting penetration depth is estimated to be 1980 Å, slightly larger than the 1860 Å found in iodine-free Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ.

  9. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar


    Full Text Available Series of (Agx/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ {(Agx/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentrations (i.e. x=0~4.0 wt% of silver (Ag nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Agx/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive x-rays (EDX spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  10. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.


    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  11. Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)


    An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

  12. Fabrication of Cu2O-TiO2 Nano-composite with High Photocatalytic Performance under Simulated Solar Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wentao


    Full Text Available Cu2O-P25 (TiO2 nano-heterostructures with different mass ratios were synthesized via a wet chemical precipitation and hydrothermal method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. DRS results showed that the light absorption of P25 extended to the visible light region with the loading of Cu2O. XPS results showed that Cu existed in the state of Cu+ in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, confirming the formation of Cu2O. The obtained products exhibited efficient photocatalytic performance in degradation of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under simulated solar light. The sample of 5% Cu2O-P25 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all as-prepared samples. And the photocatalysts can be recycled without obvious loss of photocatalytic activity.

  13. Creation of Cu2O@TiO2 composite photocatalysts with p-n heterojunctions formed on exposed Cu2O facets, their energy band alignment study, and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under illumination with visible light. (United States)

    Liu, Lingmei; Yang, Weiyi; Sun, Wuzhu; Li, Qi; Shang, Jian Ku


    The creation of photocatalysts with controlled facets has become an important approach to enhance their activity. However, how the formation of heterojunctions on exposed facets could affect their photocatalytic performance ranking had not yet been investigated. In this study, Cu2O@TiO2 core-shell structures were created, and Cu2O/TiO2 p-n heterojunctions were formed on various exposed facets of Cu2O cubes, Cu2O cuboctahedra, and Cu2O octahedra, respectively. These Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra demonstrated an enhanced photocatalytic degradation effect on Methylene Blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) under visible light illumination, because of the enhanced charge carrier separation by the formation of Cu2O@TiO2 p-n heterojunctions. It was further found that their photocatalytic performance was also facet-dependent as pure Cu2O polyhedra, while the photocatalytic performance ranking of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different with that of their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores. By the combination of optical property measurement and XPS analysis, the energy band alignments of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra were determined, which demonstrated that Cu2O@TiO2 octahedra had the highest band offset for the separation of charge carriers. Thus, the charge-carrier-separation-driven force in Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different from their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores, which resulted in their different surface photovoltage spectrum (SPS) responses and different photocatalytic performance rankings.

  14. Facile synthesis of Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica-coated magnetic graphene composite for enrichment of microcystin-LR followed by mass spectrometry analysis. (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin


    MCs is a group of potent hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacterial in eutrophic water, among which microcystin-LR is the most abundant and toxic. Long-time accumulation of even trace dosage from drinking water would cause significantly hepatic injury to animal and humans. Here we reported a novel Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica coated magnetic graphene composite (magG@mSiO2@-Cu(2+)) through mild sol-gel process and surface modification. Next, the composites were successfully applied for enrichment and separation of microcystin-LR followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis based on the virtues of excellent hydrophilicity, high surface area (261cm(2)g(-1)), sensitively magnetic separation property, accessible porosity (3.10nm) and large amount of modified Cu(2+) ions. Even performed in a lower concentration (0.5μg/L), at which microcystin-LR could not be detected directly, after treatment with the composites the S/N ratio could appear to be 82.93. Furthermore, the novel composites also exhibited high enrichment efficiency in real water sample. It provided a sensitive and efficient technique for enrichment and detection of microcystin-LR and developed a potent method for separation of pollutant in contaminated water.

  15. Temperature-dependence of the superconducting condensate and gap in Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8+ z (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Quitmann, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    Using high energy resolution angle-resolved photoemission, we have measured both the superconducting gap and the photoemission superconducting condensate spectral area of Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 1O 8+ z as a function of temperature in two different locations of the Brillouin zone. We found that the size of superconducting gap along the Γ- X direction decreases to values indistinguishable from zero for which the gap retains virtually full value along the Γ - M¯ direction. The increased gap anisotropy with increasing temperature is in contrast to what happens for conventional anisotropic superconductors such as lead.

  16. Temperature-dependence of the superconducting condensate and gap in Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+x (United States)

    Quitmann, C.; Kelly, R. J.; Onellion, M.; Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    Using high energy resolution angle-resolved photoemission, we have measured both the superconducting gap and the photoemission superconducting condensate spectral area of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu1O8+x as a function of temperature in two different locations of the Brillouin zone. We found that the size of superconducting gap along the Γ - X direction decreases to values indistinguishable from zero for which the gap retains virtually full value along the Γ - M direction. The increased gap anisotropy with increasing temperature is in contrast to what happens for conventional anisotropic superconductors such as lead.>

  17. Metal-organic framework derived porous CuO/Cu2O composite hollow octahedrons as high performance anode materials for sodium ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Qin, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Yan, Dong; Hu, Bingwen; Sun, Zhuo; Pan, Likun


    Porous CuO/Cu2O composite hollow octahedrons were synthesized simply by annealing Cu-based metal-organic framework templates. When evaluated as anode materials for sodium ion batteries, they exhibit a high maximum reversible capacity of 415 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability.

  18. X-ray-absorption fine-structure studies of superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2Ox thin films (United States)

    Dimarzio, D.; Wiesmann, H.; Chen, D. H.; Heald, S. M.


    Superconducting Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films have been prepared by the technique of reactive magnetron sputtering using targets of Tl, Ca-Ba, and Cu. Three films with different quality superconducting transitions were fabricated and analyzed. X-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements were performed on the Cu K edge in order to determine orientation, bond lengths, number of nearest neighbors, and relative disorder as a function of the quality of their superconducting transition. Magnetically oriented powder samples of the appropriate superconducting phase were used for comparison. X-ray-absorption near-edge results reveal increasing CuO2 plane orientation parallel to the substrate as the quality of the superconducting transition improved, consistent with x-ray-diffraction data. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements also show this trend. EXAFS gives a Cu-O(1) bond length of 1.92+/-0.01 Å for all three films, and all three samples exhibit an increasing Debye-Waller disorder factor consistent with the deterioration in the quality of their superconducting transitions.

  19. Normal zone propagation in adiabatic superconducting magnets: Pt. 1; Normal zone propagation velocity in superconducting composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Iwasa, Y. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab. Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center)


    A normal zone propagation model has been developed for superconducting composites under adiabatic conditions. It is based on the Whetstone-Roos model, originally developed for normal zone propagation in adiabatic wires of unclad superconductor. The model takes into account the temperature and magnetic field dependent material properties, for both superconductor and matrix metal. Analytical results agree well with experimental data. (author).

  20. Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.


    Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.

  1. Effect of argon-annealing and subsequent oxygen-annealing on the superconductivity and structure of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8- x (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, I. K.; Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Rajagopal, H.; Sequeira, A.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Iyer, R. M.


    Annealing the single-phase Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 superconductor ( Tc=108 K) in argon environment at 950 K for 24 h brings the Tc down to ≅80 K. Re-annealing the samples in oxygen under similar conditions restores the Tc to 105±5 K. Rietveld profile refinement of the neutron diffraction spectra of the argon-annealed samples indicates that some Tl-ions, presumably Tl 1+, move from the Tl double-layers to occupy Ca-sites. Upon subsequent annealing in oxygen, however, these Tl-ions escape from the lattice. Implications of this and other structural features are described.

  2. Spectral investigation of hot-spot and cavity resonance effects on the terahertz radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystal mesa structures (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kazuo; Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard


    Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures in the case of single mesa and series-connected mesas is investigated by the FTIR spectroscopic technique while observing its temperature distribution simultaneously by a SiC photoluminescence technique. Changing the bias level, sudden jumps of the hot-spot position were clearly observed. Although the radiation intensity changes drastically associated with the jump of the hot spot position, the frequency is unaffected as long as the voltage per junction is kept constant. Since the frequency of the intense radiation satisfies the cavity resonance condition, we confirmed that the cavity resonance is of primarily importance for the synchronization of whole intrinsic Josephson junctions in the mesa for high power radiation. This work was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for challenging Exploratory Research, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  3. C-axis Josephson plasma resonance observed in Tl(2)Ba(2)CaCu(2)O(8) superconducting thin films by use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Thorsmølle, V K; Averitt, R D; Maley, M P; Bulaevskii, L N; Helm, C; Taylor, A J


    We have unambiguously observed the c -axis Josephson plasma resonance (JPR) in high-critical-temperature (T(c)) cuprate (Tl(2)Ba(2)CaCu(2)O(8)) superconducting thin films, employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in transmission as a function of temperature in zero magnetic field. These are believed to be the first measurements of the JPR temperature dependence of a high-T(c) material in transmission. With increasing temperature, the JPR shifts from 705 GHz at 10 K to ~170 GHz at 98 K, corresponding to an increase in c-axis penetration depth from 22.4+/-0.6mum to 94+/-9mum . The linewidth of the JPR peak increases with temperature, which indicates an increase in the quasi-particle scattering rate. We have probed the onset of the c -axis phase coherence to ~0.95T(c) . The JPR vanishes above T(c) as expected.

  4. Discrepancy between integral and local composition in off-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4 kesterites: A pitfall for classification (United States)

    Schöppe, Philipp; Gurieva, Galina; Giraldo, Sergio; Martínez-Criado, Gema; Ronning, Carsten; Saucedo, Edgardo; Schorr, Susan; Schnohr, Claudia S.


    High-efficiency kesterite-based thin film solar cells typically feature Cu-poor, Zn-rich absorbers although secondary phases occur easily in non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSe4. We therefore applied high-resolution X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron nanobeam to study the local composition of a CZTSe cross section lamella cut from a sample with an integral composition of Zn/Sn = 1.37 and Cu/(Zn+Sn) = 0.55. We find submicrometer-sized ZnSe-, SnSe/SnSe2-, and even CuSe/Cu2Se-like secondary phases, while the local compositions of the kesterite are highly Zn-rich yet barely Cu-poor with 1.5 ≤ Zn/Sn ≤ 2.2 and Cu/(Zn+Sn) ˜ 1.0. Consequently, great care must be taken when relating the integral composition to other material properties including the device performance.

  5. Combinatorial search of superconductivity in Fe-B composition spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Jin


    Full Text Available We have fabricated Fe-B thin film composition spreads in search of possible superconducting phases following a theoretical prediction by Kolmogorov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217003 (2010]. Co-sputtering was used to deposit spreads covering a large compositional region of the Fe-B binary phase diagram. A trace of superconducting phase was found in the nanocrystalline part of the spread, where the film undergoes a metal to insulator transition as a function of composition in a region with the average composition of FeB2. The resistance drop occurs at 4 K, and a diamagnetic signal has also been detected at the same temperature. From the field-dependent resistive transition behavior, we estimate the upper critical field to be approximately 2 T.

  6. Testing the Itinerancy of Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8C+δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Gu, G.D.; Hücker, M.; Fauqué, B.; Perring, T.G.; Regnault, L.P.; Tranquada, J.M.


    Much of what we know about the electronic states of high-temperature superconductors is due to photoemission and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy studies of the compound Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. The demonstration of well-defined quasiparticles in the superconducting state has encouraged many theorists to apply the conventional theory of metals, Fermi-liquid theory, to the cuprates. In particular, the spin excitations observed by neutron scattering at energies below twice the superconducting gap energy are commonly believed to correspond to an excitonic state involving itinerant electrons. Here, we present the first measurements of the magnetic spectral weight of optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in absolute units. The lack of temperature dependence of the local spin susceptibility across the superconducting transition temperature, T{sub c}, is incompatible with the itinerant calculations. Alternatively, the magnetic excitations could be due to local moments, as the magnetic spectrum is similar to that in La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4}, where quasiparticles and local moments coexist.

  7. Ultrafast electron relaxation in superconducting Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. (United States)

    Perfetti, L; Loukakos, P A; Lisowski, M; Bovensiepen, U; Eisaki, H; Wolf, M


    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to study the dynamics of photoexcited electrons in optimally doped Bi{2}Sr{2}CaCu{2}O{8+delta} (Bi-2212). Hot electrons thermalize in less than 50 fs and dissipate their energy on two distinct time scales (110 fs and 2 ps). These are attributed to the generation and subsequent decay of nonequilibrium phonons, respectively. We conclude that 20% of the total lattice modes dominate the coupling strength and estimate the second momentum of the Eliashberg coupling function lambdaOmega{0}{2}=360+/-30 meV{2}. For the typical phonon energy of copper-oxygen bonds (Omega{0} approximately 40-70 meV), this results in an average electron-phonon coupling lambda<0.25.

  8. Crossovers in the out-of-plane resistivity of superconducting Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 single crystals (United States)

    Salvetat, J.-P.; Berger, H.; Halbritter, A.; Mihály, G.; Pavuna, D.; Forró, L.


    We report the in-plane (ρab) and out-of-plane (ρc) resistivities in the 4 800 K range on single crystals of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 high-Tc cuprate with Tc = 111 K (ρc/ρab approx 1000). ρab(T) exhibits "usual" linear behavior and ρc(T) follows generally metallic-like, positive slope in the 150 400 K temperature range. There is a clear crossover to semiconductor-like behavior close to Tc. However, for the first time in a chainless high-Tc cuprate we observe a crossover above 500 K due to hopping conduction. Under high pressures ( < 15 kbar) the magnitude of ρc strongly decreases, yet the ρc(T) slope does not change. This suggests that the out-of-plane charge transport is governed by the interplane tunneling rate.

  9. Possible Superconductivity at 37 K in Graphite-Sulphur Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海朋; 闻海虎; 赵志文; 李世亮


    Sulphur intercalated graphite composites with diamagnetic transitions at 6.7 and 37K are prepared. The magnetization hysteresis loops (MHL), x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and resistance have been measured. From the MHL, a slight superconducting-like penetration process is observed at 15K in the low field region. The XRD shows no large difference from the mixture of graphite and sulphur indicating that the volume of the superconducting phase (if any) is very small. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a typical semi-conducting behaviour with a saturation in the low-temperature region. This saturation is either induced by the delocalization of conducting electrons or by possible superconductivity in this system.

  10. Investigation of inter-grain critical current density in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconducting wires and its relationship with the heat treatment protocol (United States)

    Pallecchi, I.; Leveratto, A.; Braccini, V.; Zunino, V.; Malagoli, A.


    In this work we investigate the effect of each different heat treatment stage in the fabrication of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconducting wires on intra-grain and inter-grain superconducting properties. We measure magnetic critical temperature T c values and transport critical current density J c at temperatures from 4 K to 40 K and in fields up to 7 T. From an analysis of the temperature dependence of the self-field critical current density J c(T) that takes into account weak link behavior and the proximity effect, we study grain boundary (GB) transparency to supercurrents; we also establish a relationship between GB oxygenation in the different steps of the fabrication process and GB transparency to supercurrents. We find that GB oxygenation starts in the first crystallization stage, but it becomes complete in the plateau at 836 °C and in slow cooling stages and is further enhanced in the prolonged post-annealing step. Such oxygenation makes GBs more conductive, thus improving the inter-grain J c value and temperature dependence. On the other hand, from inspection of the T c values in the framework of the phase diagram dome, we find that grains are already oxygenated in the crystallization step up to the optimal doping, while successive slow cooling and post-annealing treatments further enhance the degree of overdoping, especially if carried out in oxygen atmosphere rather than in air.

  11. Possible Nodeless Superconducting Gaps in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and YBa2Cu3O7-x Revealed by Cross-Sectional Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Qiang; Yan, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Tong; Feng, Dong-Lai


    Pairing in the cuprate high-temperature superconductors and its origin remain among the most enduring mysteries in condensed matter physics. With cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy, we clearly reveal the spatial-dependence or inhomogeneity of the superconducting gap structure of Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+\\delta}$ (Bi2212) and YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-x}$ (YBCO) along their $c$-axes on a scale shorter than the interlayer spacing. By tunneling into the (100) plane of a Bi2212 single crystal and a YBCO film, we observe both U-shaped tunneling spectra with extended flat zero-conductance bottoms, and V-shaped gap structures, in different regions of each sample. On the YBCO film, tunneling into a (110) surface only reveals a U-shaped gap without any zero-bias peak. Our analysis suggests that the U-shaped gap is likely a nodeless superconducting gap. The V-shaped gap has a very small amplitude, and is likely proximity-induced by regions having the larger U-shaped gap.

  12. Spectroscopic Fingerprint of Phase-Incoherent Superconductivity in the Underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Davis, J.; Fujita, K.; Schmidt, A.R.; Kim, C.K.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.


    A possible explanation for the existence of the cuprate 'pseudogap' state is that it is a d-wave superconductor without quantum phase rigidity. Transport and thermodynamic studies provide compelling evidence that supports this proposal, but few spectroscopic explorations of it have been made. One spectroscopic signature of d-wave superconductivity is the particle-hole symmetric 'octet' of dispersive Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference modulations. Here we report on this octet's evolution from low temperatures to well into the underdoped pseudogap regime. No pronounced changes occur in the octet phenomenology at the superconductor's critical temperature T{sub c}, and it survives up to at least temperature T {approx} 1.5 T{sub c}. In this pseudogap regime, we observe the detailed phenomenology that was theoretically predicted for quasiparticle interference in a phase-incoherent d-wave superconductor. Thus, our results not only provide spectroscopic evidence to confirm and extend the transport and thermodynamics studies, but they also open the way for spectroscopic explorations of phase fluctuation rates, their effects on the Fermi arc, and the fundamental source of the phase fluctuations that suppress superconductivity in underdoped cuprates.

  13. 纳米Cu2O及其复合物的制备及光催化性能研究%Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of Nano Cuprous Oxide and Its Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥桂萍; 邱黎


    Cu2O powders and TiO2-Cu2O composite powders were prepared by chemical deposi-tion method. With prepared Cu2O nanoparticles as photocatalyst,photocatalytic oxidation degrada-tion of methylene blue solution was explored. The effects of dosage of H2O2,the initial concentration of methylene blue and composite samples on the degradation performance were investigated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the degradation efficiency was the best when the amount of H2O2 was 5mL in 30mL methylene blue solution and the initial concentration of methy-lene blue was 10mg/L,and the catalytic efficiency of TiO2-Cu2O composite powders was much high-er than that of Cu2O.%采用化学沉积法制备Cu2O粉体,并且制备了TiO2-Cu2O复合粉体。以制备的纳米Cu2O为光催化剂,对亚甲基蓝溶液进行光催化氧化降解。通过紫外-可见分光光度计考察了H2O2的加入量、亚甲基蓝的初始浓度及复合样品对降解性能的影响。结果表明,当H2O2的用量在5 mL/30 mL,亚甲基蓝的初始浓度为10 mg/L时降解效果最好;复合粉体的催化效率远高于Cu2O的光催化效率。

  14. Effects of graphene oxide (GO) on GO-Cu2O composite films grown by using electrochemical deposition for a PEC photoelectrode (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gyoum; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Lee, Won-Jae; Yoon, Jang-Hee


    In this study, GO-Cu2O composite films were grown on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) substrates with various amounts of GO by using an electrochemical deposition. We investigated the effects of the GO content on the morphological, structural, optical, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the GO-Cu2O composite film and on its XPS spectrum. The highest XRD (111) peak intensity was obtained for the 10-wt% sample, which had an optical energy band gap of 2.15 eV. However, the highest photocurrent density was -4.74 mA/cm2 for the 1-wt% sample, which had an optical energy band gap of 1.94 eV. The photocurrent density for the 1-wt% sample was approximately 1.75 times greater than that for the 0-wt% sample. From the XPS measurements, we observed that the oxygen concentration for the sample with 1-wt% GO was higher than it was for the 0-wt% GO, which may have improved the photocurrent density of the sample with 1-wt% GO.

  15. On the role of precursor powder composition in controlling microstructure, flux pinning, and the critical current density of Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox conductors (United States)

    Li, Pei; Naderi, Golsa; Schwartz, Justin; Shen, Tengming


    Precursor powder composition is known to strongly affect the critical current density (J c) of Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) wires. However, reasons for such J c dependence have not yet been fully understood, compromising our ability to achieve further optimization. We systematically examined superconducting properties, microstructural evolution and phase transformation, and grain boundaries of Bi-2212 conductors fabricated from precursor powders with a range of compositions using a combination of transport-current measurements, a quench technique to freeze microstructures at high temperatures during heat treatment, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Samples include both dip-coated tapes and round wires, among which a commercial round wire carries a high J c of 7600 A mm-2 at 4.2 K, self-field and 2600 A mm-2 at 4.2 K, 20 T, respectively. In the melt, this high-J c conductor, made using a composition of Bi2.17Sr1.94Ca0.89Cu2Ox, contains a uniform dispersion of fine alkaline-earth cuprate (AEC) and copper-free solid phases, whereas several low-J c conductors contain large AEC particles. Such significant differences in the phase morphologies in the melt are accompanied by a drastic difference in the formation kinetics of Bi-2212 during recrystallization cooling. STEM studies show that Bi-2212 grain colonies in the high-J c conductors have a high density of Bi2Sr2CuO y (Bi-2201) intergrowths, whereas a low-J c conductor, made using Bi2.14Sr1.66Ca1.24Cu1.96O x , is nearly free of them. STEM investigation shows grain boundaries in low-J c conductors are often insulated with a Bi-rich amorphous phase. High-J c conductors also show higher flux-pinning strength, which we ascribe to their higher Bi-2201 intergrowth density.

  16. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A


    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  17. 纳米Cu2+/TiO2复合材料的抗菌性能研究%Study on Antibacterial Activity of Nanometer Cu2+/TiO2 Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡啸林; 鞠剑峰


    采用溶胶凝胶法制备了不同掺杂量的纳米Cu2+/TiO2复合材料,研究其无紫外光照射时的抗菌性能.结果表明,n(Cu):n(Ti)=1:50~1:10时,纳米Cu2+/TiO2复合材料无需紫外光照射均具有较强的抗菌性能,对大肠杆菌和金黄葡萄球菌产生透明抑菌圈,直径为6~26 mm.适量掺杂时以催化机理杀菌,过量掺杂时以溶出机理杀菌.

  18. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B


    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  19. Modification of hybrid NaY/ZSM-5/IDC zeolite composite with exchanged Cu2+ and its application as ammonia gas sensor (United States)

    Lisnawati, Elsita; Krisnandi, Yuni Krisyuningsih; Triyono, Djoko


    A Modified NaY/ZSM-5/IDC zeolite composite with Cu2+ has been succsessfully prepared on the surface of quartz based Interdigitated Capacitor (IDC). The ZSM-5 was synthesized with double template using hydrothermal method and NaY zeolite was synthesized using sol-gel method. Powder XRD patterns confirmed that structures were ZSM-5 and NaY zeolites. Surface area analysis using BET method are 472,27 m2/g with pore size 2,32 nm for mesoporous ZSM-5 and 392,81 m2/g with pore size 1,6 nm for microporous NaY zeolite. NaY/ZSM-5/IDC and Cu/NaY/ZSM-5/IDC prior ammonia gas sensor testing using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method. The composite has different sensitivity in range concentration of ammonia 0-300 ppm. The Cu/NaY/ZSM5/IDC has higher sensitivity compared to NaY/ZSM5/IDC.

  20. Superconductivity (United States)


    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  1. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in a composite superconducting system (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Hong-rong; Chen, Dong-xu; Liu, Wen-xiao; Li, Fu-li


    We theoretically propose an efficient method to realize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the microwave regime through a coupled system consisting of a flux qubit and a superconducting LC resonator. Driven by two appropriate microwave fields, the system will be trapped in the dark states. In our proposal, the control field of EIT is played by a second-order transfer rather than by a direct strong-pump field. In particular, we obtained conditions for electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in this composite system. Both theoretical and numerical results show that this EIT system benefits from the relatively long coherent time of the resonator. Since this whole system is artificial and tunable, our scheme may have potential applications in various domains.

  2. Note on the cryostatic stability of superconducting composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauster, W. F.


    A careful discussion is given of the ''equal area condition'' developed by Maddock et al. In order to make the essential points as clear as possible, analytical solutions are derived under simplifying assumptions (simple model for heat transfer by nucleate and film boiling liquid helium; constant heat conduction and specific heat) instead of using more realistic but less controllable computer calculations. A quantitative definition of the concept of a long wire is given. Numerical examples for the Maddock transition characterized by the equal area condition are given for a long superconducting composite with linear cooling and for a liquid helium-cooled resistance wire of finite length. In addition, cases are shown where instead of applying the equal area stability condition, time-dependent solutions should be considered.

  3. Tailoring bifunctional hybrid organic–inorganic nanoadsorbents by the choice of functional layer composition probed by adsorption of Cu2+ ions (United States)

    Tomina, Veronika V; Melnyk, Inna V; Zub, Yuriy L; Kareiva, Aivaras; Vaclavikova, Miroslava; Kessler, Vadim G


    Spherical silica particles with bifunctional (≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡SiCH3, ≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡Si(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3) surface layers were produced by a one-step approach using a modified Stöber method in three-component alkoxysilane systems, resulting in greatly increased contents of functional components. The content of functional groups and thermal stability of the surface layers were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and 13C and 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealing their composition and organization. The fine chemical structure of the surface in the produced hybrid adsorbent particles and the ligand distribution were further investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance (ESDR) spectroscopy using Cu2+ ion coordination as a probe. The composition and structure of the emerging surface complexes were determined and used to provide an insight into the molecular structure of the surfaces. It was demonstrated that the introduction of short hydrophobic (methyl) groups improves the kinetic characteristics of the samples during the sorption of copper(II) ions and promotes fixation of aminopropyl groups on the surface of silica microspheres. The introduction of long hydrophobic (perfluoroctyl) groups changes the nature of the surface, where they are arranged in alternately hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches. This makes the aminopropyl groups huddled and less active in the sorption of metal cations. The size and aggregation/morphology of obtained particles was optimized controlling the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations of reactants, basicity of the medium, and the process temperature. PMID:28243572

  4. Tailoring bifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic nanoadsorbents by the choice of functional layer composition probed by adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. (United States)

    Tomina, Veronika V; Melnyk, Inna V; Zub, Yuriy L; Kareiva, Aivaras; Vaclavikova, Miroslava; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G


    Spherical silica particles with bifunctional (≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡SiCH3, ≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡Si(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3) surface layers were produced by a one-step approach using a modified Stöber method in three-component alkoxysilane systems, resulting in greatly increased contents of functional components. The content of functional groups and thermal stability of the surface layers were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealing their composition and organization. The fine chemical structure of the surface in the produced hybrid adsorbent particles and the ligand distribution were further investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance (ESDR) spectroscopy using Cu(2+) ion coordination as a probe. The composition and structure of the emerging surface complexes were determined and used to provide an insight into the molecular structure of the surfaces. It was demonstrated that the introduction of short hydrophobic (methyl) groups improves the kinetic characteristics of the samples during the sorption of copper(II) ions and promotes fixation of aminopropyl groups on the surface of silica microspheres. The introduction of long hydrophobic (perfluoroctyl) groups changes the nature of the surface, where they are arranged in alternately hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches. This makes the aminopropyl groups huddled and less active in the sorption of metal cations. The size and aggregation/morphology of obtained particles was optimized controlling the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations of reactants, basicity of the medium, and the process temperature.

  5. Tailoring bifunctional hybrid organic–inorganic nanoadsorbents by the choice of functional layer composition probed by adsorption of Cu2+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Tomina


    Full Text Available Spherical silica particles with bifunctional (≡Si(CH23NH2/≡SiCH3, ≡Si(CH23NH2/≡Si(CH22(CF25CF3 surface layers were produced by a one-step approach using a modified Stöber method in three-component alkoxysilane systems, resulting in greatly increased contents of functional components. The content of functional groups and thermal stability of the surface layers were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT spectroscopy, and 13C and 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealing their composition and organization. The fine chemical structure of the surface in the produced hybrid adsorbent particles and the ligand distribution were further investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR and electron spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance (ESDR spectroscopy using Cu2+ ion coordination as a probe. The composition and structure of the emerging surface complexes were determined and used to provide an insight into the molecular structure of the surfaces. It was demonstrated that the introduction of short hydrophobic (methyl groups improves the kinetic characteristics of the samples during the sorption of copper(II ions and promotes fixation of aminopropyl groups on the surface of silica microspheres. The introduction of long hydrophobic (perfluoroctyl groups changes the nature of the surface, where they are arranged in alternately hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches. This makes the aminopropyl groups huddled and less active in the sorption of metal cations. The size and aggregation/morphology of obtained particles was optimized controlling the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations of reactants, basicity of the medium, and the process temperature.

  6. 恒电流法制备Cu2O/TiO2复合纳米管阵列异质结光电极%Fabrication Cu2O/TiO2 Composition Nanotube Array Heterojunction Photo-electrode by Galvanostatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A series of Cu2O/TiO2 composite nanotube array p-n heterojunction photo-electrodes were prepared by electrochemical anode oxidation Ti substrate in F-ions contained electrolyte,subsequently the as-prepared TiO2 nanotube array was electro-deposited in a copper lactate complex electrolyte with different times.The field-emission scanning electron microscopy show that the TiO2 nanotube array was prepared successfully,and some other nanoparticles can deposition on the top surface of the TiO2 nanotube array,meanwhile,the mass of nanoparticles can adjustment by varying electrodeposition time.In the X-ray diffraction(XRD) peak patterns,we can find out the characteristic peaks of TiO2 and Cu2O crystals.However the characteristic diffusion intensity of Cu2O is very weaker than TiO2,it is indicate that the crystallinity of the as-deposition Cu2O semiconductor is not high enough.In the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer(EDS),we can figure out the elements of Ti,Cu,O.Combine with the XRD and FE-SEM results,at last,we can point out that the Cu2O was deposited on the top of TiO2 nanotube array successfully by galvanostatic method.%通过在含F-离子的电解液中阳极氧化Ti薄片基底制备了TiO2纳米管阵列,随后通过恒电流沉积的方法在在TiO2纳米管阵列顶部原位电沉积了Cu2O纳米颗粒。场发射电子扫描显微镜显示TiO2纳米管这列被成功制备,通过恒电流电化学沉积后,TiO2纳米管阵列顶部出现大量纳米颗粒物质,并且随着沉积时间的延长,可以控制沉积物的量。通过X-射线衍射谱的特征衍射谱图我们可以发现TiO2锐钛矿的衍射峰以及相对较弱的Cu2O衍射峰,这说明Cu2O晶体的结晶度不高。在能谱(EDS)图中我们可以发现Ti、Cu、O三种元素,结合XRD以及FE-SEM结果我们可以指出,通过恒电流法确实可以在TiO2纳米管阵列顶部原位沉积Cu2O纳米颗粒。

  7. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B


    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  8. 基于 AuNPs/rGO 复合材料的电化学生物传感器用于 Cu2+痕量检测的研究%Research on Cu2 + trace detection of electrochemical biosensor based on composites of gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁崇佳; 郭川磐; 冯孝中; 王明花; 张治红


    采用液相化学共还原法制备 AuNPs/rGO 复合材料,再利用 XRD 和 SEM对其晶型和表面形貌进行考察,通过 XPS 对其固定 DNA 前后的化学组成进行分析,采用电化学交流阻抗法对其用于 Cu2+痕量检测过程中电化学性能变化进行测试.结果表明,所制备的 AuNPs/rGO 复合材料结晶性良好,与氧化石墨烯(GO)的表面形貌相比,AuNPs/rGO 复合材料表面呈现出褶皱现象,并且表面包裹了许多金纳米颗粒.XPS 分析表明 DNA 可成功地固定在 AuNPs/rGO 复合材料表面.基于 AuNPs/rGO 复合材料的电化学生物传感器对 Cu2+的最低检测限为0.02 nmol /L,比其他检测手段更加灵敏,且具有优良的选择性和重复性.%The composites of gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AuNPs/rGO)was synthesized by liquid phase one-step co-reduction method.The crystal structure and the surface morphology were character-ized by XRD and SEM.XPS was employed to characterize the chemical components before and after DNA ab-sorbed on AuNPs/rGO composites.Additionally,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)was used to measure the electrochemical property changes of Cu2 + detection.The results showed that the AuNPs/rGO com-posites had good crystal structure.Comparing with graphene oxide,there were wrinkles and gold nanoparticles on the AuNPs/rGO composites surface.The XPS spectra showed that DNA was immobilized on the AuNPs/rGO composites surface successfully.And the developed electrochemical biosensor exhibited high sensitivity toward the determination Cu2 + with a low detection limit of 0.02 nmol /L.This biosensor aslo showed high se-lectivity and reusability.

  9. Synthesis of Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries%锂离子电池用氧化亚铜/石墨烯负极材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜果春; 李新海; 王志兴; 郭华军; 张倩; 彭文杰


    A facile way was used to synthesize Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with octahedron-like morphology in aqueous solution without any surfactant. TEM images of the obtained Cu2O/rGOs reveal that the Cu2O particles and rGO distribute hierarchically and the primary Cu2O particles are encapsulated well in the graphene nanosheets. The electrochemical performance of Cu2O/rGOs is enhanced compared with bare Cu2O when they are employed as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The Cu2O/rGO composites maintain a reversible capacity of 348.4 mA⋅h/g after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. In addition, the composites retain 305.8 mA⋅h/g after 60 cycles at various current densities of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mA/g.%在不添加表面活性剂的水溶液体系中,采用水合肼作为还原剂制备得到具有八面体形貌的氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合材料。透射电镜分析表明:氧化亚铜颗粒与石墨烯在复合物中呈多层次分布,而且氧化亚铜一次颗粒很好地嵌入在石墨烯层间。相比于纯氧化亚铜,氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合材料作为锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能得到了显著的改善。在100 mA/g的电流密度下循环50次后,氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合物的可逆比容量高达348.4 mA⋅h/g,同时,在不同倍率下(50,100,200,400,800 mA/g)循环60次后,其可恢复容量仍达305.8 mA⋅h/g。

  10. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Jabbar; Irfan Qasim; M Mumtaz; K Nadeem


    Series of (Ag)x/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ) {(Ag)x/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentra-tions (i.e. x ¼ 0 ? 4.0 wt%) of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  11. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan


    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  12. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le


    Water splitting through photoelectrochemical reaction is widely regarded as a major method to generate H2 , a promising source of renewable energy to deal with the energy crisis faced up to human being. Efficient exploitation of visible light in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination with the short distance for charge carrier diffusion and light-scattering properties. This work is based on TiO2 NTPC electrode by the optimized two-step anodization method from our group. A highly crystalized p-type Cu2O layer was deposited by optimized pulse potentiostatic electrochemical deposition onto TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the visible light absorption of a pure p-type TiO2 substrate and to build a p-n junction at the interface to improve the PEC performance. However, because of the real photocurrent of Cu2O is far away from its theoretical limit and also poor stability in the aqueous environment, a design of rGO medium layer was added between TiO2 nanotube and Cu2O layer to enhance the photogenerated electrons and holes separation, extend charge carrier diffusion length (in comparison with those of conventional pure TiO2 or Cu2O materials) which could significantly increase photocurrent to 0.65 mA/cm2 under visible light illumination (>420 nm) and also largely improve the stability of Cu2O layer, finally lead to an enhancement of water splitting performance.

  13. Study on in situ electrochemical synthesis and Li-storage properties of Cu2S/C composites%Cu2S C复合材料的原位电化学制备及其储锂性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小中; 俞栋; 徐小虎; 汪冬冬; 李宇洁


    以葡萄糖为碳源,硫代硫酸钠为硫源,一锅法原位复合制备S/C复合材料前驱体,然后在充放电循环过程中原位电化学法制备得到了C u2 S/C复合材料,并对其作为锂离子电池正极材料的电化学储锂性能进行了研究。充放电测试结果表明, Cu2 S/C复合材料具有良好的循环性能,首次可逆容量为255•4 mAh・g -1,100次循环后容量仍保持在252•3mAh・g -1,容量衰减很少。同时,分别在0•2,0•5和1C(1C=337mA・g -1)电流密度下进行充放电性能测试,容量分别为232•8,207•6,183•8 m A h・g -1,呈现出较好的倍率性能。%In this paper , using glucose as carbon source and sodium thiosulfate as sulfur source , Cu2 S/C composite is prepared through an in situ electrochemical process by one‐pot synthesized S/C composite as precursor . As to its electrochemical lithium storage performance of lithium ion battery cathode material are studied . The experimental results show that the as‐prepared Cu2 S/C composite can deliver a reversible capacity of 255•4 mAh・g -1 at the first cycle , and a high reversible capacity of 252•3 mAh・g -1 remained even after 100 cycles ,with the negligible capacity loss .Furthermore ,the composite shows a superior rate capacity of 232•8 ,207•6 and 183•8 mAh・g-1 at a current density of 0•2 ,0•5 and 1 C (1 C=337 mA・g-1 ) .

  14. Superconductivity of composite particles in a two-channel Kondo lattice. (United States)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Kuramoto, Yoshio


    Emergence of odd-frequency s-wave superconductivity is demonstrated in the two-channel Kondo lattice by means of the dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. Around half filling of the conduction bands, divergence of an odd-frequency pairing susceptibility is found, which signals instability toward the superconductivity. The corresponding order parameter is equivalent to a staggered composite-pair amplitude with even frequencies, which involves both localized spins and conduction electrons. A model wave function is constructed for the composite order with the use of symmetry operations such as charge conjugation and channel rotations. Given a certain asymmetry of the conduction bands, another s-wave superconductivity is found that has a uniform order parameter. The Kondo effect in the presence of two channels is essential for both types of unconventional superconductivity.

  15. Magnetic measurements of superconducting glass-ceramic fine rods in Bi1Ca1Sr1Cu2Al(0.5)O(x) prepared under a temperature gradient (United States)

    Higashida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Hisanori; Michishita, Kazuo; Kubo, Yukio; Yoshida, Hiroshi


    It is shown that the crystallization of the glass precursor under a temperature gradient is very effective for preparing the superconducting glass ceramics in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system. The magnetization measurements show that the specimen prepared under a temperature gradient has a magnetization hysteresis several times larger at 4.2 K than that prepared under no temperature gradient; the coupling between superconducting grains of the former is stronger than that of the latter.

  16. Solid phase extraction of Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ ions by a new magnetic nano-composite: excellent reactivity combined with facile extraction and determination. (United States)

    Azizi, Parastou; Golshekan, Mostafa; Shariati, Shahab; Rahchamani, Jalal


    In the present study, silica magnetite mesoporous nanoparticles functionalized with a new chelating agent were synthesized and introduced as a magnetic solid phase for preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Briefly, MCM-41 mesoporous-coated magnetite nano-particles (MMNPs) with particle size lower than 15 nm were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation methods. Then, N-(4-methoxysalicylidene)-4,5-dinitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (HL) as a new chelating agent was synthesized and used for surface modification of mesoporous magnetic solid phase by dispersive liquid-liquid functionalization (DLLF) as a new rapid method to form HL functionalized mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles (MMNPs─HL). The structure and morphology of prepared sorbent were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, VSM, and TEM. Finally, the prepared nanoparticles were utilized for preconcentration of Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ ions prior to determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The calibration graph was obtained under the optimized conditions with linear dynamic range of 1.0-300 μg L(-1) and correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.998. The detection limits of this method for cobalt, nickel, and copper ions were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of the analyte ions in natural waters and reference plant samples.

  17. Nodal and nodeless gap in proximity-induced superconductivity: Application to monolayer CuO2 on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ substrate (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Wei-Qiang


    We present a detailed analysis on the hopping between monolayer CuO2 and bulk CuO2 plane in the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ substrate. With a two-band model, we demonstrate that the nodeless gap can only exist when the hole concentration in the monolayer CuO2 plane is very large. We argue that the possible phase separation may play an important role in the recent experimental observation of a nodeless gap.

  18. Superconducting characteristics of 4-Å carbon nanotube-zeolite composite

    KAUST Repository

    Lortz, Rolf W.


    We have fabricated nanocomposites consisting of 4-A carbon nanotubes embedded in the 0.7-nm pores of aluminophosphate- five (AFI) zeolite that display a superconducting specific heat transition at 15 K. MicroRaman spectra of the samples show strong and spatially uniform radial breathing mode (RBM) signals at 510 cm-1 and 550 cm-1, characteristic of the (4,2) and (5,0) nanotubes, respectively. The specific heat transition is suppressed at >2T, with a temperature dependence characteristic of finite-size effects. Comparison with theory shows the behavior to be consistent with that of a type II BCS superconductor, characterized by a coherence length of 14 ± 2 nm and a magnetic penetration length of 1.5 ± 0.7 μm. Four probe and differential resistance measurements have also indicated a superconducting transition initiating at 15 K, but the magnetoresistance data indicate the superconducting network to be inhomogeneous, with a component being susceptible to magnetic fields below 3 T and other parts capable of withstanding a magnetic field of 5Tor beyond.

  19. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications (United States)

    Halloran, John W.


    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  20. Superconducting composite with multilayer patterns and multiple buffer layers (United States)

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.


    An article of manufacture including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of a material selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, curium oxide, dysprosium oxide, erbium oxide, europium oxide, iron oxide, gadolinium oxide, holmium oxide, indium oxide, lanthanum oxide, manganese oxide, lutetium oxide, neodymium oxide, praseodymium oxide, plutonium oxide, samarium oxide, terbium oxide, thallium oxide, thulium oxide, yttrium oxide and ytterbium oxide over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superco n FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of superconducting articles having two distinct regions of superconductive material with differing in-plane orientations whereby the conductivity across the boundary between the two regions can be tailored. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  1. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, C. (General Dynamics Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)); McColskey, D. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)); Acree, R. (Phillips Lab., Edwards Air Force Base, CA (United States))


    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  2. Doping dependence of electronic structure in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (United States)

    Onellion, M.; Christensen, S.; Frazer, B.; Gatt, R.; Kelley, R. J.; Misra, S.; Schmauder, T.; Berger, H.; Grioni, M.; Margaritondo, G.; Vobornik, I.; Zwick, F.; Möâle, M.; Kleiner, R.; Müller, P.


    We report on angle-resolved photoemission and superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunneling measurements of the normal and superconducting states of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x-native oxide-lead (S-I-S) tunnel junctions.(1-7).

  3. Crystallographic texturing in Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconducting composites (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rose, Robert M.


    Crystallographic texturing in Nb3Sn composites, fabricated by both the external diffusion and the commercial bronze processes, has been investigated. In the external-diffusion-processed composite the as-drawn texture of the copper matrix contained ca. 55% and 45% ; after recrystallization at 650 °C for 16 h this changed to 70% and 30% . Tin plating and reaction heat treatment for 40 h at 650 °C eliminated most of the texturing. In a commercial bronze-processed composite a or texture was obtained in the as-drawn bronze matrix, and after a reaction heat treatment at 700 °C for 30 h a diffuse texture was developed. In both composites the Nb3Sn reaction layer exhibited no preferred orientation.

  4. Theory analysis of critical-current degeneration in bended superconducting tapes of multifilament composite Bi2223/Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peifeng; Wang, Xingzhe, E-mail:


    Highlights: • We proposed an empirical model to describe carrying-current degradation of bent Bi2223/Ag tapes. • Asymmetric damage of superconductor multifilament is taken into account. • Both the loading and unloading processes of bend deformation are captured. • Carrying-current property can be improved by designing configuration of the multifilament core. - Abstract: This paper proposed a degradation model to explore the influence of the mechanical bending deformation on the critical-current of superconducting composite Bi2223/Ag tape taking into account the asymmetric mechanical damage. With the aid of Weibull distribution function of statistical damage of filaments, the critical-current dependence upon bending strain of the superconducting tape in processes of loading and unloading is characterized. The degradation profile of critical-current in the superconducting composite tape is theoretically investigated by the proposed model for different critical damage strains and configurations of superconducting multifilament core at the cross-section. It is shown that the theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data, and the configuration of the multifilament core of the superconducting composite tape has a significant influence on the critical-current degradation. The superconducting multifilament core located near the compression region of the cross-section remarkably improves the mechanical and carrying-current capabilities of the superconducting composite tape.

  5. High-temperature processing of oxide superconductors and superconducting oxide-silver oxide composite (United States)

    Wu, M. K.; Loo, B. H.; Peters, P. N.; Huang, C. Y.


