WorldWideScience

Sample records for supercomputers array processes

  1. Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates advanced parallel processing techniques and innovative hardware/software architectures that can be applied to boost the performance of supercomputers. Critical issues on architectural choices, parallel languages, compiling techniques, resource management, concurrency control, programming environment, parallel algorithms, and performance enhancement methods are examined and the best answers are presented. The authors cover advanced processing techniques suitable for supercomputers, high-end mainframes, minisupers, and array processors. The coverage emphasizes vectorization, multitasking, multiprocessing, and distributed computing. In order to achieve these operation modes, parallel languages, smart compilers, synchronization mechanisms, load balancing methods, mapping parallel algorithms, operating system functions, application library, and multidiscipline interactions are investigated to ensure high performance. At the end, they assess the potentials of optical and neural technologies for developing future supercomputers

  2. SUPERCOMPUTERS FOR AIDING ECONOMIC PROCESSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE FINANCIAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of supercomputers to support business processes with particular emphasis on the financial sector. A reference was made to the selected projects that support economic development. In particular, we propose the use of supercomputers to perform artificial intel-ligence methods in banking. The proposed methods combined with modern technology enables a significant increase in the competitiveness of enterprises and banks by adding new functionality.

  3. ParaBTM: A Parallel Processing Framework for Biomedical Text Mining on Supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuting; Wu, Chengkun; Yang, Xi; Wang, Wei; Zhu, En; Yin, Jianping

    2018-04-27

    A prevailing way of extracting valuable information from biomedical literature is to apply text mining methods on unstructured texts. However, the massive amount of literature that needs to be analyzed poses a big data challenge to the processing efficiency of text mining. In this paper, we address this challenge by introducing parallel processing on a supercomputer. We developed paraBTM, a runnable framework that enables parallel text mining on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer. It employs a low-cost yet effective load balancing strategy to maximize the efficiency of parallel processing. We evaluated the performance of paraBTM on several datasets, utilizing three types of named entity recognition tasks as demonstration. Results show that, in most cases, the processing efficiency can be greatly improved with parallel processing, and the proposed load balancing strategy is simple and effective. In addition, our framework can be readily applied to other tasks of biomedical text mining besides NER.

  4. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  5. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  6. An Interface for Biomedical Big Data Processing on the Tianhe-2 Supercomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wu, Chengkun; Lu, Kai; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shengkang; Guo, Guixin; Du, YunFei

    2017-12-01

    Big data, cloud computing, and high-performance computing (HPC) are at the verge of convergence. Cloud computing is already playing an active part in big data processing with the help of big data frameworks like Hadoop and Spark. The recent upsurge of high-performance computing in China provides extra possibilities and capacity to address the challenges associated with big data. In this paper, we propose Orion-a big data interface on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer-to enable big data applications to run on Tianhe-2 via a single command or a shell script. Orion supports multiple users, and each user can launch multiple tasks. It minimizes the effort needed to initiate big data applications on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer via automated configuration. Orion follows the "allocate-when-needed" paradigm, and it avoids the idle occupation of computational resources. We tested the utility and performance of Orion using a big genomic dataset and achieved a satisfactory performance on Tianhe-2 with very few modifications to existing applications that were implemented in Hadoop/Spark. In summary, Orion provides a practical and economical interface for big data processing on Tianhe-2.

  7. Supercomputational science

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    1990-01-01

    In contemporary research, the supercomputer now ranks, along with radio telescopes, particle accelerators and the other apparatus of "big science", as an expensive resource, which is nevertheless essential for state of the art research. Supercomputers are usually provided as shar.ed central facilities. However, unlike, telescopes and accelerators, they are find a wide range of applications which extends across a broad spectrum of research activity. The difference in performance between a "good" and a "bad" computer program on a traditional serial computer may be a factor of two or three, but on a contemporary supercomputer it can easily be a factor of one hundred or even more! Furthermore, this factor is likely to increase with future generations of machines. In keeping with the large capital and recurrent costs of these machines, it is appropriate to devote effort to training and familiarization so that supercomputers are employed to best effect. This volume records the lectures delivered at a Summer School ...

  8. The Fermilab Advanced Computer Program multi-array processor system (ACPMAPS): A site oriented supercomputer for theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.

    1988-08-01

    The ACP Multi-Array Processor System (ACPMAPS) is a highly cost effective, local memory parallel computer designed for floating point intensive grid based problems. The processing nodes of the system are single board array processors based on the FORTRAN and C programmable Weitek XL chip set. The nodes are connected by a network of very high bandwidth 16 port crossbar switches. The architecture is designed to achieve the highest possible cost effectiveness while maintaining a high level of programmability. The primary application of the machine at Fermilab will be lattice gauge theory. The hardware is supported by a transparent site oriented software system called CANOPY which shields theorist users from the underlying node structure. 4 refs., 2 figs

  9. Introduction to Reconfigurable Supercomputing

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Rosenberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This book covers technologies, applications, tools, languages, procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of reconfigurable supercomputing using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The target audience is the community of users of High Performance Computers (HPe who may benefit from porting their applications into a reconfigurable environment. As such, this book is intended to guide the HPC user through the many algorithmic considerations, hardware alternatives, usability issues, programming languages, and design tools that need to be understood before embarking on the creation of reconfigur

  10. Parallelism and array processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern computing, as well as the historical development of computing, has been dominated by sequential monoprocessing. Yet there is the alternative of parallelism, where several processes may be in concurrent execution. This alternative is discussed in a series of lectures, in which the main developments involving parallelism are considered, both from the standpoint of computing systems and that of applications that can exploit such systems. The lectures seek to discuss parallelism in a historical context, and to identify all the main aspects of concurrency in computation right up to the present time. Included will be consideration of the important question as to what use parallelism might be in the field of data processing. (orig.)

  11. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  12. What is supercomputing ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Supercomputing means the high speed computation using a supercomputer. Supercomputers and the technical term ''supercomputing'' have spread since ten years ago. The performances of the main computers installed so far in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are compared. There are two methods to increase computing speed by using existing circuit elements, parallel processor system and vector processor system. CRAY-1 is the first successful vector computer. Supercomputing technology was first applied to meteorological organizations in foreign countries, and to aviation and atomic energy research institutes in Japan. The supercomputing for atomic energy depends on the trend of technical development in atomic energy, and the contents are divided into the increase of computing speed in existing simulation calculation and the acceleration of the new technical development of atomic energy. The examples of supercomputing in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Integrating Scientific Array Processing into Standard SQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Bachhuber, Johannes; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We live in a time that is dominated by data. Data storage is cheap and more applications than ever accrue vast amounts of data. Storing the emerging multidimensional data sets efficiently, however, and allowing them to be queried by their inherent structure, is a challenge many databases have to face today. Despite the fact that multidimensional array data is almost always linked to additional, non-array information, array databases have mostly developed separately from relational systems, resulting in a disparity between the two database categories. The current SQL standard and SQL DBMS supports arrays - and in an extension also multidimensional arrays - but does so in a very rudimentary and inefficient way. This poster demonstrates the practicality of an SQL extension for array processing, implemented in a proof-of-concept multi-faceted system that manages a federation of array and relational database systems, providing transparent, efficient and scalable access to the heterogeneous data in them.

  14. ALMA Array Operations Group process overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector

    2016-07-01

    ALMA Science operations activities in Chile are responsibility of the Department of Science Operations, which consists of three groups, the Array Operations Group (AOG), the Program Management Group (PMG) and the Data Management Group (DMG). The AOG includes the Array Operators and have the mission to provide support for science observations, operating safely and efficiently the array. The poster describes the AOG process, management and operational tools.

  15. The ETA10 supercomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ETA Systems, Inc. ETA 10 is a next-generation supercomputer featuring multiprocessing, a large hierarchical memory system, high performance input/output, and network support for both batch and interactive processing. Advanced technology used in the ETA 10 includes liquid nitrogen cooled CMOS logic with 20,000 gates per chip, a single printed circuit board for each CPU, and high density static and dynamics MOS memory chips. Software for the ETA 10 includes an underlying kernel that supports multiple user environments, a new ETA FORTRAN compiler with an advanced automatic vectorizer, a multitasking library and debugging tools. Possible developments for future supercomputers from ETA Systems are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Principles of Adaptive Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ACE with and without tapering (homogeneous case). These analytical results are less suited to predict the detection performance of a real system ...Nickel: Adaptive Beamforming for Phased Array Radars. Proc. Int. Radar Symposium IRS’98 (Munich, Sept. 1998), DGON and VDE /ITG, pp. 897-906.(Reprint also...strategies for airborne radar. Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, 1998, IEEE Cat.Nr. 0-7803-5148-7/98, pp. 1327-1331. [17

  17. Adaptive motion compensation in sonar array processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, sonar performance has mainly improved via a significant increase in array ap-erture, signal bandwidth and computational power. This thesis aims at improving sonar array processing techniques based on these three steps forward. In applications such as anti-submarine warfare and mine

  18. Ultrascalable petaflop parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Chiu, George [Cross River, NY; Cipolla, Thomas M [Katonah, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Hall, Shawn [Pleasantville, NY; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kopcsay, Gerard V [Yorktown Heights, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY

    2010-07-20

    A massively parallel supercomputer of petaOPS-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) having up to four processing elements. The ASIC nodes are interconnected by multiple independent networks that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes with minimal latency. The multiple networks may include three high-speed networks for parallel algorithm message passing including a Torus, collective network, and a Global Asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. These multiple independent networks may be collaboratively or independently utilized according to the needs or phases of an algorithm for optimizing algorithm processing performance. The use of a DMA engine is provided to facilitate message passing among the nodes without the expenditure of processing resources at the node.