    High temperature processing was found to partially convert the green 211 phase oxide to 123 phase. High Tc superconductivity was observed in Bi-Sr-Cu-O and Y-Sr-Cu-O systems prepared using the same heat treatment process. High temperature processing presents an alternative synthetic route in the search for new high Tc superconductors. An unusual magnetic suspension with enhancement in critical current density was observed in the 123 and AgO composite.

  6. Magnetic field expulsion in superconducting granular ceramics and in polymer/superconductor composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlhachemi, A. [Univ. de Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. des Materiaux Multiphases et Interfaces]|[Lab. de Chimie des Solides, Faculte des Sciences, Univ. Ibnou Zohr, Agadir (Morocco); Fremy, M.A.; Breandon, C.; Tatarenko, H.; Gavarri, J.R. [Univ. de Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. des Materiaux Multiphases et Interfaces; Benyaich, H. [Lab. de Chimie des Solides, Faculte des Sciences, Univ. Ibnou Zohr, Agadir (Morocco)


    The magnetic interaction between a permanent magnet and superconducting ceramics such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} and Bi{sub 1.6}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub (10+} {sub de} {sub lta)} depend on the superconducting state of each phase and on the junctions between grains. In the case of polymer/superconductor composites, screening effects depend on the volume fraction of superconductor. Measurements of the evolution of the levitation force (F=A/d{sup {gamma}}) as a function of the interaction distance d are used to characterize the effective response of the ceramics or composites to the magnetic flux penetration. Some of the abnormal variations of the exponent {gamma} and of the term A (in F=A/d{sup {gamma}}) could be reinterpreted in terms of a change in superconducting regime. Other observed variations of {gamma} should be due to the variation of the effective field from the cylindrical magnet. (orig.) 19 refs.

  7. Ag doped (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ textured rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez, J. C.


    Full Text Available In this work, superconducting samples of (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ with Ag additions have been studied. (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ + x wt.% Ag (with x = 0, 1 and 3 powders were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The obtained powders were used as precursors to fabricate long textured cylindrical bars through a floating zone melting method. A drastic change on the microstructure has been found when comparing with undoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ samples. The results showed that electrical resistivity at room temperature, critical current as well as flexural strength are improved when Ag is added to these Pb doped samples, while critical temperature does not change. On the other hand, it has been found that samples with composition (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ + Ag shown E-I curves with very high sharpness values on the zone of the superconducting to normal transition, reaching n-values (E∼In as high as 45 at 65K.Se han preparado polvos cerámicos de composición (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ + x % Ag en peso (con x = 0, 1 y 3 mediante un proceso sol-gel. Estos polvos se han utilizado para fabricar precursores que se texturaron por medio del método de fusión zonal flotante. Se ha encontrado un gran cambio en la microestructura cuando se compara con muestras de composición pura Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. Tanto la resistividad eléctrica a temperatura ambiente, como la corriente crítica, así como la resistencia a flexión se mejoran cuando la Ag se adiciona a estas muestras dopadas con Pb, mientras que no se observa cambio en la temperatura crítica. Por otra parte, se ha encontrado que las muestras de composición (Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2CaCu2O8+δ + Ag presentan una gran pendiente de la curva E-I en la zona de transición entre el estado superconductor y el estado normal. Con estas composiciones, se han encontrado valores de n (E∼In de hasta 45 a 65K.

  8. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation (United States)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng


    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  9. Effects of critical fluctuations and dimensionality on the jump in specific heat at the superconducting transition temperature: Application to YBa2Cu3O7 -δ ,Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ , and KOs2O6 compounds (United States)

    Keumo Tsiaze, R. M.; Wirngo, A. V.; Mkam Tchouobiap, S. E.; Fotue, A. J.; Baloïtcha, E.; Hounkonnou, M. N.


    We report on a study of the superconducting order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations in YBa2Cu3O7 -δ ,Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ , and KOs2O6 compounds. A nonperturbative technique within the framework of the renormalized Gaussian approach is proposed. The essential features are reported (analytically and numerically) through Ginzburg-Landau (GL) model-based calculations which take into account both the dimension and the microscopic parameters of the system. By presenting a self-consistent approach improvement on the GL theory, a technique for obtaining corrections to the asymptotic critical behavior in terms of nonuniversal parameters is developed. Therefore, corrections to the specific heat and the critical transition temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional samples are found taking into account the fact that fluctuations occur at all length scales as the critical point of a system is approached. The GL model in the free-field approximation and the 3D-X Y model are suitable for describing the weak and strong fluctuation regimes respectively. However, with a modified quadratic coefficient, the renormalized GL model is able to explain certain experimental observations including the specific heat of complicated systems, such as the cup-rate superconductors and the β -pyrochlore oxides. It is clearly shown that the enhancement, suppression, or rounding of the specific heat jump of high-Tc cup-rate superconductors at the transition are indicative of the order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations according to the dimension and the nature of interactions.

  10. Effects of critical fluctuations and dimensionality on the jump in specific heat at the superconducting transition temperature: Application to YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ},Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ}, and KOs_{2}O_{6} compounds. (United States)

    Keumo Tsiaze, R M; Wirngo, A V; Mkam Tchouobiap, S E; Fotue, A J; Baloïtcha, E; Hounkonnou, M N


    We report on a study of the superconducting order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ},Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ}, and KOs_{2}O_{6} compounds. A nonperturbative technique within the framework of the renormalized Gaussian approach is proposed. The essential features are reported (analytically and numerically) through Ginzburg-Landau (GL) model-based calculations which take into account both the dimension and the microscopic parameters of the system. By presenting a self-consistent approach improvement on the GL theory, a technique for obtaining corrections to the asymptotic critical behavior in terms of nonuniversal parameters is developed. Therefore, corrections to the specific heat and the critical transition temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional samples are found taking into account the fact that fluctuations occur at all length scales as the critical point of a system is approached. The GL model in the free-field approximation and the 3D-XY model are suitable for describing the weak and strong fluctuation regimes respectively. However, with a modified quadratic coefficient, the renormalized GL model is able to explain certain experimental observations including the specific heat of complicated systems, such as the cup-rate superconductors and the β-pyrochlore oxides. It is clearly shown that the enhancement, suppression, or rounding of the specific heat jump of high-T_{c} cup-rate superconductors at the transition are indicative of the order parameter thermodynamic fluctuations according to the dimension and the nature of interactions.

  11. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by hybrid sputtering (United States)

    Tanaka, Tooru; Nagatomo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ogawa, Hiroshi


    In order to fabricate Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films, hybrid sputtering system with two sputter sources and two effusion cells is used. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films are fabricated by the sequential deposition of metal elements and annealing in S flux, varying the substrate temperature. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films with stoichiometric composition are obtained at the substrate temperature up to 400 °C, whereas the film composition becomes quite Zn-pool at the substrate temperature above 450 °C. The Cu2ZnSnS4 film shows p-type conductivity, and the optical absorption coefficient and the band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 film prepared in this experiment are suitable for fabricating a thin film solar cell.

  12. Annealing Effects of Sputtered Cu2O Nanocolumns on ZnO-Coated Glass Substrate for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O films were prepared on an indium tin oxide glass substrate by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering using a high-purity Cu target. The temperature of annealing was varied to obtain Cu2O thin films with various elements, compositions, and surface structures. The p-Cu2O thin films thus formed were characterized by FESEM and XRD. After annealing at 500∘C, the bilayer structure which consisted of Cu nanoclusters on the surface of a film of Cu2O nanocolumns was observed. The Cu2O solar cell with the bilayered structure exhibited poor power conversion efficiency.

  13. Representation of A15 composition and TC in internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting strands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andre; SULPICE; Jean-Louis; SOUBEYROUX; Christophe; VERWAERDE; Gia; Ky; HOANG


    Four sets of mono-element (ME) and two kinds of multifilament (MF) internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting strands were designed and fabricated through RRP method in which different compoment ratios, various composite configurations and some third element alloying were arranged. All the strand samples underwent a 210°C/50 h + 340°C/25 h thermal duration for Cu-Sn alloying. After that A15 phase formation heat treatment (HT) was applied for which the ME samples were chosen at three reaction temperatures of 675°C, 700°C and 725°C for 100 h and 200 h while the MF samples at four temperatures of 650°C, 675°C, 700°C and 725°C for 128 h and 200 h. The heat-treated samples were examined for A15 phase composition distribution by X-ray EDS. SQUID magnetization measurement was used to determine critical temperature TC. The obtained results demonstrate that for fully-reacted internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconductors the A15 phase composition and the intrinsic property TC are determined by the diffusion and solid state reaction mechanism and are independent of the factors including HT temperature, strand composite component and configuration arrangement, and the third element addition within the experimental range.

  14. Superconductivity in the high-Tc Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system - Phase identification (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Prewitt, C. T.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N. L.; Finger, L. W.


    Four phases are observed in superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O samples. The superconducting phase, with onset temperature near 120 K, is a 15.4-A-layered compound with composition near Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2O9 and an A-centered orthorhombic unit subcell 5.41 x 5.44 x 30.78 A. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data are consistent with a structure of alternating perovskite and Bi2O2 layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal a b-axis superstructure of 27.2 A, numerous (001) stacking faults, and other defects.

  15. Development of Industrially Produced Composite Quench Heaters for the LHC Superconducting Lattice Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Szeless, Balázs; Calvone, F


    The quench heaters are vital elements for the protection of the LHC superconducting lattice magnets in the case of resistive transitions of the conductor. The basic concept of magnet protection and technical solutions are briefly presented. The quench heater consists of partially copper clad stainless steel strips sandwiched in between electric insulating carrier foils with electrical and mechanical properties such as to withstand high voltages, low temperatures, pressures and ionizing radiation. Testing of some commercial available electric insulation foils, polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketon (PEEK) and polyarylate (PA) and combinations of adhesive systems which are suitable for industrial processing are described. Possible industrial methods for series production for some 80 km of these composite quench heaters are indicated.

  16. Direct Observation of Long-Term Durability of Superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-Ag2O Composites (United States)

    Lin, Juhn-Jong; Lin, Yong-Han; Huang, Shiu-Ming; Lee, Tsang-Chou; Chen, Teng-Ming


    We report direct observation of long-term durability of superconductivity of several YBa2Cu3O7-Ag2O composites that were first prepared and studied almost fourteen years ago [J. J. Lin et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29 (1990) 497]. Remeasurements performed recently on both resistances and magnetizations indicate a sharp critical transition temperature at 91 K. We also find that such long-term environmental stability of high-temperature superconductivity can only be achieved in YBa2Cu3O7 with Ag2O addition, but not with pure Ag addition.

  17. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell. (United States)

    Shuai, Xuemin; Shen, Wenzhong; Hou, Zhaoyang; Ke, Sanmin; Xu, Chunlong; Jiang, Cheng


    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications.

  18. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu


    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  19. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  20. Low-energy (CaCu{2}O{8+δ}. (United States)

    Plumb, N C; Reber, T J; Koralek, J D; Sun, Z; Douglas, J F; Aiura, Y; Oka, K; Eisaki, H; Dessau, D S


    Using low photon energy angle-resolved photoemission, we study the low-energy dispersion along the nodal (π,π) direction in Bi{2}Sr{2}CaCu{2}O{8+δ} as a function of temperature. Less than 10 meV below the Fermi energy, the high-resolution data reveal a novel "kinklike" feature in the electron self-energy that is distinct from the larger well-known kink roughly 70 meV below E{F}. This new kink is strongest below the superconducting critical temperature and weakens substantially at higher temperatures. A corollary of this finding is that the Fermi velocity v{F}, as measured in this low-energy range, varies rapidly with temperature-increasing by almost 30% from 70 to 110 K. The behavior of v{F}(T) appears to shift as a function of doping, suggesting a departure from simple "universality" in the nodal Fermi velocity of cuprates.

  1. The effect of the thickness of tunneling layer on the memory properties of (Cu2O)0.5(Al2O3)0.5 high-k composite charge-trapping memory devices (United States)

    Liu, Jinqiu; Lu, Jianxin; Yin, Jiang; Xu, Bo; Xia, Yidong; Liu, Zhiguo


    The charge-trapping memory devices namely Pt/Al2O3/(Al2O3)0.5(Cu2O)0.5/SiO2/p-Si with 2, 3 and 4 nm SiO2 tunneling layers were fabricated by using RF magnetron sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques. At an applied voltage of ±11 V, the memory windows in the C-V curves of the memory devices with 2, 3 and 4 nm SiO2 tunneling layers were about 4.18, 9.91 and 11.33 V, respectively. The anomaly in memory properties among the three memory devices was ascribed to the different back tunneling probabilities of trapped electrons in the charge-trapping dielectric (Al2O3)0.5(Cu2O)0.5 due to the different thicknesses of SiO2 tunneling layer.

  2. Structural characterization and colour of MgxCu3-xV2O8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) and MgyCu2-yV2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) compositions. (United States)

    Tena, M A; García-Granda, Santiago


    In this study, MgxCu3-xV2O8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) and MgyCu2-yV2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 2) compositions were synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and CIE L* a* b* parameters measurements. Melting points of compounds Cu3V2O8 and Cu2V2O7 are 780°C and 790°C, respectively. The addition of small amounts of Mg (II), MgxCu3-xV2O8 (x < 1.0) and MgyCu2-yV2O7 (y < 0.5) fused compositions, was not sufficient to stabilize structures at 800°C. For the Mg2CuV2O8 (x = 2.0) composition fired at 800°C, Mg (II) incorporated into the monoclinic Cu3V2O8 structure stabilizes this crystalline phase. At 1000°C, orthorhombic Mg3V2O8 structure from this composition was obtained. Solid solutions with orthorhombic symmetry were detected from the prepared compositions fired at 1000°C when 1.0 ≤ x ≤ 3.0. The difference of coloration of Cu, Mg vanadates might be explained by the presence of a strong charge transfer band in visible spectra.

  3. Energy gaps in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+δ) cuprate superconductors. (United States)

    Ren, J K; Zhu, X B; Yu, H F; Tian, Ye; Yang, H F; Gu, C Z; Wang, N L; Ren, Y F; Zhao, S P


    The relationship between the cuprate pseudogap (Δ(p)) and superconducting gap (Δ(s)) remains an unsolved mystery. Here, we present a temperature- and doping-dependent tunneling study of submicron Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+δ) intrinsic Josephson junctions, which provides a clear evidence that Δ(s) closes at a temperature T(c) (0) well above the superconducting transition temperature T(c) but far below the pseudogap opening temperature T*. We show that the superconducting pairing first occurs predominantly on a limited Fermi surface near the node below T(c) (0), accompanied by a Fermi arc due to the lifetime effects of quasiparticles and Cooper pairs. The arc length has a linear temperature dependence, and as temperature decreases below T(c) it reduces to zero while pairing spreads to the antinodal region of the pseudogap leading to a d-wave superconducting gap on the entire Fermi surface at lower temperatures.

  4. The symmetry of the order parameter in highly overdoped Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+ x (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Gatt, R.; Schmauder, T.; Frazer, B.; Kelley, R. J.; Kendziora, C.; Grioni, M.; Onellion, M.; Margaritondo, G.


    We report results of an angle-resolved high-resolution photoemission study of strongly overdoped Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+ x single crystals with Tc∼60 K. We find a nonzero superconducting (SC) gap along all three high symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone, in contrast with a d-wave scenario of high temperature superconductivity. Our data indicate that both the maximum gap value and the gap anisotropy decrease with overdoping.

  5. Mechanism for Cu2+ Sorption on Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tian-Hu; PENG Shu-Chuan; XU Hui-Fang; SHI Xiao-Li; HUANG Chuan-Hui


    A single-factor experiment of copper ion adsorption on pure palygorskite was carried out to understand the Cu2+ sorption of palygorskite-an important clay mineral in soil and sedimentary rock. In addition, pH of the solution and the surface microstructure of palygorskite were investigated before and after adsorption. The experimental results indicated that efficiency of Cu2+ removal was related to the oscillation rate of the specimen shaker, sorption time, initial pH value and the amount of adsorbent added. Palygorskite induced Cu2+ hydrolysis and interaction between copper hydroxide colloids and palygorskite surfaces, as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were the main contributions to palygorskite removal of Cu2+. This mechanism was different from adsorption at the mineral-water interface. It was proposed that surface hydrolysis of palygorskite raised the alkalinity of the palygorskite-water interface and suspension system. Thus, the induced pH of the solution was then high enough for Cu2+ hydrolysis on the mineral surface and in solution.

  6. Detection of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases in co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films (United States)

    Schwarz, Torsten; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana; Mousel, Marina; Redinger, Alex; Siebentritt, Susanne; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Raabe, Dierk; Choi, Pyuck-Pa


    Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films for photovoltaic applications are investigated using combined atom probe tomography and ab initio density functional theory. The atom probe studies reveal nano-sized grains of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 composition, which cannot be assigned to any known phase reported in the literature. Both phases are considered to be metastable, as density functional theory calculations yield positive energy differences with respect to the decomposition into Cu2ZnSnSe4 and ZnSe. Among the conceivable crystal structures for both phases, a distorted zinc-blende structure shows the lowest energy, which is a few tens of meV below the energy of a wurtzite structure. A band gap of 1.1 eV is calculated for both the Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases. Possible effects of these phases on solar cell performance are discussed.

  7. Cu2ZnSiS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rosmus


    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cu2ZnSiS4, dicopper(I zinc silicon tetrasulfide, have been prepared via high-temperature solid-state synthesis. Cu2ZnSiS4 was found to have the wurtz-stannite structure type, like that of Li2CdGeS4, Li2CdSnS4, and Cu2CdSiS4. Each sulfur anion is tetrahedrally coordinated by two Cu cations, one Si cation, and one Zn cation, forming a three-dimensional honeycomb structure. When viewed along the c axis, the atoms are aligned in rows in which each cation alternates with the sulfur anions.

  8. Interface characterization of Al/Cu 2-ply composites under various loading conditions%不同负载条件下Al/Cu双层复合材料的界面特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang Seok LEE; Su Eun LEE; Yong-Nam KWON


    The effects of reduction ratio during roll bonding on the microstructural evolution at interface and subsequent mechanical properties of roll-bonded Al/Cu 2-ply sheets were investigated. The interface microstructures for several Al/Cu 2-ply sheets fabricated under different reduction ratios between 30%and 65%were verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Taking the difference of interface microstructure into consideration, 3-point bending and peel tests were performed for obtaining flexural and bonding strengths for Al/Cu 2-ply sheets. The effect of the quantified areas of metallurgical bonding at interfaces on the bonding strength was also discussed. The results show that both the bonding and flexural strengths for Al/Cu 2-ply sheets are reduced by decreasing the reduction ratio during the roll bonding process, which is strongly correlated with the interface microstructure. This was especially verified by observing the interface delamination from the 3-point bent samples.%研究叠轧过程压下量对轧制Al/Cu双层板界面微观组织及力学性能的影响。采用透射电镜观察压下量为30%~65%时Al/Cu双层的界面微观组织。针对不同的界面组织,分别采用三点弯曲试验和剥离试验测试Al/Cu双层板的弯曲强度和连接强度。讨论了界面冶金接量对其连接强度的影响。结果表明,叠轧时随着压下量减小,Al/Cu双层板的弯曲强度、连接强度均降低,这主要与材料界面组织密切相关。三点弯曲试验也验证了这一点。

  9. Thermally Activated Dissipation in Bi2.2Sr2Ca0.8Cu2O8+δ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, T.T.M.; Batlogg, B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.


    A new dissipation behavior is reported in superconducting Bi2.2Sr2Ca0.8Cu2O8+δ for all temperatures below Tc and all magnetic fields exceeding Hc1. The current-independent electrical resistivity is thermally activated and can be described by an Arrhenius law with a single prefactor and a

  10. Scanning SQUID microscopy of local superconductivity in inhomogeneous combinatorial ceramics. (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jürg


    Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115 K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80 μm) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2Ca3Ba2Cu4O12, TlCaBaSrCu2O(7-δ), BaPb(0.5)Bi(0.25)Tl(0.25)O(3-δ), TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and YBa2Cu3O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties.

  11. MAXIMSUPER: a computer program to assist in the design of multifilamentary superconducting composites. [Nb/sub 3/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoard, R.W.; Scanlan, R.M.; Hirzel, D.G.


    The strain degradation of critical current density has been analytically and experimentally investigated for multifilamentary superconducting composites produced in a bronze core geometry. Analytic results were obtained from a computer program (MAXIMSUPER) which predicts the stresses and strains in composites as a result of thermal and axial loading. Tensile test data for Nb/sub 3/Sn are described. It is believed that the strain dependence of the critical current found in Nb/sub 3/Sn is due to strain enhanced martensitic transformation.

  12. Superconductivity of Ag-added composites of Hg-1223 grained Bean model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, M.; Akune, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, 813-8503 Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, 813-8503 Fukuoka (Japan)], E-mail:; Khan, H.R. [Institut von Ionenstrahl und Vakuum Technologie, 73728 Esslingen (Germany); Lueders, K. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, 14 Arnimallee, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    High-T{sub c} ceramics tend to lower its quality by the aging effect. The main cause of the degradation is considered to originate in the link region among the superconducting grains. The preservation and recovery of superconductivity by reinforcement of the grain boundary is an important issue for high-T{sub c} application. A quantitative analysis of the contribution due to the grain and link is necessary and the grained Bean model is proposed, where the superconducting phases are immersed in the matrix link superconductor. Difference of the superconducting characteristics of the grain, the link and grain content factor give a variety of deformation on the AC susceptibility curves. Comparing the observed data with the numerically computed model allows more clear insight between the grain and intergrain structure.

  13. Highly flexible, mechanically robust superconducting wire consisting of NbN-carbon-nanotube nanofibril composites (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kang, Haeyong; Kim, Joonggyu; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    A flexible superconducting fiber is prepared by twisting carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets coated with sputter-deposited niobium nitride (NbN) layer to form the shape of yarn. Twisted CNT yarn, which has been extensively studied due to its high flexibility as well as excellent mechanical properties, and NbN, which is a superconducting material with high transition temperature (Tc) and critical magnetic field (Hc), are combined together by the deposition of NbN layer on free-standing CNT-sheet substrate followed by the biscrolling process. We tried many experimental conditions to investigate the superconducting properties of NbN-CNT yarn as a function of NbN thickness and number of CNT-sheet layers, and found out that the superconducting property of NbN on CNT-sheet can be comparable to that of NbN thin film on the normal solid substrate. In addition, the superconducting property survived even under the condition of severe mechanical deformation such as knotting. These results show the potential application of this technology as a large-scale fabrication method of flexible, mechanically robust, high performance superconducting wire. This work is supported by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R011-D1), and by the National Research Foundation (BSR-2013R1A1A1076063) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning, Republic of Korea.

  14. A study of the pseudogap state in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy HTSC materials (United States)

    Aliev, V. M.; Mamedova, A. N.; Raqimov, S. S.; Selim-zade, R. I.; Tairov, B. A.


    We examine the effect of replacing calcium by zinc has on the transport properties of the BiSrCaCuO-2221 system. It is shown that the critical temperatures Tc of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox(B1) and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2) samples are close (81 K and 80.72 K). However, the resistivity ρ of the Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy sample increases considerably, and the ratio ρB2/ρB1 ≈ 10 at 100 K. We use the local pair model to analyze the mechanism behind the formation of excess conductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2), with consideration of the Aslamazov-Larkin theory near Tc. We determined the temperature T0 of the transition from the 2D fluctuation area to the 3D region (i.e., the 2D-3D crossover temperature). We calculated the coherence length of the fluctuation Cooper pairs along the c axis, ξc(0). It is shown that substituting Zn for Ca reduces ξc(0) by almost 1.5 times (4.8 Å and 3.3 Å, respectively), and also leads to a narrowing of both the pseudogap region and the superconducting fluctuation area near Tc. We determined the temperature dependence of the pseudogap Δ * T and Δ * (Tc). The increase of ρ, its specific temperature dependence and the significant decrease of T * in sample B2, all point to the destruction of local pairs at all high temperatures, i.e., to the suppression of the pseudogap by Zn doping.

  15. Centre seeded infiltration and growth process for fabrication of large grain bulk YBCO/Ag superconducting composites (United States)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Seshubai, V.


    We report the fabrication of a large grain bulk YBCO/Ag superconductor using a novel technique which we call Centre Seeded Infiltration and Growth Process (CSIGP). Using this technique, it has been made possible to get bulk YBCO/Ag composite sample with uniform grain growth textured along the c-axis. The resulting large grain sample has been found to have high critical current densities up to large magnetic fields. We correlate the improved superconducting and magnetic properties to the modified grain growth conditions employed in this fabrication technique.

  16. Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of copper in liquid media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syed Hamad; G Krishna Podagatlapalli; Surya P Tewari; S Venugopal Rao


    Copper complex nanoparticles were fabricated from bulk copper using picosecond laser ablation in water and chloroform. We found that composition of the nanoparticles was CuCl and Cu2OCl2 in chloroform at three different input fluences; Cu2O in water which was confirmed from the data of EDAX, UV-Visible absorption spectra, and selected area electron diffraction pattern. We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities.

  17. Polyaniline nanofibers assembled on alginate microsphere for Cu2+ and Pb2+ uptake. (United States)

    Jiang, Nina; Xu, Yiting; Dai, Yuqiong; Luo, Weiang; Dai, Lizong


    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers were assembled on the micro- or millimeter-scale calcium alginate (CA) beads by "competitive adsorption-restricted polymerization" approach. The CA beads made the dimensional expansion of PANI nanofibers evident, which overcame the serious aggregation of PANI nanofibers and benefited the practical operation of PANI nanofibers. Batch adsorption results showed that the millimeter-scale CA beads decorated by PANI nanofibers had high affinity to Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions. The removal percentages of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by this PANI/CA composite with milli/nano hierarchical structure surpassed 90% in a wide pH range from 3 to 7. Sorption of the two kinds of ions to PANI/CA composite sorbent agreed well with the Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetic results of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium within 120min and 40min, respectively. And their adsorption rates could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The desorption percentages of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) from this PANI/CA composite are 62% and 75%, respectively. The Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) removal capacity of the sorbent could be further reinforced when the diameter of CA beads turned from millimeter to micrometer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and composition of the superconducting phase in alkali iron selenide KyFe1.6+xSe2 (United States)

    Carr, Scott V.; Louca, Despina; Siewenie, Joan; Huang, Q.; Wang, Aifeng; Chen, Xianhui; Dai, Pengcheng


    We use neutron diffraction to study the temperature evolution of the average structure and local lattice distortions in insulating and superconducting potassium iron selenide KyFe1.6+xSe2. In the high temperature paramagnetic state, both materials have a single phase with a crystal structure similar to that of the BaFe2As2 family of iron pnictides. While the insulating KyFe1.6+xSe2 forms a √5 ×√5 iron vacancy ordered block antiferromagnetic (AF) structure at low temperature, the superconducting compounds spontaneously phase separate into an insulating part with √5 ×√5 iron vacancy order and a superconducting phase with chemical composition of KzFe2Se2 and BaFe2As2 structure. Therefore, superconductivity in alkaline iron selenides arises from alkali deficient KzFe2Se2 in the matrix of the insulating block AF phase.

  19. Template free-solvothermaly synthesized copper selenide (CuSe, Cu 2- xSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) hexagonal nanoplates from different precursors at low temperature (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Singh, Kedar; Srivastava, O. N.


    Nonstoichiometric (Cu 2- xSe) and stoichiometric (CuSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates have been synthesized using different general and convenient copper sources, e.g. copper chloride, copper sulphate, copper nitrate, copper acetate, elemental copper with elemental selenium, friendly ethylene glycol and hydrazine hydrate in a defined amount of water at 100 °C within 12 h adopting the solvothermal method. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the product have been well studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDAX) techniques. The structural and compositional analysis revealed that the products were of pure phase with corresponding atomic ratios. SEM, TEM and HRTEM analyses revealed that the nanoplates were in the range 200-450 nm and the as-prepared products were uniform and highly crystallized. The nanoplates consisted of {0 0 1} facets of top-bottom surfaces and {1 1 0} facets of the other six side surfaces. This new approach encompasses many advantages over the conventional solvothermal method in terms of product quality (better morphology control with high yield) and reaction conditions (lower temperatures). Copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates obtained by the described method could be potential building blocks to construct functional devices and solar cell. This work may open up a new rationale on designing the solution synthesis of nanostructures for materials possessing similar intrinsic crystal symmetry. On the basis of the carefully controlled experiments mentioned herein, a plausible formation mechanism of the hexagonal nanoplates was suggested and discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on nonstoichiometric (Cu 2- xSe) as well as stoichiometric (CuSe, β-Cu 2Se and Cu 2Se) copper selenide hexagonal nanoplates with

  20. Effects of Cu2+ on characteristic of SV currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Liping; YANG; Pin


    Applying the patch-clamp technique to vacuoles from Radish we studied the effects of Cu2+ on Slow Vacuolar (SV) current's characteristic. Our results show that Cu2+ in bath solution at higher concentration inhibits SV currents and the percentage of inhibition increases with increasing concentration and changes with different voltage. When at lower concentration, Cu2+ significantly promotes the SV currents and the promotion ratio decrease with increasing voltage. At the same time, the time constants of activation become lesser after adding Cu2+. These results show that there may be some Cu2+ binding sites on SV channels and binding to which can change SV current's characteristic.

  1. One-pot synthesis of hierarchical Cu2O/Cu hollow microspheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity (United States)

    Hong, Tianjie; Tao, Feifei; Lin, Jiudong; Ding, Wei; Lan, Mingxuan


    The hierarchical Cu2O/Cu hollow microspheres have been fabricated by the one-pot solvothermal redox method, which is one-step approach without any surfactant and template. By using the HRTEM, XRD, XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy, the as-prepared product is composed of Cu2O and Cu with energy band gap of 1.72 eV. Based on the time-dependent experiments, the content of Cu2O and Cu compositions can be effectively controlled by adjusting the reaction time and a possible mechanism is proposed. In addition, using various dye molecules to stimulate pollutants, the hierarchical Cu2O/Cu hollow microspheres reacted for 8 h exhibit excellent visible-light photocatalytic activities, which is much higher than those of the Cu2O/Cu catalysts formed at the shorter reaction time, commercial Cu2O powder and the mixture of alone Cu2O and Cu. This enhanced photocatalytic performance makes these hierarchical Cu2O/Cu hollow microspheres a kind of efficient visible-light photocatalyst in removing some organic compounds in wastewater.

  2. Studies on the interaction between 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions: Spectroscopic and theoretical calculation approach (United States)

    Gu, Zhenyan; Lei, Wu; Shi, Wenyan; Hao, Qingli; Si, Weimeng; Xia, Xifeng; Wang, Fengxiang


    The interaction between 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) and Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions was investigated using fluorescence, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopies and theoretical calculation. The optical property of FMOC-Cl was studied in detail in absence and presence of various transition metal ions with particular affinity to Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions. With the fluorescence characteristic band centered at 307 and 315 nm for FMOC-Cl, the introduction of Fe3+ or Cu2+ ions leads to the fluorescence quenching of FMOC-Cl with different shift and intensities of two fluorescent bands. It allows us to differentiate between FMOC-Cl and Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions interaction behavior. The study on fluorescent kinetics confirms that the fluorescence quenching of FMOC-Cl with Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions is based on the formation of non-fluorescent material, that is, static quenching. Further analyses of bond lengths, Mulliken atomic charges and the frontier orbital compositions for FMOC-Cl and its complexes with Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions were carried out. The theoretical calculations prove the fluorescence quenching originates from the formation of coordination bonds between the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group of FMOC-Cl and Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions. The commercially available FMOC-Cl can be used as excellent fluorescent probe toward Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions with high sensitivity.

  3. Cu2+ in layered compounds: origin of the compressed geometry in the model system K2ZnF4:Cu2+. (United States)

    Aramburu, J A; García-Lastra, J M; García-Fernández, P; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M


    Many relevant properties (including superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance) of layered materials containing Cu(2+), Ag(2+), or Mn(3+) ions are commonly related to the Jahn-Teller instability. Along this line, the properties of the CuF6(4-) complex in the K2ZnF4 layered perovskite have recently been analyzed using a parametrized Jahn-Teller model with an imposed strain [Reinen, D. Inorg. Chem.2012, 51, 4458]. Here, we present results of ab initio periodic supercell and cluster calculations on K2ZnF4:Cu(2+), showing unequivocally that the actual origin of the unusual compressed geometry of the CuF6(4-) complex along the crystal c axis in that tetragonal lattice is due to the presence of an electric field due to the crystal surrounding the impurity. Our calculations closely reproduce the experimental optical spectrum. The calculated values of the equilibrium equatorial and axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distances are, respectively, R(ax) = 193 pm and R(eq) = 204 pm, and so the calculated distortion R(ax) - R(eq) = 11 pm is three times smaller than the estimated through the parametrized Jahn-Teller model. As a salient feature, we find that if the CuF6(4-) complex would assume a perfect octahedral geometry (R(ax) = R(eq) = 203 pm) the antibonding a(1g)*(∼3z(2) - r(2)) orbital is placed above b(1g)*(∼x(2) - y(2)) with a transition energy E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.34 eV. This surprising fact stresses that about half the experimental value E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.70 eV is not due to the small shortening of the axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distance, but it comes from the electric field, E(R)(r), created by the rest of the lattice ions on the CuF6(4-) complex. This internal field, displaying tetragonal symmetry, is thus responsible for the compressed geometry in K2ZnF4:Cu(2+) and the lack of symmetry breaking behind the ligand relaxation. Moreover, we show that the electronic energy gain in this process comes from bonding orbitals and not from antibonding ones. The present

  4. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  5. The “irreversibility line” of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal: Evidence for a phase transition (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Genicon, J. L.; Sulpice, A.; Chaussy, J.; Tournier, R.; Frison, J. C.; Chaminade, J. P.; Pouchard, M.; Etourneau, J.


    The irreversibility line H *(T) of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal varies as {ie1147-1} and diverges below 20 K. These phenomena could be related to a breakdown field of a weak superconductivity induced in BaO-TlO-TIO-BaO layer blocks by superconducting CuO layer blocks. The magnetization at the transition can be calculated assuming the existence of a second order phase transition.

  6. Spectroscopic Signatures of Defect-Induced Pair Breaking in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Onellion, M.; Margaritondo, G.; Rullier-Albenque, F.; Forró, L.; Grioni, M.


    We investigated the effect of disorder on the spectral properties of the high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. We find that small defect densities, in the low 10-3 range, already suppress the characteristic spectral signature of the superconducting state, while new excitations appear within the gap. We conclude that, due to defect-induced pair breaking, superconducting pairs and normal carriers coexist below Tc. At higher levels of disorder the normal state is also strongly affected, and the quasiparticle features progressively smeared out.

  7. Andreev Bound States at the Onset of Phase Coherence in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8). (United States)

    Aubin, H; Greene, L H; Jian, Sha; Hinks, D G


    A new technique of planar tunneling spectroscopy has been developed to access the in-plane density of states of optimally doped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8) single crystals. The low energy spectrum is observed to depend on crystallographic orientation. When tunnel current is injected nominally along the Cu-Cu bond direction, a zero-bias conductance peak is observed to appear simultaneously with the onset of bulk superconductivity. These data demonstrate the existence of surface-induced states in this system and confirm the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter.

  8. Bilayer splitting in the electronic structure of heavily overdoped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta). (United States)

    Feng, D L; Armitage, N P; Lu, D H; Damascelli, A; Hu, J P; Bogdanov, P; Lanzara, A; Ronning, F; Shen, K M; Eisaki, H; Kim, C; Shen, Z X; Shimoyama, J; Kishio, K


    The electronic structure of heavily overdoped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) is investigated by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The long-sought bilayer band splitting in this two-plane system is observed in both normal and superconducting states, which qualitatively agrees with the bilayer Hubbard model calculations. The maximum bilayer energy splitting is about 88 meV for the normal state feature, while it is only about 20 meV for the superconducting peak.

  9. Quench degradation limit of multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x round wires (United States)

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Shen, Tengming; Schwartz, Justin


    Understanding safe operating limits of composite superconducting wires is important for the design of superconducting magnets. Here we report measurements of quench-induced critical current density J c degradation in commercial Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi-2212) round wires using heater-induced quenches at 4.2 K in self magnetic field that reveal a general degradation behavior. J c degradation strongly depends on the local hot spot temperature T max, and is nearly independent of operating current, the temperature gradient along the conductor dT max/dx, and the temperature rising rate dT max/dt. Both J c and n value (where n is an index of the sharpness of the superconductor-to-normal transition) exhibit small but irreversible degradation when T max exceeds 400-450 K, and large degradation occurs when T max exceeds 550 K. This behavior was consistently found for a series of Bi-2212 wires with widely variable wire architectures and porosity levels in the Bi-2212 filaments, including a wire processed using a standard partial melt process and in which Bi-2212 filaments are porous, an overpressure processed wire in which Bi-2212 filaments are nearly porosity-free and that has a J c(4.2 K, self field) exceeding 8000 A mm-2, and a wire that has nearly no filament to filament bridges after reaction. Microstructural observations of degraded wires reveal cracks in the Bi-2212 filaments perpendicular to the wire axis, indicating that the quench-induced I c degradation is primarily driven by strain. These results further suggest that the quench degradation temperature limit depends on the strain state of Bi-2212 filaments and this dependence shall be carefully considered when engineering a high-field Bi-2212 magnet.

  10. Controllable conversion of plasmonic Cu2-xS nanoparticles to Au2S by cation exchange and electron beam induced transformation of Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell nanostructures. (United States)

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dewei; Swihart, Mark T


    Self-doped Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) were converted into monodisperse Cu2-xS-Au2S NCs of tunable composition, including pure Au2S, by cation exchange. The near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was dampened and red-shifted with increasing Au content. Cation exchange was accompanied by elimination of cation vacancies and a change in crystal structure. Partially exchanged Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell structures evolved to dumbbell-like structures under electron irradiation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  11. Electrodynamic stabilization conditions for high-temperature superconducting composites with different types of current-voltage characteristic nonlinearity (United States)

    Arkharov, A. M.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.


    The current instability is studied in high-temperature superconducting current-carrying elements with I- V characteristics described by power or exponential equations. Stability analysis of the macroscopic states is carried out in terms of a stationary zero-dimensional model. In linear temperature approximation criteria are derived that allow one to find the maximum allowable values of the induced current, induced electric field intensity, and overheating of the superconductor. A condition is formulated for the complete thermal stabilization of the superconducting composite with regard to the nonlinearity of its I- V characteristic. It is shown that both subcritical and supercritical stable states may arise. In the latter case, the current and electric field intensity are higher than the preset critical parameters of the superconductor. Conditions for these states depending on the properties of the matrix, superconductor's critical current, fill factor, and nonlinearity of the I- V characteristic are discussed. The obtained results considerably augment the class of allowable states for high-temperature superconductors: it is demonstrated that there exist stable resistive conditions from which superconductors cannot pass to the normal state even if the parameters of these conditions are supercritical.

  12. Study of iodine-intercalated Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O y single crystals (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Perez, L.; Margaritondo, G.


    Iodine intercalation in Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O y crystals enables one to modify the critical temperature, Tc, of the superconducting phase, and to obtain a semiconductor phase. This doping drastically changes the size of the unit cell. A protoemission spectroscopy study enables us to see that the decrease of the critical temperature is not related only to the change in the c-axis lattice parameter but also to an over-doping of copper planes (hole doping).

  13. Temperature-dependent photoemission features for overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x cuprates (United States)

    Rast, S.; Frazer, B. H.; Onellion, M.; Schmauder, T.; Abrecht, M.; Touzelet, O.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.


    We report temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectra for overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x single-crystal samples. The data indicate that there is a special temperature (T+) where the spectral function changes intensity, and where the energy difference between the peak and dip features changes. The data also demonstrate that immediately above the superconducting transition temperature, the system exhibits a non-Lorentzian lineshape. We discuss implications of the data.

  14. Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox Bicrystal Junction DC-SQUID Magnetometers Operating in Unshielded Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing; CHEN Geng-Hua; CHEN Geng-Hua; ZHAO Shi-Ping; YANG Qian-Sheng; YAN Sha-Lin; LU Rong-Tao


    We fabricated direct-current superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers with single layer epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox films on 36.8°SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates. The white flux noise and the field-flux transformation coeficient of the devices are 1.5×10-5 φ0(/Hz) and 40 nT/φ0, respectively. The magnetometers can work in unshielded environment.

  15. Melt-textured GdSr 2RuCu 2O 8 samples: preliminary results (United States)

    Gombos, M.; Vecchione, A.; Ciancio, R.; Sisti, D.; Uthayakumar, S.; Pace, S.


    The superposition of strongly anisotropic magnetic and superconducting properties, expected in Gd1212 (GdSr 2RuCu 2O 8), makes relevant the fabrication of oriented samples of macroscopic size by melt-texturing techniques. Starting from 1 cm diameter pellets we have grown top-seeded melt-textured samples using MgO seeds. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that a certain degree of orientation is present in our samples. Large oriented domains of millimetre size were observed by polarised light optical microscopy, larger domains are expected by optimisation of growth parameters and seed. Images show even a homogeneous distribution of Gd1210 precipitates with a mean size of a few micrometres. Resistivity measurements show a 12 K wide superconductive transition with Tc onset at about 40 K, optimisation of annealing treatments are expected to reduce this width.

  16. Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cells fabricated using Cu2SnSe3 and ZnSe bilayers (United States)

    Kim, Kang Min; Liao, Kuang Hsiang; Tampo, Hitoshi; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru


    Evaporated Cu2SnSe3 (CTSe) and ZnSe bilayers are used as precursors for the fabrication of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films. Large grains (i.e., >1 µm) in CZTSe were obtained at a relatively low annealing temperature of 500 °C. The stacking order of precursors strongly affected the chemical composition of CZTSe thin films even under identical growth conditions. Zn loss in CTSe/ZnSe/Mo precursors occurred during CTSe deposition, whereas ZnSe/CTSe/Mo precursors showed improved stability in composition. The CZTSe solar cells fabricated using ZnSe/CTSe bilayer precursors with annealing showed a conversion efficiency of over 7%.

  17. Synthesis of novel Cu2O/BiOCl heterojunction nanocomposites and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light (United States)

    Cao, Chunhua; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Chunhua; Cao, Qihua


    Novel Cu2O/BiOCl photocatalyst with unique 3D/2D structure and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity was constructed using a facile low-temperature liquid-phase method. The microstructure and properties of Cu2O/BiOCl composites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FESEM, HRTEM, BET and UV-vis/DRS. With dye X-3B as a model pollutant, the adsorption and visible-light photocatalytic activities of Cu2O/BiOCl composites were investigated, and the photocatalysis mechanism was explored. The results showed that the staggered spaces and edges of BiOCl nanosheets with about 40 nm thickness were inlaided with some Cu2O sub-microspheres, and the heterojunction structures were formed at the interface between BiOCl nanosheets and Cu2O sub-microspheres. Compared with pure Cu2O, pure BiOCl and the mechanical mixture of both, Cu2O/BiOCl composites exhibited markedly improved efficiency for photocatalytic degradation of X-3B. The unique 3D/2D and heterojunction structure in composites could increase the pore volume and BET specific surface area and improve the adsorption properties, on the other hand, it could efficiently enhance the charge carriers separation and migration. The nanocomposites with Cu2O/BiOCl molar ratio of 1:4 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The effects of various scavengers on photocatalytic efficiency revealed that the degradation of X-3B was mainly initiated by reactive radial rad O2- and h+.

  18. Single crystal growth and physical properties of SrCu2As2, SrCu2Sb2 and BaCu2Sb2 (United States)

    Anand, V. K.; Perera, P. K.; Pandey, A.; Goetsch, R. J.; Kreyssig, A.; Johnston, D. C.


    We present the physical properties of self-flux-grown single crystals of SrCu2As2, SrCu2Sb2, SrCu2(As0.84Sb0.16)2 and BaCu2Sb2 investigated by magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat Cp and electrical resistivity ρ vs. temperature T measurements. Contrasting structures occur for SrCu2As2 (ThCr2Si2-type), SrCu2Sb2 (CaBe2Ge2-type) and BaCu2Sb2 (a distorted intergrowth of ThCr2Si2-type and CaBe2Ge2-type unit cells). The χ(T) data for all these compounds exhibit weakly anisotropic diamagnetic behaviors. For 1.8 Debye lattice contributions. From the low-T Cp(T) data, we infer Sommerfeld coefficients γ = 2.2--3.9 mJ/mol,^2 and Debye temperatures θD = 204--246 K@. The electronic properties indicate that these compounds are sp metals containing Cu in a nonmagnetic 3d^10 electronic configuration.ootnotetextD. J. Singh, Phys. Rev. B 79, 153102 (2009).