  19. KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory

    KAUST Repository

    Bailey, April Renee; Kaushik, Dinesh; Winfer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    KAUST has partnered with IBM to establish a Supercomputing Research Center. KAUST is hosting the Shaheen supercomputer, named after the Arabian falcon famed for its swiftness of flight. This 16-rack IBM Blue Gene/P system is equipped with 4 gigabyte memory per node and capable of 222 teraflops, making KAUST campus the site of one of the world’s fastest supercomputers in an academic environment. KAUST is targeting petaflop capability within 3 years.

  20. KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory

    KAUST Repository

    Bailey, April Renee

    2011-11-15

    KAUST has partnered with IBM to establish a Supercomputing Research Center. KAUST is hosting the Shaheen supercomputer, named after the Arabian falcon famed for its swiftness of flight. This 16-rack IBM Blue Gene/P system is equipped with 4 gigabyte memory per node and capable of 222 teraflops, making KAUST campus the site of one of the world’s fastest supercomputers in an academic environment. KAUST is targeting petaflop capability within 3 years.

  1. Computational plasma physics and supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; McNamara, B.

    1984-09-01

    The Supercomputers of the 80's are introduced. They are 10 to 100 times more powerful than today's machines. The range of physics modeling in the fusion program is outlined. New machine architecture will influence particular codes, but parallel processing poses new coding difficulties. Increasing realism in simulations will require better numerics and more elaborate mathematics

  2. ATLAS Software Installation on Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    PowerPC and high performance computers (HPC) are important resources for computing in the ATLAS experiment. The future LHC data processing will require more resources than Grid computing, currently using approximately 100,000 cores at well over 100 sites, can provide. Supercomputers are extremely powerful as they use resources of hundreds of thousands CPUs joined together. However their architectures have different instruction sets. ATLAS binary software distributions for x86 chipsets do not fit these architectures, as emulation of these chipsets results in huge performance loss. This presentation describes the methodology of ATLAS software installation from source code on supercomputers. The installation procedure includes downloading the ATLAS code base as well as the source of about 50 external packages, such as ROOT and Geant4, followed by compilation, and rigorous unit and integration testing. The presentation reports the application of this procedure at Titan HPC and Summit PowerPC at Oak Ridge Computin...

  3. Japanese supercomputer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Ewald, R.H.; Worlton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1982, computer scientists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory visited several Japanese computer manufacturers. The purpose of these visits was to assess the state of the art of Japanese supercomputer technology and to advise Japanese computer vendors of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for more powerful supercomputers. The Japanese foresee a domestic need for large-scale computing capabilities for nuclear fusion, image analysis for the Earth Resources Satellite, meteorological forecast, electrical power system analysis (power flow, stability, optimization), structural and thermal analysis of satellites, and very large scale integrated circuit design and simulation. To meet this need, Japan has launched an ambitious program to advance supercomputer technology. This program is described

  4. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.

  5. Array processing for seismic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries

  6. Supercomputers to transform Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "New insights into the structure of space and time, climate modeling, and the design of novel drugs, are but a few of the many research areas that will be transforned by the installation of three supercomputers at the Unversity of Bristol." (1/2 page)

  7. Supercomputers Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Kim, John; Holst, Terry L.; Deiwert, George S.; Cooper, David M.; Watson, Andrew B.; Bailey, F. Ron

    1992-01-01

    Report evaluates supercomputer needs of five key disciplines: turbulence physics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, chemistry, and mathematical modeling of human vision. Predicts these fields will require computer speed greater than 10(Sup 18) floating-point operations per second (FLOP's) and memory capacity greater than 10(Sup 15) words. Also, new parallel computer architectures and new structured numerical methods will make necessary speed and capacity available.

  8. FPS scientific and supercomputers computers in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curington, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    FPS Array Processors, scientific computers, and highly parallel supercomputers are used in nearly all aspects of compute-intensive computational chemistry. A survey is made of work utilizing this equipment, both published and current research. The relationship of the computer architecture to computational chemistry is discussed, with specific reference to Molecular Dynamics, Quantum Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Graphics applications. Recent installations of the FPS T-Series are highlighted, and examples of Molecular Graphics programs running on the FPS-5000 are shown

  9. ArrayBridge: Interweaving declarative array processing with high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Haoyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Floratos, Sofoklis [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blanas, Spyros [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, Prabhat [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Paul [Paradigm4, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Scientists are increasingly turning to datacenter-scale computers to produce and analyze massive arrays. Despite decades of database research that extols the virtues of declarative query processing, scientists still write, debug and parallelize imperative HPC kernels even for the most mundane queries. This impedance mismatch has been partly attributed to the cumbersome data loading process; in response, the database community has proposed in situ mechanisms to access data in scientific file formats. Scientists, however, desire more than a passive access method that reads arrays from files. This paper describes ArrayBridge, a bi-directional array view mechanism for scientific file formats, that aims to make declarative array manipulations interoperable with imperative file-centric analyses. Our prototype implementation of ArrayBridge uses HDF5 as the underlying array storage library and seamlessly integrates into the SciDB open-source array database system. In addition to fast querying over external array objects, ArrayBridge produces arrays in the HDF5 file format just as easily as it can read from it. ArrayBridge also supports time travel queries from imperative kernels through the unmodified HDF5 API, and automatically deduplicates between array versions for space efficiency. Our extensive performance evaluation in NERSC, a large-scale scientific computing facility, shows that ArrayBridge exhibits statistically indistinguishable performance and I/O scalability to the native SciDB storage engine.

  10. Array signal processing in the NASA Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Jongeling, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the benefits of arraying and past as well as expected future use of this application. The signal processing aspects of array system are described. Field measurements via actual tracking spacecraft are also presented.

  11. Supercomputer applications in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of supercomputers in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is mainly reported. The fields of atomic energy research which use supercomputers frequently and the contents of their computation are outlined. What is vectorizing is simply explained, and nuclear fusion, nuclear reactor physics, the hydrothermal safety of nuclear reactors, the parallel property that the atomic energy computations of fluids and others have, the algorithm for vector treatment and the effect of speed increase by vectorizing are discussed. At present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute uses two systems of FACOM VP 2600/10 and three systems of M-780. The contents of computation changed from criticality computation around 1970, through the analysis of LOCA after the TMI accident, to nuclear fusion research, the design of new type reactors and reactor safety assessment at present. Also the method of using computers advanced from batch processing to time sharing processing, from one-dimensional to three dimensional computation, from steady, linear to unsteady nonlinear computation, from experimental analysis to numerical simulation and so on. (K.I.)

  12. The Very Large Array Data Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Masters, Joseph S.; Chandler, Claire J.; Davis, Lindsey E.; Kern, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinzel, Frank K.; Medlin, Drew; Muders, Dirk; Williams, Stewart; Geers, Vincent C.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Nakazato, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kanako

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLA Pipeline, software that is part of the larger pipeline processing framework used for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for both interferometric and single dish observations.Through a collection of base code jointly used by the VLA and ALMA, the pipeline builds a hierarchy of classes to execute individual atomic pipeline tasks within the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. Each pipeline task contains heuristics designed by the team to actively decide the best processing path and execution parameters for calibration and imaging. The pipeline code is developed and written in Python and uses a "context" structure for tracking the heuristic decisions and processing results. The pipeline "weblog" acts as the user interface in verifying the quality assurance of each calibration and imaging stage. The majority of VLA scheduling blocks above 1 GHz are now processed with the standard continuum recipe of the pipeline and offer a calibrated measurement set as a basic data product to observatory users. In addition, the pipeline is used for processing data from the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), a seven year community-driven endeavor started in September 2017 to survey the entire sky down to a declination of -40 degrees at S-band (2-4 GHz). This 5500 hour next-generation large radio survey will explore the time and spectral domains, relying on pipeline processing to generate calibrated measurement sets, polarimetry, and imaging data products that are available to the astronomical community with no proprietary period. Here we present an overview of the pipeline design philosophy, heuristics, and calibration and imaging results produced by the pipeline. Future development will include the testing of spectral line recipes, low signal-to-noise heuristics, and serving as a testing platform for science ready data products.The pipeline is developed as part of the CASA software package by an

  13. The ETA systems plans for supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ETA Systems, is a class VII supercomputer featuring multiprocessing, a large hierarchical memory system, high performance input/output, and network support for both batch and interactive processing. Advanced technology used in the ETA 10 includes liquid nitrogen cooled CMOS logic with 20,000 gates per chip, a single printed circuit board for each CPU, and high density static and dynamic MOS memory chips. Software for the ETA 10 includes an underlying kernel that supports multiple user environments, a new ETA FORTRAN compiler with an advanced automatic vectorizer, a multitasking library and debugging tools. Possible developments for future supercomputers from ETA Systems are discussed

  14. Processes and Materials for Flexible PV Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gierow, Paul

    2002-01-01

    .... A parallel incentive for development of flexible PV arrays are the possibilities of synergistic advantages for certain types of spacecraft, in particular the Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) Vehicle...

  15. Computational plasma physics and supercomputers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; McNamara, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Supercomputers of the 80's are introduced. They are 10 to 100 times more powerful than today's machines. The range of physics modeling in the fusion program is outlined. New machine architecture will influence particular models, but parallel processing poses new programming difficulties. Increasing realism in simulations will require better numerics and more elaborate mathematical models

  16. Enabling department-scale supercomputing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering departments. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of physical phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.

  17. Digital image processing software system using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Portnoff, M.R.; Journeay, C.H.; Twogood, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile array processor-based system for general-purpose image processing was developed. At the heart of this system is an extensive, flexible software package that incorporates the array processor for effective interactive image processing. The software system is described in detail, and its application to a diverse set of applications at LLNL is briefly discussed. 4 figures, 1 table

  18. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  19. Theory and applications of spherical microphone array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Jarrett, Daniel P; Naylor, Patrick A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the signal processing algorithms that have been developed to process the signals acquired by a spherical microphone array. Spherical microphone arrays can be used to capture the sound field in three dimensions and have received significant interest from researchers and audio engineers. Algorithms for spherical array processing are different to corresponding algorithms already known in the literature of linear and planar arrays because the spherical geometry can be exploited to great beneficial effect. The authors aim to advance the field of spherical array processing by helping those new to the field to study it efficiently and from a single source, as well as by offering a way for more experienced researchers and engineers to consolidate their understanding, adding either or both of breadth and depth. The level of the presentation corresponds to graduate studies at MSc and PhD level. This book begins with a presentation of some of the essential mathematical and physical theory relevant to ...

  20. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierret, A.; Hocevar, M.; Diedenhofen, S.L.; Algra, R.E.; Vlieg, E.; Timmering, E.C.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Immink, W.G.G.; Verheijen, M.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of

  1. Supercomputer debugging workshop 1991 proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on supercomputer debugging: Distributed debugging; use interface to debugging tools and standards; debugging optimized codes; debugging parallel codes; and debugger performance and interface as analysis tools. (LSP)

  2. Supercomputer debugging workshop 1991 proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics on supercomputer debugging: Distributed debugging; use interface to debugging tools and standards; debugging optimized codes; debugging parallel codes; and debugger performance and interface as analysis tools. (LSP)

  3. Computational Dimensionalities of Global Supercomputing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Segall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Invited Paper pertains to subject of my Plenary Keynote Speech at the 17th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2013 held in Orlando, Florida on July 9-12, 2013. The title of my Plenary Keynote Speech was: "Dimensionalities of Computation: from Global Supercomputing to Data, Text and Web Mining" but this Invited Paper will focus only on the "Computational Dimensionalities of Global Supercomputing" and is based upon a summary of the contents of several individual articles that have been previously written with myself as lead author and published in [75], [76], [77], [78], [79], [80] and [11]. The topics of these of the Plenary Speech included Overview of Current Research in Global Supercomputing [75], Open-Source Software Tools for Data Mining Analysis of Genomic and Spatial Images using High Performance Computing [76], Data Mining Supercomputing with SAS™ JMP® Genomics ([77], [79], [80], and Visualization by Supercomputing Data Mining [81]. ______________________ [11.] Committee on the Future of Supercomputing, National Research Council (2003, The Future of Supercomputing: An Interim Report, ISBN-13: 978-0-309-09016- 2, http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10784.html [75.] Segall, Richard S.; Zhang, Qingyu and Cook, Jeffrey S.(2013, "Overview of Current Research in Global Supercomputing", Proceedings of Forty- Fourth Meeting of Southwest Decision Sciences Institute (SWDSI, Albuquerque, NM, March 12-16, 2013. [76.] Segall, Richard S. and Zhang, Qingyu (2010, "Open-Source Software Tools for Data Mining Analysis of Genomic and Spatial Images using High Performance Computing", Proceedings of 5th INFORMS Workshop on Data Mining and Health Informatics, Austin, TX, November 6, 2010. [77.] Segall, Richard S., Zhang, Qingyu and Pierce, Ryan M.(2010, "Data Mining Supercomputing with SAS™ JMP®; Genomics: Research-in-Progress, Proceedings of 2010 Conference on Applied Research in Information Technology, sponsored by

  4. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  5. Experimental investigation of the ribbon-array ablation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenghong; Xu Rongkun; Chu Yanyun; Yang Jianlun; Xu Zeping; Ye Fan; Chen Faxin; Xue Feibiao; Ning Jiamin; Qin Yi; Meng Shijian; Hu Qingyuan; Si Fenni; Feng Jinghua; Zhang Faqiang; Chen Jinchuan; Li Linbo; Chen Dingyang; Ding Ning; Zhou Xiuwen

    2013-01-01

    Ablation processes of ribbon-array loads, as well as wire-array loads for comparison, were investigated on Qiangguang-1 accelerator. The ultraviolet framing images indicate that the ribbon-array loads have stable passages of currents, which produce axially uniform ablated plasma. The end-on x-ray framing camera observed the azimuthally modulated distribution of the early ablated ribbon-array plasma and the shrink process of the x-ray radiation region. Magnetic probes measured the total and precursor currents of ribbon-array and wire-array loads, and there exists no evident difference between the precursor currents of the two types of loads. The proportion of the precursor current to the total current is 15% to 20%, and the start time of the precursor current is about 25 ns later than that of the total current. The melting time of the load material is about 16 ns, when the inward drift velocity of the ablated plasma is taken to be 1.5 × 10 7 cm/s.

  6. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  7. World's fastest supercomputer opens up to users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ling

    2016-08-01

    China's latest supercomputer - Sunway TaihuLight - has claimed the crown as the world's fastest computer according to the latest TOP500 list, released at the International Supercomputer Conference in Frankfurt in late June.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics: complex flows requiring supercomputers. January 1975-July 1988 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a new method in computational science to perform complex flow simulations in three dimensions. Applications include aerodynamic design and analysis for aircraft, rockets, and missiles, and automobiles; heat-transfer studies; and combustion processes. Included are references to supercomputers, array processors, and parallel processors where needed for complete, integrated design. Also included are software packages and grid-generation techniques required to apply CFD numerical solutions. Numerical methods for fluid dynamics, not requiring supercomputers, are found in a separate published search. (Contains 83 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Supercomputing and related national projects in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    1985-01-01

    Japanese supercomputer development activities in the industry and research projects are outlined. Architecture, technology, software, and applications of Fujitsu's Vector Processor Systems are described as an example of Japanese supercomputers. Applications of supercomputers to high energy physics are also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Mistral Supercomputer Job History Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zasadziński, Michał; Muntés-Mulero, Victor; Solé, Marc; Ludwig, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this technical report, we show insights and results of operational data analysis from petascale supercomputer Mistral, which is ranked as 42nd most powerful in the world as of January 2018. Data sources include hardware monitoring data, job scheduler history, topology, and hardware information. We explore job state sequences, spatial distribution, and electric power patterns.

  11. Supercomputers and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of why recent simulations of lattice gauge theories have resulted in substantial demands from particle theorists for supercomputer time. These calculations have yielded first principle results on non-perturbative aspects of the strong interactions. An algorithm for simulating dynamical quark fields is discussed. 14 refs

  12. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Aurelie; Hocevar, Moira; Algra, Rienk E; Timmering, Eugene C; Verschuuren, Marc A; Immink, George W G; Verheijen, Marcel A; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Diedenhofen, Silke L [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics c/o Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Vlieg, E, E-mail: e.p.a.m.bakkers@tue.nl [IMM, Solid State Chemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-02-10

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2 inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of additional undesired nanowires. We show that cleaning of the samples before growth with piranha solution in combination with a thermal anneal at 550 deg. C for InP and 700 deg. C for GaP results in uniform nanowire arrays with 1% variation in nanowire length, and without undesired extra nanowires. Our chemical cleaning procedure is applicable to other lithographic techniques such as e-beam lithography, and therefore represents a generic process.

  13. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  14. High Performance Networks From Supercomputing to Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abts, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Datacenter networks provide the communication substrate for large parallel computer systems that form the ecosystem for high performance computing (HPC) systems and modern Internet applications. The design of new datacenter networks is motivated by an array of applications ranging from communication intensive climatology, complex material simulations and molecular dynamics to such Internet applications as Web search, language translation, collaborative Internet applications, streaming video and voice-over-IP. For both Supercomputing and Cloud Computing the network enables distributed applicati

  15. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System for the CTBT differ greatly in size and geometry, with apertures ranging from below 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high frequency phases since signals are often incoherent between sensors. Many such phases, typically from events at regional distances, remain undetected since pipeline algorithms often consider only frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing. High frequency phases that are detected are frequently attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates and are consequently not associated with the correct event hypotheses. This can lead to missed events both due to a lack of contributing phase detections and by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. Continuous spectral estimation can be used for phase detection and parameter estimation on the largest aperture arrays, with phase arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity and the ability to estimate backazimuth and slowness requires that the spatial extent of the array is large enough to resolve time-delays between envelopes with a period of approximately 4 or 5 seconds. The NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK arrays have apertures in excess of 20 km and spectrogram beamforming on these stations provides high quality slowness estimates for regional phases without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with aperture between 10 and 20 km (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 second period signal. The MJAR array in Japan recorded high SNR Pn signals for both the 2006 and 2009 North Korea

  16. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  17. Total focusing method with correlation processing of antenna array signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyak, O. A.; Bortalevich, S. I.; Loginov, E. L.; Shinyakov, Y. A.; Sukhorukov, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes a method of preliminary correlation processing of a complete set of antenna array signals used in the image reconstruction algorithm. The results of experimental studies of 3D reconstruction of various reflectors using and without correlation processing are presented in the article. Software ‘IDealSystem3D’ by IDeal-Technologies was used for experiments. Copper wires of different diameters located in a water bath were used as a reflector. The use of correlation processing makes it possible to obtain more accurate reconstruction of the image of the reflectors and to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results were processed using an original program. This program allows varying the parameters of the antenna array and sampling frequency.

  18. Model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Edmund J

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a unified approach to model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays. The use of physical models in passive array processing is not a new idea, but it has been used on a case-by-case basis, and as such, lacks any unifying structure. This work views all such processing methods as estimation procedures, which then can be unified by treating them all as a form of joint estimation based on a Kalman-type recursive processor, which can be recursive either in space or time, depending on the application. This is done for three reasons. First, the Kalman filter provides a natural framework for the inclusion of physical models in a processing scheme. Second, it allows poorly known model parameters to be jointly estimated along with the quantities of interest. This is important, since in certain areas of array processing already in use, such as those based on matched-field processing, the so-called mismatch problem either degrades performance or, indeed, prevents any solution at all. Third...

  19. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem

  20. NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division enables advances in high-end computing technologies and in modeling and simulation methods to tackle some of the toughest science and engineering challenges facing NASA today. The name "NAS" has long been associated with leadership and innovation throughout the high-end computing (HEC) community. We play a significant role in shaping HEC standards and paradigms, and provide leadership in the areas of large-scale InfiniBand fabrics, Lustre open-source filesystems, and hyperwall technologies. We provide an integrated high-end computing environment to accelerate NASA missions and make revolutionary advances in science. Pleiades, a petaflop-scale supercomputer, is used by scientists throughout the U.S. to support NASA missions, and is ranked among the most powerful systems in the world. One of our key focus areas is in modeling and simulation to support NASA's real-world engineering applications and make fundamental advances in modeling and simulation methods.