  19. Critical field of two-dimensional superconducting Sn1-x/Six bimetallic composite cluster assembled films with energetic cluster impact deposition (United States)

    Kurokawa, Yuichiro; Hihara, Takehiko; Ichinose, Ikuo


    Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films have been prepared by an energetic cluster impact deposition using a plasma-gas-condensation cluster beam deposition apparatus. Transmission electron microscope images indicated that individual clusters have composite morphologies, where Sn and Si were separated from each other. The superconducting critical magnetic fields, Hc, of Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films were measured and found to be much higher than the critical magnetic field of the bulk Sn. We estimated the Hc values by using a theory of the superconducting thin film. The estimated values are in good agreement with the experiments, indicating that the Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films can be regarded as a two-dimensional system although thickness, t, of Sn1-x/Six cluster assembled films (t ≈ 1000 nm) is thicker than conventional superconducting thin film (t < 100 nm).

  20. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L


    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  1. Growth and Raman scattering characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films


    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P M P; Cunha, A. F. da


    In the present work we report the results of the growth, morphological and structural characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films prepared by sulfurization of DC magnetron sputtered Cu/Zn/Sn precursor layers. The adjustment of the thicknesses and the properties of the precursors were used to control the final composition of the films. Its properties were studied by SEM/EDS, XRD and Raman scattering. The influence of the sulfurization temperature on the morphology, composition ...

  2. Evidence for quantum critical behavior in the optimally doped cuprate Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (United States)

    Valla; Fedorov; Johnson; Wells; Hulbert; Li; Gu; Koshizuka


    The photoemission line shapes of the optimally doped cuprate Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) were studied in the direction of a node in the superconducting order parameter by means of very high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The peak width or inverse lifetime of the excitation displays a linear temperature dependence, independent of binding energy, for small energies, and a linear energy dependence, independent of temperature, for large binding energies. This behavior is unaffected by the superconducting transition, which is an indication that the nodal states play no role in the superconductivity. Temperature-dependent scaling suggests that the system displays quantum critical behavior.

  3. Signature of superfluid density in the single-particle excitation spectrum of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (United States)

    Feng; Lu; Shen; Kim; Eisaki; Damascelli; Yoshizaki; Shimoyama; Kishio; Gu; Oh; Andrus; O'Donnell; Eckstein; Shen


    We report that the doping and temperature dependence of photoemission spectra near the Brillouin zone boundary of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)exhibit unexpected sensitivity to the superfluid density. In the superconducting state, the photoemission peak intensity as a function of doping scales with the superfluid density and the condensation energy. As a function of temperature, the peak intensity shows an abrupt behavior near the superconducting phase transition temperature where phase coherence sets in, rather than near the temperature where the gap opens. This anomalous manifestation of collective effects in single-particle spectroscopy raises important questions concerning the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Superconducting optical modulator (United States)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.


    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  5. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou, Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)


    Highlights: • The electromechanical behaviors of the superconducting (SC) strand are investigated. • A 3D FEM model for bending behaviors and electric properties of strand is developed. • The influence of breakage of filaments on the critical current of SC strand is calculated. • The impact of current transfer length on the electric properties of SC strand is discussed. - Abstract: The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Interactions of disulfide-constrained cyclic tetrapeptides with Cu(2+). (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Luo, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Lidong; Jia, Liangyuan; Wu, Lifang


    The purpose of this work is to characterize the interactions of two disulfide-constrained cyclic tetrapeptides [c(Ac-Cys-Pro-Phe-Cys-NH(2)), SS1; c(Ac-Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys-NH(2)), SS2] with Cu(2+) ions in order to facilitate the design of cyclic peptides as sensors for metal ions. The Cu(2+)-peptide complex cations at m/z 569.1315 for Cu(2+)-SS1 and m/z 479.0815 for Cu(2+)-SS2 were detected by mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentation of the Cu(2+)-peptide complexes was studied by collision-induced dissociation and suggests the atoms involved in the coordination. Cu(2+) ion binds to a single SS1 or SS2 with K (d(app)) of 0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.55 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate both enthalpic and entropic contributions for the binding of Cu(2+) ion to SS1 and SS2. The characteristic wavenumber of 947 cm(-1) and the changes at 1,664 and 1,530 cm(-1) in the infrared spectrum suggest that the sulfydryl of cysteine, the carbonyl group, and amide II are involved in the coordination of Cu(2+). The X-ray absorption near-edge structure signal from the Cu(2+)-peptide complex corresponds to the four-coordination structure. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure and electron paramagnetic resonance results demonstrate the Cu(2+) ion is in an S/N/2O coordination environment, and is a distinct type II copper center. Theoretical calculations further demonstrate that Cu(2+) ion binds to SS1 or SS2 in a slightly distorted tetragonal geometry with an S/N/2O environment and the minimum potential energy.

  7. Synthesis of nano Cu2O on cotton: morphological, physical, biological and optical sensing characterizations. (United States)

    Sedighi, Ali; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin


    In this paper, Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ synthesized on cotton fabric through a new simple and cost-effective chemical reduction method using copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Cotton fabric participates as a reducing agent in reduction of copper sulfate and facilitates synthesis of cuprous oxide in nano-scale as a stabilizer. The produced cotton/nano Cu2O composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Interaction of Cu2O with cotton fabric in addition to alteration of cotton functional groups were studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate solution, copper-amine complex, was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the cotton/nano Cu2O composite were studied using Instron indicated a higher tensile strain. The antibacterial activity of the fabric samples showed considerable behavior against S. aureus and E. coli. Further, the treated fabric became highly hydrophobic and sensed ammonia and hydrogen peroxide chromatically.

  8. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Yuanwen; Zhou, Youhe


    The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Angle-integrated photoemission studies of ruthocuprate Eu_2-xCe_xRuSr_2Cu_2O_10, Gd_2RuSr_2Cu_2O_10 and Eu_1.5Nb_1-xRu_xCu_2O_10 systems (United States)

    Frazer, B.; Hirai, Y.; Rast, Simon; Felner, I.; Asaf, U.; Onellion, M.


    We report on both resonant photoemission and fixed photon energy studies of the conduction band and core levels for several ruthocuprate systems. The pure Ru-containing compounds exhibit ferromagnetic order, with metallic behavior and superconductivity depending on the rare earth and oxygen content. We report on as-prepared, hydrogen loaded, and oxygen-annealed polycrystalline samples. The Nb-Ru series changes from purely superconducting to both ferromagnetic and superconducting (Ru). The resonant photoemission measurements of the conduction band across the Ru4p, Cu3p, and Eu4d core levels allow us to determine the location and contribution of Ru, Cu and rare earth related states in the conduction band. The O1s, Cu2p, Ru3p, Ce4d, and Gd4d and several Nb core levels allow us to determine the valence of Ru and Nb, and the metallicity of the Ru/Nb, rare earth, and CuO2 planes.

  10. Fabrication and superconductivity of BPSCCO-2223 oxide bulk by a new design composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishimura, Arata [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Hirano, Shinji [Advanced Materials R and D Center, Meisei University, 2-1-1, Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Shuji [Advanced Materials R and D Center, Meisei University, 2-1-1, Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Matsumoto, Akiyoshi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kumakura, Hiroaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    We have studied a newly designed BPSCCO-2223 bulk composed of mono-cored BPSCCO-2223/Ag sheath filaments. The composite structure design of the combination of BPSCCO-2223 and mono-cored filaments was newly developed with the aim of protection when bulk material is used as a current feeder for large-scale applications. The composites were made by alternately stacking BPSCCO-2223 oxide-cored Ag sheath filaments and the oxide powder by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method, and then the prepared samples were sintered at 840 deg. C for 50 h. Then, a cold isosatic pressing (CIP) process was applied and they were re-sintered at 840 deg. C for 50 h. As a result, the maximum transport current (I{sub c}) value of the composite bulk, which is composed of 24 mono-cored sheath filaments of 0.4 mm in diameter, was estimated to be about 240 A at 4.2 K and 0 T. This I{sub c} value was about three times higher than that of a conventional bulk, and the value of the PIT filaments composite bulk was also higher than that of the Ag wires composite bulk. This is why good c-axis oriented and densely structured BPSCCO-2223 plate-like grains were formed on both the outer and inner interface between the oxide and Ag in the PIT filaments. Furthermore, we confirmed that transport current was flowed into the PIT filaments composite bulk after forcing a fracture by the bending test. We guessed that the PIT filaments could act as a bypass for the fracture of the bulk. We thought that a new design of the composite bulk in this study was interesting in terms of safety precautions for large-scale applications.

  11. Room temperature synthesis and spectral characterization of Cu2+-doped CdO powder (United States)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Shim, J.; Byon, C.; Krishna Rao, L. V.; Satish, D. V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.


    In the present study, we have synthesized undoped and Cu2+-doped CdO nanopowders by a mild solution method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared measurements are used to characterize prepared powders. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns reflect the cubic crystal structure for undoped and Cu2+-doped CdO powders. Surface morphology images and compositional features are studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques, respectively. The optical absorption spectra exhibit a single absorption band for Cu2+-doped sample, which is the characteristic absorption band of distorted octahedral site symmetry. By correlating the electron paramagnetic resonance and optical results for Cu2+-doped CdO nanopowder, bonding parameters are evaluated. These values indicate the partial covalency of in-plane σ ( α 2) and in-plane π bonding ( β12 ) between copper ions and their ligands. The FT-IR spectra indicate the fundamental vibrations of Cd-O.

  12. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation (United States)


    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  13. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation (United States)


    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  14. Mechanism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body. (United States)

    Zhang, Linnan; Wu, Yanjun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhenshan; Ni, Jinren


    Mechanism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated. The influences of electrolysis voltage, pH, and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied. Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (DeltaP), additions ratio, initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficiency, stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated. The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the composition of surface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that using low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO), Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 to 100 mg/L or even higher in concentrated solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 microS/cm. The addition of sodium dodecy/sulfate sodium dodecyl sulfate improved Cu2+ removal efficiency, while EDTA had little side influence. In electro-reduction process, using plante electrode cell, Cu2+ concentration could be further reduced to 5 mg/L, and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%. Using 3D electrolysis treatment, Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  15. Mechnism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linnan; WU Yanjun; QU Xiaoyan; LI Zhenshan; NI Jinren


    Mechnism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated.The influnce of electrolysis voltage,pH,and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied.Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (ΔP),additions ratio,initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficency,stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated.The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM),the composition of suface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that using low presure reverse osmosis (LPRO),the Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L or even higher in the concentrate solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 μS/cm.The addition of SDS can improve the Cu2+ removal efficiency,while EDTA had little side influence.In electro-reduction process,using plante electrode cell,Cu2+ concentration can be further reduced to 5 mg/L,and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%.Using 3D electrolysis treatment,Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  16. Effect of Cu2+ ions on bioleaching of marmatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; QIN Wen-qing; QIU Guan-zhou


    The effect of Cu2+ ions on bioleaching of marmatite was investigated through shake leaching experiments.The bacteria inoculated are a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans,Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Lepthospirillum ferrooxidans.The results show that zinc is selectively leached,and the addition of appropriate content of Cu2+ ions has positive effect on the bioleaching of marmatite.SEM and EDX analyses of the leaching residue reveal that a product layer composed of iron sulfide,elemental sulfur and jarosite forms on the mineral surface.The biooxidation of elemental sulfur is catalyzed by the Cu2+ ions,which eliminate the barrier to bioleaching of marmatite and keep low pH value.With the addition of 0.5 g/L Cu2+ ions,the maximum zinc extraction rate reaches 73% after 23 d at the temperature of 30 ℃ with the pulp density of 10%,while that of iron is only about 10%.

  17. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of Cu2S Thin Films. (United States)

    Riha, Shannon C; Schaller, Richard D; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Martinson, Alex B F


    Copper sulfide is a simple binary material with promising attributes for low-cost thin film photovoltaics. However, stable Cu2S-based device efficiencies approaching 10% free from cadmium have yet to be realized. In this Letter, transient absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the dynamics of the photoexcited state of isolated Cu2S thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition or vapor-based cation exchange of ZnS. While a number of variables including film thickness, carrier concentration, surface oxidation, and grain boundary passivation were examined, grain structure alone was found to correlate with longer lifetimes. A map of excited state dynamics is deduced from the spectral evolution from 300 fs to 300 μs. Revealing the effects of grain morphology on the photophysical properties of Cu2S is a crucial step toward reaching high efficiencies in operationally stable Cu2S thin film photovoltaics.

  18. Ruthenocuprates RuSr2(Eu,Ce)2Cu2O10-y: Intrinsic magnetic multilayers (United States)

    Živković, I.; Hirai, Y.; Frazer, B. H.; Prester, M.; Drobac, D.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Felner, I.; Onellion, M.


    We report ac susceptibility data on RuSr2(Eu,Ce)2Cu2O10-y (Ru-1222, Ce content x=0.5 and 1.0), RuSr2GdCu2O8 (Ru-1212), and SrRuO3. Both Ru-1222 (x=0.5, 1.0) sample types exhibit unexpected magnetic dynamics in low magnetic fields: logarithmic time relaxation, switching behavior, and ``inverted'' hysteresis loops. Neither Ru-1212 nor SrRuO3 exhibit such magnetic dynamics. The results are interpreted as evidence of the complex magnetic order in Ru-1222. We propose a specific multilayer model to explain the data, and note that superconductivity in the ruthenocuprate is compatible with both the presence and absence of the magnetic dynamics.

  19. Design of A Conduction-cooled 4T Superconducting Racetrack for Multi-field Coupling Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yuquan; Wu, Wei; Guan, Mingzhi; Wu, Beimin; Mei, Enming; Xin, Canjie


    A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet producing a transverse field of 4 Tesla has been designed for the new generation multi-field coupling measurement system, which was used to study the mechanical behavior of superconducting samples at cryogenic temperature and intense magnetic fields. Considering experimental costs and coordinating with system of strain measurements by contactless signals (nonlinear CCD optics system), the racetrack type for the coil winding was chosen in our design, and a compact cryostat with a two-stage GM cryocooler was designed and manufactured for the superconducting magnet. The magnet was composed of a pair of flat racetrack coils wound by NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires, a copper and stainless steel combinational form and two Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting current leads. All the coils were connected in series and can be powered with a single power supply. The maximum central magnetic field is 4 T. In order to support the high stress and uniform thermal distribution in t...

  20. Thermodynamics of the complexation between salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone with Cu2+ ion in methanol +1,4-dioxane binary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Rashmidipta


    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, abbreviated as STSC, with Cu2+ ion was studied in the binary mixtures of methanol + 1,4-dioxane binary by using UV-Visible spectrophotometric and conductometric methods at different temperatures. The formation constants (Kf for the 1:1 complex, Cu2+-STSC, were calculated from computer fitting of the absorbance and molar conductance data against various mole ratios (cM:cL or cL:cM in different binary solvent mixtures. A non-linear correlation was observed for the variation of logKf for the complex against the solvent compositions. Various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the formation of Cu2+-STSC complex were also determined from the temperature dependence of the stability constants (Kf. The results showed that the complexation reaction is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  1. Superconducting transistor (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.


    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  2. Superconductivity and superconductive electronics (United States)

    Beasley, M. R.


    The Stanford Center for Research on Superconductivity and Superconductive Electronics is currently focused on developing techniques for producing increasingly improved films and multilayers of the high-temperature superconductors, studying their physical properties and using these films and multilayers in device physics studies. In general the thin film synthesis work leads the way. Once a given film or multilayer structure can be made reasonably routinely, the emphasis shifts to studying the physical properties and device physics of these structures and on to the next level of film quality or multilayer complexity. The most advanced thin films synthesis work in the past year has involved developing techniques to deposit a-axis and c-axis YBCO/PBCO superlattices and related structures. The in-situ feature is desirable because no solid state reactions with accompanying changes in volume, morphology, etc., that degrade the quality of the film involved.

  3. Synthesis of highly non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles with tunable bandgaps (United States)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi; Oyaizu, Wataru; Kawase, Masanari; Kuzuya, Toshihiro


    Non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles with average diameters of 4-15 nm and quasi-polyhedral shape were successfully synthesized by a colloidal method. We found that a non-stoichiometric composition of Zn to Cu in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles yielded a correlation where Zn content increased with a decrease in Cu content, suggesting formation of lattice defects relating to Cu and Zn, such as a Cu vacancy (VCu), antisite with Zn replacing Cu (ZnCu), and/or defect cluster of VCu and ZnCu. The bandgap energy of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles systematically varies between 1.56 and 1.83 eV depending on the composition ratios of Cu and Zn, resulting in a wider bandgap for Cu-deficient Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. These characteristics can be ascribed to the modification in electronic band structures due to formation of VCu and ZnCu on the analogy of ternary copper chalcogenide, chalcopyrite CuInSe2, in which the top of the valence band shifts downward with decreasing Cu contents, because much like the structure of CuInSe2, the top of the valence band is composed of a Cu 3 d orbital in Cu2ZnSnS4.

  4. Temperature profile evolution in quenching high-c superconducting composite tape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ziauddin Khan; Subrata Pradhan; Irfan Ahmad


    Irreversible normal zones leading to quench is an important aspect of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) in all practical applications. As a consequence of quench, transport current gets diverted to the matrix stabilizer material of the high-c composite and causes Joule heating till the original conditions are restored. The nature of growth of the resistive zone in the superconductor greatly influences the temperature evolution of the quenched zone. In this investigation, a complete mathematical analysis of the temperature profile evolution following a quench in a HTS has been carried out. Such prediction in temperature profile would aid the design of HTS tape-based practical applications in limiting the thermal stress-induced damages in off-normal scenarios.

  5. Advances in single-crystal Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ superconductors (United States)

    Kendziora, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Skelton, E.; Onellion, M.


    Susceptibility, resistivity and X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed on single crystals of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ. Very sharp (0.5 K width) superconducting transition temperatures as low as 55 K have been reached in the overdoped part of the phase diagram. Anneals in low oxygen pressures have allowed us to access the entire undordoped region of the phase diagram. The samples have been reversibly changed from a high-temperature superconductor to an insulator.

  6. Flux Creep Investigation in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d High-Temperature Superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Blanca


    Full Text Available The flux creep process in a c-axis Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d thin film was investigated at different temperatures and applied fields using the Kim-Anderson (KA approach. The peaked behavior shown in the magnetoresistance profile was attributed to the competing mechanisms of flux motion and sample-intrinsic transition near Tc.Within the temperature range where the competition occurs, U increases with temperature and consequently a decrease in the superconducting volume corresponds to a decrease in the flux creep. Moreover, the flux creep potential barrier varies with applied current I at all temperatures consistent with the KA model.

  7. Possible pressure-induced valence changes in Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 superconductors (United States)

    Morosin, B.; Venturini, E. L.


    The reported nonlinear pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature Tc in Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 can be explained by valence changes deduced from the annealing behavior under various environments for single crystals of several Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O structure types. The pressure data are consistent with partial conversion of Tl+ to Tl3+ with increasing pressure (decreasing c-axis length), resulting in electron transfer from the Tl-O layers to the Cu-O2 sheets.

  8. Synthesis of a new layered cuprate, Gd 2CaBa 2Ti 2Cu 2O 12 (United States)

    Fukuoka, A.; Adachi, S.; Sugano, T.; Wu, X.-J.; Yamauchi, H.


    A new layered cuprate, Gd 2CaBa 2Ti 2Cu 2O 12, which has a perovskite-related structure, has been discovered. The crystal structure is investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and Rietveld analysis. It has a tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameters a=3.894 Å and c=35.49 Å. In the crystal there are sheets consisting of CuO 5 pyramids, which is one of the common features of p-type high- Tc superconducting cuprates.

  9. Terahertz conductivity in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ epitaxial film (United States)

    Uzawa, Akira; Komori, Sachio; Kamei, Yuta; Kakeya, Itsuhiro


    We measured the complex conductivity at the frequencies from 0.2 THz to 1.0 THz in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ (Pb1212) epitaxial film with terahertz time-domain specteroscopy. By analyzing temperature and frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, we found that the superconducting fluctuation persists up to 12 K above Tc, onset. Compared with previous reports, the superconducting fluctuation in Pb1212 is observed shorter temperature range than Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and La2-xSrxCuO4. This is ascribed to the lower anisotropy of Pb1212.

  10. Polymorphism control of superconductivity and magnetism in Cs(3)C(60) close to the Mott transition. (United States)

    Ganin, Alexey Y; Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Jeglic, Peter; Arcon, Denis; Potocnik, Anton; Baker, Peter J; Ohishi, Yasuo; McDonald, Martin T; Tzirakis, Manolis D; McLennan, Alec; Darling, George R; Takata, Masaki; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Prassides, Kosmas


    The crystal structure of a solid controls the interactions between the electronically active units and thus its electronic properties. In the high-temperature superconducting copper oxides, only one spatial arrangement of the electronically active Cu(2+) units-a two-dimensional square lattice-is available to study the competition between the cooperative electronic states of magnetic order and superconductivity. Crystals of the spherical molecular C(60)(3-) anion support both superconductivity and magnetism but can consist of fundamentally distinct three-dimensional arrangements of the anions. Superconductivity in the A(3)C(60) (A = alkali metal) fullerides has been exclusively associated with face-centred cubic (f.c.c.) packing of C(60)(3-) (refs 2, 3), but recently the most expanded (and thus having the highest superconducting transition temperature, T(c); ref. 4) composition Cs(3)C(60) has been isolated as a body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) packing, which supports both superconductivity and magnetic order. Here we isolate the f.c.c. polymorph of Cs(3)C(60) to show how the spatial arrangement of the electronically active units controls the competing superconducting and magnetic electronic ground states. Unlike all the other f.c.c. A(3)C(60) fullerides, f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) is not a superconductor but a magnetic insulator at ambient pressure, and becomes superconducting under pressure. The magnetic ordering occurs at an order of magnitude lower temperature in the geometrically frustrated f.c.c. polymorph (Néel temperature T(N) = 2.2 K) than in the b.c.c.-based packing (T(N) = 46 K). The different lattice packings of C(60)(3-) change T(c) from 38 K in b.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) to 35 K in f.c.c. Cs(3)C(60) (the highest found in the f.c.c. A(3)C(60) family). The existence of two superconducting packings of the same electronically active unit reveals that T(c) scales universally in a structure-independent dome-like relationship with proximity to the Mott metal-insulator transition

  11. Alternative pseudogap scenario: Spectroscopic analogies between underdoped and disordered Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Grioni, M.; Margaritondo, G.; Forró, L.; Rullier-Albenque, F.


    Disorder has a strong influence on the spectral properties of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x high-Tc superconductor, both in the normal and in the superconducting state. High-resolution photoemission reveals a progressive quasiparticle suppression with increasing disorder in electron-irradiated optimally doped single crystals. The spectral line shapes of the disordered samples show striking analogies with those of underdoped samples specifically the widely discussed pseudogap at the chemical potential. Disorder provides therefore an alternative mechanism for spectral weight suppression near the Fermi surface, possibly coexisting and competing with other mechanisms. Since doping unavoidably introduces disorder, these results require a reconsideration of the relative importance of intrinsic effects vs disorder in high temperature superconductivity.

  12. Effect of shock pressure on the structure and superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O in explosively fabricated bulk metal-matrix composites (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Niou, C. S.; Pradhan-Advani, M.


    While it is now well established that copper-oxide-based power, or virtually any other ceramic superconductor powder, can be consolidated and encapsulated within a metal matrix by explosive consolidation, the erratic superconductivity following fabrication has posed a major problem for bulk applications. The nature of this behavior was found to arise from microstructural damage created in the shock wave front, and the residual degradation in superconductivity was demonstrated to be directly related to the peak shock pressure. The explosively fabricated or shock loaded YBa2Cu3Ox examples exhibit drastically altered rho (or R) - T curves. The deterioration in superconductivity is even more noticeable in the measurement of ac magnetic susceptibility and flux exclusion or shielding fraction which is also reduced in proportion to increasing peak shock pressure. The high frequency surface resistance (in the GHz range) is also correspondingly compromised in explosively fabricated, bulk metal-matrix composites based on YBa2Cu3O7. Transmission electron microscopy (including lattice imaging techniques) is being applied in an effort to elucidate the fundamental (microstructural) nature of the shock-induced degradation of superconductivity and normal state conductivity. One focus of TEM observations has assumed that oxygen displaced from b-chains rather than oxygen-vacancy disorder in the basal plane of oxygen deficient YBa2Cu3Ox may be a prime mechanism. Shock-wave displaced oxygen may also be locked into new positions or interstitial clusters or chemically bound to displaced metal (possibly copper) atoms to form precipitates, or such displacements may cause the equivalent of local lattice cell changes as a result of stoichiometric changes. While the shock-induced suppression of T(sub c) is not desirable in the explosive fabrication of bulk metal-matrix superconductors, it may be turned into an advantage if the atomic-scale distortion can be understood and controlled as local

  13. Correlated electron state in CeCu2Si2 controlled through Si to P substitution (United States)

    Lai, Y.; Saunders, S. M.; Graf, D.; Gallagher, A.; Chen, K.-W.; Kametani, F.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.; Shekhter, A.; Baumbach, R. E.


    CeCu2Si2 is an exemplary correlated electron metal that features two domes of unconventional superconductivity in its temperature-pressure phase diagram. The first dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, whereas the more exotic second dome may span the termination point of a line of f -electron valence transitions. This behavior has received intense interest, but what has been missing are ways to access the high pressure behavior under milder conditions. Here we study Si → P chemical substitution, which compresses the unit cell volume but simultaneously weakens the hybridization between the f - and conduction electron states and encourages complex magnetism. At concentrations that show magnetism, applied pressure suppresses the magnetic ordering temperature and superconductivity is recovered for samples with low disorder. These results reveal that the electronic behavior in this system is controlled by a nontrivial combination of effects from unit cell volume and electronic shell filling. Guided by this topography, we discuss prospects for uncovering a valence fluctuation quantum phase transition in the broader family of Ce-based ThCr2Si2 -type materials through chemical substitution.

  14. Studies of Magnetic Impurities in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (United States)

    Calleja, Eduardo; Dai, Jixia; Gu, Genda; McElroy, Kyle


    Impurities in high temperatures superconductors, studied with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling spectroscopy (SI-STS) have served as a valuable tool to investigate the electronic structure of these materials (E.W. Hudson et al., Nature 411, 920 (2001), S.H.Pan et al., Nature 403,746 (2000)). These experiments revealed the appearance of a quasi-localized bound state near the impurity site whose structure is sensitive to the superconducting gap symmetry and the band structure and originates from the charge scattering nature of these impurities. We studied the effects of Fe impurities in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and discovered that the impurities have a different behavior than those previously observed. In particular the quasi bound state near the impurity seems to be behaving as that predicted for a magnetic impurity. The superconducting gap and local electronic density of states was studied in the vicinity of the impurities using SI-STS and will be presented.

  15. Phase transition and high temperature thermoelectric properties of copper selenide Cu2-xSe (0 <= x <= 0.25) (United States)

    Xiao, Xing-Xing; Xie, Wen-Jie; Tang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Jie


    With good electrical properties and an inherently complex crystal structure, Cu2-xSe is a potential “phonon glass electron crystal" thermoelectric material that has previously not attracted much interest. In this study, Cu2-xSe (0 <= x <= 0.25) compounds were synthesized by a melting-quenching method, and then sintered by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulk material. The effect of Cu content on the phase transition and thermoelectric properties of Cu2-xSe were investigated in the temperature range of 300 K-750 K. The results of X-ray diffraction at room temperature show that Cu2-xSe compounds possess a cubic structure with a space group of Fm3m(#225) when 0.15 <= x <= 0.25, whereas they adopt a composite of monoclinic and cubic phases when 0 <= x <= 0.15. The thermoelectric property measurements show that with increasing Cu content, the electrical conductivity decreases, the Seebeck coefficient increases and the thermal conductivity decreases. Due to the relatively good power factor and low thermal conductivity, the nearly stoichiometric Cu2Se compound achieves the highest ZT of 0.38 at 750 K. It is expected that the thermoelectric performance can be further optimized by doping appropriate elements and/or via a nanostructuring approach.

  16. Investigations on the role of alkali to obtain modulated defect concentrations for Cu2O thin films (United States)

    Chowdhury, Anirban; Bijalwan, Pavan Kumar; Sahu, Ranjan Kumar


    An economic successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been investigated for depositing thin Cu2O layers on steel. The mole ratios of the Cu+ ions to OH- ions in the alkali bath were varied and the changes in the properties were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The increase in the binding energy values of the Cu 2p peaks in XPS established that an optimum copper vacancy concentration can be obtained for a Cu+/OH- mole ratio between 1:10 and 1:15; SEM studies confirmed a dense, uniform microstructure for Cu2O thin films coated with these compositions. The strongest absolute peak intensity counts in PL for the peak at 580 nm along with low energy peaks (1.2-1.4 eV) due to Cu vacancy was found to be most prominent for thin film made with Cu+/OH- mole ratio 1:15. The role of alkali concentration has been explained in relation to create a stable Cu2-δO structure with optimum copper vacancy. This is an easy way to modulate surface reactivity of the Cu2O thin layers and the concept can be utilised for large area device integrations for various electrical and mechanical applications.

  17. Rose rock-shaped nano Cu2O anchored graphene for high-performance supercapacitors via solvothermal route (United States)

    Zhang, Wang; Yin, Zhenxing; Chun, Alvin; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Diao, Guowang; Kim, Youn Sang; Piao, Yuanzhe


    Novel rose rock-shaped cuprous oxide anchored graphene nanocomposite (Cu2O-GN) is successfully synthesized by a simple and efficient one-step solvothermal method. Notably, the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and deposition of nano-Cu2O on GN occur simultaneously during the polyol reaction process. The nanocomposite is systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We also explore the formation mechanism of Cu2O-GN including the concentration effect of the precursor, precipitation agent, GO, and heating rate on the morphology of the resulting nanocomposite. It is noteworthy that Cu2O is gradually decorated on the large sheets of GN to form ordered three-dimensional nanostructure with the optimized concentration of GO, which is crucial to the growth of the final nanoarchitectures. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the Cu2O-GN nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The composite shows a favorable electrochemical capacitance (416 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), rate performance and cycling stability. Also, a high specific capacitance and good retention point to its promising applications as electrode materials in supercapacitors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rusu


    Full Text Available Studies of the sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. Separated clay fraction from diatomic material is clean enough, and especially is rich in montmorillonite. Maximum sorption capacity for studied clay fraction is achieved by rising the temperature of calcination treatment up to 200oC. At higher temperatures the lattice of montmorillonite is contracted and its sorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions decreases strongly.

  19. Application of Cu2O-doped phosphate glasses for bandpass filter (United States)

    Elhaes, H.; Attallah, M.; Elbashar, Y.; El-Okr, M.; Ibrahim, M.


    Phosphate glasses doped with copper ions having general composition 42P2O5-39ZnO-(18-x) Na2O-1CaO-xCu2O [x=2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mol%] were prepared using a conventional melt-quench technique. Physical and chemical properties of the glasses were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique and UV-visible optical absorption. The density was measured by Archimedes' method, and molar volume (VM) was calculated. It is found that density and molar volume show opposite trend by increasing Cu2O content. Absorbance and transmittance at the normal incidence are measured by a spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 190-1100 nm. Analyses of the obtained results were considered in the frame of current theories. Absorption data were used for absorption coefficient, the optical band gap (Eopt), the cutoff in UV and IR bands to the bandpass filter, which confirmed the optical properties of this type of filter. Eopt values for different glass samples are found to decrease with increasing Cu2O content.

  20. Phase diagrams of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub y at T < T sub c according to date of transverse nuclear relaxation of Cu(2)

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, M V; Savinkov, A V; Duglav, A V; Mukhamedshin, I R; Egorov, A V


    One observed two maximums in the transverse relaxation rate of Cu(2) copper nuclei in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub y at T = 35 K and T = 47 K. Comparison of relaxation rates of sup 6 sup 3 Cu(2) and sup 6 sup 5 Cu(2) isotopes at T = 47 K is indicative of magnetic nature of relaxation. Intensification of fluctuations of the local magnetic fields perpendicular to CuO sub 2 planes at T = 47 K results from the critical fluctuations of the orbital currents. Peak at T 35 K is associated with occurrence of inhomogeneous superconducting phase. The obtained experimental results with regard to the published data enabled to introduce qualitatively new phase diagram of superconducting state

  1. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetically Separable Cu2O Photocatalyst%可磁分离Cu2O光催化剂的制备与光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 李燕; 徐海燕


    采用共沉淀法制备了镍锌铁氧体,水合肼还原法制备了镍锌铁氧体负载Cu2O可磁分离光催化剂.采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD),高分辨透射电子显微镜(HRTEM)对所制得的样品进行了表征;并以甲基橙为降解对象,考察了镍锌铁氧体负载Cu2O可磁分离光催化剂的光催化性能.结果表明:Cu2O/镍锌铁氧体复合粉体对甲基橙溶液有较高的降解能力,重复使用4次光催化效率仍保持在81%,而且Cu2O/镍锌铁氧体光催化剂可通过外加磁场进行分离,具有较好的应用前景.%Nickel-zinc ferrite powders were prepared by coprecipitation method, and magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst was prepared by hydrazine hydrate reduction method. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activities of magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst were investigated by the degradation of methyl orange. The results show that the composite Cu2O-coated nickel-zinc ferrite powders had higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange solution. In addition, its photocatalytic efficiency could be maintained at 81% when it was repeatedly used for 4 times. The magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst could be separated from the system by applying an external magnetic field to it. It's considered that the Cu2O-coated nickel-zinc ferrite is a promising photocatalyst.

  2. Bipartite electronic superstructures in the vortex core of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (United States)

    Machida, T.; Kohsaka, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Iwaya, K.; Hanaguri, T.; Tamegai, T.


    The central issue in the physics of cuprate superconductivity is the mutual relationship among superconductivity, pseudogap and broken-spatial-symmetry states. A magnetic field B suppresses superconductivity, providing an opportunity to investigate the competition among these states. Although various B-induced electronic superstructures have been reported, their energy, spatial and momentum-space structures are unclear. Here, we show using spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunnelling microscopy on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ that there are two distinct B-induced electronic superstructures, both being localized in the vortex core but appearing at different energies. In the low-energy range where the nodal Bogoliubov quasiparticles are well-defined, we observe the so-called vortex checkerboard that we identify as the B-enhanced quasiparticle interference pattern. By contrast, in the high-energy region where the pseudogap develops, the broken-spatial-symmetry patterns that pre-exist at B=0 T is locally enhanced in the vortex core. This evidences the competition between superconductivity and the broken-spatial-symmetry state that is associated with the pseudogap.

  3. Binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to natural humic acid fractions sequentially extracted from the lake sediments. (United States)

    He, En; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Wang, Jinghua; Zhang, Ruiqing; Ding, Tao


    Humic acids (HAs) determine the distribution, toxicity, bioavailability, and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment. In this work, ten HA fractions (F1-F10) were used as adsorbent, which were sequentially extracted from natural sediments of Lake Wuliangsuhai, to investigate the binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to HA. On the basis of the characterization results, differences were found between the ten extracted HA fractions responding to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups. The characterization results reveal that the responses of ten extracted HA fractions to their elemental compositions and acidic functional groups were different. The O/C and (O + N)/C ratio of F1-F8 approximately ranged from 0.66 to 0.53 and from 0.72 to 0.61, respectively; the measured results showed that the contents of phenolic groups and carboxyl groups decreased from 4.46 to 2.60 mmol/g and 1.60 to 0.58 mmol/g, respectively. The binding characteristics of Cu(2+) to the ten HA fractions were well modeled by the bi-Langmuir model; the binding behavior of Cu(2+) to all the ten HA fractions were strongly impacted by pH and ionic strength. The FTIR and SEM-EDX image of HA fractions (pre- and post-adsorption) revealed that carboxyl and phenolic groups were responsible for the Cu(2+) sorption on the ten sequentially extracted HA fractions process, which is the same with the analysis of the ligand binding and bi-Langmuir models Accordingly, the adsorption capacity of the former HA fractions on Cu(2+) were higher than the latter ones, which may be attributed to the difference of carboxyl and phenolic group contents between the former and latter extracted HA fractions. Additionally, the functional groups with N and S should not be neglected. This work is hopeful to understand the environmental effect of humic substances, environmental geochemical behavior, and bioavailability of heavy metals in lakes.

  4. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Valdes, M


    Full Text Available Electrochimica Acta Vol. 128, pp 393-399 Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4thin films M. Valdesa, M. Modibedib, M. Matheb, T. Hilliec,d, M. Vazqueza,∗ aDivisión Electroquimica y Corrosión, INTEMA, UNMdP-CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 B7608FDQ Mar del Plata, Argentina...

  5. Modeling Cu2+-Aβ complexes from computational approaches (United States)

    Alí-Torres, Jorge; Mirats, Andrea; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Sodupe, Mariona


    Amyloid plaques formation and oxidative stress are two key events in the pathology of the Alzheimer disease (AD), in which metal cations have been shown to play an important role. In particular, the interaction of the redox active Cu2+ metal cation with Aβ has been found to interfere in amyloid aggregation and to lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS). A detailed knowledge of the electronic and molecular structure of Cu2+-Aβ complexes is thus important to get a better understanding of the role of these complexes in the development and progression of the AD disease. The computational treatment of these systems requires a combination of several available computational methodologies, because two fundamental aspects have to be addressed: the metal coordination sphere and the conformation adopted by the peptide upon copper binding. In this paper we review the main computational strategies used to deal with the Cu2+-Aβ coordination and build plausible Cu2+-Aβ models that will afterwards allow determining physicochemical properties of interest, such as their redox potential.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possesses many physical and chemical properties resulting from its ... trimethyl ammonium bromide and TETA, whose adsorption effect to organic pollutant and .... c (mg/L). TEPA-Bn. Cu. Ni. Cd. Figure 4. Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ adsorption on to ... In addition, the hydroxyl groups on the ..... Liu, Z.R.; Zhou, S.Q. Process Safe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bentonites are used as barriers in landfills, or in areas of old mining activities to prevent contamination of environment by leachates containing heavy metals. Batch experiments were performed under static conditions to study sorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions via adsorption on industrial products made from Slovak bentonites Lieskovec and Jelšový Potok. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and by specific surface area and cation exchange capacities measurements. Effects of pH, concentration of metal cations and contact time were analysed. The adsorption was strongly dependent on pH of the medium, and the uptake of adsorbed metal increased from pH 2.0 to 6.5, while the solubility of Cu at higher pH values decreased. The uptake of Cu2+ was rapid and it increased with increasing metal concentration, while the relative amount of adsorbed Cu2+ decreased. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the adsorbents used for Cu2+ was extrapolated using the linear Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to fit better the experimental data measured for both bentonites.

  8. Modeling Cu2+-Aβ complexes from computational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alí-Torres


    Full Text Available Amyloid plaques formation and oxidative stress are two key events in the pathology of the Alzheimer disease (AD, in which metal cations have been shown to play an important role. In particular, the interaction of the redox active Cu2+ metal cation with Aβ has been found to interfere in amyloid aggregation and to lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS. A detailed knowledge of the electronic and molecular structure of Cu2+-Aβ complexes is thus important to get a better understanding of the role of these complexes in the development and progression of the AD disease. The computational treatment of these systems requires a combination of several available computational methodologies, because two fundamental aspects have to be addressed: the metal coordination sphere and the conformation adopted by the peptide upon copper binding. In this paper we review the main computational strategies used to deal with the Cu2+-Aβ coordination and build plausible Cu2+-Aβ models that will afterwards allow determining physicochemical properties of interest, such as their redox potential.

  9. Magnetische Anregungen und Achsenkonversion in NdCu2



    Die Arbeit beinhaltet eine Untersuchung der magnetischen Anregungen in NdCu2 mittels inelastischer Neutronenstreuung. Die Zielsetzung besteht darin, die zur Beschreibung der magnetischen Eigenschaften notwendige Austauschwechselwirkung zu charakterisieren. Dazu wurden die Spinwellendispersionsrelationen in mehreren magnetischen Phasen gemessen (ferro-, ferri-, antiferromagnetisch; magnetische Momente parallel b). Die Lage der in der ferromagnetischen Phase F3 erwarteten zwei Dispersionszweige...

  10. Europium mixed-valence, long-range magnetic order, and dynamic magnetic response in EuCu2(SixGe1 -x)2 (United States)

    Nemkovski, K. S.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Alekseev, P. A.; Mignot, J.-M.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Yaroslavtsev, A. A.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Klobes, B.; Hermann, R. P.; Gribanov, A. V.


    In mixed-valence or heavy-fermion systems, the hybridization between local f orbitals and conduction band states can cause the suppression of long-range magnetic order, which competes with strong spin fluctuations. Ce- and Yb-based systems have been found to exhibit fascinating physical properties (heavy-fermion superconductivity, non-Fermi-liquid states, etc.) when tuned to the vicinity of magnetic quantum critical points by use of various external control parameters (temperature, magnetic field, chemical composition). Recently, similar effects (mixed-valence, Kondo fluctuations, heavy Fermi liquid) have been reported to exist in some Eu-based compounds. Unlike Ce (Yb), Eu has a multiple electron (hole) occupancy of its 4 f shell, and the magnetic Eu2 + state (4 f7 ) has no orbital component in the usual L S coupling scheme, which can lead to a quite different and interesting physics. In the EuCu2(SixGe1 -x)2 series, where the valence can be tuned by varying the Si/Ge ratio, it has been reported that a significant valence fluctuation can exist even in the magnetic order regime. This paper presents a detailed study of the latter material using different microscopic probes (XANES, Mössbauer spectroscopy, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering), in which the composition dependence of the magnetic order and dynamics across the series is traced back to the change in the Eu valence state. In particular, the results support the persistence of valence fluctuations into the antiferromagnetic state over a sizable composition range below the critical Si concentration xc≈0.65 . The sequence of magnetic ground states in the series is shown to reflect the evolution of the magnetic spectral response.

  11. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  12. Classification of lattice defects in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 earth-abundant solar cell absorbers. (United States)

    Chen, Shiyou; Walsh, Aron; Gong, Xin-Gao; Wei, Su-Huai


    The kesterite-structured semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 are drawing considerable attention recently as the active layers in earth-abundant low-cost thin-film solar cells. The additional number of elements in these quaternary compounds, relative to binary and ternary semiconductors, results in increased flexibility in the material properties. Conversely, a large variety of intrinsic lattice defects can also be formed, which have important influence on their optical and electrical properties, and hence their photovoltaic performance. Experimental identification of these defects is currently limited due to poor sample quality. Here recent theoretical research on defect formation and ionization in kesterite materials is reviewed based on new systematic calculations, and compared with the better studied chalcopyrite materials CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2 . Four features are revealed and highlighted: (i) the strong phase-competition between the kesterites and the coexisting secondary compounds; (ii) the intrinsic p-type conductivity determined by the high population of acceptor CuZn antisites and Cu vacancies, and their dependence on the Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn ratio; (iii) the role of charge-compensated defect clusters such as [2CuZn +SnZn ], [VCu +ZnCu ] and [ZnSn +2ZnCu ] and their contribution to non-stoichiometry; (iv) the electron-trapping effect of the abundant [2CuZn +SnZn ] clusters, especially in Cu2ZnSnS4. The calculated properties explain the experimental observation that Cu poor and Zn rich conditions (Cu/(Zn+Sn) ≈ 0.8 and Zn/Sn ≈ 1.2) result in the highest solar cell efficiency, as well as suggesting an efficiency limitation in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 cells when the S composition is high. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells


    Buffiere, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; KHELIFI, SAMIRA; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef


    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this Contribution, the KCN/KOH Chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) thin films) is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (...

  14. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst


    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  15. Cyclo- and carbophosphazene-supported ligands for the assembly of heterometallic (Cu2+/Ca2+, Cu2+/Dy3+, Cu2+/Tb3+) complexes: synthesis, structure, and magnetism. (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Senapati, Tapas; Dey, Atanu; Das, Sourav; Kalisz, Marguerite; Clérac, Rodolphe


    The carbophosphazene and cyclophosphazene hydrazides, [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))NH(2)}(2)}] (1) and [N(3)P(3)(O(2)C(12)H(8))(2){N(CH(3))NH(2)}(2)] were condensed with o-vanillin to afford the multisite coordination ligands [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-OH)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}] (2) and [{N(2)P(2)(O(2)C(12)H(8))(2)}{NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C (6)H(3)-(o-OH)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}] (3), respectively. These ligands were used for the preparation of heterometallic complexes [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuCa(NO(3))(2)}] (4), [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{Cu(2)Ca(2)(NO(3))(4)}]·4H(2)O (5), [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuDy(NO(3))(4)}]·CH(3)COCH(3) (6), [{NP(O(2)C(12)H(8))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuDy(NO(3))(3)}] (7), and [{NP(O(2)C(12)H(8))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuTb(NO(3))(3)}] (8). The molecular structures of these compounds reveals that the ligands 2 and 3 possess dual coordination pockets which are used to specifically bind the transition metal ion and the alkaline earth/lanthanide metal ion; the Cu(2+)/Ca(2+), Cu(2+)/Tb(3+), and Cu(2+)/Dy(3+) pairs in these compounds are brought together by phenoxide and methoxy oxygen atoms. While 4, 6, 7, and 8 are dinuclear complexes, 5 is a tetranuclear complex. Detailed magnetic properties on 6-8 reveal that these compounds show weak couplings between the magnetic centers and magnetic anisotropy. However, the ac susceptibility experiments did not reveal any out of phase signal suggesting that in these compounds slow relaxation of magnetization is absent above 1.8 K.

  16. A Coumarin-Based Luminescent Chemosensor for Recognition of Cu(2+) and its In-Situ Complex for CN(-) Sensing via Cu(2+) Displacement Approach. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soma; Talukder, Shrabani


    A new coumarin based chemosensor has been developed for selective fluorescent recognition of Cu(2+) in MeOH/H2O (4:1, v/v at pH = 7.2 aqueous solution) medium with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The in-situ prepared Cu(2+) complex displays high selectivity towards CN(-) via Cu(2+) displacement approach with detection limit in the micro molar range. Moreover, in presence of Cu(2+), the receptor exhibits reversible emission change with EDTA and thus offers an interesting property of molecular 'IMPLICATION' logic gate with Cu(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs.

  17. Continuous production of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals in a flow reactor. (United States)

    Shavel, Alexey; Cadavid, Doris; Ibáñez, Maria; Carrete, Alex; Cabot, Andreu


    A procedure for the continuous production of Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) nanoparticles with controlled composition is presented. CZTS nanoparticles were prepared through the reaction of the metals' amino complexes with elemental sulfur in a continuous-flow reactor at moderate temperatures (300-330 °C). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the nanocrystals to have a crystallographic structure compatible with that of the kesterite. Chemical characterization of the materials showed the presence of the four elements in each individual nanocrystal. Composition control was achieved by adjusting the solution flow rate through the reactor and the proper choice of the nominal precursor concentration within the flowing solution. Single-particle analysis revealed a composition distribution within each sample, which was optimized at the highest synthesis temperatures used.

  18. High temperature XRD of Cu2GeSe3 (United States)

    Premkumar D., S.; Chetty, Raju; Malar, P.; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra


    The Cu2GeSe3 is prepared by solid state synthesis method. The high temperature XRD has been done at different temperature from 30 °C to 450 °C. The reitveld refinement confirms Cu2GeSe3 phase and orthorhombic crystal structure. The lattice constants are increasing with increase in the temperature and their rate of increase with respect to temperature are used for finding the thermal expansion coefficient. The calculation of the linear and volume coefficient of thermal expansion is done from 30 °C to 400 °C. Decrease in the values of linear expansion coefficients with temperature are observed along a and c axis. Since thermal expansion coefficient is the consequence of the distortion of atoms in the lattice; this can be further used to find the minimum lattice thermal conductivity at given temperature.

  19. Crystal field effects in TmCu2 compound (United States)

    Zajac, Š.; Šíma, V.; Smetana, Z.


    The splitting of the3H6 multiplet has been estimated for the Tm3+ ion in the crystal electric field of the orthorhombic TmCu2 compound. Using the energy levels and appropriate eigenfunctions the crystal field only susceptibility has been calculated along the principal orthorhombic axes at temperatures 10 to 300 K. The obtained results are compared with our measurements of specific heat and paramagnetic susceptibility on polycrystalline sample.

  20. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of Cu2Se nanowires (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Kaur, Jaskiran; Singh, Lakhwant; Singh, Surinder


    Copper Selenide (Cu2Se) nanowires were successfully fabricated via potentiostatic electrodeposition using polycarbonate membranes (Whatmann, USA) with nominal pore diameter of 100 nm. The morphology of the so fabricated nanowires was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Later the samples were characterized for their structural, optical and electrical properties by XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V respectively.

  1. Light scattering by subwavelength Cu2O particles (United States)

    Ullah, Kaleem; Liu, Xuefeng; Yadav, N. P.; Habib, Muhammad; Song, Li; García-Cámara, Braulio


    Novel metamaterials with new capabilities to manipulate light may be used by considering basic building blocks with new optical properties. This is the case with resonant magneto-dielectric particles. In this work, the resonant response of a high-dielectric Cu2O subwavelength particle is analyzed, both analytically and experimentally. The emergence of electric and magnetic resonances and their interferential effects, producing directional behaviors, can be used in a new generation of metamaterials, as well as new integrated optical devices.

  2. Fluorescent sensor for Cu2+ with a tunable emission wavelength. (United States)

    Mokhir, Andriy; Kiel, Alexander; Herten, Dirk-Peter; Kraemer, Roland


    A concept of fluorescent metal ion sensing with an easily tunable emission wavelength is presented and its principle demonstrated by detection of Cu(2+). A fluorescein dye was chemically modified with a metal chelating group and then attached to the terminus of ss-DNA. This was combined with a complementary ss-DNA modified with another fluorescent dye (ATTO 590), emitting at a longer wavelength. In the assembled duplex, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the fluorescein donor (excited at 470 nm) and the ATTO 590 acceptor (emitting at 624 nm) is observed. Proper positioning within the rigid DNA double helix prevents intramolecular contact quenching of the two dyes. Coordination of paramagnetic Cu(2+) ions by the chelating unit of the sensor results in direct fluorescence quenching of the fluorescein dye and indirect (by loss of FRET) quenching of the ATTO 590 emission at 624 nm. As a result, emission of the acceptor dye can be used for monitoring of the concentration of Cu(2+), with a 20 nM detection limit. The emission wavelength is readily tuned by replacement of ATTO-DNA by other commercially available DNA-acceptor dye conjugates. Fluorescent metal ion sensors emitting at >600 nm are very rare. The possibility of tuning the emission wavelength is important with respect to the optimization of this sensor type for application to biological samples, which usually show broad autofluorescence at <550 nm.

  3. Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wong; Kim, Han-Ki


    We report on an indium-free and cost-effective Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrode grown by room temperature roll-to-roll sputtering as a viable alternative to ITO electrodes for the cost-effective production of large-area flexible touch screen panels (TSPs). By using a low resistivity metallic Cu interlayer and a patterned mesh structure, we obtained Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes with a low sheet resistance of 15.1 Ohm/square and high optical transmittance of 89% as well as good mechanical flexibility. Outer/inner bending test results showed that the Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrode had a mechanical flexibility superior to that of conventional ITO films. Using the diamond-patterned Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes, we successfully demonstrated TSPS of the flexible film-film type and rigid glass-film-film type TSPs. The TSPs with Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrode were used to perform zoom in/out functions and multi-touch writing, indicating that these electrodes are promising cost-efficient transparent electrodes to substitute for conventional ITO electrodes in large-area flexible TSPs.

  4. Mean field theory of high Tc cuprate superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maki


    Full Text Available   Two decades ago the epoch making discovery of high Tc cuprate superconductivity by Bednorz and Müller shocked the world’s superconductivity community. However, already in 1979 and 1980, the first heavy fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 and organic superconductor (TMTSF2PF6 have been discovered respectively. Also we know now that all these superconductors are unconventional and nodal. Further the quasiparticles in the normal state in these systems are Fermi liquids and the superconducting states are described in terms of generalized BCS wave function. Also the pseudogap phase in underdoped high Tc cuprates is described in terms of d-wave density wave. This implies necessarily that the superconductivity in underdoped cuprates is gossamer (i.e. d-wave superconductivity coexists with d-wave density wave. We shall present some quantitative tests of these new concepts, notions and ideas.

  5. Visible-light-driven photodegradation of sulfamethoxazole and methylene blue by Cu2O/rGO photocatalysts. (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wei, Yu-Shao; Lu, Jun-Sheng


    The cuprous oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Cu2O/rGO-x) composites were prepared via a simple wet-chemical method by using CuSO4·5H2O and graphene oxide as precursors and ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, respectively. These Cu2O/rGO-x were employed as photocatalysts for degrading emerging contaminants and organic dye pollutants (i.e., sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and methylene blue (MB)) under visible light. A variety of different spectroscopic and analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the physical properties of photocatalysts. In the photodegrading experiments, it can be found that the Cu2O/rGO-80 photocatalyst has the superior visible-light response of ca. 50% removal efficiency of SMX within 120 min and 100% removal efficiency of MB within 40 min. These observations may be attributed the well-dispersed and visible-light-responsive Cu2O nanoparticles are supported on the surface of rGO sheets that can enhance absorption of visible light during photocatalysis.

  6. Quench Behavior and Degradation Limit of Ag-sheathed Bi 2Sr2CaCu2Ox Round Wires (United States)

    Ye, Liyang

    High field superconducting magnets are important for scientific research in a variety of disciplines. With nearly field-independent critical current density over a wide range of magnetic field at 4.2 K up to 50 T, Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) round wires offer the possibility to generate magnetic fields of 30 T and above. One of the key issues in high field Bi-2212 magnet development is the quench detection and protection. A quench occurs when a part of a superconducting winding, after receiving a small disturbance, enters into the normal (resistive) state, and the event follows with significant temperature rise due to joule heating. An unprotected quench may degrade or even destruct an entire superconducting magnet system. This thesis focuses on experimentally investigating the quench behavior and degradation limit of the state-of-the-art multifilamentary Ag/Bi-2212 round wires to guide the development of Bi-2212 high field magnet, especially the quench detection and protection system. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. The structure of oxygen-annealed La1.9Ca1.1Cu2O6 superconductor (United States)

    Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John; Hill, John; Billinge, Simon


    Effect of annealing under high oxygen pressure on La1.9Ca1.1Cu2O6 (2126) is studied and structure change at the nanometer scale is investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The as-grown single crystal is non-superconducting, which is thought to be due to oxygen deficiency. With annealing under a high oxygen pressure, superconductivity is induced with Tc ~ 53 K. While the as-grown 2126 shows homogenous structure at a large scale, after oxygen annealing, the sample develops a secondary phase La2-xCaxCuO4(214) at nanometer scale, which is evidenced by electron diffraction patterns together with EELS analysis. The content of 214 phase is estimated to be around 20% based on the analysis of scanning TEM images. Magnetization measurements indicate that the 214 phase is also superconducting. Chemical change of the remaining 2126 phase after oxygen annealing will also be discussed.

  8. Y-Ba Superconducting Ceramics (United States)

    Shunbao, Tian; Xiaofei, Li; Tinglian, Wen; Zuxiang, Lin; Shichun, Li; Huijun, Yu

    Polycrystalline Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting materials have been studied. It was found that chemical composition and processing condition may play an important role in the final structure and superconducting properties. The density has been determined and compared with the calculated value according to the structure model reported by Bell Labs. The grain size and the morphology of the materials were observed by SEM.

  9. Superconductivity versus quantum criticality: what can we learn from heavy fermions? (United States)

    Steglich, F; Arndt, J; Friedemann, S; Krellner, C; Tokiwa, Y; Westerkamp, T; Brando, M; Gegenwart, P; Geibel, C; Wirth, S; Stockert, O


    Two quantum critical point (QCP) scenarios are being discussed for different classes of antiferromagnetic (AF) heavy-fermion (HF) systems. In the itinerant one, where AF order is of the spin-density wave (SDW) type, the heavy 'composite' charge carriers keep their integrity at the QCP. The second one implies a breakdown of the Kondo effect and a disintegration of the composite fermions at the AF QCP. We discuss two isostructural compounds as exemplary materials for these two different scenarios: CeCu(2)Si(2) exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) SDW QCP and superconductivity, presumably mediated by SDW fluctuations, as strongly suggested by recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In Y bRh(2)Si(2), the AF QCP is found to coincide with a Kondo-destroying one. However, in the latter compound these two QCPs can be detached by varying the average unit-cell volume, e.g. through the application of chemical pressure, as realized by partial substitution of either Ir or Co for Rh. A comparison of CeCu(2)Si(2) and Y bRh(2)Si(2) indicates that the apparent differences in quantum critical behaviour go along with disparate behaviour concerning the (non-) existence of superconductivity (SC). No sign of SC could be detected in Y bRh(2)Si(2) down to mK temperatures. A potential correlation between the specific nature of the QCP and the occurrence of SC, however, requires detailed studies on further quantum critical HF superconductors, e.g. on β-Y bAlB(4), UBe(13), CeCoIn(5) and CeRhIn(5).

  10. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells prepared with sulphurized dc-sputtered stacked metallic precursors


    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P M P; Cunha, A. F. da; Schubert, Björn-Arvid


    In the present work we report the details of the preparation and characterization results of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) based solar cells. The CZTS absorber was obtained by sulphurization of dc magnetron sputtered Zn/Sn/Cu precursor layers. The morphology, composition and structure of the absorber layer were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. The majority carrier type was identified via a hot point probe analysis....

  11. Physical, Optical and Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions (United States)

    Sekhar, K. Chandra; Hameed, Abdul; Chary, M. Narasimha; Shareefuddin, Md


    The glasses with the composition PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions were prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffractograms revealed the amorphous nature of the glasses. Density and molar volume were determined. Density is found to decrease while the molar volume increases with increase of PbBr2 content. The optical absorption spectra exhibited a broad band corresponding to the d- d transition of Cu2+ ion. From optical absorption spectra Eopt and Urbach energies were determined. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies were carried out by introducing Cu2+ as the spin probe. Glasses containing transition metal(TM) ions such as Cu2+ give the information about the structure and the site symmetry around the TM ions. EPR spectra of all the glass samples were recorded at X-band frequencies. From the EPR spectra spin-Hamiltonian parameters were evaluated. It was observed that g∥ >g±>ge (2.0023) and A∥>A±. From this values it is concluded that the ground state of Cu2+ is dx2-y2 (2B1g) and the site symmetry around Cu2+ ion is tetragonally distorted octahedral. From the EPR and Optical data bonding coefficients were evaluated. The in plane o-bonding(α2) is moderately ionic while out of plane 7t-bonding(β2) and in plane 7t-bonding(β1 2) are ionic nature

  12. Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels


    Dong-Ju Kim; Hyo-Joong Kim; Ki-Won Seo; Ki-Hyun Kim; Tae-Wong Kim; Han-Ki Kim


    We report on an indium-free and cost-effective Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrode grown by room temperature roll-to-roll sputtering as a viable alternative to ITO electrodes for the cost-effective production of large-area flexible touch screen panels (TSPs). By using a low resistivity metallic Cu interlayer and a patterned mesh structure, we obtained Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes with a low sheet resistance of 15.1?Ohm/square and high optical transmittance of 89% as well as good...

  13. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of Cu2O-CuxS thin films


    EYA, D. D. O.


    Cu2O-CuxS thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The films were obtained by depositing Copper Sulphide (CuxS) on Copper (I) Oxide (Cu2O) and then Cu2O on CuxS. The peak solar transmittance across the thin films were found to be

  14. First-principles study of defect formation in the photovoltaic semiconductors Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 for comparison with Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2 (United States)

    Nishihara, Hironori; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Shigemi, Akio; Wada, Takahiro


    The formation energies of neutral Cu, Ge, and S vacancies in monoclinic Cu2GeS3 and those of neutral Cu, Zn, Ge, and S vacancies in kesterite-type Cu2ZnGeS4 were evaluated by first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions. The calculations were performed at typical points in a schematic ternary phase diagram of a Cu-Ge-S system for Cu2GeS3 and in Cu-(Zn1/2Ge1/2)-S and Cu29S16-ZnS-GeS2 pseudoternary phase diagrams for Cu2ZnGeS4. The results have been compared with those for Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2 calculated with the same version of the CASTEP program code. The results indicate that Cu vacancies are easily formed in Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 under the Cu-poor condition as in the cases of Cu2SnS3, Cu2ZnSnS4, and CuInSe2, suggesting that Cu2GeS3 and Cu2ZnGeS4 are also preferable p-type absorber materials for thin-film solar cells. Desirable preparation conditions of these thin films for photovoltaic application are discussed using the calculated formation energies of antisite defects.

  15. Thermodynamic study of gap structure and pair-breaking effect by magnetic field in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 (United States)

    Kittaka, Shunichiro; Aoki, Yuya; Shimura, Yasuyuki; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Seiro, Silvia; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Machida, Kazushige


    This paper presents the results of specific-heat and magnetization measurements, in particular their field-orientation dependence, on the first discovered heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 (Tc˜0.6 K). We discuss the superconducting gap structure and the origin of the anomalous pair-breaking phenomena, leading, e.g., to the suppression of the upper critical field Hc 2, found in the high-field region. The data show that the anomalous pair breaking becomes prominent below about 0.15 K in any field direction, but occurs closer to Hc 2 for H ∥c . The presence of this anomaly is confirmed by the fact that the specific-heat and magnetization data satisfy standard thermodynamic relations. Concerning the gap structure, field-angle dependencies of the low-temperature specific heat within the a b and a c planes do not show any evidence for gap nodes. From microscopic calculations in the framework of a two-band full-gap model, the power-law-like temperature dependencies of C and 1 /T1 , reminiscent of nodal superconductivity, have been reproduced reasonably. These facts further support multiband full-gap superconductivity in CeCu2Si2 .

  16. Measurement of Photoluminescence of Cu2O at 2 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu; ZHANG Gui-Zhong; XIANG Wang-Hua; KETTERSON J. B.


    @@ We present our measured photoluminescence of the quadrupolar transitions of the yellow series excitons of cuprous oxide at 2 K. By tuning the excitation energy in the two-photon quadrupolar absorption scheme of Cu2O, it is found that the band-gap value associated with this optical process can be characterized by a sharp resonance at 2.036eV at cryogenic temperature. This energy value is helpful to guide a proper excitation for creating cold excitonic gas in this crystal.

  17. Solvothermal growth and morphology study of Cu 2Se films (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Bian, Guo-Qing; Lei, Zhi-Xin; Lu, Zhe-Jun; Dai, Jie


    Solvothermal growth of cuprous selenide films on copper substrate has been succeeded by treating copper foil in the mixture of selenium powder and amines or hydrazine. The films were characterized by methods of XRD, SEM, TEM and optical spectra (Cu 2Se, JCPDS 47-1448). Films with hexagonal microcrystals can be obtained in hydrazine/water reaction system. When CTAB (CTAB = cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) is added to the system, the film is composed of thin leaf-like microcrystals. When ethylenediamine (en) is used as solvent, the leaf-like microcrystals are crimped.

  18. Anisotropic long-range interactions in NdCu 2 (United States)

    Rotter, M.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kramp, S.


    A consistent model for the magnetic interactions in the orthorhombic intermetallic NdCu 2 is based on the determination of the magnetic phases and the analysis of the magnetic excitations. The strong anisotropy of the magnetic interactions is evident from a comparison of static and dynamic properties of the system. In particular, we can show by a model calculation, that the stability of the magnetic phases, which have been observed by neutron scattering experiments in different magnetic fields implies a non-negligible interaction between distant Nd ions (i.e. about -0.54 μeV at 2.6 nm distance).

  19. Linear and field-independent relation between vortex core state energy and gap in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta). (United States)

    Hoogenboom, B W; Kadowaki, K; Revaz, B; Li, M; Renner, C; Fischer, Ø


    We present a scanning tunneling spectroscopy study on quasiparticle states in vortex cores in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta). The energy of the observed vortex core states shows an approximately linear scaling with the superconducting gap in the region just outside the core. This clearly distinguishes them from conventional localized core states and is a signature of the mechanism responsible for their discrete appearance in high-temperature superconductors. The energy scaling of the vortex core states also suggests a common nature of vortex cores in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Finally, these states do not show any dependence on the applied magnetic field between 1 and 6 T.

  20. Electrochemical depositions of fluorohydroxyapatite doped by Cu2+, Zn2+, Ag+ on stainless steel substrates (United States)

    Bir, F.; Khireddine, H.; Touati, A.; Sidane, D.; Yala, S.; Oudadesse, H.


    Fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2-xFx where 0 < x < 2 is the degree of fluoridation) and inorganic ions (Zn2+, Cu2+, Ag+) substituted fluoridated hydroxyapatite coatings (M-FHA) were deposited on the surface of medical grade 316L stainless steel samples by electrochemical deposition technique. The FHA coatings were co-substituted with antibacterial ions (Zn2+, Cu2+ or Ag+) by co-precipitation and ion-exchange methods. Characterization studies of coatings from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed that the obtained layers are monophase crystals FHA and did not contain any discernible crystalline impurity. The particles of all samples are of nano size that gives thin layers. The surface morphology, microstructure and Ca/P atomic ratio of the FHA coatings can be regulated by varying electrolyte temperature. This later affects the porosity of the coating surface and the chemical compositions of the deposits. Quantitative elemental analysis indicates that the copper, zinc and silver ions are incorporated into the Fluorohydroxyapatite. The antimicrobial effects of doped fluorohydroxyapatite coatings against pathogen bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus were tested in liquid media. The results are promising and demonstrated that all doped FHA samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity "in vitro" against the microorganism, so the antimicrobial properties of the coatings developed are improved.

  1. Optical characterization of Cu2+ ion-doped zinc lead borate glasses (United States)

    Thulasiramudu, A.; Buddhudu, S.


    We have developed a new series of zinc lead borate (ZLB) glasses by varying ZnO content, to enhance UV transmission, in the chemical composition of xZnO 15PbO (85-x)B2O3, where x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 mol% ZnO. From the measurement of UV absorption spectra both the direct and indirect band gaps have been evaluated. Also different physical properties of a reference glass of 45ZnO 15PbO 40B2O3 have been studied. From the measurement of refractive indices at six different wavelengths, Cauchy's constants (A=1.578743209; B=131832.33nm and C=-0.77756×10nm) have been computed and a satisfactory correlation has been achieved between the theoretical and the experimental results. Absorption spectra of Cu2+(45-x)ZnO 15PbO 40B2O3 (where x=0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol%) have shown two absorption bands at 428 nm (2B1g→2Eg) and 777 nm (2B1g→2B2g). Emission spectra of (1.0 mol%) Cu2+:ZLB have revealed two emission transitions at 400 and 493 nm with excitations at 288 and 316 nm.

  2. Spectrophotometric and conductometric study of the complexation of N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol with Cu2+ in methanol + 1,4-dioxane binary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Rashmidipta


    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol, abbreviated as SAP, with Cu2+ ion was studied in binary mixtures of methanol and 1,4-dioxane by using conductometric and spectrophotometric method at different temperatures. The stability constants (Kf for the 1:1 complex, Cu2+-SAP, were calculated from computer fitting of absorbance and molar conductance data against various mole ratios (cM:cL or cL:cM in different binary solvent mixtures. A non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf for the complex against the solvent compositions. Various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the formation of Cu2+-SAP complex were determined from the temperature dependence of stability constants (Kf. The overall results showed that the complexation reaction is entropy driven and is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  3. Local chemical composition of HgBaCaCuO high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Dell'Orto, T.; Coluzza, C.; Almeida, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Xue, Y. Y.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.


    The microchemical composition and the electronic structure of the two superconductors HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg-1223) and HgBa2Ca1Cu2O6+δ (Hg-1212) were analyzed with the technique of photoemission with high spatial resolution. This enabled primary spectral peaks to be separated from their satellites due to local charging induced by the primary photon beam. Each sample contains superconducting and impurity phases with inhomogeneous spatial distributions. The oxygenation-induced increase in the critical temperature is related to a increase in the Cu-O plane carrier concentration.

  4. Tuning Bandgap of p-Type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 Semiconductor Thin Films via Aqueous Polymer-Assisted Deposition. (United States)

    Yi, Qinghua; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jiapeng; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu


    Bandgap engineering of kesterite Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 with well-controlled stoichiometric composition plays a critical role in sustainable inorganic photovoltaics. Herein, a cost-effective and reproducible aqueous solution-based polymer-assisted deposition approach is developed to grow p-type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films with tunable bandgap. The bandgap of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films can be tuned within the range 1.05-1.95 eV using the aqueous polymer-assisted deposition by accurately controlling the elemental compositions. One of the as-grown Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films exhibits a hall coefficient of +137 cm(3)/C. The resistivity, concentration and carrier mobility of the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film are 3.17 ohm·cm, 4.5 × 10(16) cm(-3), and 43 cm(2)/(V·S) at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin film when used as an active layer in a solar cell leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.55%. The facile growth of Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 thin films in an aqueous system, instead of organic solvents, provides great promise as an environmental-friendly platform to fabricate a variety of single/multi metal chalcogenides for the thin film industry and solution-processed photovoltaic devices.

  5. Photoinduced filling of near-nodal gap in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Piovera, C.; Papalazarou, E.; Marsi, M.; d'Astuto, M.; van der Beek, C. J.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Perfetti, L.


    We report time- and angle-resolved spectroscopic measurements in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ . The photoelectron intensity maps are monitored as a function of temperature, photoexcitation density, and delay time from the pump pulse. We evince that thermal fluctuations are effective only for temperatures near the critical value whereas photoinduced fluctuations scale linearly at low pumping fluence. The minimal energy to fully disrupt the superconducting gap slightly increases when moving off the nodal direction. No evidence of a pseudogap arising from other phenomena than pairing has been detected in the explored region of reciprocal space. On the other hand, a model accounting for the finite pair breaking explains the gap filling both in the near-nodal as well as in the off-nodal direction. Finally, we observed that nodal quasiparticles develop a faster dynamics when pumping the superconductor with fluence large enough to induce the total collapse of the gap.

  6. On the Heat Capacity of Cu2Se (United States)

    Bulat, L. P.; Pshenay-Severin, D. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Osvenskii, V. B.; Parkhomenko, Yu. N.


    Copper selenide is a promising thermoelectric material. One of the reasons for its high efficiency is its low thermal conductivity that can be connected with the decrease of heat capacity with temperature. The possibility of the decrease of heat capacity with the increase of temperature in this material can be connected with the liquid-like behavior of copper ions. In order to reveal the influence of this factor, measurements of constant pressure heat capacity c p and calculations of constant volume heat capacity c V were performed for cubic β-Cu2Se at temperatures T = 450-1000 K. Both calculations and measurements made in the present work demonstrate only a small decrease of heat capacity with temperature. The temperature dependence of c p reasonably correlates with the literature data. But, c V values showed a similar trend only up to 770 K; at higher temperatures, the values obtained previously by other authors are considerably smaller. As the diffusion of copper atoms was taken into account in our calculations, the comparison suggests that small c V values obtained at T > 770 K previously are connected mainly with large thermal expansion of Cu2Se in this temperature range.

  7. On the Heat Capacity of Cu2Se (United States)

    Bulat, L. P.; Pshenay-Severin, D. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Osvenskii, V. B.; Parkhomenko, Yu. N.


    Copper selenide is a promising thermoelectric material. One of the reasons for its high efficiency is its low thermal conductivity that can be connected with the decrease of heat capacity with temperature. The possibility of the decrease of heat capacity with the increase of temperature in this material can be connected with the liquid-like behavior of copper ions. In order to reveal the influence of this factor, measurements of constant pressure heat capacity c p and calculations of constant volume heat capacity c V were performed for cubic β-Cu2Se at temperatures T = 450-1000 K. Both calculations and measurements made in the present work demonstrate only a small decrease of heat capacity with temperature. The temperature dependence of c p reasonably correlates with the literature data. But, c V values showed a similar trend only up to 770 K; at higher temperatures, the values obtained previously by other authors are considerably smaller. As the diffusion of copper atoms was taken into account in our calculations, the comparison suggests that small c V values obtained at T > 770 K previously are connected mainly with large thermal expansion of Cu2Se in this temperature range.

  8. Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (United States)

    Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S. D.; Joo, Sang Hyun; Kostin, A.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Lawler, M. J.; Kim, E.-A.; MacKenzie, A. P.; Fujita, K.; Lee, Jinho; Davis, J. C. Séamus


    The quantum condensate of Cooper pairs forming a superconductor was originally conceived as being translationally invariant. In theory, however, pairs can exist with finite momentum Q, thus generating a state with a spatially modulated Cooper-pair density. Such a state has been created in ultracold 6Li gas but never observed directly in any superconductor. It is now widely hypothesized that the pseudogap phase of the copper oxide superconductors contains such a ‘pair density wave’ state. Here we report the use of nanometre-resolution scanned Josephson tunnelling microscopy to image Cooper pair tunnelling from a d-wave superconducting microscope tip to the condensate of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. We demonstrate condensate visualization capabilities directly by using the Cooper-pair density variations surrounding zinc impurity atoms and at the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x crystal supermodulation. Then, by using Fourier analysis of scanned Josephson tunnelling images, we discover the direct signature of a Cooper-pair density modulation at wavevectors QP ≈ (0.25, 0)2π/a0 and (0, 0.25)2π/a0 in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. The amplitude of these modulations is about five per cent of the background condensate density and their form factor exhibits primarily s or s‧ symmetry. This phenomenology is consistent with Ginzburg-Landau theory when a charge density wave with d-symmetry form factor and wavevector QC = QP coexists with a d-symmetry superconductor; it is also predicted by several contemporary microscopic theories for the pseudogap phase.

  9. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoxiao Zhou


    Full Text Available Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu2O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo2S4 nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu2O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu2O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm−2 at 10 mA cm−2, good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm−2 and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm−2. These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer.

  10. Electroanalytical and naked eye determination of Cu(2+) ion in various environmental samples using 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol based Schiff bases. (United States)

    Bandi, Koteswara Rao; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Upadhyay, Anjali


    Novel polydentate Schiff bases 4-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylimino)pentan-2-one (S1) and (2-(indol-3-yl)vinyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (S2) were synthesized and explored as Cu(2+) selective polymeric membrane electrodes (PME) using different plasticizers and anionic excluders. The potentiometric data revealed that the PME having the membrane composition (S2: NaTPB: TBP: PVC as 4: 2: 58: 36 (w/w; mg)) is shown to have good results. Thus the coated graphite electrode (CGE) with the same composition as the best PME was also fabricated and investigated as Cu(2+) selective electrode. It was found that CGE showed better response characteristics than PME with respect to low detection limit (1.2×10(-8)molL(-1)), near Nernstian slope (29.8±0.4mV decade(-1) of activity), wide working concentration range (6.4×10(-8)-1.0×10(-1)molL(-1)), long shelf life (90days) and fast response time (9s). The CGE was used successfully as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric determination of Cu(2+) ion against EDTA and also used to quantify Cu(2+) ion in soil, water, medicinal plants, vegetables and edible oil samples. The Schiff base S2 is used as chemosensor for the selective determination of Cu(2+) ion.

  11. Transport properties governed by surface barriers in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (United States)

    Fuchs, Dan T.; Zeldov, Eli; Rappaport, Michael; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Ooi, Shuuichi; Shtrikman, Hadas


    One of the most common investigation techniques of type-II superconductors is the transport measurement, in which an electrical current is applied to a sample and the corresponding resistance is measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. At temperatures well below the critical temperature, Tc, the resistance of a superconductor is usually immeasurably low. But at elevated temperatures and fields, in the so-called vortex liquid phase, a substantial linear resistance is observed. In this dissipative state, which in anisotropic high-temperature superconductors like Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 may occupy most of the mixed-state phase diagram, the transport current is usually assumed to flow uniformly across the sample as in a normal metal. To test this assumption, we have devised a measurement approach which allows determination of the flow pattern of the transport current across the sample. The surprising result is that, in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 crystals, most of the current flows at the edges of the sample rather than in the bulk, even in the highly resistive state, due to the presence of strong surface barriers. This finding has significant implications for the interpretation of existing resistivity data and may be of importance for the development of high-temperature superconducting wires and tapes.

  12. Calculation of Raman- and infrared-active modes of Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. D.; Prade, J.; de Wette, F. W.; Kress, W.; Schröder, U.


    We present the frequencies and polarizaton vectors of the infrared- and Raman-active modes for Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 (Tl 2:1:2:2). Our calculations are carried out in the framework of shell models, which are based on short-range overlap and long-range Coulomb potentials, as well as ionic polarizabilities. A guiding principle of this work is that the shell models for the different superconducting compounds should be mutually compatible, i.e., the short-range potentials for given ion pairs in equivalent environments should be transferable from one compound to the other. The optical data presented here for Tl 2:1:2:2 are obtained with a model which is applicable not only for six different thallium superconductors, but also for Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 and YBa2Cu3O7. The model for Tl 2:1:2:2 reproduces the measured infrared and Raman data quite well and yields a reliable first approximation for the displacement patterns of the modes at the Γ point. This is far from trivial since a mere force constant fit to the measured eigenvalues may yield rather arbitrary eigenvectors.

  13. Indium-free, highly transparent, flexible Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O mesh electrodes for flexible touch screen panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wong; Kim, Han-Ki


    ... production of large-area flexible touch screen panels (TSPs). By using a low resistivity metallic Cu interlayer and a patterned mesh structure, we obtained Cu2O/Cu/Cu2O multilayer mesh electrodes with a low sheet resistance of 15.1...

  14. Collapse of the normal-state pseudogap at a Lifshitz transition in the Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+δ) cuprate superconductor. (United States)

    Benhabib, S; Sacuto, A; Civelli, M; Paul, I; Cazayous, M; Gallais, Y; Méasson, M-A; Zhong, R D; Schneeloch, J; Gu, G D; Colson, D; Forget, A


    We report a fine tuned doping study of strongly overdoped Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} single crystals using electronic Raman scattering. Combined with theoretical calculations, we show that the doping, at which the normal-state pseudogap closes, coincides with a Lifshitz quantum phase transition where the active holelike Fermi surface becomes electronlike. This conclusion suggests that the microscopic cause of the pseudogap is sensitive to the Fermi surface topology. Furthermore, we find that the superconducting transition temperature is unaffected by this transition, demonstrating that their origins are different on the overdoped side.

  15. Doping and temperature dependence of the mass enhancement observed in the cuprate Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta). (United States)

    Johnson, P D; Valla, T; Fedorov, A V; Yusof, Z; Wells, B O; Li, Q; Moodenbaugh, A R; Gu, G D; Koshizuka, N; Kendziora, C; Jian, S; Hinks, D G


    High-resolution photoemission is used to study the electronic structure of the cuprate superconductor, Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta), as a function of hole doping and temperature. A kink observed in the band dispersion in the nodal line in the superconducting state is associated with coupling to a resonant mode observed in neutron scattering. From the measured real part of the self-energy it is possible to extract a coupling constant which is largest in the underdoped regime, then decreasing continuously into the overdoped regime.

  16. Temperature dependent scattering rates at the fermi surface of optimally doped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) (United States)

    Valla; Fedorov; Johnson; Li; Gu; Koshizuka


    For optimally doped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta), scattering rates in the normal state are found to have a linear temperature dependence over most of the Fermi surface. In the immediate vicinity of the (pi, 0) point, the scattering rates are nearly constant in the normal state, consistent with models in which scattering at this point determines the c-axis transport. In the superconducting state, the scattering rates away from the nodal direction appear to level off and become temperature independent.

  17. Phase composition and properties of superconducting ceramics based on Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O y precursors fabricated by melt quenching in a solar furnace (United States)

    Gulamova, D. D.; Uskenbaev, D. E.; Fantozzi, G.; Chigvinadze, J. G.; Magradze, O. V.


    Production of superconducting ceramics based on precursors with rated composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O y is studied. The precursors are synthesized in a solar furnace by melt rapid quenching. The phase composition of the samples is examined by microstructural and X-ray analyses. The temperature dependences of the resistance and magnetic susceptibility are measured. The influence of the composition and crystal structure of the substrate on texturing in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system is studied. It is found that the type of quenching plays a significant role, while the type of substrate is of minor significance.

  18. Plasmonic fluorescent CdSe/Cu2S hybrid nanocrystals for multichannel imaging and cancer directed photo-thermal therapy (United States)

    Sheikh Mohamed, M.; Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Romero Aburto, Rebecca; Mitcham, Trevor; Suzuki, Yuko; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.


    A simple, crude Jatropha curcas (JC) oil-based synthesis approach, devoid of any toxic phosphine and pyrophoric ligands, to produce size and shape tuned CdSe QDs and a further copper sulfide (Cu2S) encasing is presented. The QDs exhibited excellent photoluminescent properties with narrow band gap emission. Furthermore, the Cu2S shell rendered additional cytocompatibility and stability to the hybrid nanomaterial, which are major factors for translational and clinical applications of QDs. The nanocomposites were PEGylated and folate conjugated to augment their cytoamiability and enhance their specificity towards cancer cells. The nanohybrids possess potentials for visible, near infrared (NIR), photoacoustic (PA) and computed tomography (μCT) imaging. The diverse functionality of the composite was derived from the multi-channel imaging abilities and thermal competence on NIR laser irradiation to specifically actuate the photo-thermal ablation of brain cancer cells.A simple, crude Jatropha curcas (JC) oil-based synthesis approach, devoid of any toxic phosphine and pyrophoric ligands, to produce size and shape tuned CdSe QDs and a further copper sulfide (Cu2S) encasing is presented. The QDs exhibited excellent photoluminescent properties with narrow band gap emission. Furthermore, the Cu2S shell rendered additional cytocompatibility and stability to the hybrid nanomaterial, which are major factors for translational and clinical applications of QDs. The nanocomposites were PEGylated and folate conjugated to augment their cytoamiability and enhance their specificity towards cancer cells. The nanohybrids possess potentials for visible, near infrared (NIR), photoacoustic (PA) and computed tomography (μCT) imaging. The diverse functionality of the composite was derived from the multi-channel imaging abilities and thermal competence on NIR laser irradiation to specifically actuate the photo-thermal ablation of brain cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  19. Superconducting Microelectronics. (United States)

    Henry, Richard W.


    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  20. Proximity-induced superconductivity in monolayer CuO2 on cuprate substrates (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Yi; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Zhang, Guang-Ming


    To understand the recently observed high temperature superconductivity in the monolayer CuO2 grown on the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ substrates, we propose a two-band model of the hybridized oxygen px and py orbitals with the proximity effect of the substrate. We demonstrate that both the nodal and nodeless superconducting states can be induced by the proximity effect, depending on the strengths of the pairing parameters.

  1. Anisotropy in the ab-plane optical properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single-domain crystals (United States)

    Quijada, M. A.; Tanner, D. B.; Kelley, R. J.; Onellion, M.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    The ab-plane optical properties of the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 are anisotropic in both the normal and the superconducting state. Consistent with the orthorhombic structure, the principal axes lie along the a and b crystallographic axes, nearly 45° from the Cu-O bond direction. In the normal state, analysis of the temperature-dependent optical conductivity suggests a scattering rate for the free carriers that shows ab anisotropy in both magnitude and temperature dependence. In the superconducting state, the anisotropy in the oscillator strength of the superfluid response determined from the far-infrared frequency dependence of σ2(ω) and from a sum-rule analysis leads to a penetration depth λD that is larger along the b axis than the a axis: (λbL>λaL).

  2. Research on SF/PEI self-assembly nano fiber membrane for filtering Cu2+%SF/PEI自组装纳米纤维膜用于Cu2+过滤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞丽; 何建新; 张弦


    采用静电层层自组装技术将丝素(SF)与聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)复合制备的SF/PEI纳米纤维,随着自组装层数的增多,纤维直径变粗,表面变得不规整,且在一定的自组装层数内,复合纳米纤维膜对Cu2+的过滤效率不断增大.杂化Fe后,纤维表面变得更加凹凸不平,但对Cu2+的过滤效果显著改善.这对于制备新型、高效、无二次污染、低治理成本的替代或改进的重金属过滤材料提供了理论意义.%F/PEI composite Nano fiber membrane was made in this experiment by layer-layer electrostatic self-assembly technology, With the increasing in the number in self-assembly layer, the fiber diameter become larger, the surface become irregular, and in certain layer, the adsorption efficiency of Cu2+ increases. After the hybrid Fe, fiber surface become more uneven, but the adsorption efficiency improved significantly. This experiment provides theoretical significance for new, effective, no secondary pollution and low management cost alternative or improved heavy metal filter material.

  3. Phase transition and high temperature thermoelectric properties of copper selenide Cu2-χSe(0≤χ≤0.25)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xing-Xing; Xie Wen-Jie; Tang Xin-Feng; Zhang Qing-Jie


    With good electrical properties and an inherently complex crystal structure,Cu2-xSe is a potential "phonon glass electron crystal" thermoelectric material that has previously not attracted much interest.In this study,Cu2-xSe (0≤x≤0.25)compounds were synthesized by a melting-quenching method,and then sintered by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulk material.The effect of Cu content on the phase transition and thermoelectric properties of Cu2-xSe were investigated in the temperature range of 300 K-750 K.The results of X-ray diffraction at room temperature show that Cu2-xSe compounds possess a cubic structure with a space group of Fm3m(#225)when 0.15 < x≤0.25,whereas they adopt a composite of monoclinic and cubic phases when 0≤x≤0.15.The thermoelectric property measurements show that with increasing Cu content,the electrical conductivity decreases,the Seebeck coefficient increases and the thermal conductivity decreases.Due to the relatively good power factor and low thermal conductivity,the nearly stoichiometric Cu2Se compound achieves the highest ZT of 0.38 at 750 K.It is expected that the thermoelectric performance can be further optimized by doping appropriate elements and/or via a nanostructuring approach.

  4. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu2O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO2 nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong; Lv, Jianguo; He, Gang; Sun, Zhaoqi


    A novel Cu2O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO2 nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu2O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than -0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu2O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu2O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at -0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu2O and n-type TiO2 heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO2 nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  5. Electronic spectrum of the high-temperature superconducting state (United States)

    Hwu, Y.; Lozzi, L.; Marsi, M.; La Rosa, S.; Winokur, M.; Davis, P.; Onellion, M.; Berger, H.; Gozzo, F.; Levy, F.


    Improved experimental conditions permitted an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of the photoemission spectra for the superconducting state of Bi2Ca2SrCu2O8, taken with high angular and energy resolution. This also revealed a pronounced minimum that separates the two basic features of the spectrum, the narrow quasi-particle excitation peak and the controversial broad band at lower kinetic energies. The minimum is approximately 3-Delta below the Fermi level.

  6. Fracture behaviour and its relation to critical current of silver-sheathed Ba2YCu3O(7-x) superconducting composite wires and tapes (United States)

    Ochiai, Shojiro; Hayashi, Kenji; Osamura, Kozo


    Silver-sheathed Ba2YCu3O(7-x) superconducting composite wires and tapes were prepared by rolling, drawing, swaging and pressing methods. The fracture behavior and its influence on critical current at 0T at 77 K of the Ba2YCu3O(7-x) were investigated. The oxide was found to show multiple fracture under applied tensile stress, and the critical current density and tensile strength of the oxide in the rolled, swaged and pressed samples were higher than those in the drawn samples. When the working amount was high, the current density and the strength of the oxide were found to become high. Within the present conditions, there was a correlation between critical current density and cracking stress: the higher the cracking stress, the higher the critical current density became. The cracking stress of the present oxide was determined to be 50 MPa at most, being far lower than that of the Nb3Sn compound (800 to 2000 MPa). The critical current density of the rolled, swaged and pressed samples was reduced rapidly when exerted stress on the oxide exceeded the cracking stress, while the reduction in the drawn samples occurred gradually. A strong dependence of the critical current, as a function of applied stress and cracking stress of the oxide, on the measured portion due to scatter in the size of defects contained in the oxide, was found.