  1. JINR supercomputer of the module type for event parallel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.; Senner, A.E.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model of a supercomputer with 50 million of operations per second is suggested. Its realization allows one to solve JINR data analysis problems for large spectrometers (in particular DELPHY collaboration). The suggested module supercomputer is based on 32-bit commercial available microprocessor with a processing rate of about 1 MFLOPS. The processors are combined by means of VME standard busbars. MicroVAX-11 is a host computer organizing the operation of the system. Data input and output is realized via microVAX-11 computer periphery. Users' software is based on the FORTRAN-77. The supercomputer is connected with a JINR net port and all JINR users get an access to the suggested system

  2. Highly scalable parallel processing of extracellular recordings of Multielectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tiago V; Vasilaki, Eleni; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances of Multielectrode Arrays (MEAs) used for multisite, parallel electrophysiological recordings, lead to an ever increasing amount of raw data being generated. Arrays with hundreds up to a few thousands of electrodes are slowly seeing widespread use and the expectation is that more sophisticated arrays will become available in the near future. In order to process the large data volumes resulting from MEA recordings there is a pressing need for new software tools able to process many data channels in parallel. Here we present a new tool for processing MEA data recordings that makes use of new programming paradigms and recent technology developments to unleash the power of modern highly parallel hardware, such as multi-core CPUs with vector instruction sets or GPGPUs. Our tool builds on and complements existing MEA data analysis packages. It shows high scalability and can be used to speed up some performance critical pre-processing steps such as data filtering and spike detection, helping to make the analysis of larger data sets tractable.

  3. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  4. Superresolution with Seismic Arrays using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T

    2010-03-24

    Scattering and refraction of seismic waves can be exploited with empirical matched field processing of array observations to distinguish sources separated by much less than the classical resolution limit. To describe this effect, we use the term 'superresolution', a term widely used in the optics and signal processing literature to denote systems that break the diffraction limit. We illustrate superresolution with Pn signals recorded by the ARCES array in northern Norway, using them to identify the origins with 98.2% accuracy of 549 explosions conducted by closely-spaced mines in northwest Russia. The mines are observed at 340-410 kilometers range and are separated by as little as 3 kilometers. When viewed from ARCES many are separated by just tenths of a degree in azimuth. This classification performance results from an adaptation to transient seismic signals of techniques developed in underwater acoustics for localization of continuous sound sources. Matched field processing is a potential competitor to frequency-wavenumber and waveform correlation methods currently used for event detection, classification and location. It operates by capturing the spatial structure of wavefields incident from a particular source in a series of narrow frequency bands. In the rich seismic scattering environment, closely-spaced sources far from the observing array nonetheless produce distinct wavefield amplitude and phase patterns across the small array aperture. With observations of repeating events, these patterns can be calibrated over a wide band of frequencies (e.g. 2.5-12.5 Hertz) for use in a power estimation technique similar to frequency-wavenumber analysis. The calibrations enable coherent processing at high frequencies at which wavefields normally are considered incoherent under a plane wave model.

  5. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  6. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen -Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Smith, Brian; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2015-07-14

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many processors can be integrated into a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Each ASIC computing node comprises a system-on-chip ASIC utilizing four or more processors integrated into one die, with each having full access to all system resources and enabling adaptive partitioning of the processors to functions such as compute or messaging I/O on an application by application basis, and preferably, enable adaptive partitioning of functions in accordance with various algorithmic phases within an application, or if I/O or other processors are underutilized, then can participate in computation or communication nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network with DMA that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency.

  7. Status of supercomputers in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernbach, S.

    1985-01-01

    Current Supercomputers; that is, the Class VI machines which first became available in 1976 are being delivered in greater quantity than ever before. In addition, manufacturers are busily working on Class VII machines to be ready for delivery in CY 1987. Mainframes are being modified or designed to take on some features of the supercomputers and new companies with the intent of either competing directly in the supercomputer arena or in providing entry-level systems from which to graduate to supercomputers are springing up everywhere. Even well founded organizations like IBM and CDC are adding machines with vector instructions in their repertoires. Japanese - manufactured supercomputers are also being introduced into the U.S. Will these begin to compete with those of U.S. manufacture. Are they truly competitive. It turns out that both from the hardware and software points of view they may be superior. We may be facing the same problems in supercomputers that we faced in videosystems

  8. Supercomputers and parallel computation. Based on the proceedings of a workshop on progress in the use of vector and array processors organised by the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and held in Bristol, 2-3 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddon, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is based on the proceedings of a conference on parallel computing held in 1982. There are 18 papers which cover the following topics: VLSI parallel architectures, the theory of parallel computing and vector and array processor computing. One paper on 'Tough Problems in Reactor Design' is indexed separately. All the contributions are on research done in the United Kingdom. Although much of the experience in array processor computing is associated with the ICL distributed array processor (DAP) and this is reflected in the contributions, the research relating to the ICL DAP is relevant to all types of array processors. (UK)

  9. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-06-23

    23rd Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: Japan's Earth Simulator Enters Third Year in Top Position MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 23rd edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2004) at the International Supercomputer Conference in Heidelberg, Germany.

  10. Systolic array processing of the sequential decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Yao, K.

    1989-01-01

    A systolic array processing technique is applied to implementing the stack algorithm form of the sequential decoding algorithm. It is shown that sorting, a key function in the stack algorithm, can be efficiently realized by a special type of systolic arrays known as systolic priority queues. Compared to the stack-bucket algorithm, this approach is shown to have the advantages that the decoding always moves along the optimal path, that it has a fast and constant decoding speed and that its simple and regular hardware architecture is suitable for VLSI implementation. Three types of systolic priority queues are discussed: random access scheme, shift register scheme and ripple register scheme. The property of the entries stored in the systolic priority queue is also investigated. The results are applicable to many other basic sorting type problems.

  11. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen-Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-15

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaflop-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency. The network implements collective network and a global asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. Integrated in the node design include a list-based prefetcher. The memory system implements transaction memory, thread level speculation, and multiversioning cache that improves soft error rate at the same time and supports DMA functionality allowing for parallel processing message-passing.

  12. INTEL: Intel based systems move up in supercomputing ranks

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The TOP500 supercomputer rankings released today at the Supercomputing 2002 conference show a dramatic increase in the number of Intel-based systems being deployed in high-performance computing (HPC) or supercomputing areas" (1/2 page).

  13. SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.

  14. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  15. Large scale simulations of lattice QCD thermodynamics on Columbia Parallel Supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1989-01-01

    The Columbia Parallel Supercomputer project aims at the construction of a parallel processing, multi-gigaflop computer optimized for numerical simulations of lattice QCD. The project has three stages; 16-node, 1/4GF machine completed in April 1985, 64-node, 1GF machine completed in August 1987, and 256-node, 16GF machine now under construction. The machines all share a common architecture; a two dimensional torus formed from a rectangular array of N 1 x N 2 independent and identical processors. A processor is capable of operating in a multi-instruction multi-data mode, except for periods of synchronous interprocessor communication with its four nearest neighbors. Here the thermodynamics simulations on the two working machines are reported. (orig./HSI)

  16. The Pawsey Supercomputer geothermal cooling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Horowitz, F.; Western Australian Geothermal Centre Of Excellence, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Australian Government has funded the Pawsey supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia, providing computational infrastructure intended to support the future operations of the Australian Square Kilometre Array radiotelescope and to boost next-generation computational geosciences in Australia. Supplementary funds have been directed to the development of a geothermal exploration well to research the potential for direct heat use applications at the Pawsey Centre site. Cooling the Pawsey supercomputer may be achieved by geothermal heat exchange rather than by conventional electrical power cooling, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the Pawsey Centre and demonstrating an innovative green technology that is widely applicable in industry and urban centres across the world. The exploration well is scheduled to be completed in 2013, with drilling due to commence in the third quarter of 2011. One year is allocated to finalizing the design of the exploration, monitoring and research well. Success in the geothermal exploration and research program will result in an industrial-scale geothermal cooling facility at the Pawsey Centre, and will provide a world-class student training environment in geothermal energy systems. A similar system is partially funded and in advanced planning to provide base-load air-conditioning for the main campus of the University of Western Australia. Both systems are expected to draw ~80-95 degrees C water from aquifers lying between 2000 and 3000 meters depth from naturally permeable rocks of the Perth sedimentary basin. The geothermal water will be run through absorption chilling devices, which only require heat (as opposed to mechanical work) to power a chilled water stream adequate to meet the cooling requirements. Once the heat has been removed from the geothermal water, licensing issues require the water to be re-injected back into the aquifer system. These systems are intended to demonstrate the feasibility of powering large-scale air

  17. Intelligent Personal Supercomputer for Solving Scientific and Technical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimich, O.M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New domestic intellіgent personal supercomputer of hybrid architecture Inparkom_pg for the mathematical modeling of processes in the defense industry, engineering, construction, etc. was developed. Intelligent software for the automatic research and tasks of computational mathematics with approximate data of different structures was designed. Applied software to provide mathematical modeling problems in construction, welding and filtration processes was implemented.

  18. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2005-06-22

    25th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/L LNL BlueGene/L and IBM gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 25th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 22, 2005) at the 20th International Supercomputing Conference (ISC2005) in Heidelberg Germany.

  19. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2003-11-16

    22nd Edition of TOP500 List of World s Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 22nd edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 16, 2003). The Earth Simulator supercomputer retains the number one position with its Linpack benchmark performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (''teraflops'' or trillions of calculations per second). It was built by NEC and installed last year at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan.