  7. A multiscale and multiphysics model of strain development in a 1.5 T MRI magnet designed with 36 filament composite MgB2 superconducting wire (United States)

    Amin, Abdullah Al; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Yao, Zhen; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Akkus, Ozan; Martens, Michael


    High temperature superconductors such as MgB2 focus on conduction cooling of electromagnets that eliminates the use of liquid helium. With the recent advances in the strain sustainability of MgB2, a full body 1.5 T conduction cooled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet shows promise. In this article, a 36 filament MgB2 superconducting wire is considered for a 1.5 T full-body MRI system and is analyzed in terms of strain development. In order to facilitate analysis, this composite wire is homogenized and the orthotropic wire material properties are employed to solve for strain development using a 2D-axisymmetric finite element analysis (FEA) model of the entire set of MRI magnet. The entire multiscale multiphysics analysis is considered from the wire to the magnet bundles addressing winding, cooling and electromagnetic excitation. The FEA solution is verified with proven analytical equations and acceptable agreement is reported. The results show a maximum mechanical strain development of 0.06% that is within the failure criteria of -0.6% to 0.4% (-0.3% to 0.2% for design) for the 36 filament MgB2 wire. Therefore, the study indicates the safe operation of the conduction cooled MgB2 based MRI magnet as far as strain development is concerned.

  8. Reduction Cu2+ by sugar alcohol under hydrothermal alkali conditions%水热碱性条件下(糖)醇对Cu2+的还原

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆春; S.D.Kinrade



  9. Development of Cu2O/Carbon Vulcan XC-72 as non-enzymatic sensor for glucose determination. (United States)

    El Khatib, K M; Abdel Hameed, R M


    A novel and stable non-enzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on the chemical reduction of Cu(2)O nanoparticles on Carbon Vulcan XC-72 using NaBH(4) as the reducing agent via the impregnation method. Different molar ratios of NaBH(4) to the copper salt were employed during the reduction step. This was found to affect the morphology; composition and structure of the prepared samples as investigated by TEM, EDX and XRD analyses. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were applied to examine the electrocatalytic activity of the different samples of Cu(2)O/Carbon Vulcan XC-72 towards glucose oxidation in alkaline medium. The 'x70' sample got the highest oxidation current density and the lowest oxidation potential. The performance of this sensor was evaluated showing a wide linear range up to 6mM with sensitivity of 629 μA cm(-2)mM(-1) and detection limit of 2.4 μM. Its good tolerance to ascorbic acid with long-term stability elects Cu(2)O/Carbon Vulcan XC-72 as a promising glucose sensor.

  10. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  11. Thermosensitive Cu2O-PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors with tunable photocatalytic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, He; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Henzler, Katja; Ott, Andreas; Lin, Xianzhong; Möser, Jannik; Kochovski, Zdravko; Schnegg, Alexander; Dzubiella, Joachim; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan


    We report a facile and novel method for the fabrication of Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors using Cu2O nanocubes as the core. The PNIPAM shell not only effectively protects the Cu2O nanocubes from oxidation, but also improves the colloidal stability of the system. The Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell microgels can work efficiently as photocatalyst for the decomposition of methyl orange under visible light. A significant enhancement in the catalytic activity has been observed for the core-shell microgels compared with the pure Cu2O nanocubes. Most importantly, the photocatalytic activity of the Cu2O nanocubes can be further tuned by the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell, as rationalized by our recent theory.

  12. Cation/Anion Substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Improved Photovoltaic Performance


    Balakrishna Ananthoju; Jeotikanta Mohapatra; Jangid, Manoj K.; Bahadur, D.; Medhekar, N. V.; ASLAM, M.


    Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal s...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We present the results of our investigation of lead and niobium as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. Quantum efficiencies (QE) have been measured for a range of incident photon energies and a variety of cathode preparation methods, including various lead plating techniques on a niobium substrate. The effects of operating at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and different vacuum levels on the cathode QE have also been studied.

  14. Optical and Dielectric Properties of Cr3+ & Cu2+ :P2O5-ZnO-LiF Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parthasaradhi Reddy


    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the results concerning structural, thermal, optical (absorption & emission, dielectric and ac conductivity properties of host glass in the chemical composition of 50P2O5-30ZnO-20LiF (PZL, and two different transition metal ions doped glasses such as (0.5 mol% Cr3+:49.5P2O5-30ZnO-20LiF and (0.5 mol% Cu2+:49.5P2O5-30ZnO-20LiF glasses have successfully been prepared by a melt quenching technique. Thermal analysis has been carried out on the host (PZL precursor chemical mix in evaluating weight loss from its TG profile and glass transition temperature (Tg and crystalline temperature (Tc from its DTA profile. The presence of Cr3+ and Cu2+ has been confirmed from their EDX profiles and absorption spectra. From the absorption spectrum of Cr3+: PZL glass, a couple of bands at 460 nm (4A2g (F  4T1g (F and 664 nm ( 4A2g (F  4T2g (F have been displayed where as a broad absorption band at 824 nm (2B1g → 2B2g is observed from Cu2+: PZL optical glass. The nature of local symmetry and structural information of the neighboring atoms of dopant ions (Cr3+& Cu2+ in the host matrix have been understood by evaluating the crystal field strength (Dq and Racah (B & C parameters

  15. Quantitative Probing of Cu(2+) Ions Naturally Present in Single Living Cells. (United States)

    Lee, Junho; Lee, Hwa-Rim; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Jung, Youngseob; Seo, Ji-Young; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Je, Jung Ho


    Quantitative probing of Cu(2+) ions naturally present in single living cells is realized by developing a quantum-dot-embedded nanowire-waveguide probe. The intracellular Cu(2+) ion concentration is quantified by direct monitoring of photoluminescence quenching during the insertion of the nanowire in a living neuron. The measured intracellular Cu(2+) ion concentration is 3.34 ± 1.04 × 10(-6) m (mean ± s.e.m.) in single hippocampal neurons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhodub LB


    Full Text Available Modification by polymers and inorganic ions of the bioactive materials for orthopedic implants with the purpose of initiating controlled reactions in tissues that surround the implant, is one of the modern approaches in medical materials. A key feature of functional polymers is their ability to form complexes with various metal ions in solution. Chitosan is natural biopolymer with pronounced affinity to transition metal ions. Some researches prove the higher antimicrobial activity of Chitosan-metal complexes compared with pure Chitosan. The purpose of this work was the study of antimicrobial activity of Chitosan nanoparticles modified by metal ions Ag+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ against reference strains S. aureus 25923 ATSS, E. coli ATCC 25922, C. albicans ATCC 885653 for their further use as components of the composite biomaterials for medical purpose.Chitosan nanoparticles suspension was prepared by known method based on the ionotropic gelation between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate.To obtain Chitosan-metal nanoparticles to the Chitosan suspension were added the corresponding metal ions aqueous solutions in quantity to match the concentration of metal ions of 200 ppm . Antibacterial activities of Ag+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ ions doped Chitosan nanoparticles, pure Chitosan nanoparticles, metal ions and 1% (v/v acetic acid solution (it was used as solvent for Chitosan against bacteria were evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC in vitro. Muller– Hinton (MH broth and MH agar (Russia were used as growth media. The bacteria suspension for further use was prepared with concentration that corresponded 0,5units by McFarland scale. The MIC was determined by a broth dilution method. The results were read after 24 hours of experimental tubes incubation at 37 oC as equivalent to the concentration of the tube without visible growth. To evaluate MBC, a sample of 0,1 ml was transferred from

  17. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells. (United States)

    Buffière, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; Khelifi, Samira; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef


    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this contribution, the KCN/KOH chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films, is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (i) the improvement of the fill factor (FF) after 30 s of etching for the CZTSe absorbers showing initially a distortion of the electrical characteristic; (ii) the progressive degradation of the FF after long treatment time for all Cu-poor CZTSe solar cell samples. The first effect can be attributed to the action of KCN on the absorber, that is found to clean the absorber free surface from most of the secondary phases surrounding the kesterite grains (e.g., Se0, CuxSe, SnSex, SnO2, Cu2SnSe3 phases, excepting the ZnSe-based phases). The second observation was identified as a consequence of the preferential etching of Se, Sn, and Zn from the CZTSe surface by the KOH solution, combined with the modification of the alkali content of the absorber. The formation of a Cu-rich shell at the absorber/buffer layer interface, leading to the increase of the recombination rate at the interface, and the increase in the doping of the absorber layer after etching are found to be at the origin of the deterioration of the FF of the solar cells.

  18. Selective cation exchange in the core region of Cu2-xSe/Cu2-xS core/shell nanocrystals. (United States)

    Miszta, Karol; Gariano, Graziella; Brescia, Rosaria; Marras, Sergio; De Donato, Francesco; Ghosh, Sandeep; De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato


    We studied cation exchange (CE) in core/shell Cu2-xSe/Cu2-xS nanorods with two cations, Ag(+) and Hg(2+), which are known to induce rapid exchange within metal chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) at room temperature. At the initial stage of the reaction, the guest ions diffused through the Cu2-xS shell and reached the Cu2-xSe core, replacing first Cu(+) ions within the latter region. These experiments prove that CE in copper chalcogenide NCs is facilitated by the high diffusivity of guest cations in the lattice, such that they can probe the whole host structure and identify the preferred regions where to initiate the exchange. For both guest ions, CE is thermodynamically driven as it aims for the formation of the chalcogen phase characterized by the lower solubility under the specific reaction conditions.

  19. Fabrication of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 prepared from Cu2SnS3 synthesized using a novel chemical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa John M.


    Full Text Available Solar cells based on kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films were fabricated using a chemical route to prepare the CZTS films, consisting in sequential deposition of Cu2SnS3 (CTS and ZnS thin films followed by annealing at 550 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The CTS compound was prepared in a one-step process using a novel chemical procedure consisting of simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2 performed by diffusion membranes assisted CBD (chemical bath deposition technique. Diffusion membranes were used to optimize the kinetic growth through a moderate control of release of metal ions into the work solution. As the conditions for the formation in one step of the Cu2SnS3 compound have not yet been reported in literature, special emphasis was put on finding the parameters that allow growing the Cu2SnS3 thin films by simultaneous precipitation of Cu2S and SnS2. For that, we propose a methodology that includes numerical solution of the equilibrium equations that were established through a study of the chemical equilibrium of the system SnCl2, Na3C6H5O7·2H2O, CuCl2 and Na2S2O3·5H2O. The formation of thin films of CTS and CZTS free of secondary phases grown with a stoichiometry close to that corresponding to the Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 phases, was verified through measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Solar cell with an efficiency of 4.2%, short circuit current of 16.2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltage of 0.49 V was obtained.

  20. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation


    Menjívar Marta; Barbachano-Esparza Laura; Albarrán Gabriela; Gil-Ortiz Mariana; Pedraza-Chaverrí José; Medina-Campos Omar N


    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  1. Normal mode coordinates of high T c superconductors TlCaBa 2Cu 2O 7 and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 (United States)

    Mori, T.; Nakaoka, K.; Onari, S.; Arai, T.


    Normal mode coordinates of high Tc superconductors TlCaBa 2Cu 2O 7- (Tl-1122) and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8(Tl-2122) are analyzed by the shell model calculations. The model calculations have reproduced very well the observed Raman frequencies. The vibrational frequencies of the oxygens on the CuO 2 layers are found to depend on the ionic charges of the oxygens on the CuO 2 layers.

  2. Investigations on Cu2+-substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles (United States)

    Amarjeet; Kumar, Vinod


    CuxNi(1-x)/2Zn(1-x)/2Fe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The developed nanoparticles were characterized for structural properties by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Peak position in the X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single spinel phase of the developed particles. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy in mid-IR range showed the presence of characteristic absorption bands corresponding to octahedral and tetrahedral bonds in the spinel structure of prepared samples. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed a considerable weight loss in the developed samples above 700∘C. Frequency dependence of the electrical properties of the developed material pellets was studied in the frequency range of 1 kHz-5 MHz. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of Cu0.1Ni0.45Zn0.45Fe2O4 was studied at different temperatures, i.e. at 425, 450 and 475 K, in the frequency range of 1 kHz-5 MHz. It was found that the electrical conductivity decreases with increasing Cu2+ ion content while it increases with the increase in temperature.

  3. Cyclic Voltammetry Measurement for Cu2O Based Homostructure Thin Film (United States)

    Mohamad Arifin, Nurliyana Binti; Mohamad, Fariza Binti; Sikh Anuar, Nur Fathiah Binti; Ahmad, Nabihah Binti; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Izaki, Masanobu


    This experiment is about fabrication of homojunction Copper Oxide (Cu2O) thin film by using electrodeposition method. The p-n homojunction Cu2O was successfully prepared by consecutively depositing p-type Cu2O layer on n-type Cu2O layer by using copper acetate based solution through potentiostatic electrodeposition. At first, the n-type Cu2O was fabricated at pH 6.2 and 6.5 with fixed potential of -0.125V vs Ag/AgCl and time deposition at 30 minutes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement was carried out on this sample to determine the ideal potential range for fabrication of p-type Cu2O on n-type Cu2O/FTO substrate. From the result, deposition potential of -0.35V and -0.4V vs Ag/AgCl were appropriated for p-type Cu2O thin film fabrication. These potential values were variable with the selected pH values of 12.0 and 12.5 to fabricate the p-type Cu2O thin film. The other parameters such as deposition time fixed at 2 hours bath temperature was set up at 60°C. It was found that the optimum potential deposition was -0.4V vs Ag/AgCl and pH value appropriate for homostructure Cu2O thin film was pH 12.5. Morphological, structural, optical and conductivity characterization of p-n homojunction Cu2O thin film was characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffractometer, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, respectively.

  4. Microfluidic synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Tao, Sha; Yang, Mei; Chen, Huihui; Ren, Mingyue; Chen, Guangwen


    A microfluidic-based method for the continuous synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed. It only took 32s to obtain Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs, indicating a high efficiency of this microfluidic-based method. Triangular Ag nanoprisms were employed as the cores for the overgrowth of Cu2O through the reduction of Cu(OH)4(2-) with ascorbic acid. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, HRTEM, UV-vis spectra and N2 adsorption-desorption. The characterization results revealed that the as-synthesized Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs exhibited a well-defined core-shell nanostructure with a polycrystalline shell, which was composed of numbers of Cu2O domains epitaxially growing on the triangular Ag nanoprism. It was concluded that the synthesis parameters such as the molar ratio of trisodium citrate to AgNO3, H2O2 to AgNO3, NaOH to CuSO4, ascorbic acid to CuSO4 and AgNO3 to CuSO4 had significant effect on the synthesis of Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs. Moreover, Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs exhibited superior catalytic activity in comparison with pristine Cu2O NPs towards the visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs was attributed to the larger BET surface area and improved charge separation efficiency. The trapping experiment indicated that holes and superoxide anion radicals were the major reactive species in the photodegradation of methyl orange over Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs. In addition, Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs showed no obvious deactivation in the cyclic test.

  5. Twin boundary effects on spontaneous half-quantized vortices in superconducting composite structures (d-dot’s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Norio; Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A d-dot is a nano-scaled composite structure that consists of a d- and s-wave SC. • Two-components GL equations with anisotropic effective mass of electrons are derived. • Anisotropic effective mass suppress spontaneous half-quantized vortices in d-dot’s. • Thin junctions are good for spontaneous half-quantized vortices in d-dot’s. - Abstract: We investigate effects of anisotropy of an orthorhombic structure in twin domains on spontaneous half-quantized vortices (SHQVs) in a d-dot, which is a nano-scaled composite structure that consists of a d-wave superconductor embedded in an s-wave matrix. Since YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) has the orthorhombic structure, there are twin domains separated by twin boundaries (TBs). In order to analyze effects of TBs on SHQVs, we derive two-component Ginzburg–Landau equations, in which electrons in YBCO have anisotropic effective mass. It is found that the magnitude of field around SHQVs is monotonically decreasing with increasing anisotropy of effective mass and finally peak values of the fields become zero. This means that anisotropy of the effective mass suppresses SHQVs and when the anisotropy is too large, SHQVs do not appear in d-dot’s.

  6. Electric field control of magnetization in Cu2O/porous anodic alumina hybrid structures at room temperature (United States)

    Qi, L. Q.; Liu, H. Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Liu, L. H.; Han, R. S.


    Cu2O nanoporous films are deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. This paper focuses on voltage driven magnetization switching in Cu2O/PAA (CP) composite films prepared by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. By applying a dc electric field, the magnetization of the CP composite films can be controlled in a reversible and reproducible way and shows an analogous on-off behavior. The magnitude of the change in the magnetization was about 75 emu/cm3 as the electric field was switched on and off. Resistive switching behavior was also observed in as-prepared CP composite films. Further analysis indicated that the formation/rupture of conducting filaments composed of oxygen vacancies is likely responsible for the changes in the magnetization as well as in the resistivity. Such reversible change of magnetization controlled by an electric field at room temperature may have applications in spintronics and power efficient data storage technologies.

  7. Nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for solar cells application: Microdiffraction and structural characterization (United States)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Dussan, A.


    This work presents a study of the structural characterization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microdiffraction measurements. Samples were deposited varying both mass (MX) and substrate temperature (TS) at which the Cu and ZnSe composites were evaporated. CZTSe samples were deposited by co-evaporation method in three stages. From XRD measurements, it was possible to establish, with increased Ts, the presence of binary phases associated with the quaternary composite during the material's growth process. A stannite-type structure in Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films and sizes of the crystallites varying between 30 and 40 nm were obtained. X-ray microdiffraction was used to investigate interface orientations and strain distributions when deposition parameters were varied. It was found that around the main peak, 2ϴ = 27.1°, the Cu1.8Se and ZnSe binary phases predominate, which are formed during the subsequent material selenization stage. A Raman spectroscopy study revealed Raman shifts associated with the binary composites observed via XRD.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalysts for H2 evolution from aqueous solution with different scavengers (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Baowei; Liu, Sihan; Duan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zongyuan


    A series of Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalysts with different molar fraction of Cu2O were prepared by a facile modified ethanol-induced approach followed by a calcination process. The chemical state of copper compound was proved to be cuprous oxide by the characterization of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Furthermore, these composite oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption desorption and UV-vis techniques to study the morphologies, structures, and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of n-type TiO2 was significantly enhanced by combined with p-type Cu2O, due to the efficient p-n heterojunction. The p-n heterojunction between Cu2O and TiO2 can enhance visible-light adsorption, efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and especially provide plentiful reaction active sites on the surface of photocatalyst. As a consequence, the prepared 2.5-Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution rate and reached 2048.25 μmol/(g h), which is 14.48 times larger than that of pure P25. The apparent quantum yield (AQY) of the 2.5-Cu2O/TiO2 sample at 365 nm was estimated to be 4.32%. In addition, the influence of different scavengers, namely methanol, anhydrous ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol, on the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution rate was discussed.

  9. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjívar Marta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a aqueous garlic extracts or (b garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling

  10. An Amidochlorin-Based Colorimetric Fluorescent Probe for Selective Cu2+ Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li


    Full Text Available The design and synthesis of selective and sensitive chemosensors for the quantification of environmentally and biologically important ionic species has attracted widespread attention. Amidochlorin p6 (ACP; an effective colorimetric and fluorescent probe for copper ions (Cu2+ in aqueous solution derived from methyl pheophorbide-a (MPa was designed and synthesized. A remarkable color change from pale yellow to blue was easily observed by the naked eye upon addition of Cu2+; and a fluorescence quenching was also determined. The research of fluorescent quenching of ACP-Cu2+ complexation showed the detection limit was 7.5 × 10−8 mol/L; which suggested that ACP can act as a high sensitive probe for Cu2+ and can be used to quantitatively detect low levels of Cu2+ in aqueous solution. In aqueous solution the probe exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward Cu2+ ions over other metal ions (M = Zn2+; Ni2+; Ba2+; Ag+; Co2+; Na+; K+; Mg2+; Cd2+; Pb2+; Mn2+; Fe3+; and Ca2+. The obvious change from pale yellow to blue upon the addition of Cu2+ could make it a suitable “naked eye” indicator for Cu2+.

  11. Fluorescence quenching in luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for the detection of intracellular Cu2+. (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wenyi; Shi, Jisen; Xiao, Shoujun


    After microwave-induced hydrosilylation reaction with 10-undecenoic acid, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSiNPs) showed excellent fluorescence stability under physiological conditions. Fluorescence quenching in as-prepared LPSiNPs was highly sensitive with the concentration of Cu(2+) at μmol L(-1) level, which could be further applied to the detection of intracellular Cu(2+).

  12. Control of native acceptor density in epitaxial Cu2O thin films grown by electrochemical deposition (United States)

    Ashida, Atsushi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi


    Controlling the native carrier is essential for using Cu2O in devices such as solar cells. The origin of the native p-type carrier in Cu2O is thought to be copper vacancies (VCu). In this work, epitaxially grown Cu2O thin films were prepared by electrochemical deposition at a low temperature of 45 °C on a Pt (111) cathodic electrode. The sources of Cu and O for Cu2O were Cu2+ and OH- in the electrolyte and the ion concentrations were changed to control the stoichiometry of deposition and the density of VCu. The density of ionized acceptors (NA+) in the Cu2O films was evaluated by the C-V properties measured with Schottky electrodes. NA+ did not depend on [Cu2+], whereas NA+ increased with increasing [OH-] when [OH-] was larger than 10-3 mol/L (electrolyte pH >11) with [Cu2+] fixed at 10-1 mol/L. The ion concentration dependence of NA+ and the dependence of the total cathodic current density revealed that the generation of VCu was affected by a complex combination of the ion concentrations and film growth rate.

  13. Near-Infrared Upconversion Chemodosimeter for In Vivo Detection of Cu(2+) in Wilson Disease. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Su, Qianqian; Chen, Min; Dong, Yi; Shi, Yibing; Feng, Wei; Wu, Zhi-Ying; Li, Fuyou


    Near-infrared upconversion chemodosimetry is a promising detection method by virtue of the frequency upconversion technique, which shows very high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of Cu(2+) ions in vitro and in vivo. This method offers a new opportunity for noninvasive diagnosis of Wilson disease associated with Cu(2+) detection in clinical medicine.

  14. Effect of Cu2+ concentration on hydrogen fermentation by mixed culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南琪; 丁杰; 丁兰; 刘敏; 李永峰; 包红旭


    The results of the study on the effect of Cu2+ concentration on hydrogen production using a glucose solution and mixed microorganisms from a 9.2 L laboratory-scale digester operated at 35 ℃ indicated the productions of hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), ethanol and biogas were inhibited by the added Cu2 + which caused a reduction in the glucose degradation efficiency. The specific yields of hydrogen, ethanol and acetate decreased with increased Cu2+ concentration in the mixed microorganisms. When the Cu2 + concentration in the mixed microorganisms was almost an constant, the specific yields of hydrogen, ethanol and acetate were very similar. A 50% inhibition of hydrogen yield (ECso) occurred at a Cu2+ dosage of 0. 50 mg/L in the present investigation. Cu2+ in the external environment is accumulated in the mixed microorganisms. The Cu2 + speciation, using a sequential extraction technique, showed that the Cu2+ was present mainly bound to organic sites in the mixed microorganisms in the present investigation.

  15. Isolated Cu2+ ions: active sites for selective catalytic reduction of NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, S.T.; Fickel, D.W.; Lobo, R.F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Beale, A.M.


    Cu chabazite catalysts show remarkable low temperature activity in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO. This high activity is due to the unique character of the zeolite framework that allows only the presence of one type of isolated mononuclear Cu2+ species. These Cu2+ species are the active s


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) is a potential material for the fabrication of low cost solar cells for ... problems of the above energy sources make the international ..... results of their study on ZnO/Cu2O junction solar cells. The best values ...

  17. Silica-Supported Cu2O Nanoparticles with Tunable Size for Sustainable Hydrogen Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Gang; van den Berg, R.; de Mello-Donega, Celso; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.


    Cu2O is a p-type semiconductor which attracts much attention for application in photovoltaics, photocatalysis and solar water splitting. However, Cu2O is not intrinsically stable under illumination in aqueous solutions, and the edge of the valence band is not positive enough to provide sufficient ov

  18. 茶叶渣对水溶液中Cu2+的吸附研究%Adsorption Research of Cu2+on Tea Dregs from Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡家朋; 赵升云; 林夏雨; 赖文亮


    The adsorption properties and mechanism of Cu2+ from aqueous solution using the tea dregs was studied In this paper, the adsorption experiments of Cu2+from aqueous solution using the Taiwan high mountain tea dregs as an adsorbent were carried out. The effects of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorption time, reaction temperature, and initial concentrations were investigated. The results indicated that the tea dregs had fine adsorption effects on Cu2 + ion. The adsorption equilibrium time was 60 min. And the adsorption efficiency of Cu2+ increased sharply as the reaction temperature increasing. The pH was important influence factors to adsorption and the optimum pH was 4. The adsorption data followed the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model. But the Langmuir model had the better correlation at different temperature. Thermodynamic parameters, includingΔG0,ΔH0,ΔS0 were calculated. The values ofΔG0 at 30℃, 40℃and 50℃were negative value, indicating the spontaneous nature. The positive value ofΔH0 revealed that the endothermic nature was existed in the tea dregs absorption process. The positive value ofΔS0 represents that the tea dregs adsorption was an increasing process for entropy. Also, the comparison of FTIR information after the Cu2+adsorption on tea dregs with the initial tea dregs provided evidence of physical adsorption in the adsorption process.%为研究茶叶渣对水溶液中Cu2+的吸附及其机理,利用台湾高山茶叶渣对水溶液中Cu2+进行了吸附实验,考察pH、吸附时间、反应温度、Cu2+初始浓度等因素对吸附效能之影响。实验结果表明:台湾高山茶叶渣对Cu2+有很好吸附效果,吸附平衡时间约为60 min;随着反应温度增加,对Cu2+的吸附效能逐渐提高。在固定初始Cu2+浓度、吸附时间、震荡转速及反应温度下,pH会影响茶叶渣对Cu2+的吸附效能, pH 4时吸附效果最佳。对Cu2+的吸附效能均可使用Langmuir与Freundlich

  19. Free-standing oxide superconducting articles (United States)

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.


    A substrate-free, free-standing epitaxially oriented superconductive film including a layer of a template material and a layer of a ceramic superconducting material is provided together with a method of making such a substrate-free ceramic superconductive film by coating an etchable material with a template layer, coating the template layer with a layer of a ceramic superconductive material, coating the layer of ceramic superconductive material with a protective material, removing the etchable material by an appropriate means so that the etchable material is separated from a composite structure including the template lay This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  20. Synthesis and Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity of Cu2O Nanoparticles/Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Duy Du


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O nanoparticles in zeolite A were synthesized by two steps: (i ion-exchange of copper ions into the zeolite and (ii reduction of copper ions in cages of the zeolite by hydrazine hydrate in base medium. The Cu2O nanoparticles/zeolite product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The particle size of Cu2O nanoparticles was of 40 nm. The antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized Cu2O nanoparticles/zeolite against Escherichia coli was also investigated. Cu2O NPs/zeolite product can be favorably produced on large scale for water treatment and agricultural application as antimicrobial agent.

  1. Reaction Kinetic Parameters and Surface Thermodynamic Properties of Cu2O Nanocubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Li


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O nanocubes were synthesized by reducing Cu(OH2 in the presence of sodium citrate at room temperature. The samples were characterized in detail by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and N2 absorption (BET specific surface area. The equations for acquiring reaction kinetic parameters and surface thermodynamic properties of Cu2O nanocubes were deduced by establishment of the relations between thermodynamic functions of Cu2O nanocubes and these of the bulk Cu2O. Combined with thermochemical cycle, transition state theory, basic theory of chemical thermodynamics, and in situ microcalorimetry, reaction kinetic parameters, specific surface enthalpy, specific surface Gibbs free energy, and specific surface entropy of Cu2O nanocubes were successfully determined. We also introduced a universal route for gaining reaction kinetic parameters and surface thermodynamic properties of nanomaterials.

  2. A cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for imaging Cu2 + in living cancer cells (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Song, Xuezhen; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying


    Monitoring copper level in cancer cells is important for the further understanding of its roles in the cell proliferation, and also could afford novel copper-based strategy for the cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for the detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. The probe employed biotin as the cancer cell-specific group. Before the treatment of Cu2 +, the probe showed nearly no fluorescence. However, the probe can display strong fluorescence at 581 nm in response to Cu2 +. The probe exhibited excellent sensitivity and high selectivity for Cu2 + over the other relative species. Under the guidance of biotin group, could be successfully used for detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. We expect that this design strategy could be further applied for detection of the other important biomolecules in living cancer cells.

  3. Efficient Thermolysis Route to Monodisperse Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals with Controlled Shape and Structure (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Guobiao; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Kai; Zha, Chenyang; Wang, Yifeng; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong


    Monodisperse Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals with tunable shape, crystalline phase, and composition are synthesized by efficient thermolysis of a single source precursor of mixed metal-oleate complexes in hot organic solvents with dissolved sulfur sources. Suitable tuning of the synthetic conditions and the Cu/(Zn + Sn) ratio of the precursor has enabled precise control of the crystalline phase in the form of kesterite, or a newly observed wurtzite structure. Nanocrystals with morphology in the form of spherical, rice-like, or rod-like shapes are obtained over a wide range of compositions (0.5 <= Cu/(Zn + Sn) <= 1.2). Both the final products and intermediates for each shape exhibit consistent composition and structure, indicating homogenous nucleation and growth of single-phase nanocrystals. Thin films prepared from colloidal nanocrystal suspensions display interesting shape-dependent photoresponse behavior under white light illumination from a solar simulator.

  4. Research on Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals and heterojunctions based on such crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaliuk T. T.


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the results of the studies of magnetic, kinetic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals. The Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals showed diamagnetic properties (the magnetic susceptibility almost independent of the magnetic field and temperature. The Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals possessed p-type of conductivity and the Hall coefficient was independent on temperature. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystal shows metallic character, i. e. decreases with the increase of temperature, that is caused by the lower charge carrier mobility at higher temperature. Thermoelectric power of the samples ispositive that also indicates on the prevalence of p-type conductivity. Heterojunctions n-TiN/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4, n-TiO2/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 and n-MoO/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 were fabricated by the reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN, TiO2 and MoOx thin films, respectively, onto the substrates made of the Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals. The dominating current transport mechanisms in the n-TiN/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 and n-TiO2/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 heterojunctions were established to be the tunnel-recombination mechanism at forward bias and tunneling at reverse bias.

  5. Bimetallic AgCu/Cu2O hybrid for the synergetic adsorption of iodide from solution. (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuechan; Liang, Jie; Zhou, Qihang; Dai, Yuexuan; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Shouwen; Yang, Yi


    To further improve the capacity of Cu2O to absorb I(-) anions from solution, and to understand the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu2O and Cu/Cu2O adsorbents, bimetallic AgCu was doped into Cu2O through a facile solvothermal route. Samples were characterized and employed to adsorb I(-) anions under different experimental conditions. The results show that the Cu content can be tuned by adding different volumes of Ag sols. After doping bimetallic AgCu, the adsorption capacity of the samples can be increased from 0.02 mmol g(-1) to 0.52 mmol g(-1). Moreover, the optimal adsorption is reached within only 240 min. Meanwhile, the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu2O and Cu/Cu2O adsorbents was verified, and the cooperative adsorption mechanism of the AgCu/Cu2O hybrid was proposed and verified. In addition, the AgCu/Cu2O hybrid showed excellent selectivity, e.g., its adsorption efficiencies are 85.1%, 81.9%, 85.9% and 85.7% in the presence of the Cl(-), CO3(2-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) competitive anions, respectively. Furthermore, the AgCu/Cu2O hybrid can worked well in other harsh environments (e.g., acidic, alkaline and seawater environments). Therefore, this study is expected to promote the development of Cu2O into a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of iodide from solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Itinerant Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity


    Karchev, Naoum


    Superconductivity has again become a challenge following the discovery of unconventional superconductivity. Resistance-free currents have been observed in heavy-fermion materials, organic conductors and copper oxides. The discovery of superconductivity in a single crystal of $UGe_2$, $ZrZn_2$ and $URhGe$ revived the interest in the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The experiments indicate that: i)The superconductivity is confined to the ferromagnetic phase. ii)The ferromag...

  7. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst


    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  8. Topological superconductivity induced by ferromagnetic metal chains (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Hua; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; MacDonald, A. H.


    Recent experiments have provided evidence that one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductivity can be realized experimentally by placing transition-metal atoms that form a ferromagnetic chain on a superconducting substrate. We address some properties of this type of system by using a Slater-Koster tight-binding model to account for important features of the electronic structure of the transition-metal chains on the superconducting substrate. We predict that topological superconductivity is nearly universal when ferromagnetic transition-metal chains form straight lines on superconducting substrates and that it is possible for more complex chain structures. When the chain is weakly coupled to the substrate and is longer than superconducting coherence lengths, its proximity-induced superconducting gap is ˜Δ ESO/J where Δ is the s -wave pair potential on the chain, ESO is the spin-orbit splitting energy induced in the normal chain state bands by hybridization with the superconducting substrate, and J is the exchange splitting of the ferromagnetic chain d bands. Because of the topological character of the 1D superconducting state, Majorana end modes appear within the gaps of finite length chains. We find, in agreement with the experiment, that when the chain and substrate orbitals are strongly hybridized, Majorana end modes are substantially reduced in amplitude when separated from the chain end by less than the coherence length defined by the p -wave superconducting gap. We conclude that Pb is a particularly favorable substrate material for ferromagnetic chain topological superconductivity because it provides both strong s -wave pairing and strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, but that there is an opportunity to optimize properties by varying the atomic composition and structure of the chain. Finally, we note that in the absence of disorder, a new chain magnetic symmetry, one that is also present in the crystalline topological insulators, can stabilize multiple

  9. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on Cu(2+) removal by Spirulina platensis strain (FACHB-834). (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Zhao, Xiaokai; Fang, Fang; Dahlgren, Randy A; Li, Dong; Yin, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yuna; Wang, Xuedong


    The removal efficiency of Cu(2+) by Spirulina platensis (strain FACHB-834), in viable and heat-inactivated forms, was investigated in the presence and absence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). When the initial Cu(2+) concentration was in the range of 0.5-1.5 mg · L(-1) , a slight increase in growth rate of FACHB-834 was observed. In contrast, when Cu(2+) or LAS concentrations were at or higher than 2.0 or 6.0 mg · L(-1) , respectively, the growth of FACHB-834 was inhibited and displayed yellowing and fragmentation of filaments. The presence of LAS improved Cu(2+) removal by ~20%, and accelerated attainment of Cu(2+) retention equilibrium. For the 2- mg · L(-1) Cu(2+) treatments, retention equilibrium occurred within 2 d and showed maximum Cu(2+) removal of 1.83 mg · L(-1) . In the presence of LAS, the ratio of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to intracellular Cu(2+) taken up by the cells was lower (1.05-2.26) than corresponding ratios (2.46-7.85) in the absence of LAS. The percentages of extracellular bound Cu(2+) to total Cu(2+) removal (both bound and taken up by cells) in the presence of LAS ranged from 51.2% to 69.3%, which was lower than their corresponding percentages (71.1%-88.7%) in the absence of LAS. LAS promoted biologically active transport of the extracellular bound form of Cu(2+) into the cell. In contrast, the addition of LAS did not increase the maximum removal efficiency of Cu(2+) (61.4% ± 5.6%) by heat-inactivated cells compared to that of living cells (59.6% ± 6.0%). These results provide a theoretical foundation for designing bioremediation strategies using FACHB-834 for use in surface waters contaminated by both heavy metals and LAS.

  10. Jahn–Teller physics and high-Tc superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Keller


    Full Text Available The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides was not accidental, but was based on the knowledge that the divalent copper ion, Cu2+, is one of the strongest Jahn–Teller ions. The Jahn–Teller effect is a consequence of the interplay between electronic degeneracy and coupling to the lattice, i.e. unconventional local electron–lattice interactions. The search for superconductivity in copper oxides was motivated by the idea that Jahn–Teller polaron formation could be a novel and much stronger glue for electron pairing than conventional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer electron–phonon coupling. The consequences of these ideas are unconventional isotope effects and complex pairing symmetries related to multiband superconductivity, which are reviewed here.

  11. Microstructural analysis of 9.7% efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells (United States)

    Buffière, M.; Brammertz, G.; Batuk, M.; Verbist, C.; Mangin, D.; Koble, C.; Hadermann, J.; Meuris, M.; Poortmans, J.


    This work presents a detailed analysis of the microstructure and the composition of our record Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe)-CdS-ZnO solar cell with a total area efficiency of 9.7%. The average composition of the CZTSe crystallites is Cu1.94Zn1.12Sn0.95Se3.99. Large crystals of ZnSe secondary phase (up to 400 nm diameter) are observed at the voids between the absorber and the back contact, while smaller ZnSe domains are segregated at the grain boundaries and close to the surface of the CZTSe grains. An underlying layer and some particles of CuxSe are observed at the Mo-MoSe2-Cu2ZnSnSe4 interface. The free surface of the voids at the back interface is covered by an amorphous layer containing Cu, S, O, and C, while the presence of Cd, Na, and K is also observed in this region.

  12. Effect of conductive substrate (working electrode) on the morphology of electrodeposited Cu2O (United States)

    ELmezayyen, Ayman S.; Guan, Shian; Reicha, Fikry M.; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Zheng, jianming; Xu, Chunye


    Cu2O thin films were electrodeposited from a Cu(II) acetate solution containing 0.02 M Copper(II) acetate (Cu(OAc)2) and 0.1 M sodium acetate (NaOAc) at pH 5.6, using three different working conductive electrodes with approximately the same square resistance -indium doped tin oxide glass (ITO/Glass), fluorine-doped tin oxide glass (FTO/Glass), and indium doped tin oxide polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET)—under identical conditions using a common growth condition. The Cu2O thin films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), current density versus growth time for Cu2O films, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the choice of substrate materials has a crucial role in controlling Cu2O growth. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) of FTO/Glass-Cu2O exhibits the lowest value; this means that FTO/Glass-Cu2O possess the highest electron transfer efficiency. All Cu2O films showed n-type semiconductor characteristic with charge carrier densities varying between 1.4 × 1018-1.2 × 1019 cm-3.

  13. Heteroepitaxial Cu2O thin film solar cell on metallic substrates. (United States)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Huang, Po-Shun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Goyal, Amit


    Heteroepitaxial, single-crystal-like Cu2O films on inexpensive, flexible, metallic substrates can potentially be used as absorber layers for fabrication of low-cost, high-performance, non-toxic, earth-abundant solar cells. Here, we report epitaxial growth of Cu2O films on low cost, flexible, textured metallic substrates. Cu2O films were deposited on the metallic templates via pulsed laser deposition under various processing conditions to study the influence of processing parameters on the structural and electronic properties of the films. It is found that pure, epitaxial Cu2O phase without any trace of CuO phase is only formed in a limited deposition window of P(O2) - temperature. The (00l) single-oriented, highly textured, Cu2O films deposited under optimum P(O2) - temperature conditions exhibit excellent electronic properties with carrier mobility in the range of 40-60 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and carrier concentration over 10(16) cm(-3). The power conversion efficiency of 1.65% is demonstrated from a proof-of-concept Cu2O solar cell based on epitaxial Cu2O film prepared on the textured metal substrate.

  14. [Effect of Cu2+ on the power output of dual-chamber microbial fuel cell]. (United States)

    Mu, Shu-Jun; Li, Xiu-Fen; Ren, Yue-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hua


    After addition of Cu2+ into the anodic and/or cathodic chamber, the effect of Cu2+ on the internal resistance and its distribution, power output and coulombic efficiency of dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated in this manuscript with the aid of analyzing the distribution of copper speciation. It could provide helpful information for correlative research on treatment of copper-containing wastewater by MFC. It showed that the addition of 10 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ into the anodic chamber inhibited the microbial activity, and increased the anodic activation resistance as well as the apparent internal resistance, consequently reduced the power output and coulombic efficiency of the system. However, the addition of 500 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ into the cathodic chamber significantly reduced the cathodic activation resistance as well as the apparent internal resistance, while improved the power output and the coulombic efficiency. Cu2+ in the anodic chamber was not transfered into the cathodic chamber. When adding Cu2+ into the cathodic chamber, it was mainly reduced and deposited on the cathodic chamber. It could also be transferred/diffused to the anodic chamber across the proton exchange membrane (2.8%) because of its concentration difference, thus affecting the microbial activity and power output. Only a small amount of Cu2+ remained in the supernatant of the cathodic chamber at the end of experiment.

  15. Morphology transformation of Cu2O by adding TEOA and their antibacterial activity (United States)

    Duan, Weijia; Zheng, Min; Li, Rong; Wang, Yuyuan


    Cu2O polyhedral particles and hollow spheres were successfully synthesized by adjusting the concentration of triethanolamine (TEOA). The as-prepared samples were structurally characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the solid polyhedral Cu2O with sizes ranging from 70 to 150 nm was in good crystallization. The diameter of the hollow Cu2O spheres increased to 350-450 nm. It was found that the sizes and morphologies of the products could be significantly affected by the concentration of TEOA. And the morphology of Cu2O transformed from solid polyhedrons to hollow spheres with the further enrichment of TEOA concentration. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the hollow Cu2O spheres. In addition, we investigated the antibacterial activities of the samples. It was demonstrated that the hollow Cu2O sphere exhibited better antibacterial activities for Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) compared with the solid polyhedral Cu2O.

  16. Cu2O quantum dots emitting visible light grown by atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Il-Kyu


    This paper reports the fabrication of the Cu2O quantum dots (QDs) emitting a controlled wavelength in the visible spectral range prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Cu2O thin film layers formed on the Al2O3 surface showed large density of islands via Volmer-Weber growth mode, which resulting in QD formation. As the number of ALD cycles was increased from 60 to 480, the spatial density and mean diameter of the Cu2O QDs increased systematically from 4.02 × 1011/cm2 to 2.56×1012/cm2 and from 2.1 to 3.2 nm, respectively. The absorption spectral results indicated that the electron energy transition in the Cu2O QDs was a direct process with the optical band gaps decreasing from 2.71 to 2.15 eV with increasing QD size from 2.1 to 3.2 nm because of the quantum confinement effect. The Cu2O QDs showed broad emission peaks composed of multiple elementary emission spectra corresponding to the Cu2O QD ensembles with a different size distribution. As the size of Cu2O QDs decreased, the shoulder peaks at the higher energy side developed due to the quantum confinement effect.

  17. High field superconducting magnets (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)


    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  18. Ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of Cu2+ ion based on catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine. (United States)

    Yin, Kun; Li, Bowei; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Lingxin


    As an essential element, copper ion (Cu(2+)) plays important roles in human beings for its participation in diverse metabolic processes as a cofactor and/or a structural component of enzymes. However, excessive uptake of Cu(2+) ion gives rise to the risk of certain diseases. So, it is important to develop simple ways to monitor and detect Cu(2+) ion. In this study, a simple, facile colorimetric sensor for the ultrasensitive determination of Cu(2+) ion was developed based on the following principle: L-cysteine and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) could be conjugated to form the yellow product 2,4-dinitrophenylcysteine (DNPC), which was measurable at 355nm; however, upon addition of Cu(2+) ion, the absorbance of DNPC would be decreased owing to the Cu(2+) ion catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine to L-cystine in the presence of O2. Thus, the colorimetric detection of Cu(2+) ion could be achieved. The optimal pH, buffer, temperature and incubation time for the colorimetric sensor were obtained of pH 6.8 in 0.1M HEPES solution, 90 °C and 50 min, respectively. A good linearity within the range of 0.8-10 nM (r = 0.996) was attained, with a high detectability up to 0.5nM. Analyses of Cu(2+) ion in drinking water, lake water, seawater and biological samples were carried out and the method performances were found to agree well with that obtained by ICP-MS. The developed simple colorimetric sensor proved applicable for Cu(2+) ion determination in real samples with high sensitivity and selectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual-emission fluorescent silica nanoparticle-based probe for ultrasensitive detection of Cu2+. (United States)

    Zong, Chenghua; Ai, Kelong; Zhang, Guo; Li, Hongwei; Lu, Lehui


    An effective dual-emission fluorescent silica nanoparticle-based probe has been constructed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Cu(2+). In this nanoprobe, a dye-doped silica core served as a reference signal, thus providing a built-in correction for environmental effects. A response dye was covalently grafted on the surface of the silica nanoparticles through a chelating reagent for Cu(2+). The fluorescence of the response dye could be selectively quenched in the presence of Cu(2+), accompanied by a visual orange-to-green color switch of the nanoprobe. The nanoprobe provided an effective platform for reliable detection of Cu(2+) with a detection limit as low as 10 nM, which is nearly 2 × 10(3) times lower than the maximum level (∼20 μM) of Cu(2+) in drinking water permitted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The high sensitivity was attributed to the strong chelation of Cu(2+) with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and a signal amplification effect. The nanoprobe constructed by this method was very stable, enabling the rapid detection of Cu(2+) in real water samples. Good linear correlations were obtained over the concentration range from 1 × 10(-7) to 8 × 10(-7) (R(2) = 0.99) with recoveries of 103.8-99.14% and 95.5-95.14% for industrial wastewater and lake water, respectively. Additionally, the long-wavelength emission of the response dye can avoid the interference of the autofluorescence of the biosystems, which facilitated their applications in monitoring Cu(2+) in cells. Furthermore, the nanoprobe showed a good reversibility; the fluorescence can be switched "off" and "on" by an addition of Cu(2+) and EDTA, respectively. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Estimation of critical current distribution in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x cables and coils using a self-consistent model (United States)

    Liu, Donghui; Xia, Jing; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe


    Superconducting magnets can generate high magnetic fields. Multi-filamentary Ag-alloy sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O x (Bi-2212) round wire can have a high critical current density in a very high magnetic field. Thus, Bi-2212 has great potential for the development of high-field magnets. For safe and reliable operation of superconducting magnets, it is necessary to estimate the critical current during the design of cables and coils. In this paper, we extend the self-consistent model proposed by Zermeño et al to study the critical current of Bi-2212 cables and coils. First, based on the distribution of Bi-2212 filaments and the experimental test of the critical current of a single strand, the critical currents in cables and coils are calculated. The self-field effect on the critical current is also analyzed. Then, we use an equivalent model to to estimate critical current of large superconducting coils. The equivalent model can effectively estimate the critical current in coils. Using the equivalent model, the results of coils in self-field and high field are compared and discussed. The method and results could be useful for the design of high-field coils.

  1. Mapping the Electronic Structure of Each Ingredient Oxide Layer of High-T\\{c} Cuprate Superconductor Bi{2}Sr{2}CaCu{2}O{8+δ}. (United States)

    Lv, Yan-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lin; Peng, Jun-Ping; Ding, Hao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Gu, Gen-Da; Song, Can-Li; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun


    Understanding the mechanism of high transition temperature (T{c}) superconductivity in cuprates has been hindered by the apparent complexity of their multilayered crystal structure. Using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we report on layer-by-layer probing of the electronic structures of all ingredient planes (BiO, SrO, CuO{2}) of Bi{2}Sr{2}CaCu_2}O{8+δ} superconductor prepared by argon-ion bombardment and annealing technique. We show that the well-known pseudogap (PG) feature observed by STM is inherently a property of the BiO planes and thus irrelevant directly to Cooper pairing. The SrO planes exhibit an unexpected van Hove singularity near the Fermi level, while the CuO{2} planes are exclusively characterized by a smaller gap inside the PG. The small gap becomes invisible near T{c}, which we identify as the superconducting gap. The above results constitute severe constraints on any microscopic model for high T{c} superconductivity in cuprates.

  2. Label-free detection of Cu(2+ and Hg(2+ ions using reconstructed Cu(2+-specific DNAzyme and G-quadruplex DNAzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available Label-free metal ion detection methods were developed. To achieve these, a reconstructed Cu(2+-specific DNA-cleaving DNAzyme (Cu(2+-specific DNAzyme with an intramolecular stem-loop structure was used. G-quadruplex-forming G-rich sequence(s, linked at the ends of double-helix stem of an intramolecular stem-loop structure, was partly caged in an intramolecular duplex or formed a split G-quadruplex. Cu(2+-triggered DNA cleavage at a specific site decreased the stability of the double-helix stem, resulting in the formation or destruction of G-quadruplex DNAzyme that can effectively catalyze the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS-H2O2 reaction. Based on these, two label-free, cost-effective and simple Cu(2+ sensors were designed. These two sensors followed different detection modes: 'turn-on' and 'turn-off'. As for the 'turn-on' sensor, the intramolecular stem-loop structure ensured a low background signal, and the co-amplification of detection signal by dual DNAzymes (Cu(2+-specific DNAzyme and G-quadruplex DNAzyme provided a high sensitivity. This sensor enabled the selective detection of aqueous Cu(2+ with a detection limit of 3.9 nM. Visual detection was possible. Although the 'turn-off' sensor gave lower detection sensitivity than the 'turn-on' one, the characteristics of cost-effectiveness and ease of operation made it an important implement to reduce the possibility of pseudo-positive or pseudo-negative results. Combining the ability of Hg(2+ ion to stabilize T-T base mismatch, above dual DNAzymes-based strategy was further used for Hg(2+ sensor design. The proposed sensor allowed the specific detection of Hg(2+ ion with a detection of 4.8 nM. Visual detection was also possible.

  3. Quantification of the binding properties of Cu2+ to the amyloid beta peptide: coordination spheres for human and rat peptides and implication on Cu2+-induced aggregation. (United States)

    Hong, Lian; Carducci, Tessa M; Bush, William D; Dudzik, Christopher G; Millhauser, Glenn L; Simon, John D


    There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu(2+) by Abeta. However, the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of Abeta. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu(2+) coordination spheres to human and rat Abeta and an extensive set of Abeta(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His13)}, and {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His14)}, for human Abeta(16) but one dominant coordination for rat Abeta(16), {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, at pH 7.4-6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu(2+) binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH(2), O-, N(Im)(His6), N(-)} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu(2+) by the human and rat Abeta are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu(2+) to induce aggregation of Abeta peptides.

  4. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of Cu-poor and Zn-rich single-crystal Cu2ZnSnSe4 (United States)

    Nam, Dahyun; Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Cheong, Hyeonsik


    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) is a p-type semiconductor which has been developed as an absorber layer of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Generally, Cu-poor and Zn-rich compositions tend to give the highest solar conversion efficiencies. Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect secondary phases such as ZnSe and Cu2SnSe3 in CZTSe thin films. However, the fundamental phonon modes in single-crystal CZTSe with a composition matching that of high-efficiency thin film solar cells have not yet been fully understood. We performed polarized Raman measurements on Cu-poor and Zn-rich single-crystal CZTSe and identified 12 peaks, including two low-frequency peaks. By comparing the polarization dependence of the Raman peaks with a group theoretical analysis, we concluded that the crystal structure of CZTSe single-crystal is kesterite and made appropriate peak assignments.

  5. Spectral analysis of Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions doped borofluorophosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sudhakar Reddy; S Buddhudu


    We report here on the development and spectral analysis of Cu2+ (0.5 mol%) and Mn2+ (0.5 mol%) ions doped in two new series of glasses. The visible absorption spectra of Cu2+ and Mn2+ glasses have shown broad absorption bands at 820 nm and 495 nm, respectively. For Cu2+ BFP glasses, excitation at 380 nm, a blue emission at 441 nm and also a weak emission at 418 nm ions have been observed. For Mn2+ ions doped BFP glasses, excitation at 410 nm and a red shift at 605 nm emission have been observed.

  6. Novel Fluorescent Chemosensors Based on Tryptophan Unit for Cu2+ and Fe3+ in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-fei; XU Kuo-xi; YAO Wen-yong; KONG Hua-jie; KOU Li; MA Xiao-dan; WANG Chao-jie


    We reported four fluorescent chemosensors containing tryptophan units.The fluorescence spectrum titration experiments suggest that chemosensors 1,2,3 and 4 are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ over Li+,Na+,K+,Co2+,Zn2+,Ni2+,Hg2+ and Cr3+ via forming complexes with Cu2+ or Fe3+,which is confirmed by dramatical quench of fluoreseence in aqueous solution at pH 7.4,thus making all the chemosensors suitable for Cu2+ and Fe3+ fluorescent sensors.

  7. Transition of Resistive Switching to Bidirectional Diode in Cu2O/Cu Nanowires (United States)

    Kim, Deok-kee; Shin, Ho Sun; Song, Jae Yong


    Cu2O/Cu nanowires of about 2 µm length were electrodeposited within anodized aluminum oxide templates in an aqueous acidic solution using template-assisted pulse-reverse electrolysis. In the virgin state, reversible copper filaments were formed by using the copper ions driven by an electric field towards the cathode. Initially, the resistive switching dominated the electrical characteristics of the Cu2O/Cu nanowires due to the low-resistance reversible copper filaments. After the permanent breakup of the copper filaments under the high current density, the Cu2O/Cu nanowire showed bipolar exponential characteristics, which was attributed to mixed ionic and electronic conduction.

  8. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SHAO LeXi


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (OZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Ou-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various proc-essing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited OZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure OZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 Ωcm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistiv-ity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  9. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Cu-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various processing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited CZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure CZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃ for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 ?cm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistivity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  10. A mild solvothermal route to kesterite quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles (United States)

    Cao, M.; Shen, Y.


    Quaternary kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles for low-cost thin film solar cell were successfully synthesised using a relatively simple and convenient solvothermal route. Nanoparticles with diameters of about 5-10 nm were obtained at the temperature of 180 °C, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphologies of the continuous CZTS films with satisfactory stoichiometry were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The crystallinity of CZTS nanoparticles was greatly improved by annealing in H2S (5%)/Ar mixed gases analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the four constituent elements confirmed the purity and composition of CZTS nanoparticles. UV-vis absorption spectra measurement indicated that the band gap of as-synthesised CZTS nanoparticles was about 1.5 eV, which was near the optimum value for photovoltaic solar conversion in a single-band-gap device.

  11. Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reactions on Nanostructured Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) Electrocatalyst (United States)

    Digraskar, Renuka V.; Mulik, Balaji B.; Walke, Pravin S.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sathe, Bhaskar R.


    A novel and facile one-step sonochemical method is used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (2.6 ± 0.4 nm) as cathode electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions. The detailed morphology, crystal and surface structure, and composition of the CZTS nanostructures were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, Electron dispersive analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy respectively. Electrocatalytic abilities of the nanoparticles toward Hydrogen Evolution Reactions (HER) were verified through cyclic voltammograms (CV) and Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Tafel polarization measurements. It reveals enhanced activity at lower onset potential 300 mV v/s RHE, achieved at exceptionally high current density -130 mA/cm2, which is higher than the existing non-nobel metal based cathodes. Further result exhibits Tafel slope of 85 mV/dec, exchange current density of 882 mA/cm2, excellent stability (> 500 cycles) and lower charge transfer resistance. This sonochemically fabricated CZTSs nanoparticles are leading to significantly reduce cell cost and simplification of preparation process over existing high efficiency Pt and other nobel metal-free cathode electrocatalyst.

  12. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea


    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  13. Fabrication and characterization of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition method


    Liu, J. P.; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Placidi, M.; López-García, J.; Saucedo, Edgardo; Colombara, Diego; Robert, Erika


    Most of the high efficiency kesterite solar cells are fabricated by vacuum or hydrazine-based solution methods which have drawbacks, such as high cost, high toxicity or explosivity. In our contribution, an alternative non-vacuum and environmental friendly deposition technology called electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition (ESAVD) has been used for the cost-effective growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with well controlled structure and composition. CZTS films have been characterized...

  14. Effect of thermal annealing in vacuum on the photovoltaic properties of electrodeposited Cu2O-absorber solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos T.


    Full Text Available Heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by electrochemical deposition of p-type, cuprous oxide (Cu2O absorber on sputtered, n-type ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the as-deposited absorber consists mainly of Cu2O, but appreciable amounts of metallic Cu and cupric oxide (CuO are also present. These undesired oxidation states are incorporated during the deposition process and have a detrimental effect on the photovoltaic properties of the cells. The open circuit voltage (VOC, short circuit current density (jSC, fill factor (FF and power conversion efficiency (η of the as-deposited cells are 0.37 V, 3.71 mA/cm2, 35.7% and 0.49%, respectively, under AM1.5G illumination. We show that by thermal annealing in vacuum, at temperatures up to 300 °C, compositional purity of the Cu2O absorber could be obtained. A general improvement of the heterojunction and bulk materials quality is observed, reflected upon the smallest influence of the shunt and series resistance on the transport properties of the cells in dark and under illumination. Independent of the annealing temperature, transport is dominated by the space-charge layer generation-recombination current. After annealing at 300 °C the solar cell parameters could be significantly improved to the values of: VOC = 0.505 V, jSC = 4.67 mA/cm2, FF = 47.1% and η = 1.12%.

  15. One-Step Catalytic Synthesis of CuO/Cu2O in a Graphitized Porous C Matrix Derived from the Cu-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Kim, A-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Cho, Keumnam; Woo, Jae-Young; Lee, Yongho; Han, Sung-Hwan; Byun, Dongjin; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Joong Kee


    The hybrid composite electrode comprising CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles in a highly graphitized porous C matrix (CuO/Cu2O-GPC) has a rational design and is a favorable approach to increasing the rate capability and reversible capacity of metal oxide negative materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries. CuO/Cu2O-GPC is synthesized through a Cu-based metal-organic framework via a one-step thermal transformation process. The electrochemical performances of the CuO/Cu2O-GPC negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries are systematically studied and exhibit excellent capacities of 887.3 mAh g(-1) at 60 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Li-ion battery and 302.9 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Na-ion battery. The high electrochemical stability was obtained via the rational strategy, mainly owing to the synergy effect of the CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles and highly graphitized porous C formed by catalytic graphitization of Cu nanoparticles. Owing to the simple one-step thermal transformation process and resulting high electrochemical performance, CuO/Cu2O-GPC is one of the prospective negative active materials for rechargeable Li- and Na-ion batteries.

  16. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films (United States)

    Khalate, S. A.; Kate, R. S.; Kim, J. H.; Pawar, S. M.; Deokate, R. J.


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited viva spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperature. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties was reported. The X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis revealed that prepared CZTS thin film show kesterite phase without any secondary phases. Moreover, these analyses indicated the internal compressive stress relaxed with substrate temperature for all CZTS thin films. The homogeneous nature of CZTS thin films were observed from surface morphology and chemical composition study. The optical study provided good optical absorption (104 cm-1) in the visible region and band gap energy was decreased and found quite close to the optimum value of about 1.57 eV-1.49 eV for solar cell application.

  17. A Au/Cu2O-TiO2 system for photo-catalytic hydrogen production. A pn-junction effect or a simple case of in situ reduction?

    KAUST Repository

    Sinatra, Lutfan


    Photo-catalytic H2 production from water has been studied over Au-Cu2O nanoparticle deposited on TiO2 (anatase) in order to probe into both the plasmon resonance effect (Au nanoparticles) and the pn-junction at the Cu2O-TiO2 interface. The Au-Cu2O composite is in the form of ∼10 nm Au nanoparticles grown on ∼475 nm Cu2O octahedral nanocrystals with (111) facets by partial galvanic replacement. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Cu2p and Auger L3M4,5M4,5 lines indicate that the surface of Cu2O is mainly composed of Cu+. The rate for H2 production (from 95 water/5 ethylene glycol; vol.%) over 2 wt.% (Au/Cu2O)-TiO2 is found to be ∼10 times faster than that on 2 wt.% Au-TiO2 alone. Raman spectroscopy before and after reaction showed the disappearance of Cu+ lines (2Eu) at 220 cm-1. These observations coupled with the induction time observed for the reaction rate suggest that in situ reduction from Cu+ to Cu0 occurs upon photo-excitation. The reduction requires the presence of TiO2 (electron transfer). The prolonged activity of the reaction (with no signs of deactivation) despite the reduction to Cu0 indicates that the latter takes part in the reaction by providing additional sites for the reaction, most likely as recombination centers for hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen. This phenomenon provides an additional route for enhancing the efficiency and lifetime of Cu2O-TiO2 photocatalytic systems, beyond the usually ascribed pn-junction effect.

  18. Growth and properties of laser-ablated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+#delta# thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, R.; Hanisch, F.; Sewing, A.;


    Thin films of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta have been fabricated by laser ablation on single crystal M(g)O (001), LaAlO3 (001) and NdGaO3 (001) substrates. The superconducting transition temperature T(C0) is above 80 K with critical current densities of 4 x 10(5) A/cm2 at 55 K. The structure and morphology...... of the films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunnel microscopy and X-ray diffraction. All films show c-axis orientation with a texture of less than 0.2-degrees. Films deposited on MgO (001) are mostly randomly oriented in the a, b-plane although preferential orientations...... with rotational angles of 11.5-degrees and 45-degrees were observed close to the substrate/film interface. On LaAlO3 (001) and NdGaO3 (001) substrates the a, b-plane orientation is improved and about half of the film is epitaxially oriented....

  19. How Cooper pairs vanish approaching the Mott insulator in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. (United States)

    Kohsaka, Y; Taylor, C; Wahl, P; Schmidt, A; Lee, Jhinhwan; Fujita, K; Alldredge, J W; McElroy, K; Lee, Jinho; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; Lee, D-H; Davis, J C


    The antiferromagnetic ground state of copper oxide Mott insulators is achieved by localizing an electron at each copper atom in real space (r-space). Removing a small fraction of these electrons (hole doping) transforms this system into a superconducting fluid of delocalized Cooper pairs in momentum space (k-space). During this transformation, two distinctive classes of electronic excitations appear. At high energies, the mysterious 'pseudogap' excitations are found, whereas, at lower energies, Bogoliubov quasi-particles-the excitations resulting from the breaking of Cooper pairs-should exist. To explore this transformation, and to identify the two excitation types, we have imaged the electronic structure of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) in r-space and k-space simultaneously. We find that although the low-energy excitations are indeed Bogoliubov quasi-particles, they occupy only a restricted region of k-space that shrinks rapidly with diminishing hole density. Concomitantly, spectral weight is transferred to higher energy r-space states that lack the characteristics of excitations from delocalized Cooper pairs. Instead, these states break translational and rotational symmetries locally at the atomic scale in an energy-independent way. We demonstrate that these unusual r-space excitations are, in fact, the pseudogap states. Thus, as the Mott insulating state is approached by decreasing the hole density, the delocalized Cooper pairs vanish from k-space, to be replaced by locally translational- and rotational-symmetry-breaking pseudogap states in r-space.

  20. Size and topology of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+x Fermi surface versus doping (United States)

    Larosa, S.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Kendziora, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Chubukov, A.; Onellion, M.


    We have studied the size and topology of the Fermi surface of Bi_2Sr2 CaCu_2O_8+x single crystal samples from underdoped samples with superconducting transition temperature, T_c=20K to overdoped samples with T_c=55K.[1] Compared to optimally doped samples, underdoped samples exhibit: * a reduction in the size of the Fermi surface by at least a factor of (x10); * a much weaker extended van Hove singularity around the (π,0) and conjugate points; * the large Fermi surface section around the X-point (π,π) are collapsed to small sections around the (π/2,π/2), while that around the Y-point (π,-π) remains but is much (x4) smaller.[2] These data are in excellent agreement with the calculations of A. Chubukov.[3] Our data indicate that the shadow band arises from short-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) fluctuations; the data are consistent with either a structural or a long-range AFM model to explain the shadow band. Finally, we find that the light polarization symmetry of the Fermi surface electronic states in the (π,±π) directions depends on the doping level.[2,4

  1. Vortex states in micron-sized Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y crystals (United States)

    Ooi, Shuuichi; Mochiku, Takashi; Tachiki, Minoru; Hirata, Kazuto


    Large thermal fluctuation, owing to high superconducting transition temperature, short coherence length and quasi-two-dimensionality, brings about a rich variety of vortex phases in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y (Bi2212). To study how the vortex states and the transitions would be modified when vortices are confined in a small-sized crystal, we have measured the c-axis resistance using a stack of the intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi2212. In tiny Bi2212 crystals of several micron, it is possible to observe the series of vorticity transitions using the c-axis resistance measurements. Combining the observation of vorticity changes and detection of a melting transition, we found an oscillating behavior of melting transition temperatures T m as a function of magnetic field (or number of vortices) in small squared Bi2212 with a lateral dimension of 5-10 μm. In the case of the square-shaped crystals, it seems that Tm is enhanced around the vortex numbers N v of i 2 (i: integer), indicating a matching of square vortex lattices in the square boundary. However, the frustration between the square boundary shape and vortex lattice that prefers a triangular lattice complicates the situation. A deformed square lattice without topological defects is probably realized at large i 2 as a geometrical matching state.

  2. p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core heterostucture photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Ting-Jen


    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the deposition of cuprous oxide [Cu2O] onto titanium dioxide [TiO2] nanowires [NWs] prepared on TiO2/glass templates. The average length and average diameter of these thermally oxidized and evaporated TiO2 NWs are 0.1 to 0.4 μm and 30 to 100 nm, respectively. The deposited Cu2O fills gaps between the TiO2 NWs with good step coverage to form nanoshells surrounding the TiO2 cores. The p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 NW heterostructure exhibits a rectifying behavior with a sharp turn-on at approximately 0.9 V. Furthermore, the fabricated p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core photodiodes exhibit reasonably large photocurrent-to-dark-current contrast ratios and fast responses.

  3. Biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ using sophora alopecuroides residue (United States)

    Feng, N.; Fan, W.; Zhu, M.; Zhang, Y.


    Sophora alopecuroides residue (SAP), a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine residue, was developed in an alternative biosorbent for the removal Cu2+ and Pb2+ in simulated wastewater. The morphology and surface texture of SAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loose and porous structure. The biosorption experiments of Cu2+ and Pb2+ onto SAP were investigated by using batch techniques. High biosorption percentage appeared at pH values of 4.5-6.0. The experimental data followed the second-order kinetic model well. Equilibrium fit with the Langmuir isotherm model well. The maximum biosorption capacity of an adsorbent at 25 °C was respectively 60.6 mg/g Cu2+ and 128.1 mg/g Pb2+. The findings of the present study show that SAP is an attractive and effective biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+.

  4. Oxygen vacancy in N-doped Cu2O crystals:A density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min; Zhang Jun-Ying; Zhang Yue; Wang Tian-Min


    The N-doping effects on the electronic properties of Cu2O crystals are investigated using density functional theory.The calculated results show that N-doped Cu2O with or without oxygen vacancy exhibits different modifications of electronic band structure.In N anion-doped Cu2O,some N 2p states overlap and mix with the O 2p valence band,leading to a slight narrowing of band gap compared with the undoped Cu2O.However,it is found that the coexistence of both N impurity and oxygen vacancy contributes to band gap widening which may account for the experimentally observed optical band gap widening by N doping.

  5. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu


    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by the shape of the seeds used. Exposure of Cu2O{111} and Cu2O{001} favored when the overgrowth happened on Au{111} and Au{001} surface, respectively. The size of the product can also be tuned by the amount of the seeds. The results reported here provide a thinking clue to modulate the shape and size of core-shell nanocrystals, which is useful in developing new materials with desired performance.

  6. A benzothiazole-based fluorescent probe for distinguishing and bioimaging of Hg(2+) and Cu(2). (United States)

    Gu, Biao; Huang, Liyan; Su, Wei; Duan, Xiaoli; Li, Haitao; Yao, Shouzhuo


    A new benzothiazole-based fluorescent probe 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4-(1,3- dithian-2-yl)phenol (BT) with two different reaction sites, a thioacetal group (site 1 for Hg(2+)), and O and N atoms of the benzothiazole dye (site 2 for Cu(2+)), was designed and synthesized. The probe BT showed ratiometric fluorescent response to Hg(2+) and fluorescence quenching behavior to Cu(2+), which induces naked-eye fluorescent color changes from green to blue and colorless, respectively. Moreover, it displayed highly sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) without interference from other metal ions. The sensing mechanisms were also confirmed by (1)H NMR titration, mass spectrum and Job's plot analyses. Finally, probe BT was successfully used for fluorescent imaging of Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) in living cells, demonstrating its potential applications in biological science.

  7. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang


    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  8. Chemosensing ability of hydroxynaphthylidene derivatives of hydrazine towards Cu2+: Experimental and computational studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayaraman Dessingiou; Jayshree K Khedkar; Chebrolu P Rao


    2-Hydroxynaphthylidene derivatives of hydrazine, namely L1, L2 and L3, were synthesized by going through two-step reactions and the products were characterized. The ion recognition properties of these receptors were studied using fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The receptors were found to be sensitive and selective towards Cu2+ in methanol solution among the 13 metal ions studied, namely Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, by exhibiting switch off fluorescence. The stoichiometry of the complexed species was found to be 2:1. The fluorescence quenching with Cu2+ is in the order of L1 > L2 > L3. These conjugates were also found to act as colorimetric sensors for Cu2+ in solution by exhibiting visual colour change. The 2:1 complex shows a centrosymmetric structure based on DFT computations.

  9. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili


    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. We find that the thickness and properties of Cu2O layers must be precisely tuned in order to achieve the optimal solar cell performance. The good performance of such perovskite solar cells can be attributed to the unique properties of ultrathin Cu2O, including high hole mobility, good energy level alignment with CH3NH3PbI3, and longer lifetime of photo-excited carriers. Combining merits of low cost, facile synthesis, and high device performance, ultrathin Cu2O films fabricated via thermal oxidation hold promise for facilitating the developments of industrial-scale perovskite solar cells.

  10. Junction studies on electrochemically fabricated p-n Cu(2)O homojunction solar cells for efficiency enhancement. (United States)

    McShane, Colleen M; Choi, Kyoung-Shin


    p-n Cu(2)O homojunction solar cells were electrochemically fabricated by consecutively depositing an n-Cu(2)O layer on a p-Cu(2)O layer. In order to better understand the Fermi levels of the electrochemically grown polycrystalline p- and n-Cu(2)O layers and maximize the overall cell performance, the back and front contacts of the Cu(2)O homojunction cells were systematically changed and the I-V characteristics of the resulting cells were examined. The result shows that the intrinsic doping levels of the electrochemically prepared p-Cu(2)O and n-Cu(2)O layers are very low and they made almost Ohmic junctions with Cu metal with which previously studied p-Cu(2)O layers prepared by thermal oxidation of Cu foils are known to form Schottky junctions. The best cell performance (an η of 1.06%, a V(OC) of 0.621 V, an I(SC) of 4.07 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor (ff) of 42%) was obtained when the p-Cu(2)O layer was deposited on a commercially available ITO substrate as the back contact and a sputter deposited ITO layer was used as the front contact on the n-Cu(2)O layer. The unique features of the p-n Cu(2)O homojunction solar cell are discussed in comparison with other Cu(2)O-based heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Zn-VI/Cu2O Heterojunctions for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaics (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha

    The need for sustainable energy production motivates the study of photovoltaic materials, which convert energy from sunlight directly into electricity. This work has focused on the development of Cu2O as an earth-abundant solar absorber due to the abundance of its constituent elements in the earth's crust, its suitable band gap, and its potential for low cost processing. Crystalline wafers of Cu2O with minority carrier diffusion lengths on the order of microns can be manufactured in a uniquely simple fashion --- directly from copper foils by thermal oxidation. Furthermore, Cu2Ohas an optical band gap of 1.9 eV, which gives it a detailed balance energy conversion efficiency of 24.7% and the possibility for an independently connected Si/Cu 2O dual junction with a detailed balance efficiency of 44.3%. However, the highest energy conversion efficiency achieved in a photovoltaic device with a Cu2O absorber layer is currently only 5.38% despite the favorable optical and electronic properties listed above. There are several challenges to making a Cu2O photovoltaic device, including an inability to dope the material, its relatively low chemical stability compared to other oxides, and a lack of suitable heterojunction partners due to an unusually small electron affinity. We have addressed the low chemical stability, namely the fact that Cu2O is an especially reactive oxide due to its low enthalpy of formation (DeltaHf0 = -168.7 kJ/mol), by developing a novel surface preparation technique. We have addressed the lack of suitable heterojunction partners by investigating the heterojunction band alignment of several Zn-VI materials with Cu 2O. Finally, We have addressed the typically high series resistance of Cu2O wafers by developing methods to make very thin, bulk Cu 2O, including devices on Cu2O wafers as thin as 20 microns. Using these methods we have been able to achieve photovoltages over 1 V, and have demonstrated the potential of a new heterojunction material, Zn(O,S).

  12. Temperature dependence of the magnetic structure of TbCu2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sima, V.; Smetana, Z.; Lebech, Bente;


    The orthorhombic compound TbCu2 was studied by neutron powder diffraction. The temperature development of the magnetic structure is interpreted by means of Fourier analysis of the diffraction data below TN = 55 K.......The orthorhombic compound TbCu2 was studied by neutron powder diffraction. The temperature development of the magnetic structure is interpreted by means of Fourier analysis of the diffraction data below TN = 55 K....

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Badawy


    Full Text Available Copper/Copper oxide (Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using hydrazine as reducing agent and copper sulfate pentahydrate as precursor. The Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. The analysis revealed the pattern of face-centered cubic (fcc crystal structure of copper Cu metal and cubic cuprites structure for Cu2O. The SEM result showed monodispersed and agglomerated particles with two micron sizes of about 180 nm and 800 nm, respectively. The TEM result showed few single crystal particles of face-centered cubic structures with average particle size about 11-14 nm. The catalytic activity of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was investigated and compared with manganese oxide MnO2. The results showed that the second-order equation provides the best correlation for the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on Cu/Cu2O. The catalytic activity of hydrogen peroxide by Cu/Cu2O is less than the catalytic activity of MnO2 due to the presence of copper metal Cu with cuprous oxide Cu2O. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th January 2015; Revised: 14th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Badawy, S.M., El-Khashab, R.A., Nayl, A.A. (2015. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 169-174. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174 Permalink/DOI:  

  14. Cu2+-Catalyzed Oscillatory Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid by O2 Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel heterogeneous oscillator, the Cu2+-catalyzed oscillatory oxidation of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in aqueous solution by O2 flow was reported. Both the potential oscillations on Pt-electrode corresponding to [Cu2+] and the absorbance oscillations at l=260 nm corresponding to [ascorbic acid] were observed. Oscillations in the completely homogeneous system were also observed. Effects of several factors on the oscillations were investigated.

  15. Facile synthesis of hierarchical Cu2O nanocubes as visible light photocatalysts


    Kumar, Santosh; Parlett, Christopher M A; Isaacs, Mark A.; Jowett, Danielle V.; Douthwaite, Richard E.; Cockett, Martin C.R.; Lee, Adam F.


    Hierarchically structured Cu2O nanocubes have been synthesized by a facile and cost-effective one-pot, solution phase process. Self-assembly of 5 nm Cu2O nanocrystallites induced through reduction by glucose affords a mesoporous 375 nm cubic architecture with superior visible light photocatalytic performance in both methylene blue dye degradation and hydrogen production from water than conventional non-porous analogues. Hierarchical nanocubes offer improved accessible surface active sites and...

  16. Highly sensitive optical chemosensor for the detection of Cu2+ using a rhodamine B spirolatam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gen Hua Wu; Dong Xiang Wang; Da Yu Wu; Yuan Gao; Zhu Qing Wang


    Highly sensitive colorimetric chemosensor molecule RHN for selective detection of Cu2+ in mixed CH3CN aqueous media was designed and prepared by incorporating the well-known rhodamine fluorophore and a terdentate O2N binding unit into one molecule. The chemosensor RHN showed not only a reversible, selective, and sensitive absorbance enhancement response to Cu2+, but also a strong colour development against the colourless blank during the sensing event, a feature that would facilitate `naked-eye’ detection.

  17. [Effects of Cu2+ stress on DNA polymorphism of genome in foxtail millet of different genotypes]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Xian; Fu, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Xi-Wen; Li, Ping


    Cu2+ is an essential element for plant growth, and is one of the major elements in the environment. In order to investigate the physiological characteristics and geno-toxicity effects of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) Beauv) under different Cu2+ stress, four genotypes of foxtail millet (Zhaogu, Huangmi, An06, D2-8) from Shanxi, China were cultivated for 30 days in a pot filled with soil of with different mass concentrations of Cu2+ (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 Effects of Cu2+ stress on DNA damage of genome in foxtail millet were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) , and the contents of soluble sugar, proline and MDA were tested. The result showed that the content of soluble sugar had a trend of initial increased followed by decline in all four foxtail millet seedlings in response to the rising Cu2+ concentration, and the maximum value was 50 At Cu2 concentrations of 200 mg. kg-1 or more, the soluble sugar content in the four kinds of millet showed an average reduction of 32.44% to 56.5% compared to that of the control group. The result showed that proline synthesis was enhanced at low concentrations (less than 50 , but inhibited at high concentrations (more than 100, and the contents of MDA in the four genotypes of foxtail millet were significantly increased compared with the control group (P different genotypes of millet showed different response in the physiological and genetic damage under Cu2+ stress. The change of DNA polymorphism using RAPD technique could be used as the biomarkers to find genotoxic effects of Cu2+.

  18. Cu2O/Ag co-deposited TiO2 nanotube array film prepared by pulse-reversing voltage and photocatalytic properties (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Chen, Suiyuan; Shang, Fanmin; Liang, Jing; Liu, Changsheng


    In this experiment, Cu2O/Ag co-deposition TiO2 nanotube array (Cu2O-Ag-TNT) film was prepared on pure Ti substrate with the method of combining anodic oxidation and electrodeposition by pulse-reversing voltage power supply in the electrolyte of NH4F, ethylene glycol, CuNO3 · 3H2O and AgNO3. The morphology, phase, chemical composition, photocatalytic property and mechanism of the nanotube array film were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation under visible light. The results showed that the depositional Cu2O and Ag existed in two forms, being the small-particle dispersion and large-particle sedimentary phase in the nanotube arrays: Cu2O-Ag-TNTs for different doping amounts of Ag could be prepared by adjusting the concentration of AgNO3 and the reverse voltages; with changing of the doping amount of Ag, the band gap and photo-generated electron-hole pair recombination rate also changed, and under the conditions of annealing and the optimized process parameter, the band gap of the nanotube arrays narrowed 0.49 eV and the rate of electron and pair recombination decreased noticeably; the nanotube array film for the concentration of 0.5 cm2 ml-1 degraded the methylene blue of 8 mg L-1, and the degradation rate reached above 98%. The co-deposition Cu2O-Ag-TNT film prepared by the one-step method performed well in the field of photocatalysis under visible light.

  19. Cu2O Photocathode for Low Bias Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Enabled by NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide Co-Catalyst (United States)

    Qi, Huan; Wolfe, Jonathan; Fichou, Denis; Chen, Zhong


    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are bimetallic hydroxides that currently attract considerable attention as co-catalysts in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems in view of water splitting under solar light. A wide spectrum of LDHs can be easily prepared on demand by tuning their chemical composition and structural morphology. We describe here the electrochemical growth of NiFe-LDH overlayers on Cu2O electrodes and study their PEC behavior. By using the modified Cu2O/NiFe-LDH electrodes we observe a remarkable seven-fold increase of the photocurrent intensity under an applied voltage as low as -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. The origin of such a pronounced effect is the improved electron transfer towards the electrolyte brought by the NiFe-LDH overlayer due to an appropriate energy level alignment. Long-term photostability tests reveal that Cu2O/NiFe-LDH photocathodes show no photocurrent loss after 40 hours of operation under light at -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl low bias condition. These improved performances make Cu2O/NiFe-LDH a suitable photocathode material for low voltage H2 production. Indeed, after 8 hours of H2 production under -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl the PEC cell delivers a 78% faradaic efficiency. This unprecedented use of Cu2O/NiFe-LDH as an efficient photocathode opens new perspectives in view of low biasd or self-biased PEC water splitting under sunlight illumination.

  20. Density functional theory of the CuA -like Cu2 S2 diamond core in Cu 2II(NGuaS)2 Cl2. (United States)

    Witte, M; Gerstmann, U; Neuba, A; Henkel, G; Schmidt, W G


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations with localized as well as plane-wave basis functions are performed for the recently reported dicopper thiolate species Cu2 (NGuaS)2 Cl2 [NGuaS = 2-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino) benzenethiolate, C11 H16 N3 S] and its bromo derivative [Neuba et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 1714.]. For both hybrid and semilocal functionals, the neutral complexes are found to have broken symmetry (BS) character, with electron paramagnetic resonance silent, antiferromagnetically coupled [Cu(2+) …Cu(2+) ] site in which the coupling is driven by super exchange interaction within the Cu2 S2 diamond core. The accurate theoretical description of the geometric structure, however, provides a major challenge for DFT: (i) the multideterminant character of the ground state wave function has to be covered by the BS approach. It requires (ii) metageneralized gradient approximations, that is hybrid functionals with an explicit dependence on the kinetic energy of the individual orbitals: In combination with a dispersion correction, the metafunctional TPSSh results in a CuCu distance close to the experimentally observed value of 2.7 Å. For the negative charge state of the complex, a mixed-valent [Cu(1.5+) …Cu(1.5+) ] electronic structure with a smaller CuCu distance of 2.6 Å is predicted, similar to the value of the CuA site of cytochrome c oxidase.

  1. Ruthenocuprats: Playground for superconductivity and magnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khajehnezhad


    Full Text Available  We have compared the structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Ru(Gd1.5-xPrxCe0.5Sr2Cu2O10-δ (Pr/Gd samples with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.033, 0.035, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.1 and RuGd1.5(Ce0.5-xPrxSr2Cu2O10-δ (Pr/Ce samples with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 prepared by the standard solid-state reaction technique with RuGd1.5(GdxCe0.5-x Sr2Cu2O10-δ (Gd/Ce samples with x= 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3. We obtained the XRD patterns for different samples with various x. The lattice parameters versus x for different substitutions have been obtained from the Rietveld analysis. To determine how the magnetic and superconducting properties of these layered cuprate systems can be affected by Pr substitution, the resistivity and magnetoresistivity, with Hext varying from 0.0 to 15 kOe, have been measured at various temperatures. Superconducting transition temperature Tc and magnetic transition Tirr have been obtained through resistivity and ac susceptibility measurements. The Tc suppression due to Gd/Ce, Pr/Gd and Pr/Ce substitutions show competition between pair breaking by magnetic impurity, hole doping due to different ionic valences, difference in ionic radii, and oxygen stoichiometry. Pr/Gd substitution suppresses superconductivity more rapidly than for Pr/Ce or Gd/Ce, showing that the effect of hole doping and pair breaking by magnetic impurity is stronger than the difference in ionic radii. In Pr/Gd substitution, the small difference between the ionic radii of Pr and Gd, and absorption of more oxygen due to higher valence of Pr with respect to Gd, decrease the mean Ru-Ru distance, and as a result, the magnetic exchange interaction becomes stronger with the increase of x. But, Pr/Ce and Gd/Ce substitutions have a reverse effect. The magnetic properties such as Hc, obtained through magnetization measurements versus applied magnetic field isoterm at 77K and room temperatures, become stronger with x in Pr/Gd and weaker with x in Pr

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of In-Doped Cu2ZnGeSe4 (United States)

    Chetty, R.; Bali, A.; Femi, O. E.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mallik, R. C.


    Recently, much research has been focused on finding new thermoelectric materials. Cu-based quaternary chalcogenides that belong to A2BCD4 (A = Cu; B = Zn, Cd; C = Sn, Ge; D = S, Se, Te) are wide band gap materials and one of the potential thermoelectric materials due to their complex crystal structures. In this study, In-doped quaternary compounds Cu2ZnGe1- x In x Se4 ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) were prepared by a solid state synthesis method. Powder x-ray diffraction patterns of all the samples showed a tetragonal crystal structure (space group I- 42m) of the main phase with a trace amount of impurity phases, which was further confirmed by Rietveld analysis. The elemental composition of all the samples showed a slight deviation from the nominal composition with the presence of secondary phases. All the transport properties were measured in the temperature range 373-673 K. The electrical resistivity of all the samples initially decreased up to ˜470 K and then increased with increase in temperature upto 673 K, indicating the transition from semiconducting to metallic behavior. Positive Seebeck coefficients for all the samples revealed that holes are the majority carriers in the entire temperature range. The substitution of In3+ on Ge4+ introduces holes and results in the decrease of resistivity as well as the Seebeck coefficient, thereby leading to the optimization of the power factor. The lattice thermal conductivity of all the samples decreased with increasing temperature, indicating the presence of phonon-phonon scattering. As a result, the thermoelectric figure of merit ( zT) of the doped sample showed an increase as compared to the undoped compound.

  3. Precursors' order effect on the properties of sulfurized Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P. M. P.; da Cunha, A. F.


    A dc magnetron sputtering-based method to grow high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films, to be used as an absorber layer in solar cells, is being developed. This method combines dc sputtering of metallic precursors with sulfurization in S vapour and with post-growth KCN treatment for removal of possible undesired Cu2-xS phases. In this work, we report the results of a study of the effects of changing the precursors' deposition order on the final CZTS films' morphological and structural properties. The effect of KCN treatment on the optical properties was also analysed through diffuse reflectance measurements. Morphological, compositional and structural analyses of the various stages of the growth have been performed using stylus profilometry, SEM/EDS analysis, XRD and Raman Spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance studies have been done in order to estimate the band gap energy of the CZTS films. We tested two different deposition orders for the copper precursor, namely Mo/Zn/Cu/Sn and Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. The stylus profilometry analysis shows high average surface roughness in the ranges 300-550 nm and 230-250 nm before and after KCN treatment, respectively. All XRD spectra show preferential growth orientation along (1 1 2) at 28.45°. Raman spectroscopy shows main peaks at 338 cm-1 and 287 cm-1 which are attributed to Cu2ZnSnS4. These measurements also confirm the effectiveness of KCN treatment in removing Cu2-xS phases. From the analysis of the diffuse reflectance measurements the band gap energy for both precursors' sequences is estimated to be close to 1.43 eV. The KCN-treated films show a better defined absorption edge; however, the band gap values are not significantly affected. Hot point probe measurements confirmed that CZTS had p-type semiconductor behaviour and C-V analysis was used to estimate the majority carrier density giving a value of 3.3 × 1018 cm-3.

  4. The toxicity of Cu2+ to Microcystis aeruginosa using dielectric spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dielectric spectroscopy(DS) was utilized to investigate the toxicity of the Cu2+ solution to Microcystis aeruginosa.It was found that 0.04 mM Cu2+ had no effect on dielectric increment,whereas the Cu2+ concentrations above 0.1 mM decreased the value of Δε/Δε intact.The toxic effect of Cu2+ on M.aeruginosa cells was time-dependent and concentration-dependent.There was a threshold concentration between 0.04 mM and 0.1 mM,which affected the cell membrane,suggesting that Cu2+ at the concentrations higher than 0.1 mM caused serious plasmalemma damage to M.aeruginosa cells.The addition of 1 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+ did not protect M.aeruginosa cells from 1 mM Cu2+ toxicity.The study demonstrates that DS monitors cell biomass facilitating observation of the toxic effects of metal ions.

  5. Uniquely confining Cu2S nanoparticles in graphitized carbon fibers for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu


    Up to now, the literature on Cu2S with specific morphology applied to oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the electrocatalytic field has been limited. In this work, unique peapod-like Cu2S/C exhibiting superb electrocatalytic performance toward OER is successfully synthesized, by employing Cu(OH)2 nanorods as the template and nontoxic glucose as the carbon source and then annealing with sublimed sulfur. It can be seen that this work explores a new application area for Cu2S. More precisely, the novel morphology contributes to increasing the electrochemical active surface area effectively and promoting contact between the Cu2S nanoparticles and the electrolyte. During electrochemical measurements, the peapod-like Cu2S/C shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity with a low overpotential of 401 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 52 mV dec-1. More importantly, our material is able to maintain stability for at least 8 h at constant potential and the current loss is negligible after 2000 cycles. Obviously, these striking properties fully demonstrate that the peapod-like Cu2S/C as an efficient catalyst shows great promise for OER.