  20. Mosaic Process for the Fabrication of an Acoustic Transducer Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... Deriving a geometric shape for the array based on the established performance level. Selecting piezoceramic materials based on considerations related to the performance level and derived geometry...

  1. TOP500 Supercomputers for November 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2004-11-08

    24th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released: DOE/IBM BlueGene/L and NASA/SGI's Columbia gain Top Positions MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.; BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a closely watched event in the world of high-performance computing, the 24th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (November 8, 2004) at the SC2004 Conference in Pittsburgh, Pa.

  2. Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark–gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed

  3. Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.

    1991-01-01

    Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem

  4. Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vary, James P.

    2014-06-15

    The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark–gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

  5. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this talk we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job...

  6. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for jo...

  7. Tryton Supercomputer Capabilities for Analysis of Massive Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Henryk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently deployed supercomputer Tryton, located in the Academic Computer Center of Gdansk University of Technology, provides great means for massive parallel processing. Moreover, the status of the Center as one of the main network nodes in the PIONIER network enables the fast and reliable transfer of data produced by miscellaneous devices scattered in the area of the whole country. The typical examples of such data are streams containing radio-telescope and satellite observations. Their analysis, especially with real-time constraints, can be challenging and requires the usage of dedicated software components. We propose a solution for such parallel analysis using the supercomputer, supervised by the KASKADA platform, which with the conjunction with immerse 3D visualization techniques can be used to solve problems such as pulsar detection and chronometric or oil-spill simulation on the sea surface.

  8. Blind Time-Frequency Analysis for Source Discrimination in Multisensor Array Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amin, Moeness

    1999-01-01

    .... We have clearly demonstrated, through analysis and simulations, the offerings of time-frequency distributions in solving key problems in sensor array processing, including direction finding, source...

  9. Development of seismic tomography software for hybrid supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexandr; Serdyukov, Alexandr; Duchkov, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomography is a technique used for computing velocity model of geologic structure from first arrival travel times of seismic waves. The technique is used in processing of regional and global seismic data, in seismic exploration for prospecting and exploration of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and in seismic engineering for monitoring the condition of engineering structures and the surrounding host medium. As a consequence of development of seismic monitoring systems and increasing volume of seismic data, there is a growing need for new, more effective computational algorithms for use in seismic tomography applications with improved performance, accuracy and resolution. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to use modern high performance computing systems, such as supercomputers with hybrid architecture that use not only CPUs, but also accelerators and co-processors for computation. The goal of this research is the development of parallel seismic tomography algorithms and software package for such systems, to be used in processing of large volumes of seismic data (hundreds of gigabytes and more). These algorithms and software package will be optimized for the most common computing devices used in modern hybrid supercomputers, such as Intel Xeon CPUs, NVIDIA Tesla accelerators and Intel Xeon Phi co-processors. In this work, the following general scheme of seismic tomography is utilized. Using the eikonal equation solver, arrival times of seismic waves are computed based on assumed velocity model of geologic structure being analyzed. In order to solve the linearized inverse problem, tomographic matrix is computed that connects model adjustments with travel time residuals, and the resulting system of linear equations is regularized and solved to adjust the model. The effectiveness of parallel implementations of existing algorithms on target architectures is considered. During the first stage of this work, algorithms were developed for execution on

  10. A training program for scientific supercomputing users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, F.; Moher, T.; Sabelli, N.; Solem, A.

    1988-01-01

    There is need for a mechanism to transfer supercomputing technology into the hands of scientists and engineers in such a way that they will acquire a foundation of knowledge that will permit integration of supercomputing as a tool in their research. Most computing center training emphasizes computer-specific information about how to use a particular computer system; most academic programs teach concepts to computer scientists. Only a few brief courses and new programs are designed for computational scientists. This paper describes an eleven-week training program aimed principally at graduate and postdoctoral students in computationally-intensive fields. The program is designed to balance the specificity of computing center courses, the abstractness of computer science courses, and the personal contact of traditional apprentice approaches. It is based on the experience of computer scientists and computational scientists, and consists of seminars and clinics given by many visiting and local faculty. It covers a variety of supercomputing concepts, issues, and practices related to architecture, operating systems, software design, numerical considerations, code optimization, graphics, communications, and networks. Its research component encourages understanding of scientific computing and supercomputer hardware issues. Flexibility in thinking about computing needs is emphasized by the use of several different supercomputer architectures, such as the Cray X/MP48 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IBM 3090 600E/VF at the Cornell National Supercomputer Facility, and Alliant FX/8 at the Advanced Computing Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Signal processing for solar array monitoring, fault detection, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Henry; Spanias, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although the solar energy industry has experienced rapid growth recently, high-level management of photovoltaic (PV) arrays has remained an open problem. As sensing and monitoring technology continues to improve, there is an opportunity to deploy sensors in PV arrays in order to improve their management. In this book, we examine the potential role of sensing and monitoring technology in a PV context, focusing on the areas of fault detection, topology optimization, and performance evaluation/data visualization. First, several types of commonly occurring PV array faults are considered and detection algorithms are described. Next, the potential for dynamic optimization of an array's topology is discussed, with a focus on mitigation of fault conditions and optimization of power output under non-fault conditions. Finally, monitoring system design considerations such as type and accuracy of measurements, sampling rate, and communication protocols are considered. It is our hope that the benefits of monitoring presen...

  12. Sampling phased array a new technique for signal processing and ultrasonic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bulavinov, A.; Joneit, D.; Kröning, M.; Bernus, L.; Dalichow, M.H.; Reddy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Different signal processing and image reconstruction techniques are applied in ultrasonic non-destructive material evaluation. In recent years, rapid development in the fields of microelectronics and computer engineering lead to wide application of phased array systems. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing. It realizes unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The sampling...

  13. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2003-06-23

    21st Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 21st edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (June 23, 2003). The Earth Simulator supercomputer built by NEC and installed last year at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, with its Linpack benchmark performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (teraflops or trillions of calculations per second), retains the number one position. The number 2 position is held by the re-measured ASCI Q system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. With 13.88 Tflop/s, it is the second system ever to exceed the 10 Tflop/smark. ASCIQ was built by Hewlett-Packard and is based on the AlphaServerSC computer system.

  14. Desktop supercomputer: what can it do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A.; Degtyarev, A.; Korkhov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper addresses the issues of solving complex problems that require using supercomputers or multiprocessor clusters available for most researchers nowadays. Efficient distribution of high performance computing resources according to actual application needs has been a major research topic since high-performance computing (HPC) technologies became widely introduced. At the same time, comfortable and transparent access to these resources was a key user requirement. In this paper we discuss approaches to build a virtual private supercomputer available at user's desktop: a virtual computing environment tailored specifically for a target user with a particular target application. We describe and evaluate possibilities to create the virtual supercomputer based on light-weight virtualization technologies, and analyze the efficiency of our approach compared to traditional methods of HPC resource management.

  15. Desktop supercomputer: what can it do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.; Degtyarev, A.; Korkhov, V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of solving complex problems that require using supercomputers or multiprocessor clusters available for most researchers nowadays. Efficient distribution of high performance computing resources according to actual application needs has been a major research topic since high-performance computing (HPC) technologies became widely introduced. At the same time, comfortable and transparent access to these resources was a key user requirement. In this paper we discuss approaches to build a virtual private supercomputer available at user's desktop: a virtual computing environment tailored specifically for a target user with a particular target application. We describe and evaluate possibilities to create the virtual supercomputer based on light-weight virtualization technologies, and analyze the efficiency of our approach compared to traditional methods of HPC resource management.

  16. TOP500 Supercomputers for June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack; Simon, Horst D.

    2002-06-20

    19th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, Germany; KNOXVILLE, Tenn.;&BERKELEY, Calif. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 19th edition of the TOP500 list of the worlds fastest supercomputers was released today (June 20, 2002). The recently installed Earth Simulator supercomputer at the Earth Simulator Center in Yokohama, Japan, is as expected the clear new number 1. Its performance of 35.86 Tflop/s (trillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark is almost five times higher than the performance of the now No.2 IBM ASCI White system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (7.2 Tflop/s). This powerful leap frogging to the top by a system so much faster than the previous top system is unparalleled in the history of the TOP500.

  17. Status reports of supercomputing astrophysics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nagasawa, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    The Workshop on Supercomputing Astrophysics was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK, Tsukuba) from August 31 to September 2, 1989. More than 40 participants of physicists, astronomers were attendant and discussed many topics in the informal atmosphere. The main purpose of this workshop was focused on the theoretical activities in computational astrophysics in Japan. It was also aimed to promote effective collaboration between the numerical experimentists working on supercomputing technique. The various subjects of the presented papers of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, gravitating systems, radiative transfer and general relativity are all stimulating. In fact, these numerical calculations become possible now in Japan owing to the power of Japanese supercomputer such as HITAC S820, Fujitsu VP400E and NEC SX-2. (J.P.N.)

  18. A novel scalable manufacturing process for the production of hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Rebecca E M; Larrañeta, Eneko; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Boyd, Peter; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-10-15

    A novel manufacturing process for fabricating microneedle arrays (MN) has been designed and evaluated. The prototype is able to successfully produce 14×14 MN arrays and is easily capable of scale-up, enabling the transition from laboratory to industry and subsequent commercialisation. The method requires the custom design of metal MN master templates to produce silicone MN moulds using an injection moulding process. The MN arrays produced using this novel method was compared with centrifugation, the traditional method of producing aqueous hydrogel-forming MN arrays. The results proved that there was negligible difference between either methods, with each producing MN arrays with comparable quality. Both types of MN arrays can be successfully inserted in a skin simulant. In both cases the insertion depth was approximately 60% of the needle length and the height reduction after insertion was in both cases approximately 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Supercomputers and the mathematical modeling of high complexity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotserkovskii, Oleg M

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of many works carried out by members of our scientific school in past years. The general principles of constructing numerical algorithms for high-performance computers are described. Several techniques are highlighted and these are based on the method of splitting with respect to physical processes and are widely used in computing nonlinear multidimensional processes in fluid dynamics, in studies of turbulence and hydrodynamic instabilities and in medicine and other natural sciences. The advances and developments related to the new generation of high-performance supercomputing in Russia are presented.