  6. A highly Selective Fluorescent Sensor for Monitoring Cu(2+) Ion: Synthesis, Characterization and Photophysical Properties. (United States)

    Aderinto, Stephen Opeyemi; Xu, Yuling; Peng, Hongping; Wang, Fei; Wu, Huilu; Fan, Xuyang


    A new fluorescent sensor, 4-allylamine-N-(N-salicylidene)-1,8-naphthalimide (1), anchoring a naphthalimide moiety as fluorophore and a Schiff base group as receptor, was synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of sensor 1 were conducted in organic solvents of different polarities. Our study revealed that, depending on the solvent polarity, the fluorescence quantum yields varied from 0.59 to 0.89. The fluorescent activity of the sensor was monitored and the sensor was consequently applied for the detection of Cu(2+) with high selectivity over various metal ions by fluorescence quenching in Tris-HCl (pH = 7.2) buffer/DMF (1:1, v/v) solution. From the binding stoichiometry, it was indicated that a 1:1 complex was formed between Cu(2+) and the sensor 1. The fluorescence intensity was linear with Cu(2+) in the concentration range 0.5-5 μM. Moreso, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.32 μM, which is sufficiently low for good sensitivity of Cu(2+) ion. The binding mode was due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the coordination of Cu(2+) with C = N and hydroxyl oxygen groups of the sensor 1. The sensor proved effective for Cu(2+) monitoring in real water samples with recovery rates of 95-112.6 % obtained.

  7. Role of Cu2+ ions substitution in magnetic and conductivity behavior of nano-CoFe2O4. (United States)

    Jnaneshwara, D M; Avadhani, D N; Daruka Prasad, B; Nagabhushana, H; Nagabhushana, B M; Sharma, S C; Prashantha, S C; Shivakumara, C


    Cobalt copper ferrite nanopowders with composition Co1-xCuxFe2O4 (0.0≤x≤0.5) was synthesized by solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of single ferrite phase with particle size of ∼11-35 nm. Due to increase in electron density with in a material, X-ray density increase with increase of Cu2+ ions concentration. As Cu2+ ions concentration increases, saturation magnetization decreases from 38.5 to 26.7 emu g(-1). Further, the squareness ratio was found to be ∼0.31-0.46 which was well below the typical value 1, which indicates the existence of single domain isolated ferrimagnetic samples. The dielectric and electrical modulus was studied over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique. Impedance plots showed only one semi-circle which corresponds to the contributions of grain boundaries. The lower values of dielectric loss at higher frequency region may be quite useful for high frequency applications such as microwave devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of growth-synthesis conditions on Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4 monograin material properties (United States)

    Nkwusi, G.; Leinemann, I.; Raudoja, J.; Mikli, V.; Karba, E.; Altosaar, M.


    This paper presents the impact of growth conditions on the properties of copper zinc cadmium tin sulfide (Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4) monograin powder synthesized in molten CdI2. We studied the effects of synthesis time and flux amount on the properties of the monograin powder. Our results showed that we could control the phase composition, grain size and the morphology of the as grown Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4 powder by changing the synthesis conditions. We found that in comparison with other used fluxes (KI, NaI), monograin powders synthesized in molten CdI2 were less faceted and more round shaped. The average grain size increased as the flux amount decreased. The optimum synthesis time to obtain usable grain size with 50-100μ was found to be 160 h with CdI2 flux amount, providing the ratio of the volumes of CdI2/CZTS is 0.5.

  9. Well-Dispersed Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals Synthesized from Alcohols and Their Applications for Polymer Photovoltaics (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Dai, Zhongjun; Chen, Bing; Ji, Ran; Yang, Xin; Hu, Rong; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Lu


    In this work, we report on a simple non-injection synthesis routine for the preparation of well-dispersed monocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles (NPs). The nanocrystal morphology was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and its phase composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles prepared using ethanolamine and diethanolamine as chemical stabilizers showed a high purity and a suitable size for polymer solar cell applications. The fabricated CZTS NPs are shown to be easily dispersed in a polymer/fullerene aromatic solution as well as the hybrid photovoltaic active layer. Thanks to the increment in the light absorption and electrical conductivity of the active layer, solar cells with a small amount of CZTS nanoparticles resulted in a clear enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. The short-circuit current density is increased from 9.90 up to 10.67 mA/cm2, corresponding to an improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.30 to 3.65%.

  10. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  11. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.


    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  12. Basic principle of superconductivity


    De Cao, Tian


    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  13. Temperature dependence of NGR Cu(2) line width in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub y

    CERN Document Server

    Duglav, A V; Sakhratov, Y A; Savinkov, A V


    One conducted systematic measurements of sup 6 sup 3 Cu(2) NGR line width using underdoped YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub y specimens within 4.2 K < T < 300 K temperature range. It is shown that as temperature drops below the critical one the width of copper NGR line becomes wider monotonically which temperature dependence resembles behavior of superconducting slit. The observed behavior is associated with energy dependence of condensate of moving current-charge states like waves of charged density on phase of order parameter which according to the calculations occurs at T < T sub c only. The obtained quantitative evaluations of line winding at T< T sub c conform to the measurement results

  14. Electron-beam induced disorder effects in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Forro, L.; Grioni, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.; Onellion, M.; EPFL Collaboration; Laboratoire Des Solides Irradiés Collaboration


    We report on the effects of electron-beam induced disorder in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples, measured with angle-resolved photoemission. In the superconducting state, the disorder fills in the gap, without changing the binding energy or the width of the narrow coherent feature.[1] In the normal state, disorder leads to an anisotropic pseudogap in angle-resolved photoemission, with the largest pseudogap near the (0,p) point and no pseudogap in the direction.[2,3] We discuss implications of these data. 1. I. Vobornik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 3128 (1999). 2. I. Vobornik, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, October, 1999. 3. I. Vobornik, unpublished.

  15. Consistent behaviour of AC susceptibility and transport properties in magnetic superconductor RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8 (United States)

    Očko, M.; Živkovic, I.; Prester, M.; Drobac, Dj.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.


    We report on AC susceptibility, resistivity, thermopower and measurements of sintered magnetic superconductor RuSr 2GdCu 2O 8. The antiferromagnetic phase transition at 133 K is seen clearly in the AC susceptibility as well as in the derivative of resistivity and thermopower. Above the antiferromagnetic transition, we have found some new evidences of the similarity between HTC compounds and the magnetic superconductor. The onset of superconductivity is observed by both transport methods at 46 K, and an explanation why it is not seen in the AC susceptibility data is given. The end of the SC transition occurs at about 24 K in all measured properties. We discuss the steps of broad SC transition, especially the maximum in susceptibility at 34 K, and compare our results with related studies reported in the literature.

  16. An Imidazole based probe for relay recognition of Cu2+ and OH− ions leading to AND logic gate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navneet Kaur; Priya Alreja


    2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole 1, an imidazole-based compound, was found to sense Cu2+ ions via fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy over a number of other metal ions. During Cu2+ sensing, the chemosensor 1 followed a “switch-off” mechanism. Job’s plot supported 1:1 stoichiometry of 1-Cu2+ complex. The 1-Cu2+ complex formed in situ underwent different absorption changes with OH− ions. These differential absorption changes observed with the addition of Cu2+ and OH− ions were used to mimic AND logic gate using A274nm as output.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of mechanical disturbances in epoxy-impregnated superconducting coils. 2. Shear-stress-induced epoxy fracture as the principal source of premature quenches and training - theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, E.S.; Williams, J.E.C.; Iwasa, Y. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Plasma Fusion Center)


    The paper examines various modes of matrix failure in epoxy-impregnated superconducting coils. Properties of superconducting composite; possible composite failure modes; constituent stresses in a composite winding; and premature-quench experiment; are all discussed.

  18. Superconductivity in Medicine (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.


    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  19. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy


    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  20. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L


    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  1. Superconducting material development (United States)


    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  2. RF Magnetron Sputtering Grown Cu2O Film Structural, Morphological, and Electrical Property Dependencies on Substrate Type. (United States)

    Ahn, Heejin; Um, Youngho


    We investigated the structural, morphological, and electrical properties of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) film dependency on substrate type. Thin films grown using RF magnetron sputtering were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Hall effect measurements. Cu2O thin films were deposited onto sapphire (0001), Si (100), and MgO (110) substrates, and showed Cu2O single phase only, which was confirmed by XRD measurement. Relatively larger compressive strain existed in Cu2O film grown on sapphire and Si, while a smaller tensile strain appeared in Cu2O film grown on MgO. Cu2O thin film crystallite sizes showed a linear dependence on strain. Moreover, film carrier concentration and mobility increased with increasing strain, while resistivity decreased with decreasing strain. Cu2O film strain due to induced strain opens the possibility of controlling structural and electrical properties in device applications.

  3. Thermal-mechanical Properties of Epoxy-impregnated Bi-2212/Ag Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pei [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wang, Yang [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Godeke, Arno [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Liyang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Flanagan, Gene [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Shen, Tengming [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Knowledge of the thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy/superconductor/insulation composite is important for designing, fabricating, and operating epoxy impregnated high field superconducting magnets near their ultimate potentials. We report measurements of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, and the coefficient of thermal contraction of epoxy-impregnated composite made from the state-of-the-art powder-in-tube multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Stress-strain curves of samples made from single-strand and Rutherford cables were tested under both monotonic and cyclic compressive loads, with single strands insulated using a thin TiO2 insulation coating and the Rutherford cable insulated with a braided ceramic sleeve.

  4. Protective link for superconducting coil (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.


    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  5. Elemental composition analysis of superconducting Hg0.67Pb0.34Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛福明; 邵力为


    The analysis of superconducting sample by using a sputtered neutral particle mass spectrometer demonstrates that Ca and Ba elements are oxidative, Cu is non-oxidative, Hg is mainly in metallic form near the surface and becomes oxidative far from the surface, and Pb is concentrated on the surface. The analysis also reveals that the highly concentrative hydrocarbon and water impurities are mixed into the sample during the preparation and conservation.

  6. Cation/Anion Substitution in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Improved Photovoltaic Performance (United States)

    Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Jangid, Manoj K.; Bahadur, D.; Medhekar, N. V.; Aslam, M.


    Cations and anions are replaced with Fe, Mn, and Se in CZTS in order to control the formations of the secondary phase, the band gap, and the micro structure of Cu2ZnSnS4. We demonstrate a simplified synthesis strategy for a range of quaternary chalcogenide nanoparticles such as Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2FeSnS4 (CFTS), Cu2MnSnS4 (CMTS), Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 (CZTSSe) by thermolysis of metal chloride precursors using long chain amine molecules. It is observed that the crystal structure, band gap and micro structure of the CZTS thin films are affected by the substitution of anion/cations. Moreover, secondary phases are not observed and grain sizes are enhanced significantly with selenium doping (grain size ~1 μm). The earth-abundant Cu2MSnS4/Se4 (M = Zn, Mn and Fe) nanoparticles have band gaps in the range of 1.04–1.51 eV with high optical-absorption coefficients (~104 cm‑1) in the visible region. The power conversion efficiency of a CZTS solar cell is enhanced significantly, from 0.4% to 7.4% with selenium doping, within an active area of 1.1 ± 0.1 cm2. The observed changes in the device performance parameters might be ascribed to the variation of optical band gap and microstructure of the thin films. The performance of the device is at par with sputtered fabricated films, at similar scales.

  7. Dansyl-anthracene dyads for ratiometric fluorescence recognition of Cu2+. (United States)

    Kaur, Kuljit; Kumar, Subodh


    Dansyl-anthracene dyads 1 and 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) selectively recognize Cu(2+) ions amongst alkali, alkaline earth and other heavy metal ions using both absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In absorbance, the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of dyads 1 or 2 results in appearance of broad absorption band from 200 nm to 725 nm for dyad 1 and from 200 nm to 520 nm for dyad 2. This is associated with color change from colorless to blue (for 1) and fluorescent green (for 2). This bathochromic shift of the spectrum could be assigned to internal charge transfer from sulfonamide nitrogen to anthracene moiety. In fluorescence, under similar conditions dyads 1 and 2 on addition of Cu(2+) selectively quench fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-570 nm (for 1)/555-650 nm (for 2) with simultaneous fluorescence enhancement at 470 nm and 505 nm for dyads 1 and 2, respectively. Hence these dyads provide opportunity for ratiometric analysis of 1-50 μM Cu(2+). The other metal ions viz. Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Pb(2+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+) do not interfere in the estimation of Cu(2+) except Cr(3+) in case of dyad 1. The coordination of dimethylamino group of dansyl unit with Cu(2+) causes quenching of fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-600 nm and also restricts the photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylamino to anthracene moiety to release fluorescence between 450-510 nm. This simultaneous quenching and release of fluorescence respectively due to dansyl and anthracene moieties emulates into Cu(2+) induced ratiometric change.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of Cu2+ in Li2O–Na2O–B2O3–Bi2O3 glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Srinivasa Rao; M Purnima; Shashidhar Bale; K Siva Kumar; Syed Rahman


    Pure and copper doped glasses with composition, Li2O–(40–)Na2O–50B2O3–10Bi2O3, have been prepared over the range 0 < < 40. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Cu2+ ions of these glasses have been recorded in the X-band at room temperature. Spin Hamiltonian parameters have been calculated. The molecular bonding coefficients, 2 and 2, have been calculated by recording the optical absorption spectra in the wavelength range 200–1200 nm. It has been observed that the site symmetry around Cu2+ ions is tetragonally distorted octahedral. The density and glass transition temperature variation with alkali content shows non-linear behaviour. The IR studies show that the glassy system contains BO3 and BO4 units in the disordered manner.

  9. Influences of Thalliation on the Morphology and Critical Temperature of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷冲; 赵新杰; 王天生; 彭纬; 虞红春; 陈莺飞; 田永君; 李林


    TI2 Ba2 CaCu2Ox (TI-2212) thin films were prepared by the two-step technique. A precursor film was first prepared by the pulsed laser deposition method, and then experienced the incorporation of thalliation in a one-step or two-step annealing process. The experimental results show that the two-step annealing process produces dense and smoothfilms, and that the one-step annealing process produces a high critical temperature film of 101K, but the transition width is wide. Precursor films with homogeneous Ba2Ca1.sCu2.1 Ox composition are essential for producing high-quality T1-2212 films.

  10. Electroquímica de Ag2Cu2O3 y síntesis de Ag2Cu2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casan-Pastor, N.


    Full Text Available The first silver-copper mixed oxide was recently synthesized in our laboratory. Such synthesis has been possible using soft chemistry methods and low temperatures, which prevent the decomposition of silver oxides. The present work describes the electrochemical behaviour of the silver-copper mixed oxide, Ag2Cu2O3, as studied by cyclic voltametry and electrolysis, both for oxidation and for reduction reactions. This compound undergoes several redox processes when it is reduced, yielding metallic silver and metallic copper as final products. The initial oxide is not regenerated upon re-oxidation. On the other hand, when Ag2Cu2O3 is oxidized a new phase with stoichiometry Ag2Cu2O4±δ appears.The original compound can be regenerated after a new reduction.Recientemente se ha sintetizado en nuestro laboratorio el primer óxido mixto de cobre y plata. Tal síntesis ha sido posible gracias a la utilización de métodos de química suave y baja temperatura, que impiden que los óxidos de plata se descompongan. En este trabajo se describe el estudio llevado a cabo sobre el comportamiento electroquímico del óxido mixto de cobre y plata, Ag2Cu2O3 ,mediante voltametría cíclica y electrólisis tanto para los procesos de oxidación como de reducción. Dicho compuesto sufre varios procesos redox cuando es reducido, obteniéndose plata metálica y cobre metálico como productos finales, sin que se dé regeneración del óxido al volver a oxidar a éstos. En cambio al ser oxidado el Ag2Cu2O3, se observa la formación de una fase oxidada de estequiometría Ag2Cu2O4±δ a partir de la cual se puede regenerar el compuesto original.

  11. Paracoherence studies in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8,CaLaBaCu 3O 7-y and CaSmBaCu 3O 7-y (United States)

    Krishnan, H.; Sankaranarayanan, V.; Srinivasan, R.


    In ceramic superconductors, where the intergrain coupling is weak, the phase transition at T co corresponds to the temperature at which phase coherence occurs in all the grains. The region between T m, the mid point of the superconducting transition, and T co, the temperature at which the resistivity goes to zero, is called the paracofioerence region. The resistivity behaviour of single phase Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8, CaLaBaCu 3O 7-y and CaSmBaCu 3O 7-y has been studied in the above region and the results indicate that the excess conductivity varies as (T - T co) -γ.

  12. Ordering in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 and Tl 2Ba 2CuO 6 studied by pair distribution function and rietveld analysis (United States)

    Toby, B. H.; Dmowski, W.; Egami, T.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Subramanian, M. A.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Sleight, A. W.; Parise, J. B.


    Rietveld analysis indicates that the only long-range structural variation in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 with temperature is a shift of O(2) away from Cu and toward Ba with increasing T. Atomic pair distribution function analysis on two samples of Tl 2Ba 2CuO 6, one superconducting, the other not, shows substantial differences in their short range structure, but similar medium range structures, while Rietveld analysis shows very similar lattice constants and long-range structures.

  13. Damping and support in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Sammamish, WA); McIver, Carl R. (Everett, WA); Mittleider, John A. (Kent, WA)


    Methods and apparatuses to provide improved auxiliary damping for superconducting bearings in superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. In a superconducting bearing, a cryostat housing the superconductors is connected to a ground state with a combination of a damping strip of material, a set of linkage arms to provide vertical support, and spring washers to provide stiffness. Alternately, the superconducting bearing may be supported by a cryostat connected to a ground state by posts constructed from a mesh of fibers, with the damping and stiffness controlled by the fiber composition, size, and mesh geometry.

  14. Damping and support in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems (United States)

    Hull, John R.; McIver, Carl R.; Mittleider, John A.


    Methods and apparatuses to provide improved auxiliary damping for superconducting bearings in superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. In a superconducting bearing, a cryostat housing the superconductors is connected to a ground state with a combination of a damping strip of material, a set of linkage arms to provide vertical support, and spring washers to provide stiffness. Alternately, the superconducting bearing may be supported by a cryostat connected to a ground state by posts constructed from a mesh of fibers, with the damping and stiffness controlled by the fiber composition, size, and mesh geometry.

  15. Superconductivity in transition metals. (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P


    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified.

  16. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects (United States)

    Ozhogin, V.


    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  17. Ball Mill Synthesis of Bulk Quaternary Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Thermoelectric Studies (United States)

    Tiwari, Kunal J.; Prem Kumar, D. S.; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra; Malar, P.


    In this work, quaternary chalcogenide Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) was synthesized using a mechanochemical ball milling process and its thermoelectric properties were studied by electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity measurements. The synthesis process comprises three steps viz., wet ball milling of the elemental precursors, vacuum annealing, and densification by hot pressing. The purpose of this is to evaluate the feasibility of introducing wet milling in place of vacuum melting in solid state synthesis for the reaction of starting elements. We report the structural characterization and thermoelectric studies conducted on samples that were milled at 300 rpm and 500 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the existence of multiple phases in the as-milled samples, indicating the requirement for heat treatment. Therefore, the ball milled powders were cold pressed and vacuum annealed to eliminate the secondary phases. Annealed samples were hot pressed and made into dense pellets for further investigations. In addition to XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) studies were performed on hot pressed samples to study the composition. XRD and EDS studies confirm CZTSe phase formation along with ZnSe secondary phase. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were done on the hot pressed samples in the temperature range 340-670 K to understand the thermoelectric behaviour. Thermal conductivity was calculated from the specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity values. The thermoelectric figure of merit zT values for samples milled at 300 rpm and 500 rpm are ˜0.15 and ˜0.16, respectively, at 630 K, which is in good agreement with the values reported for solid state synthesized compounds.

  18. Advance in Cu2O-ZnO Solar Cells and Investigation of Cu2O-ZnO Heterojunction Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering%Cu2O-ZnO太阳能电池的研究进展及磁控溅射法制备Cu2O-ZnO异质结的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美佳; 朱丽萍


    Cu2O-ZnO heterojunction has shown great potential for photovoltaic application due to the low-cost,nontoxicity,abundance and variety of preparation methods.However,the resistivity of the Cu2O film in present ZnO-Cu2O heterojunction solar cell is relatively high,which seems to be the major problem for the low photoelectric conversion efficiency.Cu2O films were prepared using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering.The microstructures and properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Hall-effect measurements.The influences of qv (Ar) ∶ qv (O2) on the structures and properties of deposited films were investigated.Single-phase Cu2O film with a resistivity of 88.5 Ω · cm,a Hall mobility of 16.9 cm2 · V-1 · s-1 and a carrier concentration of 4.19 × 1015 cm-3 were obtained at qv (Ar) ∶ qv (O2) =90∶ 0.3.The as-deposited Cu2O films have a great improvement in electrical performance and have more advantage in photovoltaic application compared with that prepared by electrochemical deposition or thermal oxidation.On that basis,the Cu2O-ZnO heterojunctions were fabricated in reversed growth sequence and the band alignments of the heterojunctions were given to investigate their potential application in solar cells.Possible areas for future work in this field were outlined and some suggestions were made based on our investigation of the Cu2O-ZnO heterojunctions fabricated by magnetron sputtering.%Cu2O-ZnO异质结具有成本低廉、环境友好及制备方法多样等优点,在太阳能电池领域有很好的应用前景.Cu2O薄膜的高电阻率和低载流子浓度是制约其效率提高的主要原因.本文采用磁控溅射法,在qv(Ar)∶qv(O2) =90∶0.3时得到单相p型Cu2O薄膜,电阻率为88.5 Ω·cm,霍尔迁移率为16.9 cm2·V-1·s-1,载流子浓度为4.19×1015cm-3.并结合Cu2O-ZnO异质结能带结构的研究,对Cu2O-ZnO异质结太阳能电池今后的研究提出了一些建议.

  19. Excited state assisted three-photon absorption based optical limiting in nanocrystalline Cu2Se and FeSe2 (United States)

    Anand, Benoy; Molli, Muralikrishna; Aditha, Saikiran; Mimani Rattan, Tanu; Siva Sankara Sai, S.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah


    Transition metal selenides (FeSe2 and Cu2Se) are synthesized by the hydrothermal co-reduction method. XRD results revealed the crystalline nature of their single phase and the elemental compositions are obtained using EDS. TEM images of the as-prepared samples show the formation of nanorods of 10-20 nm diameter in case of iron selenide and nanoparticles of 10-35 nm diameter in case of copper selenide. The energy bandgap values are calculated using tauc plots obtained from UV-Visible absorption spectra. The open aperture Z-scan measurements carried out using 5 ns pulses at 532 nm revealed that the samples showed excellent optical limiting behavior owing to strong nonlinear absorption (NLA). Through numerical simulations, the mechanism of NLA is found to be effective three-photon absorption which has significant contribution from excited state absorption.

  20. Growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 alloys grown by the melting method (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; Kakimoto, Koichi; Miyake, Hideto


    I2-II-IV-VI4 quaternary Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) alloys were successfully grown by the melting growth method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the CZTSSe alloys showed preferred orientations of (112), (220) and (312) planes, confirming the Kesterite structure. In Raman spectra, the A1 mode peaks expected for CZTS and CZTSe were observed in all samples, and no secondary phases were observed. The CZTSSe alloys in this study were slightly Cu-poor, Zn-rich and VI-rich, similar to compositions of polycrystalline thin-film materials that have achieved high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies. Single phase and homogeneous CZTSSe alloys were obtained.

  1. Effect of Cu content and temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells (United States)

    Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Brammertz, Guy; Buffière, Marie; Meuris, Marc; Vleugels, Jef; Poortmans, Jef


    The complexity involved in obtaining pure Kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film primarily arises due to its narrow region of stability, leading to the presence of unavoidable binary selenides of the constituent metals. This study offers an insight on the formation of Cu selenides when the amount of Cu is varied in the precursor from Cu poor to Cu rich. The amount of Cu selenides was found to decrease when the composition of CZTSe absorber approached Cu rich conditions but functional devices were not obtained. Detailed characterizations also showed that the Cu and Sn binary phases were present at the backside interface of CZTSe solar cells. However with an increase in the selenization temperature it was found that the amount of Cu selenides and other secondary phases could be drastically minimized or even eliminated leading to high efficiency devices.

  2. Detection of a ZnSe secondary phase in coevaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films (United States)

    Redinger, Alex; Hönes, Katja; Fontané, Xavier; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Saucedo, Edgardo; Valle, Nathalie; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Siebentritt, Susanne


    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films are grown by coevaporation. Composition depth profiles reveal that a Zn rich phase is present at the CZTSe/Mo interface. Raman measurements on the as grown films are used to study the near surface region and the CZTSe/Mo interface, after mechanically removing the thin film from the Mo coated glass. These measurements provide direct experimental evidence of the formation of a ZnSe phase at the CZTSe/Mo interface. While the Raman spectra at the surface region are dominated by CZTSe modes, those measured at the CZTSe/Mo interface are dominated by ZnSe and MoSe2 modes.

  3. Effect of Cu content and temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahayaraj Sylvester


    Full Text Available The complexity involved in obtaining pure Kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe thin film primarily arises due to its narrow region of stability, leading to the presence of unavoidable binary selenides of the constituent metals. This study offers an insight on the formation of Cu selenides when the amount of Cu is varied in the precursor from Cu poor to Cu rich. The amount of Cu selenides was found to decrease when the composition of CZTSe absorber approached Cu rich conditions but functional devices were not obtained. Detailed characterizations also showed that the Cu and Sn binary phases were present at the backside interface of CZTSe solar cells. However with an increase in the selenization temperature it was found that the amount of Cu selenides and other secondary phases could be drastically minimized or even eliminated leading to high efficiency devices.

  4. Effects of sputtering period on the performance of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells (United States)

    Lu, Yilei; Wang, Shurong; Li, Zhishan; Jiang, Zhi; Yang, Min; Li, Qi


    Currently, most of investigations about CZTS focus on the sulfurization conditions, the precursor stacking orders, and effects of secondary phases on the device performance. However, very few researchers have a detailed investigation of sputtering period. In this paper, the effects of sputtering period on the performance of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells are discussed. The crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition and phase purity of CZTS thin films prepared by different periods were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the performances of CZTS devices prepared by multi periods were better than that of using single period. Meanwhile, complete devices were fabricated using CZTS thin film based on different sputtering periods, and 2.02% efficiency of CZTS by single period, 3.19% efficiency by double periods and 3.6% efficiency by four periods were obtained, respectively.

  5. Structural and Optical Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticles for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lydia


    Full Text Available The Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Chemical co-precipitation method with different synthesis temperatures. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. XRD and Raman studies revealed that the CZTS nanoparticles exhibited Kesterite Structure with preferential orientation along the (112 direction. The CZTS nanoparticles synthesized at a temperature 150 C exhibited near stoichiometry. On further increasing the synthesis temperature sulphur composition was decreased due to volatile nature of the sulphur. The synthesized nanopar-ticles exhibited an optimum band gap of 1.4 eV.

  6. Research on structure of Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 thin films with high Sn-related phases (United States)

    Li, Peng-yu; Xue, Yu-ming; Liu, Hao; Xia, Dan; Song, Dian-you; Feng, Shao-jun; Sun, Hai-tao; Yu, Bing-bing; Qiao, Zai-xiang


    Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin films were deposited on flexible substrates by three evaporation processes at high temperature. The chemical compositions, microstructures and crystal phases of the CZTSSe thin films were respectively characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering spectrum. The results show that the single-step evaporation method at high temperature yields CZTSSe thin films with nearly pure phase and high Sn-related phases. The elemental ratios of Cu/(Zn+Sn)=1.00 and Zn/Sn=1.03 are close to the characteristics of stoichiometric CZTSSe. There is the smooth and uniform crystalline at the surface and large grain size at the cross section for the films, and no other phases exist in the film by XRD and Raman shift measurement. The films are no more with the Sn-related phase deficiency.

  7. Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods (United States)

    Botti, Silvana; Kammerlander, David; Marques, Miguel A. L.


    We calculate the band structures of kesterite and stannite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4, using a state-of-the-art self-consistent GW approach. Our accurate quasiparticle states allow to discuss: the dependence of the gap on the anion displacement; the key-role of the nonlocality of the exchange-correlation potential to obtain good structural parameters; the reliability of less expensive hybrid functional and generalized gradient approximation+U approaches. In particular, we show that even if the band gap is correctly reproduced by hybrid functionals, the band-edge corrections are in disagreement with self-consistent GW results, which have decisive implications for the positioning of the defect levels in the band gap.

  8. Loading of Two Related Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs, [Cu2(bdc2(dabco] and [Cu2(ndc2(dabco], with Ferrocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wenzel


    Full Text Available We have studied the loading of two related, similar porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs [Cu2(bdc2(dabco] (1, and [Cu2(ndc2(dabco] (2 with ferrocene by exposing bulk powder samples to the corresponding vapor. On the basis of powder X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamics (MD calculations we propose that each pore can store one ferrocene molecule. Despite the rather pronounced similarity of the two MOFs a quite different behavior is observed, for 1 loading with ferrocene leads to an anisotropic 1% contraction, whereas for 2 no deformation is observed. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal that the Fe oxidation level remains unchanged during the process. Time dependent studies reveal that the diffusion constant governing the loading from the gas-phase for 1 is approximately three times larger than the value for 2.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Cu2O Single-Crystal by Sonochemical Method%氧化亚铜单晶的声化学制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陶小军; 张治军; 吴志申; 张平余


    Cuprous oxide single crystal has been synthesized by sonochemical method through the thermal decomposition of copper acetate monohydrate in paraffin oil. TEM, XRD, SEM, ED and XPS techniques have been used to characterize its morphology, structure and composition. It is found that when the temperature is increased,decomposition from Cu2O to Cu takes place.

  10. Pressure- and Temperature-Dependent Study of Heusler Alloys Cu2MGa (M = Cr and V) (United States)

    Gupta, Dinesh C.; Ghosh, Sukriti


    Full-potential computation of the electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu2MGa (M = Cr and V) alloys has been performed in the most stable Fm-3 m phase. The equilibrium lattice parameter is 5.9660 Å for Cu2CrGa and 5.9629 Å for Cu2VGa in the stable state. The application of mBJ potential has also found no energy gap in these alloys in either of the spin channels, hence they are metallic. The total and partial density of states, second-order elastic constants and their combinations are computed to show the electronic, magnetic, stability and brittle or ductile nature of these alloys, which are reported for the first time. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index predict Cu2CrGa to be brittle and Cu2VGa to be ductile. Both the materials are stiff enough to break. We have found that both the compounds are anisotropic, ferromagnetic and metallic in nature. We have used quasi-harmonic approximations to study the pressure and temperature variation of the thermodynamic properties of these alloys.

  11. Facile synthesis of Cu2S nanoarchitectures in application of surface enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Fu, Shih-Yu; Chang, Hao-Hsuan; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Lin, Yan-Gu


    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the main mechanisms of Surface Raman Enhance Scattering (SERS) and it will depend on the morphology and free carrier density of substrates, in many of discussions have been proved. Recently, the semiconductor copper(I) sulphide (Cu2S), the natural p-type semiconductor, exhibits remarkable SPR in the nearinfrared region[1] and can be regards as best candidate for active SERS substrates. In this report, the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process will be used to synthesis Cu2S nanostructures[2] from ZnO nanorods as template deposited by electrochemical reaction. To further manipulate the different carrier densities of Cu2S nanostructuress, the adjustment of Cu vacancy in Cu2S can be accomplished by thermal processes under noble gas. Taking 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as probe molecule to measure the SERS performance by Cu2S nanostructures made in this fabrication and also examines the effect on SERS by adjusting Cu vacancy under an excited wavelength of 632.8 nm and light power of 15 mW. In fact, the modulation of Cu vacancy will positively correlate to the SPR frequencies and so could get the best enhancement factor under the limited condition of excited source. Therefore, our results could provide a new opportunity to use SERS to explore the molecule-semiconductor interaction, a fundamental but essential question for designing novel devices.

  12. Electrocatalytic activity of Cu2O nanocubes-based electrode for glucose oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathiyanathan Felix; Pratap Kollu; Bala P C Raghupathy; Soon Kwan Jeong; Andrews Nirmala Grace


    A direct electrocatalytic activity of glucose oxidation on cuprous oxide modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Cu2O nanocubes were synthesized by a simple wet chemical route in the absence of surfactants. Purity, shape and morphology of Cu2O are characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and DRS-UV. The Cu2O nanocubes-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation compared with bare GCE electrode. At an applied potential of +0.60V, the Cu2O electrode presented a high sensitivity of 121.7 A/mM. A linear response was obtained from 0 to 500 M, a response time less than 5 s and a detection limit of 38 M (signal/noise=3). The Cu2O nanocubes-modified electrode was stable towards interfering molecules like uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). In short, a facile chemical preparation process of cuprous oxide nanocubes, and the fabricated modified electrode allow highly sensitive, selective, and fast amperometric sensing of glucose, which is promising for the future development of non-enzymatic glucose sensors.

  13. Effects of Cu2+ and Ph on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effects of Cu2+ and pH on osteoclastic bone resorption lacunae are studied by culturing Japanese white rabbit osteoclasts on bone slices. The number and surface area of bone resorption lacunae are measured by photomicrography and image analysis. Concentration of calcium ion in the supernatant is measured by atomic absorption spectrometry to evaluate the activity of osteoclasts. The morphology of the lacunae is observed under a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that Cu2+ at concentration of 1.00×10-6 mol/L and 1.00×10-7 mol/L inhibits osteoclastic activity and causes a dose-dependent reduction in the number and surface area of the lacunae. While the number of lanunae is increased and osteoclastic bone resorbing function is significantly improved at Cu2+ concentration of 1.00×10-8 mol/L. It is suggested that the effect of Cu2+ on osteoclastic bone resorption depends on Cu2+ concentration. pH had no significant effect on osteoclastic function in the near neutral range.

  14. Galvanic synthesis of Cu2-XSe thin films and their photocatalytic and thermoelectric properties (United States)

    Ghosh, Amrita; Kulsi, Chiranjit; Banerjee, Dipali; Mondal, Anup


    Cu2-XSe thin film with cubic berzelianite phase was prepared by a simple, low-cost two electrode electrochemical technique and the photocatalytic and thermoelectric properties of the thin films were investigated. The results showed that Cu2-XSe crystallized in the cubic berzelianite phase and found to possess both direct and indirect band gaps of 2.9 and 1.05 eV respectively, covering almost the entire range of solar-spectrum. The photocatalytic discoloration of aqueous methylene blue (MB) and rose-bengal (RB) dyes over Cu2-XSe thin films were investigated under visible light irradiation. Cu2-XSe thin films showed higher catalytic activity for MB compared to RB in presence of H2O2. The photocatalytic discoloration followed first-order reaction kinetics. Complete removal of aqueous MB was realized after visible light irradiation for 150 min with Cu2-XSe thin film catalyst in presence of H2O2. Thermoelectric performances through power factor and figure of merit have been evaluated. Carrier concentration obtained from thermoelectric power was used to evaluate the mobility of carriers from electrical conductivity measurement.

  15. A Cu2+-selective fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY with two pyridine ligands and logic gate (United States)

    Huang, Liuqian; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoxiu; Ma, Yifan; Huang, Tianjiao; Shen, Xi; Qiu, Huayu; He, Xingxing; Yin, Shouchun


    A novel near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY (Py-1) has been synthesized and characterized. Py-1 displays high selectivity and sensitivity for sensing Cu2+ over other metal ions in acetonitrile. Upon addition of Cu2+ ions, the maximum absorption band of Py-1 in CH3CN displays a red shift from 603 to 608 nm, which results in a visual color change from pink to blue. When Py-1 is excited at 600 nm in the presence of Cu2+, the fluorescent emission intensity of Py-1 at 617 nm is quenched over 86%. Notably, the complex of Py-1-Cu2+ can be restored with the introduction of EDTA or S2-. Consequently, an IMPLICATION logic gate at molecular level operating in fluorescence mode with Cu2+ and S2- as chemical inputs can be constructed. Finally, based on the reversible and reproducible system, a nanoscale sequential memory unit displaying "Writing-Reading-Erasing-Reading" functions can be integrated.

  16. Biosorption behaviors of Cu2+,Zn2+, Cd2+ and mixture by waste activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sheng-lian; YUAN Lin; CHAI Li-yuan; MIN Xiao-bo; WANG Yun-yan; FANG Yan; WANG Pu


    Biosorption of heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, was carried out using waste activated sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant as adsorption material, and the effects of parameters, such as pH value, temperature, reaction time and sorption duration, were studied in detail. The results indicate that the removal rates of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with low concentration are 96.47%, 80% and 90%, respectively, adsorbed by waste activated sludge. Little effect of dosage of activated sludge on the adsorption of Cu2+ and more effects on the adsorption of Zn2+ and Cd2+ are observed. Little effect oftemperature is observed, while pH value and adsorption time exert important influence on the sorption process. The adsorption behaviors of heavy metal ions all have parabolic relationships with pH value. The optimum pH value is between 6 and 10, and the optimum adsorption time is 1 h. In single heavy metal ion system, the sorption processes of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ are in accordance with Freundlich model, which indicates that it is suitable for the treatment of these three heavy metal ions using intermittent operation. In addition, the sorption capacity of the sludge for Cu2+ is preferential to the other two ions.

  17. Synthesis, surface properties and photocatalytic abilities of semiconductor In2Cu2O5 nanoparticles (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Wan, Yingpeng; Huang, Yanlin; Wang, Yaorong; Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin


    In2Cu2O5 photocatalyst was prepared by the sol-gel method which produced worm-like nanoparticles. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurement and Rietveld structural refinement were applied to elucidate the phase formation and structural properties. The morphological properties of the surfaces were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles present optical absorption from both the host lattices and the d-d transitions of distorted Cu2+ octahedra in UV-vis light wavelength region. The band-gap of In2Cu2O5 photocatalyst is about 2.31 eV. The photocatalytic abilities of In2Cu2O5 nanoparticles were verified by photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) solutions irradiated by visible light. The energy potential and bad structure were discussed. In2Cu2O5 nanoparticles have the potential application for the efficient photocatalysis on MB dye solutions.

  18. Observation of Considerable Upconversion Enhancement Induced by Cu2-xS Plasmon Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhou, Donglei; Liu, Dali; Xu, Wen; Yin, Ze; Chen, Xu; Zhou, Pingwei; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Zhanguo; Song, Hongwei


    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) are achieved in heavily doped semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with appreciable free carrier concentrations. In this paper, we present the photonic, electric, and photoelectric properties of plasmonic Cu2-xS NPs/films and the utilization of LSPRs generated from semiconductor NPs as near-infrared antennas to enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NPs. Our results suggest that the LSPRs in Cu2-xS NPs originate from ligand-confined carriers and that a heat treatment resulted in the decomposition of ligands and oxidation of Cu2-xS NPs; these effects led to a decrease of the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) ratio, which in turn resulted in the broadening, decrease in intensity, and red-shift of the LSPRs. In the presence of a MoO3 spacer, the UCL intensity of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NPs was substantially improved and exhibited extraordinary power-dependent behavior because of the energy band structure of the Cu2-xS semiconductor. These findings provide insights into the nature of LSPR in semiconductors and their interaction with nearby emitters and highlight the possible application of LSPR in photonic and photoelectric devices.

  19. Cytotoxicity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to LNCaP cells in the presence of Cu2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-ning; SHEN Sheng-rong; XIONG Yao-kang


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown remarkably anti-cancer activity, with its bioactivity being related to reactive conditions, such as pH and metal ions. The present study investigated the degradation of EGCG and its effect on prostate cancer cell in the presence of Cu2+. EGCG was incubated with prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, pretreated with or without Cu2+.EGCG in F-12 medium was quantified using HPLC and the viability of cells was assessed by gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry,and electron microscope. The results of HPLC showed that EGCG degraded completely within 12 h in F-12 medium with or without Cu2+. Gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry did not detect apoptosis of LNCaP cells when they were incubated with EGCG. Electron microscopy examination revealed that EGCG-Cu2+ complex led to damage of cytoplasm membrane in LNCaP cells. It was speculated that not EGCG, but its oxide and complex with Cu2+, are the bioactive components responsible for its cytotoxicity to LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Cu2O-TiO2 nanofluid (United States)

    Ilangovan, R.; Kumaraguruparan, G.; Subramaniyan, A. L.


    Nanofluids are engineered suspension of Nanoparticles in a suitable base fluid. Nanofluids have a wide range of applications in thermal cooling, direct absorption solar collectors, enhanced fuel efficiency, medical applications, etc. Nanofluids have been extensively studied for their thermal conductivity and are presently being investigated for their novel electrical, magnetic and optical properties. A wide range of metallic (Ag,Cu,Ti) and ceramic(TiO2, Cu2O, Al2O3) nanofluids with water and ethylene glycol have been extensively prepared and characterized for their thermal applications. The present work deals with preparation of Cu2O-TiO2 Nanofluid by the two step method and nanoparticles of Cu2O-TiO2 nanofluid are characterised by SEM,EDAX. The stability of the nanofluid is investigated by sedimentation method.

  1. Magnetoelectric effects in the skyrmion host material Cu2OSeO3 (United States)

    Ruff, E.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Berger, H.; Krohns, S.


    Insulating helimagnetic Cu2OSeO3 shows sizeable magnetoelectric effects in its skyrmion phase. Using magnetization measurements, magneto-current analysis and dielectric spectroscopy, we provide a thorough investigation of magnetoelectric coupling, polarization and dielectric constants of the ordered magnetic and polar phases of single-crystalline Cu2OSeO3 in external magnetic fields up to 150 mT and at temperatures below 60 K. From these measurements we construct a detailed phase diagram. Especially, the skyrmion phase and the metamagnetic transition of helical to conical spin order are characterized in detail. Finally we address the question if there is any signature of polar order that can be switched by an external electric field, which would imply multiferroic behaviour of Cu2OSeO3.

  2. A new hydroxynaphthyl benzothiazole derived fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive Cu2 + detection (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; He, Ping; Zhong, Keli; Hou, Shuhua; Bian, Yanjiang


    A new reactive probe, 1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-yl-picolinate (BTNP), was designed and synthesized. BTNP acts as a highly selective probe to Cu2 + in DMSO/H2O (7/3, v/v, Tris-HCl 10 mM, pH = 7.4) solution based on Cu2 + catalyzed hydrolysis of the picolinate ester moiety in BTNP, which leads to the formation of an ESIPT active product with dual wavelength emission enhancement. The probe also possesses the advantages of simple synthesis, rapid response and high sensitivity. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant was calculated to be 0.205 min- 1. Moreover, application of BTNP to Cu2 + detection in living cells and real water samples was also explored.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Strengthening Effect of Cu2O Film in Micro Sheet Forming of Copper (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Xiaojuan; Tang, Bingtao; Wang, Guangchun


    Materials processed using micro-manufacturing technologies exhibit significantly different properties compared to those produced using conventional macro-manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the thin sheet specimens of pure copper to investigate how the sheet thickness impacts the flow stress. The experimental results show a continuous decrease of flow stress as the sheet thickness reduces from 200 to 100 μm, but an increase of flow stress with further reduction in thickness. Firstly, by introducing the ratio of surface grains, the decrease trend of flow stress was explained on the basis of surface layer model. Secondly, the strengthening effect of Cu2O film was clearly demonstrated by the x-ray diffraction and electrodeposition process. Finally, considering the effects of Cu2O film and free surface layer, the mechanical properties of Cu2O film was studied, which is helpful to explain the material behavior in micro sheet forming.

  4. Hydrogenation reaction characteristics and properties of its hydrides for magnetic regenerative material HoCu2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金滔; 吴梦茜; 黄迦乐; 汤珂; 陈立新


    The hydrogenation reaction characteristics and the properties of its hydrides for the magnetic regenerative material HoCu2 (CeCu2-type) of a cryocooler were investigated. The XRD testing reveals that the hydrides of HoCu2 were a mixture of Cu, unknown hydride I, and unknown hydride II. Based on the PCT (pressure−concentration−temperature) curves under different reaction temperatures, the relationships among reaction temperature, equilibrium pressure, and maximum hydrogen absorption capacity were analyzed and discussed. The enthalpy changeΔH and entropy changeΔS as a result of the whole hydrogenation process were also calculated from the PCT curves. The magnetization and volumetric specific heat capacity of the hydride were also measured by SQUID magnetometer and PPMS, respectively.

  5. Enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids (United States)

    Hassan, Ali; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Ahmad, Ayyaz; Muryam, Hina


    The enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids were investigated. The nanofluids of different volume concentrations i-e 1%, 2.5% and 4.5% were prepared by the two step method. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were ultrasonically stirred for four hours in the ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental study has been performed through circular tube geometry in laminar flow regime at average Reynolds numbers 36, 71 and 116. The constant heat flux Q = 4000 (W/m2) was maintained during this work. Substantial enhancement was observed in the convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids than the base fluid. The maximum 74% enhancement was observed in convective heat transfer coefficient at 4.5 vol% concentration and Re = 116.

  6. Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu2O thin films at reduced growth temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Subramaniyan


    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu2O thin films to 300 °C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, Ptot at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO2. A strong non-monotonic effect of Ptot on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu2O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

  7. 利用Cu2SnS3纳米晶和Zn离子混合溶液制备Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜%Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film from mixed solution of Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles and Zn ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童正夫; 杨佳; 颜畅; 郝萌萌; 刘芳洋; 蒋良兴; 赖延清; 李劼; 刘业翔


    在非真空条件下,选用无毒原材料,采用溶液法制备Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜。利用透射电镜、X射线衍射、扫描电镜、能谱以及拉曼等研究手段,对Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜的形成机理进行分析。通过循环伏安及光电测试,探讨Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜作为染料敏化太阳能电池对电极的催化性能。结果表明:采用溶液法制备的Cu2ZnSnS4混合前驱体溶液主要由Cu2SnS3纳米晶和Zn离子组成,将其滴涂成膜后,经过550°C退火,最终可以得到Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜;制备的Cu2ZnSnS4薄膜对氧化还原对I3−/I−具有一定的催化作用,将其应用于染料敏化太阳能电池的对电极取得了1.09%的光电转化效率。%The Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film was prepared by a facile solution method without vacuum environment and toxic substance. The formation mechanism of the film was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman scattering measurements. Through cyclic voltammetry and photo-electricity tests, the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared film as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell was also studied. The results show that the mixed precursor solution mainly consists of Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles and Zn ions. After 550 °C annealing process on the precursor film prepared from the mixed solution, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film is obtained. Besides, it is found that the prepared Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film has the electrocatalytic activity toward the redox reaction of I3−/I− and the dye-sensitized solar cell with the prepared Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film as the counter electrode achieves the efficiency of 1.09%.

  8. Recycle Adsorption of Cu2+ on Amine-functionalized Mesoporous Silica Monolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-zhou; JING Shu-bo; XU Jia-ning; YANG Hong; ZHENG Wei; SONG Tian-you; ZHANG Ping


    3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized worm-like mesoporous silica monolithic(WMSM-NH2) was prepared and used as a new regenerable adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions.The analysis results show that the WMSM-NH2 monolithic had a high efficiency value of 99.3% for Cu2+ remediation when the Cu2+ solution was at an initial concentration of 10.32 mg/L.The regeneration study of the WMSM-NH2 monolithic presented that the adsorption efficiency of 89.0% was remained and a mass of 92.0% was left after seven adsorption-desorption cycles were executed.The monolithic material with high resistance to the acid and good mechanical stability can facilitate the operations of adsorption and regeneration of the adsorbent.

  9. P-Cu2O/n-ZnO nanowires on ITO glass for solar cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Que, Wenxiu; Zhong, Peng; Zhu, Gangqiang


    In this paper, the fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction solar cell based on p-Cu2O/n-ZnO nanowires on ITO glass are presented. ZnO aligned nanocrystal seed layer is firstly prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique, and then vertical ZnO nanowire arrays with an acicular crystal structure are obtained by using a chemical bath deposition processing. The results indicate that the ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 50 nm and 500 nm in length can be easily obtained. The absorption and transmittance of the ZnO nanowires are studied. It is also noted that the Cu2O can fill well into the space between ZnO nanowires by an electrodeposition process. Furthermore, the effect of the Cu2O orientation on the cell performance is also presented.

  10. Sensing behavior and logic operation of a colorimetric fluorescence sensor for Hg2 +/Cu2 + ions (United States)

    He, Tian; Lin, Cuiling; Gu, Zhengye; Xu, Luonan; Yang, Anle; Liu, Yuanyuan; Fang, Huajun; Qiu, Huayu; Zhang, Jing; Yin, Shouchun


    A BODIPY-based 1 as a colorimetric fluorescence sensor was synthesized, and its metal sensing property was investigated. 1 displayed high selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2 + and Cu2 + ions among 15 different metal cations. The addition of Hg2 + and Cu2 + ions into 1 in CH3CN resulted in a significant bathochromic shift of the UV absorption spectra from 533 nm to 560 nm and 593 nm, respectively, changing the corresponding colors from pink to purple and blue. When excited at 530 nm, the fluorescence intensity of 1 was quenched over 75% upon addition of Hg2 + ions, while 1 with Cu2 + ions exhibited significant fluorescence enhancement with a 23 nm red-shift. Based on these results, three logic gates (OR, IMPLICATION, and INHIBIT) were obtained by controlling the chemical inputs.

  11. Electrochemical method for improving the spectral response of CdS/Cu 2S heterojunctions (United States)

    Garcia-Camarero, E.; Arjona, F.; Fatas, E.

    The effect on the stoichiometry of a copper sulphide electrode of short-circuiting the Cu/Cu aq2+/Cu 2-δS/In galvanic cell for different times has been studied. This treatment has been carried out on the copper sulphide layer of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells prepared by different methods. The resulting changes of the spectral short circuit current and the I-V characteristics of the cells have been recorded. Remarkable increases in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and fill factor have been observed as a consequence of any transformation that increases the proportion of copper in the copper sulphide films. Thus, this treatment could be a suitable method of improving the efficiency of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells.

  12. Fabrication and Optoelectrical Properties of IZO/Cu2O Heterostructure Solar Cells by Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chiang Chen


    Full Text Available Indium zinc oxide (IZO/cupper oxide (Cu2O is a nontoxic nature and an attractive all-oxide candidate for low-cost photovoltaic (PV applications. The present paper reports on the fabrication of IZO/Cu2O heterostructure solar cells which the Cu2O layers were prepared by oxidation of Cu thin films deposited on glass substrate. The measured parameters of cells were the short-circuit current (Isc, the open-circuit voltage (Voc, the maximum output power (Pm, the fill factor (FF, and the efficiency (η, which had values of 0.11 mA, 0.136 V, 5.05 μW, 0.338, and 0.56%, respectively, under AM 1.5 illumination.

  13. A novel polymer based on MtCu2+/cellulose acetate with antimicrobial activity. (United States)

    Bruna, J E; Galotto, M J; Guarda, A; Rodríguez, F


    Cellulose acetate (CA)/copper montmorillonite modified (MtCu(2+)) antimicrobial nanocomposites for food packaging containing 1, 3 and 5 wt.% nanoparticles were prepared by solution casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of intercalated and no intercalated clay form in the CA matrix. The thermal stability of the MtCu(2+)/CA nanocomposites was measured by TGA and DSC, which indicated that the nanocomposites were less thermally stable in comparison to CA pure. Mechanical testing of material did not show differences when MtCu(2+) was added in CA. On the other hand, antimicrobial effect was observed for nanocomposites films, obtaining a 98% reduction against Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of Cu2+ ions in sol–gel derived silica matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P I Paulose; Gin Jose; Vinoy Thomas; Gijo Jose; N V Unnikrishnan; M K R Warrier


    The Cu2+ ion doped silica gel matrices in monolithic shape were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The absorption, transmittance and fluorescence spectra of the gel matrices heat treated at different temperatures were monitored. The loss of water and hydroxyl group from silica network changes the optical properties of the Cu2+ ions in the host, noted by the change in colour of monolith and spectral characteristics. The pronounced blue shift observed (700–900 nm to 600–850 nm) for the broad band of the absorption spectra of the samples heated up to 700°C is attributed to the ligand field splitting and partial removal of hydroxyl group from the silica matrices. The results indicate broadband filtering effects of the samples in the wavelength region 400–600 nm. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the glass matrices heated to 1000°C confirms the conversion of Cu2+ ion to Cu+ ion.

  15. Angle-resolved photoemission with circularly polarized light in the nodal mirror plane of underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductor (United States)

    He, Junfeng; Mion, Thomas R.; Gao, Shang; Myers, Gavin T.; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Gu, G. D.; He, Rui-Hua


    Unraveling the nature of pseudogap phase in high-temperature superconductors holds the key to understanding their superconducting mechanisms and potentially broadening their applications via enhancement of their superconducting transition temperatures. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments using circularly polarized light have been proposed to detect possible symmetry breaking state in the pseudogap phase of cuprates. The presence (absence) of an electronic order which breaks mirror symmetry of the crystal would in principle induce a finite (zero) circular dichroism in photoemission. Different orders breaking reflection symmetries about different mirror planes can also be distinguished by the momentum dependence of the measured circular dichroism. Here, we report ARPES experiment on an underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) superconductor in the Γ (0,0)-Y (π,π) nodal mirror plane using circularly polarized light. No circular dichroism is observed on the level of ˜2% at low temperature, which places a clear constraint on the forms of possible symmetry breaking orders in this sample. Meanwhile, we find that the geometric dichroism remains substantial very close to its perfect extinction such that a very small sample angular offset is sufficient to induce a sizeable dichroic signal. It highlights the importance to establish a perfect extinction of geometric dichroism as a prerequisite for the identification of any intrinsic circular dichroism in this material.

  16. Adsorption of Cu2+ Ions From Aqueous Solutions Using Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani


    Full Text Available Copper ion (Cu2+ is one of the heavy metal ions that cause environmental pollution specifically in water. Copper ion cations are not biodegradable and tend to cumulate in living organisms. Consequently, the removal of Cu2+ in environmental samples plays an important role in environmental pollution monitoring. The purpose of the present work was to prepare oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs for removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions. Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes were oxidized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET methods. The effects of various factors, such as solution pH (3 - 9, adsorbent dose (0.006 - 0.06 g and contact time (10 - 120 minutes were investigated. Results showed that the suitable pH for Cu2+ ions removal was about 6.0, and the optimal dose was 0.03 g. Isotherm studies indicated that the Langmuir model fits the experimental data better than the Freundlich model. Maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity was calculated as 200 mg g-1. The kinetics of the adsorption process was tested for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The comparison among the models showed that the pseudo-second order model best described the adsorption kinetics. The results showed that oxidized MWCNTs can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions.

  17. Fluorescence Chemosensory Determination of Cu2+ Using a New Rhodamine–Morpholine Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Shekari


    Full Text Available A new rhodamine-B carbonyl-morpholine derivative (denoted as RECM was prepared by a two-step synthesis procedure. The employed method allowed a lactam ring development of rhodamine-B and ethylenediamine to demonstrate a facile amide bond formation. The obtained RECM was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis. RECM was formed to detect copper ion (Cu2+ due to its problematic toxicity features in aquatic ecosystems. It showed a high selectivity toward Cu2+ in comparison with some environmentally relevant alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal cations at 50 µM in acetonitrile. Moreover, non-fluorescent RECM showed fluorescence intensity and UV-Vis absorbance increases in the presence of Cu2+ with high linear dependent coefficients (R2 = 0.964 and R2 = 0.982 respectively as well as a color change from colorless to pink owing to the ring opening of the rhodamine spirolactam form. Binding capability experiments presented a clear 1:1 stoichiometry of RECM–Cu2+ complex with the binding constant (Ka as 2.25 × 104 M−1. The calculation of limits of detection (LOD was 0.21 µM based on the linear regression method, which is below the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG value of Cu2+ (1.3 ppm equals to 20.46 µM in drinking water. These characteristics make the RECM a promising candidate for the real-time detection of toxic Cu2+ in environmental monitoring applications.

  18. Comparative investigation on the effect of alkaline earth oxides on the intensity of absorption bands due to Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; Aman; Anal Tarafder


    Absorption characteristics of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate (20Na2O.10RO.70SiO2, where R=Ca, Sr, Ba) glasses were investigated. The intensities of absorption bands due to Cu2+ ion was found to increase with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions whereas it was found to decrease in case of Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions. The results were discussed in the light of relation between linear extinction coefficients of these ions and coulombic force of alkaline earth ions. The change in intensities of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ion is attributed due to change in silicate glass compositions.

  19. Excellent photocatalytic hydrogen production over CdS nanorods via using noble metal-free copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets as co-catalysts (United States)

    Hong, Sangyeob; Kumar, D. Praveen; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu


    Charge carrier recombination and durability issues are major problems in photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution processes. Thus, there is a very important necessitate to extend an efficient photocatalyst to control charge-carrier dynamics in the photocatalytic system. We have developed copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets as co-catalysts with CdS nanorods for controlling charge carriers without recombination for use in photocatalytic H2 evolution under simulated solar light irradiation. Effective control and utilization of charge carriers are possible by loading Cu2MoS4 nanosheets onto the CdS nanorods. The loading compensates for the restrictions of CdS, and stimulated synergistic effects, such as efficient photoexcited charge separation, lead to an improvement in photostability because of the layered structure of the Cu2MoS4nanosheets. These layered Cu2MoS4 nanosheets have emerged as novel and active replacements for precious noble metal co-catalysts in photocatalytic H2 production by water splitting. We have obtained superior H2 production rates by using Cu2MoS4 loaded CdS nanorods. The physicochemical properties of the composites are analyzed by diverse characterization techniques.

  20. Prototype Superconducting Planar Transformers Using High-Tc Thin and Thick Films (United States)


    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , vol...Diffraction Pattern of Superconductor Bi 2 (Sr,Ca) 3-.Cu 2Oy," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 27, p. L833. Peterson, R.L., and J.W. Ekin. 1988...34Crystallinity and Morphology of Superconducting Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 28, p. L441. Tarascon,

  1. Effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on growth of Triticum aestivum seedling%Cu2+和Zn2+对普通小麦幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进学; 曹虎; 张芬琴; 李彩霞


    The effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on growth and physiological characters of Triticum aestivum Linn. seedling were studied. The resultsindicatedthat the higherconcentration ofCu2+ andZn2+ hadobvious inhibition, showing that the content of chlorophyll was reduced, the content of MDA and electrical conductivity increased, the vigor of root reduced. It showed that the effect of Cu2+ on T. aestivum was more poisonous than that of Zn2+.

  2. The Oxidation of Sn-Ag coated Superconducting Cables for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Cantoni, M


    The oxides formed on the Sn-Ag coated LHC superconducting cables during a 200°C heat treatment in air are described and the oxide composition is compared with the interstrand contact resistance (Rc). The analysis of more than 250 interstrand contact areas shows that the higher the average Cu content with respect to the Sn content in the oxide, the higher is Rc. During the 200°C heat treatment, Sn in the coating is transformed into a Cu3Sn layer, on which an oxide grows that consists essentially of a thin outermost layer of CuO on top of Cu2O, similar to the oxide structure formed on bare Cu. The underlying Cu3Sn layer acts as an O diffusion barrier that prevents O diffusion into the Cu bulk during the subsequent cable heat treatment under high pressure. On contact zones where the Cu3Sn layer is not formed during the 200°C heat treatment mainly Sn oxide grows and Rc is comparatively low.

  3. Heat treatment effects in Cu2S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.


    The dependence of the short-circuit current on photon energy, temperature, and the state of optical degradation (or enhancement) is determined in a study of the photovoltaic properties of Cu2S-CdS single-crystal heterojunctions. A coherent formulation is proposed for the relationship between enhancement and optical degradation and for their effects on the transport of a short-circuit photoexcited current and dark forward-bias current in a photovoltaic cell. Optical degradation in a Cu2S-CdS cell is shown to be identical to the optical degradation of lifetime in a homogeneous CdS:Cd:Cu crystal.

  4. Study of polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 films by Raman scattering


    Fernandes, P. A.; Salomé, P M P; Cunha, A. F. da


    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a p-type semiconductor that has been seen as a possible low-cost replacement for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 in thin film solar cells. So far compound has presented difficulties in its growth, mainly, because of the formation of secondary phases like ZnS, CuxSnSx+1, SnxSy, Cu2−xS and MoS2. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), which is mostly used for phase identification cannot resolve some of these phases from the kesterite/stannite CZTS and thus the use of a complementary tech...

  5. Derivation of Inter-Atomic Force Constants of Cu2O from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makhsun


    Full Text Available Neutron scattering intensity from Cu2O compound has been measured at 10 K and 295 K with High Resolution Powder Diffractometer at JRR-3 JAEA. The oscillatory diffuse scattering related to correlations among thermal displacements of atoms was observed at 295 K. The correlation parameters were determined from the observed diffuse scattering intensity at 10 and 295 K. The force constants between the neighboring atoms in Cu2O were estimated from the correlation parameters and compared to those of Ag2O

  6. Direct electrodeposition of Cu2Sb for lithium-ion battery anodes. (United States)

    Mosby, James M; Prieto, Amy L


    We describe the direct single potential electrodeposition of crystalline Cu2Sb, a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, from aqueous solutions at room temperature. The use of citric acid as a complexing agent increases the solubility of antimony salts and shifts the reduction potentials of copper and antimony toward each other, enabling the direct deposition of the intermetallic compound at pH 6. Electrodeposition of Cu2Sb directly onto conducting substrates represents a facile synthetic method for the synthesis of high quality samples with excellent electrical contact to a substrate, which is critical for further battery testing.

  7. Conductometric Studies of Thermodynamics of Complexation of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ Cations with Aza-18-crown-6 in Binary Acetonitrile-Methanol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Taghdiri


    Full Text Available The complexation reactions between aza-18-crown-6 (A18C6 and Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ ions were studied conductometrically in different acetonitrile-methanol mixtures at various temperatures. The formation constants of the resulting 1 : 1 complexes were calculated from the computer fitting of the molar conductance-mole ratio data at different temperatures. Selectivity of A18C6 for Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ cations is sensitive to the solvent composition. At 20°C and in acetonitrile solvent, the stability of the resulting complexes varied in the order but the order was reversed byadding 20% methanol. The enthalpy and entropy changes of the complexation reactions were evaluated from the temperature dependence of formation constants. It was found that the stability of the resulting complexes decreased with increasing methanol in the solvent mixture. The TΔS° versus ΔH° plot of thermodynamic data obtained shows a fairly good linear correlation indicating the existence of enthalpy-entropy compensation in the complexation reactions. In addition, binding energies of Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ complexes with A18C6 were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G level of theory.

  8. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V


    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  9. Superconducting energy recovery linacs (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan


    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  10. High-Temperature Superconductivity (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji


    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  11. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by Cu2O/SiC nanocrystallite under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Li; Yonggen Lei; Ying Huang; Yueping Fang; Yuehua Xu; Li Zhu; Xin Li


    The Cu2O/SiC photocatalyst was obtained from SiC nanoparticles(NPs)modified by Cu2O.Their photocatalytic activities for reducing CO2 to CH3OH under visible light irradiation have been investigated.The results indicated that besides a small quantity of 6H-SiC,SiC NPs mainly consisted of 3C-SiC.The band gaps of SiC and Cu2O were estimated to be about 1.95 and 2.23 eV from UV-Vis spectra,respectively.The Cu2O modification can enhance the photocatalytic performance of SiC NPs,and the largest yields of methanol on SiC,Cu2O and Cu2O/SiC photocatalysts under visible light irradiation were 153,104 and 191μmol/g,respectively.

  12. Direct formation of small Cu2O nanocubes, octahedra, and octapods for efficient synthesis of triazoles (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Huei; Chanda, Kaushik; Chu, Yi-Ting; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H.


    In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge lengths of 37 and 67 nm, respectively. Novel Cu2O octapods with an edge length of 135 nm were also produced by mixing CuCl2 solution, SDS surfactant, NaOH solution, and NH2OH.HCl reductant solution. All of them are nearly the smallest Cu2O nanocrystals of the same shapes ever reported. These small cubes, octahedra, and octapods were employed as catalysts in the direct synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from the reaction of alkynes, organic halides, and NaN3 at 55 °C. All of them displayed high product yields in short reaction times. The octahedra enclosed by the {111} facets are the best catalysts, and can catalyze this cycloaddition reaction with high yields in just 2 h when different alkynes were used to make diverse triazole products. Hence, the small Cu2O particles provide time-saving, energy-efficient, and high product yield benefits to organocatalysis.In most studies describing the preparation of Cu2O crystals of various morphologies, the particle sizes are normally hundreds of nanometers to micrometers due to rapid particle growth, so they are not exactly nanocrystals. Here we report surfactant-free formation of sub-100 nm Cu2O nanocrystals with systematic shape evolution from cubic to octahedral structures by preparing an aqueous mixture of Cu(OAc)2, NaOH, and N2H4 solution. Adjustment of the hydrazine volume enables the particle shape control. Uniform nanocubes and octahedra were synthesized with edge

  13. Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Anatolie


    This book demonstrates how the new phenomena in superconductivity on the nanometer scale (FFLO state, triplet superconductivity, Crossed Andreev Reflection, synchronized generation etc.) serve as the basis for the invention and development of novel nanoelectronic devices and systems. It demonstrates how rather complex ideas and theoretical models, like odd-pairing, non-uniform superconducting state, pi-shift etc., adequately describe the processes in real superconducting nanostructues and novel devices based on them. The book is useful for a broad audience of readers, researchers, engineers, P

  14. Superconductive imaging surface magnetometer (United States)

    Overton, Jr., William C.; van Hulsteyn, David B.; Flynn, Edward R.


    An improved pick-up coil system for use with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device gradiometers and magnetometers involving the use of superconducting plates near conventional pick-up coil arrangements to provide imaging of nearby dipole sources and to deflect environmental magnetic noise away from the pick-up coils. This allows the practice of gradiometry and magnetometry in magnetically unshielded environments. One embodiment uses a hemispherically shaped superconducting plate with interior pick-up coils, allowing brain wave measurements to be made on human patients. another embodiment using flat superconducting plates could be used in non-destructive evaluation of materials.

  15. Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator


    涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康


    There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...

  16. Synergistic effects of TiO2 and Cu2O in UV/TiO2/zeolite-based systems on photodegradation of bisphenol A. (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Yin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Han-Yu


    In this study, TiO2/zeolite (TZ)-based composite was utilized to degrade bisphenol A (BPA) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effects of the TiO2 and Cu2O doses in TZ and Cu2O/TiO2/zeolite (CTZ) on the rate of BPA removal were identified, respectively. The surface area of TZ declined as the TiO2 loading increased. The photodegradation rate (k) of BPA in the TZ and CTZ systems fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Under UV (365 nm) irradiation, the k values of TiO2 (20%)/zeolite (80%), TiO2 (40%)/zeolite (60%), TiO2 (60%)/zeolite (40%), and TiO2 (80%)/zeolite (20%) were 0.51, 0.55, 0.97, and 0.91 h-1, respectively. In the UV (365nm)/TiO2 (60%)/zeolite (40%) system, the k values of CTZ with 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Cu2O added were 1.50, 1.04, 1.15, 1.88, and 0.47h-1, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of TZ was enhanced by adding Cu2O. The optimal dosage of TiO2 in the TZ system was 60% and that of Cu20 in the CTZ system was 20%. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HBA), p-hydroxyacetophenone (p-HAP), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA acid) and hydroquinone (HQ) were intermediates ofBPA photodegradation in the UV/TZ system and the rates of degradation followed the order HQ > p - HBA acid > BPA > p - HAP > p - HBA.

  17. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities. (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung


    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  18. Nanowires: Quantitative Probing of Cu(2+) Ions Naturally Present in Single Living Cells (Adv. Mater. 21/2016). (United States)

    Lee, Junho; Lee, Hwa-Rim; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Jung, Youngseob; Seo, Ji-Young; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Je, Jung Ho


    Quantitative probing of the Cu(2+) ions naturally present in single living cells is accomplished by a probe made from a quantum-dot-embedded-nanowire waveguide. After inserting the active nanowire-based waveguide probe into single living cells, J. H. Je and co-workers directly observe photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the embedded quantum dots by the Cu(2+) ions diffused into the probe as described on page 4071. This results in quantitative measurement of intracellular Cu(2+) ions.

  19. Novel visible-light-responding InVO4-Cu2O-TiO2 ternary nanoheterostructure:Preparation and photocatalytic characteristics%新型可见光响应的 InVO4-Cu2O-TiO2三元纳米异质结:制备及其光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海波; 李亚萍; 罗冬明; 谭功荣; 蒋剑波; 袁惠敏; 彭三军; 钱东


    A novel visible‐light‐responding InVO4‐Cu2O‐TiO2 ternary nanoheterostructure was designed on the basis of the strategy of energy gap engineering and prepared through ordinary wet chemistry methods. The as‐prepared nanoheterostructure was characterized by X‐ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet‐visible spectroscopy (UV‐vis/DRS). The TEM and HRTEM images of 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 confirm the formation of nanoheterostructures resulting from contact of the nanosized TiO2, Cu2O and InVO4 in the size of 5–20 nm in diameter. The InVO4‐Cu2O‐TiO2 nanoheterostructure, when compared with TiO2, Cu2O, InVO4, InVO4‐TiO2 and Cu2O‐TiO2, shows significant enhancement in the photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible‐light irradiation. With a 9 W energy‐saving fluorescent lamp as the visible‐light source, the MO degradation rate of 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 reaches close to 90%during 5 h, and the photocatalytic efficiency is maintained at over 90%after six cycles. This may be mainly ascribed to the matched bandgap configurations of TiO2, Cu2O and InVO4, and the formations of two p‐n junctions by the p‐type semiconductor Cu2O with the n‐type semiconductors TiO2 and InVO4, all of which favor spatial photogenerated charge carrier separation. The X‐ray pho‐toelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization for the used 10%InVO4‐40%Cu2O‐50%TiO2 reveals that only a small shakeup satellite peak appears for Cu(II) species, implying bearable photocorro‐sion of Cu2O. This work could provide new insight into the design and preparation of novel visi‐ble‐light‐responding semiconductor composites.%由于日益严重的环境和能源危机,可见光催化剂的开发已成为当今最具挑战和紧迫的任务之一.将 TiO2和其它窄禁带半导体复合,已被证明是

  20. New Reaction Routes for Preparing Single-Phase Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10 Powders from Stoichiometric Mixtures (United States)

    Wu, Nae-Lih; Lee, Sern-Nan; Yao, Yeong Der


    Single-phase Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10 powders were prepared from stoichiometric mixtures by the following two reactions: (1) CaBa2CuO4+Tl2O3+CuO→Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 and (2) Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8+CaO+CuO→Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10. Single-phase powders were obtained at 830°C for the first reaction, and at 870°C for the second reaction. At these temperatures, the extent of powder melting and the rate of Tl loss were small. Powders thus prepared showed superconducting temperatures (both the zero-resistivity and diamagnetic onset temperatures) of above 110 K and a saturation Meissner effect of 20% of (-1/4π) at a field of 20 G.

  1. In situ formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles for ultrafast zero-background Cu2+ detection and its toxicides screening. (United States)

    Qing, Zhihe; Zhu, Lixuan; Yang, Sheng; Cao, Zhong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yang, Ronghua


    Copper pollution has become more and more serious in modern society as the increasing industrial emission and the acid mine drainage, and exposure to excess copper can result in damage to living organisms. Thus, the development of efficient strategy for copper ion (Cu(2+)) detection is very essential and significant. Here, a high-efficiency fluorescent method is proposed for Cu(2+) monitoring. The detection mechanism is based on the in situ formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). When the water sample is polluted by Cu(2+), fluorescence emission of CuNPs can be observed by a one-step manner, and the emission intensity is proportional to Cu(2+) concentration. Attractively, besides its advantages in operation and good detection capability, the generation of fluorescent signal is ultrafast, with a good signal response in 1 min; and there is no interference from background and other ions due to the in situ formation of signal unit. By virtue of its advantages, this strategy has been used to detect Cu(2+) from polluted tap and river water samples, good performances demonstrate that the proposed method can be practically applied for Cu(2+) monitoring in real drinking and environmental water. Simultaneously, great potential for Cu(2+) toxicides screening has been verified by direct analysis of the effects of different model molecules on Cu(2+), which will contribute to Cu(2+)-related sewage treatment and medical therapy.

  2. Naked eye instant reversible sensing of Cu(2+) and its in situ imaging in live brine shrimp Artemia. (United States)

    Nair, Ratish R; Raju, M; Patel, Neha P; Raval, Ishan H; Suresh, E; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B


    A Cu(2+)-specific colorimetric reversible fluorescent receptor was designed and synthesized which showed a naked eye observable colour change from colourless to pink on addition of an aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) solution of 30 ppb Cu(2+). Short response time (≤5 s) and low detection limit (nearly 3 ppb) make suitable as a reliable "dip-in" open eye sensor for Cu(2+). Bio-imaging application in live brine shrimp Artemia enabled to detect Cu(2+) at as low as 10 ppb exposure.

  3. Novel Facile Technique for Synthesis of Stable Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O Nanoparticles – an Ageing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S. Sawant


    Full Text Available A novel facile method to synthesize stable phase of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O nanoparticles at room temperature is demonstrated. The structural and optical properties of (Cu2O nanoparticles were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-VIS Spectroscopy. XRD analysis has indexed nanocrystalline nature of cubical phase Cu2O with an average edge length of about 20 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM measurements also ascertain the cubical morphology. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR affirms the presence of characteristic functional group of Cu2O. The absorbance peak at 485 nm in UV-VIS spectra also confirms the Cu2O synthesis. Furthermore, UV-VIS absorbance spectra at different ageing time substantiate the phase stability of Cu2O nanoparticles. The ageing leads to blue shift of absorbance peak mainly due to decrease in Cu2O particle size with no additional absorbance peak in UV-VIS spectra indicating the formation of secondary phase. The reduction in particle size may be attributed to tiny conversion Cu2O to CuO. The energy band gap measurements from Tauc plots for Cu2O nanoparticles shows the increasing trend (2.5 eV to 2.8 eV with ageing time (2 months, owing to quantum confinement effects.

  4. High-Pressure Study of the Ground- and Superconducting-State Properties of CeAu2Si2 (United States)

    Scheerer, Gernot W.; Giriat, Gaétan; Ren, Zhi; Lapertot, Gérard; Jaccard, Didier


    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of the new heavy-fermion superconductor CeAu2Si2 is markedly different from those studied previously. Indeed, superconductivity emerges not on the verge but deep inside the magnetic phase, and mysteriously Tc increases with the strengthening of magnetism. In this context, we have carried out ac calorimetry, resistivity, and thermoelectric power measurements on a CeAu2Si2 single crystal under high pressure. We uncover a strong link between the enhancement of superconductivity and quantum-critical-like features in the normal-state resistivity. Non-Fermi-liquid behavior is observed around the maximum of superconductivity and enhanced scattering rates are observed close to both the emergence and the maximum of superconductivity. Furthermore we observe signatures of pressure- and temperature-driven modifications of the magnetic structure inside the antiferromagnetic phase. A comparison of the features of CeAu2Si2 and its parent compounds CeCu2Si2 and CeCu2Ge2 plotted as function of the unit-cell volume leads us to propose that critical fluctuations of a valence crossover play a crucial role in the superconducting pairing mechanism. Our study illustrates the complex interplay between magnetism, valence fluctuations, and superconductivity.

  5. Influence of temperature on the magnetic structure of HoCu2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smetana, S.; Sima, V.; Lebech, Bente


    Neutron powder diffraction measurements of orthorhombic HoCu2 are reported. The results confirm that the two cusps observed at ~7K and 10K in the magnetization data reflect a change of the magnetic structure and the Neel temperature. In the temperature range 7K...

  6. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic structure of HoCu2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smetana, Z.; Sima, V.; Lebech, Bente


    Neutron diffraction measurements show that in the temperature range from 7.4 to TN=10.4 K the magnetic structure of HoCu2 is a commensurably modulated a-axis collinear structure with a wave vector q1=1/3a*. Below 7.4 K an additional structure component develops and the low temperature magnetic st...

  7. Copper-silver bimetallic system on natural clinoptilolite: thermal reduction of Cu2+ and Ag+ exchanged. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iznaga, Inocente; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Castillón-Barraza, Felipe; Concepción-Rosabal, Beatriz


    Copper-silver bimetallic system supported on natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit (Cuba) was studied. Bimetallic samples were prepared by simultaneous ion exchange, and reduced in a wide temperature range in a hydrogen flow. The main goal of the work was analysis of the mutual influence of both metals on their reduction process and the properties of the resultant particles. Analysis was done by combined use of XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The reduction of Cu2+ and Ag+ cations shows existence of notable inter-influence between both cations during this process. The Cu2+ reduction is favored by the presence of Ag+, which should be related with the synergetic influence of silver cations and/or clusters formed on the first stages of reduction on Cu(2+)-framework interaction, facilitating the Cu2+ reduction even at low temperature (25 and 50 degrees C). The aggregation of the reduced highly dispersed species both for copper and silver is limited in this bimetallic system. The introduction of Ag+ as the second cation in the copper-exchanged zeolites favors the copper reduction at lower temperatures (25 and 50 degrees C), and appears to be the efficient tool for the control of the size of the resultant reduced nanoparticles (it means their dispersion).

  8. Magnetoelectric coupling in the cubic ferrimagnet Cu(2)OSeO(3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan-Willem G.; Colin, Claire V.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.


    We have investigated the magnetoelectric coupling in the lone pair containing piezoelectric ferrimagnet Cu(2)OSeO(3). Significant magnetocapacitance develops in the magnetically ordered state (T(c) = 60 K). We find critical behavior near T(c) and a divergence near the metamagnetic transition at 500

  9. The Reaction Mechanism and Rate Constants in the Radiolysis of Fe2+-Cu2+ Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling; Sehested, Knud; Rasmussen, O. Lang


    Pulse radiolysis and gamma radiolysis have been used to study the reaction mechanism in the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Fe2+ and Cu2+. A reaction scheme has been developed and confirmed by computation of the corresponding complete set of differential equations. The rate constants for some...

  10. Adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution onto modified glass beads with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Torkshavand


    Full Text Available The discharge of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystem is a main concern over the last few decades. These pollutants are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of various industrial operations. This study investigates the efficiency of the modified glass beads with APTES ligand for removal of Cu2+ from the aqueous solution. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken was used to assess the effect of independent variables, including flow rate, solution pH, initial concentration and glass beads size on the response function and prediction of the best response value. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of eluents of a column of the modified glass beads showed that Cu2+ ion was more than 90% entrapped on a column of glass beads. The isotherm evaluations indicate that the equilibrium data for Cu2+ adsorption could be fitted with the Langmuir model. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of adsorption kinetics using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results also showed that the adsorption process of the Cu2+ well suited with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. All the results demonstrated that modified glass beads successfully absorbed heavy metals from aqueous solution.

  11. Toxic effects of heavy metal Cu2+ on the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (United States)

    Gao, Ceng; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiumei; Tang, Xuexi


    The effects of different concentrations of heavy metal ions on the survival of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were studied by using experimental ecology method in 96 h. The results showed that the LC50 of copper ion was 21.748mg/L and the safe concentration was 2.1748mg/L mg/L. Under the condition of laboratory, under laboratory conditions, the research of Cu2+ Stress on the C. gigas gill and digestive gland and adductor muscle tissue SOD, GPx and the induction of CAT activity. The results showed that the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT in the C. gigas were significantly changed by copper ion + stress. The results showed that in the low concentration Cu2+ treatment could induce the three kinds of enzymes, in the high concentration Cu2+ treatment group, SOD and CAT and GPx on the inhibition of the effect. The sensitivity of the three antioxidant enzymes to copper ion showed a certain difference. The sensitivity of the three kinds of tissue enzymes to Cu2+ treatment was digestive gland> fascia> gill. The experimental results show that the single factor for copper in water pollutants, the C. gigas digestive gland tissue SOD, GPX and CAT activity has certain significance to it, but will it as index applied to the actual water need further study.

  12. What is the band alignment of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole


    The band alignment at the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4/CdS solar cell heterojunction is a controversial issue, as different measurements and calculations point to substantially different conduction band offsets (CBO). As the actual value of the CBO has profound implications on solar cell performance, the aim...... measurement approaches. Interestingly, a rough correlation can be established between the CBO measured at the Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS interface by different groups and their corresponding solar cell efficiency: lower-efficiency cells often have a large "cliff-like" offset, whereas most high-efficiency cells have...... a "spike-like" or nearly flat offset. Control of interdiffusion can be a powerful way to engineer the optimal band alignment in Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS solar cells, but it can be detrimental in Cu2ZnSnSe4/CdS solar cells, as it may increase the CBO above the optimal range for maximum efficiency....

  13. Phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior in Al/Cu2Se/Pt (United States)

    Rehman, Shania; Kim, Kihwan; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-kee


    The phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior of an Al/Cu2Se/Pt device was studied. While the device did not demonstrate any resistive switching behavior at room temperature, it exhibited resistive switching behavior at 125 °C, near the transition temperature of copper(I) selenide (Cu2Se) (137 °C), where Cu2Se is known to transform from the monoclinic to superionic phase. The increase in ionic conductivity and structural variations (from ordered to disordered structure) associated with phase transformation were observed to be responsible for the origin of the switching behavior and increase in the on/off resistance ratio near the transition temperature. Thermodynamic calculations showed that a reduction in Gibb’s free energy of nucleation and an increase in the migration speed of the Cu ion associated with the ionic conductivity and order to disorder the transition of the Cu2Se at the transition temperature were the important factors responsible for the reduction in the SET voltages at 155 °C.

  14. Cu2+1O coated polycrystalline Si nanoparticles as anode for lithium-ion battery. (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Zhang, Chunqian; Wu, Shouming; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Zuo, Yuhua; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Cheng, Buwen


    Cu2+1O coated Si nanoparticles were prepared by simple hydrolysis and were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion battery. The coating of Cu2+1O on the surface of Si particles remarkably improves the cycle performance of the battery than that made by the pristine Si. The battery exhibits an initial reversible capacity of 3063 mAh/g and an initial coulombic efficiency (CE) of 82.9 %. With a current density of 300 mA/g, its reversible capacity can remains 1060 mAh/g after 350 cycles, corresponding to a CE ≥ 99.8 %. It is believed that the Cu2+1O coating enhances the electrical conductivity, and the elasticity of Cu2+1O further helps buffer the volume changes during lithiation/delithiation processes. Experiment results indicate that the electrode maintained a highly integrated structure after 100 cycles and it is in favour of the formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the Si surface to keep the extremely high CE during long charge and discharge cycles.

  15. Optically probed symmetry breaking in the chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R. B.; Vergara, I.; Schaefer, S. D.; Bischoff, D.; Aqeel, A.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Grueninger, M.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.


    We report on the linear optical properties of the chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3, specifically associated with the absence of inversion symmetry, the chiral crystallographic structure, and magnetic order. Through spectroscopic ellipsometry, we observe local crystal-field excitations below the charge-transfe

  16. Detection of esophageal cancer cell by photoelectrochemical Cu2O/ZnO biosensor (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Hsin; Chu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Tsiang, Raymond Chien-Chao; Wang, Hsiang-Chen


    We have demonstrated a Cu2O/ZnO nanorods (NRs) array p-n heterostructures photoelectrochemical biosensor. The electrodeposition of Cu2O at pH 12 acquired the preferably (111) lattice planes, resulting in the largest interfacial electric field between Cu2O and ZnO, which finally led to the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. High verticality ZnO nanorods by seed layer and thermal annealing assist the hydrothermal growth. The optimized Cu2O/ZnO NRs array p-n heterostructures exhibited enhanced PEC performance, such as elevated photocurrent and photoconversion efficiency, as well as excellent sensing performance for the sensitive detection of four strains of different races and different degree of cancer cell which made the device self-powered. We got spectral response characteristics and operating wavelength range of biosensor, and to verify the biological characteristics of cancer cells wafer react with different stages of cancer characterized by a cancer measured reaction experiment.

  17. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant; kripal, Ram


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals is carried out at room temperature. Copper enters the lattice substitutionally and is trapped at two magnetically inequivalent sites. The observed spectra are fitted to a spin-Hamiltonian of rhombic symmetry with the following values of the parameters: Cu 2+ (I), gx = 2.1577 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.2018 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.3259 ± 0.0002, Ax = (87 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (107 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Az = (141 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1; Cu 2+ (II), gx = 2.1108 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.1622 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.2971 ± 0.0002, Ax = (69 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (117 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1and Az = (134 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1. The ground state wave function of the Cu 2+ ion in this lattice is evaluated to be predominantly | x2 - y2lbond2 . The g-factor anisotropy is also calculated and compared with the experimental value. With the help of the optical absorption study, the nature of bonding in the complex is discussed.

  18. Diffuse neutron scattering study of Cu2−xSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cava, R. J.; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard


    We have measured the diffuse neutron scattering in the hkk plane for Cu2Se and Cu1.8Se at 180°C and 51°C, respectively, in the cubic antifluorite type phase. The diffuse scattering shows significant structure, indicative of correlated short range mobile ion ordering. The short range order is found...

  19. Machining characteristics and fracture morphologies in a copper-beryllium (Cu-2Be) alloy (United States)

    Sudhakar, K. V.; Cisneros, J. C.; Cervantes, Hector; Pineda, Cosme Gomez


    The technology of materials removal is improved greatly by the introduction of advanced cutting tools like cubic boron nitride, ceramics, polycrystalline diamond and the more recent whisker-reinforced materials. In this paper, the influence of cutting temperature on machinability, mechanical properties, microstructure, and fracture morphology of Cu-2Be alloy using a polycrystalline diamond cutter is investigated. The information on machining, microstructure, and fracture morphology of Cu-2Be alloy are very useful to understand their fabrication characteristics and the basic mechanisms of its deformation and fracture. The machinability (in terms of surface finish) of Cu-2Be alloy is evaluated as a function of cutting temperature, resulting from wet and dry cutting. Machining is carried out on a Hardinge Cobra 42 CNC machine (Hardinge Inc., Elmira, NY), and the machining parameters used—cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate—are kept constant during both wet and dry cutting. The machined surface finish on Cu-2Be alloy is measured using a surface finish analyzer (Surftest 401, series 178) technique. The machined specimens are examined for their strength and hardness properties using a standard Universal Testing Machine and Rockwell hardness tester, respectively. Wet cutting (using coolants) produced a smooth surface finish when compared with dry cutting of the Cu-2Be alloy. The machined specimens are examined for their microstructural features using a Nikon optical microscope. The specimens are etched using a suitable etchant solution for revealing such microstructure constituents as grain size, phase proportions, and the possible overheated areas (especially in dry cutting). The fractured surfaces from the tensile and impact toughness tests are investigated for their fracture morphologies (dry and wet cutting) using a microprocessor-controlled scanning electron microscope (Jeol Model JSM 5910 LV). A detailed analysis is also made to understand and interpret

  20. Structural, EPR, optical and Raman studies of Nd2O3:Cu2+ nanophosphors. (United States)

    Umesh, B; Eraiah, B; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Nagabhushana, B M; Shivakumara, C; Rao, J L; Chakradhar, R P S


    Nanocrystalline Nd(2)O(3):Cu(2+) (2mol %) phosphors have been prepared by a low temperature solution combustion technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) results confirm that hexagonal A-type Nd(2)O(3) (900°C, 3h) and the lattice parameters have been evaluated by Rietveld refinement. Surface morphology of as-formed and Cu(2+) doped Nd(2)O(3) phosphors show that the particles are irregular in shape and porous in nature. TEM results also confirm the nature and size of the particles. The EPR spectrum exhibits two resonance signals with effective g values at g(ǀǀ)≈2.12 and g(⊥)≈2.04. The g values indicate that the site symmetry of Cu(2+) ions is octahedral symmetry with elongated tetragonal distortion. Raman studies show major peaks, which are assigned, to F(g) and combination of A(g)+E(g) modes. It is observed that the Raman peaks and intensity have been reduced in Cu(2+) doped samples. UV-Visible absorption spectra exhibit a strong and broad absorption band at ∼240nm. Further, the absorption peak shifts to ∼14nm in Cu(2+) doped samples. The optical band gap is estimated to be 5.28eV for Cu doped Nd(2)O(3) nanoparticles which are higher than the bulk Nd(2)O(3) (4.7eV). This can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect of the nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.