  20. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  1. Oxide nano-rod array structure via a simple metallurgical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanko, M; Do, D T M

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for fabricating oxide nano-rod array structure via metallurgical process is reported. Some dilute alloys such as Ni(Al) solid solution shows internal oxidation with rod-like oxide precipices during high-temperature oxidation with low oxygen partial pressure. By removing a metal part in internal oxidation zone, oxide nano-rod array structure can be developed on the surface of metallic components. In this report, Al 2 O 3 or NiAl 2 O 4 nano-rod array structures were prepared by using Ni(Al) solid solution. Effects of Cr addition into Ni(Al) solid solution on internal oxidation were also reported. Pack cementation process for aluminizing of Ni surface was applied to prepare nano-rod array components with desired shape. Near-net shape Ni components with oxide nano-rod array structure on their surface can be prepared by using the pack cementation process and internal oxidation,

  2. Algorithm-structured computer arrays and networks architectures and processes for images, percepts, models, information

    CERN Document Server

    Uhr, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Algorithm-Structured Computer Arrays and Networks: Architectures and Processes for Images, Percepts, Models, Information examines the parallel-array, pipeline, and other network multi-computers.This book describes and explores arrays and networks, those built, being designed, or proposed. The problems of developing higher-level languages for systems and designing algorithm, program, data flow, and computer structure are also discussed. This text likewise describes several sequences of successively more general attempts to combine the power of arrays wi

  3. Adaptability of supercomputers to nuclear computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Ishiguro, Misako; Matsuura, Toshihiko.

    1983-01-01

    Recently in the field of scientific and technical calculation, the usefulness of supercomputers represented by CRAY-1 has been recognized, and they are utilized in various countries. The rapid computation of supercomputers is based on the function of vector computation. The authors investigated the adaptability to vector computation of about 40 typical atomic energy codes for the past six years. Based on the results of investigation, the adaptability of the function of vector computation that supercomputers have to atomic energy codes, the problem regarding the utilization and the future prospect are explained. The adaptability of individual calculation codes to vector computation is largely dependent on the algorithm and program structure used for the codes. The change to high speed by pipeline vector system, the investigation in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the results, and the examples of expressing the codes for atomic energy, environmental safety and nuclear fusion by vector are reported. The magnification of speed up for 40 examples was from 1.5 to 9.0. It can be said that the adaptability of supercomputers to atomic energy codes is fairly good. (Kako, I.)

  4. Implementation of an Antenna Array Signal Processing Breadboard for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Large Array will replace/augment 34 and 70 meter antenna assets. The array will mainly be used to support NASA's deep space telemetry, radio science, and navigation requirements. The array project will deploy three complexes in the western U.S., Australia, and European longitude each with 400 12m downlink antennas and a DSN central facility at JPL. THis facility will remotely conduct all real-time monitor and control for the network. Signal processing objectives include: provide a means to evaluate the performance of the Breadboard Array's antenna subsystem; design and build prototype hardware; demonstrate and evaluate proposed signal processing techniques; and gain experience with various technologies that may be used in the Large Array. Results are summarized..

  5. Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-20

    Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency

  6. Sampling phased array - a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Boulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called 'Sampling Phased Array', has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing([1]). It realises a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. Th...

  7. Sampling phased array, a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging now available to industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Bulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing [1]. It realizes a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The s...

  8. Studies of implosion processes of nested tungsten wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Liu Quan; Yang Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    Nested wire-array is a kind of promising structured-load because it can improve the quality of Z-pinch plasma and enhance the radiation power of X-ray source. Based on the zero-dimensional model, the assumption of wire-array collision, and the criterion of optimized load (maximal load kinetic energy), optimization of the typical nested wire-array as a load of Z machine at Sandia Laboratory was carried out. It was shown that the load has been basically optimized. The Z-pinch process of the typical load was numerically studied by means of one-dimensional three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD) code. The obtained results reproduce the dynamic process of the Z-pinch and show the implosion trajectory of nested wire-array and the transfer process of drive current between the inner and outer array. The experimental and computational X-ray pulse was compared, and it was suggested that the assumption of wire-array collision was reasonable in nested wire-array Z-pinch at least for the current level of Z machine. (authors)

  9. High speed vision processor with reconfigurable processing element array based on full-custom distributed memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Shi, Cong; Qin, Qi; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid vision processor based on a compact full-custom distributed memory for near-sensor high-speed image processing is proposed. The proposed processor consists of a reconfigurable processing element (PE) array, a row processor (RP) array, and a dual-core microprocessor. The PE array includes two-dimensional processing elements with a compact full-custom distributed memory. It supports real-time reconfiguration between the PE array and the self-organized map (SOM) neural network. The vision processor is fabricated using a 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The circuit area of the distributed memory is reduced markedly into 1/3 of that of the conventional memory so that the circuit area of the vision processor is reduced by 44.2%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves correct functions.

  10. Graphics supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Goang S.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this project is to purchase a state-of-the-art graphics supercomputer to improve the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) research capability at Alabama A & M University (AAMU) and to support the Air Force research projects. A cutting-edge graphics supercomputer system, Onyx VTX, from Silicon Graphics Computer Systems (SGI), was purchased and installed. Other equipment including a desktop personal computer, PC-486 DX2 with a built-in 10-BaseT Ethernet card, a 10-BaseT hub, an Apple Laser Printer Select 360, and a notebook computer from Zenith were also purchased. A reading room has been converted to a research computer lab by adding some furniture and an air conditioning unit in order to provide an appropriate working environments for researchers and the purchase equipment. All the purchased equipment were successfully installed and are fully functional. Several research projects, including two existing Air Force projects, are being performed using these facilities.

  11. Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de

  12. Signal and array processing techniques for RFID readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Amin, Moeness; Zhang, Yimin

    2006-05-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently attracted much attention in both the technical and business communities. It has found wide applications in, for example, toll collection, supply-chain management, access control, localization tracking, real-time monitoring, and object identification. Situations may arise where the movement directions of the tagged RFID items through a portal is of interest and must be determined. Doppler estimation may prove complicated or impractical to perform by RFID readers. Several alternative approaches, including the use of an array of sensors with arbitrary geometry, can be applied. In this paper, we consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation techniques for application to near-field narrowband RFID problems. Particularly, we examine the use of a pair of RFID antennas to track moving RFID tagged items through a portal. With two antennas, the near-field DOA estimation problem can be simplified to a far-field problem, yielding a simple way for identifying the direction of the tag movement, where only one parameter, the angle, needs to be considered. In this case, tracking of the moving direction of the tag simply amounts to computing the spatial cross-correlation between the data samples received at the two antennas. It is pointed out that the radiation patterns of the reader and tag antennas, particularly their phase characteristics, have a significant effect on the performance of DOA estimation. Indoor experiments are conducted in the Radar Imaging and RFID Labs at Villanova University for validating the proposed technique for target movement direction estimations.

  13. Micro-mechanical Simulations of Soils using Massively Parallel Supercomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Washington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research a computer program, Trubal version 1.51, based on the Discrete Element Method was converted to run on a Connection Machine (CM-5,a massively parallel supercomputer with 512 nodes, to expedite the computational times of simulating Geotechnical boundary value problems. The dynamic memory algorithm in Trubal program did not perform efficiently in CM-2 machine with the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD architecture. This was due to the communication overhead involving global array reductions, global array broadcast and random data movement. Therefore, a dynamic memory algorithm in Trubal program was converted to a static memory arrangement and Trubal program was successfully converted to run on CM-5 machines. The converted program was called "TRUBAL for Parallel Machines (TPM." Simulating two physical triaxial experiments and comparing simulation results with Trubal simulations validated the TPM program. With a 512 nodes CM-5 machine TPM produced a nine-fold speedup demonstrating the inherent parallelism within algorithms based on the Discrete Element Method.

  14. Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  15. Advanced Architectures for Astrophysical Supercomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Astronomers have come to rely on the increasing performance of computers to reduce, analyze, simulate and visualize their data. In this environment, faster computation can mean more science outcomes or the opening up of new parameter spaces for investigation. If we are to avoid major issues when implementing codes on advanced architectures, it is important that we have a solid understanding of our algorithms. A recent addition to the high-performance computing scene that highlights this point is the graphics processing unit (GPU). The hardware originally designed for speeding-up graphics rendering in video games is now achieving speed-ups of O(100×) in general-purpose computation - performance that cannot be ignored. We are using a generalized approach, based on the analysis of astronomy algorithms, to identify the optimal problem-types and techniques for taking advantage of both current GPU hardware and future developments in computing architectures.

  16. Personal Supercomputing for Monte Carlo Simulation Using a GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Since the usability, accessibility, and maintenance of a personal computer (PC) are very good, a PC is a useful computer simulation tool for researchers. It has enough calculation power to simulate a small scale system with the improved performance of a PC's CPU. However, if a system is large or long time scale, we need a cluster computer or supercomputer. Recently great changes have occurred in the PC calculation environment. A graphic process unit (GPU) on a graphic card, only used to calculate display data, has a superior calculation capability to a PC's CPU. This GPU calculation performance is a match for the supercomputer in 2000. Although it has such a great calculation potential, it is not easy to program a simulation code for GPU due to difficult programming techniques for converting a calculation matrix to a 3D rendering image using graphic APIs. In 2006, NVIDIA provided the Software Development Kit (SDK) for the programming environment for NVIDIA's graphic cards, which is called the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). It makes the programming on the GPU easy without knowledge of the graphic APIs. This paper describes the basic architectures of NVIDIA's GPU and CUDA, and carries out a performance benchmark for the Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Personal Supercomputing for Monte Carlo Simulation Using a GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Since the usability, accessibility, and maintenance of a personal computer (PC) are very good, a PC is a useful computer simulation tool for researchers. It has enough calculation power to simulate a small scale system with the improved performance of a PC's CPU. However, if a system is large or long time scale, we need a cluster computer or supercomputer. Recently great changes have occurred in the PC calculation environment. A graphic process unit (GPU) on a graphic card, only used to calculate display data, has a superior calculation capability to a PC's CPU. This GPU calculation performance is a match for the supercomputer in 2000. Although it has such a great calculation potential, it is not easy to program a simulation code for GPU due to difficult programming techniques for converting a calculation matrix to a 3D rendering image using graphic APIs. In 2006, NVIDIA provided the Software Development Kit (SDK) for the programming environment for NVIDIA's graphic cards, which is called the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). It makes the programming on the GPU easy without knowledge of the graphic APIs. This paper describes the basic architectures of NVIDIA's GPU and CUDA, and carries out a performance benchmark for the Monte Carlo simulation

  18. Supercomputer algorithms for reactivity, dynamics and kinetics of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, A.

    1989-01-01

    Even for small systems, the accurate characterization of reactive processes is so demanding of computer resources as to suggest the use of supercomputers having vector and parallel facilities. The full advantages of vector and parallel architectures can sometimes be obtained by simply modifying existing programs, vectorizing the manipulation of vectors and matrices, and requiring the parallel execution of independent tasks. More often, however, a significant time saving can be obtained only when the computer code undergoes a deeper restructuring, requiring a change in the computational strategy or, more radically, the adoption of a different theoretical treatment. This book discusses supercomputer strategies based upon act and approximate methods aimed at calculating the electronic structure and the reactive properties of small systems. The book shows how, in recent years, intense design activity has led to the ability to calculate accurate electronic structures for reactive systems, exact and high-level approximations to three-dimensional reactive dynamics, and to efficient directive and declaratory software for the modelling of complex systems

  19. APD arrays and large-area APDs via a new planar process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, R; Vanderpuye, K; Grazioso, R; Myers, R; Entine, G

    2000-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed which allows the beveled-edge-type of avalanche photodiode (APD) to be made without the need for the artful bevel formation steps. This new process, applicable to both APD arrays and to discrete detectors, greatly simplifies manufacture and should lead to significant cost reduction for such photodetectors. This is achieved through a simple innovation that allows isolation around the device or array pixel to be brought into the plane of the surface of the silicon wafer, hence a planar process. A description of the new process is presented along with performance data for a variety of APD device and array configurations. APD array pixel gains in excess of 10 000 have been measured. Array pixel coincidence timing resolution of less than 5 ns has been demonstrated. An energy resolution of 6% for 662 keV gamma-rays using a CsI(T1) scintillator on a planar processed large-area APD has been recorded. Discrete APDs with active areas up to 13 cm sup 2 have been operated.

  20. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Klimentov, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), MIRA supercomputer at Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities (ALCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava and others). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation

  1. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  2. Visualization environment of the large-scale data of JAEA's supercomputer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kensaku [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Center for Computational Science and e-Systems, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hoshi, Yoshiyuki [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    On research and development of various fields of nuclear energy, visualization of calculated data is especially useful to understand the result of simulation in an intuitive way. Many researchers who run simulations on the supercomputer in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are used to transfer calculated data files from the supercomputer to their local PCs for visualization. In recent years, as the size of calculated data has gotten larger with improvement of supercomputer performance, reduction of visualization processing time as well as efficient use of JAEA network is being required. As a solution, we introduced a remote visualization system which has abilities to utilize parallel processors on the supercomputer and to reduce the usage of network resources by transferring data of intermediate visualization process. This paper reports a study on the performance of image processing with the remote visualization system. The visualization processing time is measured and the influence of network speed is evaluated by varying the drawing mode, the size of visualization data and the number of processors. Based on this study, a guideline for using the remote visualization system is provided to show how the system can be used effectively. An upgrade policy of the next system is also shown. (author)

  3. Using adaptive antenna array in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdourahamane Ahmed Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actual methods of improvement the existent wireless transmission systems are proposed. Mathematical apparatus is considered and proved by models, graph of which are shown, using the adaptive array antenna in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing. The results show that improvements, which are joined with space-time processing, positively reflects on LTE cell size or on throughput

  4. A FPGA-based signal processing unit for a GEM array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, W.W.; Chou, H.P.

    2013-06-01

    in the present study, a signal processing unit for a GEM one-dimensional array detector is presented to measure the trajectory of photoelectrons produced by cosmic X-rays. The present GEM array detector system has 16 signal channels. The front-end unit provides timing signals from trigger units and energy signals from charge sensitive amplifies. The prototype of the processing unit is implemented using commercial field programmable gate array circuit boards. The FPGA based system is linked to a personal computer for testing and data analysis. Tests using simulated signals indicated that the FPGA-based signal processing unit has a good linearity and is flexible for parameter adjustment for various experimental conditions (authors)

  5. Characterization of diffusivity based on spherical array processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional domain and consequently examine some of its fundamental properties: spatial distribution of sound pressure levels, particle velocity and sound intensity. The study allows for visualization of the intensity field inside a reverberant space, and successfully illustrates the behavior of the sound field...... in such an environment. This initial investigation shows the validity of the suggested processing and reveals interesting perspectives for future work. Ultimately, the aim is to define a proper and reliable measure of the diffuse sound field conditions in a reverberation chamber, with the prospect of improving...

  6. A multi-step electrochemical etching process for a three-dimensional micro probe array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoonji; Youn, Sechan; Cho, Young-Ho; Park, HoJoon; Chang, Byeung Gyu; Oh, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple, fast, and cost-effective process for three-dimensional (3D) micro probe array fabrication using multi-step electrochemical metal foil etching. Compared to the previous electroplating (add-on) process, the present electrochemical (subtractive) process results in well-controlled material properties of the metallic microstructures. In the experimental study, we describe the single-step and multi-step electrochemical aluminum foil etching processes. In the single-step process, the depth etch rate and the bias etch rate of an aluminum foil have been measured as 1.50 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ± 0.03 µm min −1 , respectively. On the basis of the single-step process results, we have designed and performed the two-step electrochemical etching process for the 3D micro probe array fabrication. The fabricated 3D micro probe array shows the vertical and lateral fabrication errors of 15.5 ± 5.8% and 3.3 ± 0.9%, respectively, with the surface roughness of 37.4 ± 9.6 nm. The contact force and the contact resistance of the 3D micro probe array have been measured to be 24.30 ± 0.98 mN and 2.27 ± 0.11 Ω, respectively, for an overdrive of 49.12 ± 1.25 µm.

  7. DBPM signal processing with field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Zhang Ning; Yang Guisen; Wang Baopeng; Xiong Yun; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing

    2011-01-01

    DBPM system performance is determined by the design and implementation of beam position signal processing algorithm. In order to develop the system, a beam position signal processing algorithm is implemented on FPGA. The hardware is a PMC board ICS-1554A-002 (GE Corp.) with FPGA chip XC5VSX95T. This paper adopts quadrature frequency mixing to down convert high frequency signal to base. Different from conventional method, the mixing is implemented by CORDIC algorithm. The algorithm theory and implementation details are discussed in this paper. As the board contains no front end gain controller, this paper introduces a published patent-pending technique that has been adopted to realize the function in digital logic. The whole design is implemented with VHDL language. An on-line evaluation has been carried on SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility)storage ring. Results indicate that the system turn-by-turn data can measure the real beam movement accurately,and system resolution is 1.1μm. (authors)

  8. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering...... of the incident acoustic energy. A highfrequency active sonar is selected to insonify the medium and receive the backscattered waves. High-frequency acoustic methods can both overcome the optical opacity of water (unlike methods based on electromagnetic waves) and resolve the small-scale structure...... of the submerged oil field (unlike low-frequency acoustic methods). The study shows that high-frequency acoustic methods are suitable not only for large-scale localization of the oil contamination in the water column but also for statistical characterization of the submerged oil field through inference...

  9. Data array acquisition and joint processing in local plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekimov, K.; Luizova, L.; Soloviev, A.; Khakhaev, A.

    2005-01-01

    The setup and software for optical emission spectroscopy with spatial and temporal resolutions were developed. The automated installation includes LabView compatible instrument interfaces. The algorithm of joint data processing is based on principal component method and allows the increase in stability of results of the radial transform and the instrument distortion elimination in the presence of noises. The system is applied to diagnostics of the arc discharge in mercury vapors with the addition of thallium. The distributions of ground state and excited mercury atoms, excited thallium atoms and electron density over the arc cross section have been measured on the basis of analysis of spectral line shapes. The Saha balance between electron and high lying excited states densities was checked. An unexpected broadening of some thallium spectral lines was found out

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Diffusion Processes in Nanoelectrode Arrays Using an Axial Neighbor Symmetry Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, Ana Sol; Gilardoni, Rodrigo S; Mizrahi, Martín; Requejo, Felix G; González, Graciela A; Battaglini, Fernando

    2016-06-07

    Nanoelectrode arrays have introduced a complete new battery of devices with fascinating electrocatalytic, sensitivity, and selectivity properties. To understand and predict the electrochemical response of these arrays, a theoretical framework is needed. Cyclic voltammetry is a well-fitted experimental technique to understand the undergoing diffusion and kinetics processes. Previous works describing microelectrode arrays have exploited the interelectrode distance to simulate its behavior as the summation of individual electrodes. This approach becomes limited when the size of the electrodes decreases to the nanometer scale due to their strong radial effect with the consequent overlapping of the diffusional fields. In this work, we present a computational model able to simulate the electrochemical behavior of arrays working either as the summation of individual electrodes or being affected by the overlapping of the diffusional fields without previous considerations. Our computational model relays in dividing a regular electrode array in cells. In each of them, there is a central electrode surrounded by neighbor electrodes; these neighbor electrodes are transformed in a ring maintaining the same active electrode area than the summation of the closest neighbor electrodes. Using this axial neighbor symmetry approximation, the problem acquires a cylindrical symmetry, being applicable to any diffusion pattern. The model is validated against micro- and nanoelectrode arrays showing its ability to predict their behavior and therefore to be used as a designing tool.

  11. A workbench for tera-flop supercomputing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, M.M.; Kuester, U.; Mueller, M.S.; Lang, U.

    2003-01-01

    Supercomputers currently reach a peak performance in the range of TFlop/s. With but one exception - the Japanese Earth Simulator - none of these systems has so far been able to also show a level of sustained performance for a variety of applications that comes close to the peak performance. Sustained TFlop/s are therefore rarely seen. The reasons are manifold and are well known: Bandwidth and latency both for main memory and for the internal network are the key internal technical problems. Cache hierarchies with large caches can bring relief but are no remedy to the problem. However, there are not only technical problems that inhibit the full exploitation by scientists of the potential of modern supercomputers. More and more organizational issues come to the forefront. This paper shows the approach of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) to deliver a sustained performance of TFlop/s for a wide range of applications from a large group of users spread over Germany. The core of the concept is the role of the data. Around this we design a simulation workbench that hides the complexity of interacting computers, networks and file systems from the user. (authors)

  12. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  13. PNNL supercomputer to become largest computing resource on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett Packard announced that the US DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will connect a 9.3-teraflop HP supercomputer to the DOE Science Grid. This will be the largest supercomputer attached to a computer grid anywhere in the world (1 page).

  14. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  15. Assessment of Measurement Distortions in GNSS Antenna Array Space-Time Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraja Marathe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna array processing techniques are studied in GNSS as effective tools to mitigate interference in spatial and spatiotemporal domains. However, without specific considerations, the array processing results in biases and distortions in the cross-ambiguity function (CAF of the ranging codes. In space-time processing (STP the CAF misshaping can happen due to the combined effect of space-time processing and the unintentional signal attenuation by filtering. This paper focuses on characterizing these degradations for different controlled signal scenarios and for live data from an antenna array. The antenna array simulation method introduced in this paper enables one to perform accurate analyses in the field of STP. The effects of relative placement of the interference source with respect to the desired signal direction are shown using overall measurement errors and profile of the signal strength. Analyses of contributions from each source of distortion are conducted individually and collectively. Effects of distortions on GNSS pseudorange errors and position errors are compared for blind, semi-distortionless, and distortionless beamforming methods. The results from characterization can be useful for designing low distortion filters that are especially important for high accuracy GNSS applications in challenging environments.

  16. Solution processed bismuth sulfide nanowire array core/silver shuffle shell solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Bernechea, M.; Maclachlan, A.; Zardetto, V.; Creatore, M.; Haque, S.A.; Konstantatos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Low bandgap inorganic semiconductor nanowires have served as building blocks in solution processed solar cells to improve their power conversion capacity and reduce fabrication cost. In this work, we first reported bismuth sulfide nanowire arrays grown from colloidal seeds on a transparent

  17. Increasing the specificity and function of DNA microarrays by processing arrays at different stringencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Martin; Petersen, Jesper; Poulsen, Lena

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays have for a decade been the only platform for genome-wide analysis and have provided a wealth of information about living organisms. DNA microarrays are processed today under one condition only, which puts large demands on assay development because all probes on the array need to f...

  18. Solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube transistor arrays for wearable display backplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Cheol Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate solution-processed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT-TFT arrays with polymeric gate dielectrics on the polymeric substrates for wearable display backplanes, which can be directly attached to the human body. The optimized SWCNT-TFTs without any buffer layer on flexible substrates exhibit a linear field-effect mobility of 1.5cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage of around 0V. The statistical plot of the key device metrics extracted from 35 SWCNT-TFTs which were fabricated in different batches at different times conclusively support that we successfully demonstrated high-performance solution-processed SWCNT-TFT arrays which demand excellent uniformity in the device performance. We also investigate the operational stability of wearable SWCNT-TFT arrays against an applied strain of up to 40%, which is the essential for a harsh degree of strain on human body. We believe that the demonstration of flexible SWCNT-TFT arrays which were fabricated by all solution-process except the deposition of metal electrodes at process temperature below 130oC can open up new routes for wearable display backplanes.

  19. Supercomputing - Use Cases, Advances, The Future (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Supercomputing has become a staple of science and the poster child for aggressive developments in silicon technology, energy efficiency and programming. In this series we examine the key components of supercomputing setups and the various advances – recent and past – that made headlines and delivered bigger and bigger machines. We also take a closer look at the future prospects of supercomputing, and the extent of its overlap with high throughput computing, in the context of main use cases ranging from oil exploration to market simulation. On the second day, we will focus on software and software paradigms driving supercomputers, workloads that need supercomputing treatment, advances in technology and possible future developments. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and i...

  20. Astronomical Data Processing Using SciQL, an SQL Based Query Language for Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Scheers, B.; Kersten, M.; Ivanova, M.; Nes, N.

    2012-09-01

    SciQL (pronounced as ‘cycle’) is a novel SQL-based array query language for scientific applications with both tables and arrays as first class citizens. SciQL lowers the entrance fee of adopting relational DBMS (RDBMS) in scientific domains, because it includes functionality often only found in mathematics software packages. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of SciQL for astronomical data processing using examples from the Transient Key Project of the LOFAR radio telescope. In particular, how the LOFAR light-curve database of all detected sources can be constructed, by correlating sources across the spatial, frequency, time and polarisation domains.

  1. Toward a Proof of Concept Cloud Framework for Physics Applications on Blue Gene Supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreher, Patrick; Scullin, William; Vouk, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional high performance supercomputers are capable of delivering large sustained state-of-the-art computational resources to physics applications over extended periods of time using batch processing mode operating environments. However, today there is an increasing demand for more complex workflows that involve large fluctuations in the levels of HPC physics computational requirements during the simulations. Some of the workflow components may also require a richer set of operating system features and schedulers than normally found in a batch oriented HPC environment. This paper reports on progress toward a proof of concept design that implements a cloud framework onto BG/P and BG/Q platforms at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. The BG/P implementation utilizes the Kittyhawk utility and the BG/Q platform uses an experimental heterogeneous FusedOS operating system environment. Both platforms use the Virtual Computing Laboratory as the cloud computing system embedded within the supercomputer. This proof of concept design allows a cloud to be configured so that it can capitalize on the specialized infrastructure capabilities of a supercomputer and the flexible cloud configurations without resorting to virtualization. Initial testing of the proof of concept system is done using the lattice QCD MILC code. These types of user reconfigurable environments have the potential to deliver experimental schedulers and operating systems within a working HPC environment for physics computations that may be different from the native OS and schedulers on production HPC supercomputers. (paper)

  2. Development of a Cloud Resolving Model for Heterogeneous Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepathi, S.; Norman, M. R.; Pal, A.; Hannah, W.; Ponder, C.

    2017-12-01

    A cloud resolving climate model is needed to reduce major systematic errors in climate simulations due to structural uncertainty in numerical treatments of convection - such as convective storm systems. This research describes the porting effort to enable SAM (System for Atmosphere Modeling) cloud resolving model on heterogeneous supercomputers using GPUs (Graphical Processing Units). We have isolated a standalone configuration of SAM that is targeted to be integrated into the DOE ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) Earth System model. We have identified key computational kernels from the model and offloaded them to a GPU using the OpenACC programming model. Furthermore, we are investigating various optimization strategies intended to enhance GPU utilization including loop fusion/fission, coalesced data access and loop refactoring to a higher abstraction level. We will present early performance results, lessons learned as well as optimization strategies. The computational platform used in this study is the Summitdev system, an early testbed that is one generation removed from Summit, the next leadership class supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system contains 54 nodes wherein each node has 2 IBM POWER8 CPUs and 4 NVIDIA Tesla P100 GPUs. This work is part of a larger project, ACME-MMF component of the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE) Exascale Computing Project. The ACME-MMF approach addresses structural uncertainty in cloud processes by replacing traditional parameterizations with cloud resolving "superparameterization" within each grid cell of global climate model. Super-parameterization dramatically increases arithmetic intensity, making the MMF approach an ideal strategy to achieve good performance on emerging exascale computing architectures. The goal of the project is to integrate superparameterization into ACME, and explore its full potential to scientifically and computationally advance climate simulation and prediction.

  3. A supercomputing application for reactors core design and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Edouard; Gaudier, Fabrice; Arnaud, Gilles; Funtowiez, David; Ammar, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Advanced nuclear reactor designs are often intuition-driven processes where designers first develop or use simplified simulation tools for each physical phenomenon involved. Through the project development, complexity in each discipline increases and implementation of chaining/coupling capabilities adapted to supercomputing optimization process are often postponed to a further step so that task gets increasingly challenging. In the context of renewal in reactor designs, project of first realization are often run in parallel with advanced design although very dependant on final options. As a consequence, the development of tools to globally assess/optimize reactor core features, with the on-going design methods accuracy, is needed. This should be possible within reasonable simulation time and without advanced computer skills needed at project management scale. Also, these tools should be ready to easily cope with modeling progresses in each discipline through project life-time. An early stage development of multi-physics package adapted to supercomputing is presented. The URANIE platform, developed at CEA and based on the Data Analysis Framework ROOT, is very well adapted to this approach. It allows diversified sampling techniques (SRS, LHS, qMC), fitting tools (neuronal networks...) and optimization techniques (genetic algorithm). Also data-base management and visualization are made very easy. In this paper, we'll present the various implementing steps of this core physics tool where neutronics, thermo-hydraulics, and fuel mechanics codes are run simultaneously. A relevant example of optimization of nuclear reactor safety characteristics will be presented. Also, flexibility of URANIE tool will be illustrated with the presentation of several approaches to improve Pareto front quality. (author)

  4. Frequency Diverse Array Radar Signal Processing via Space-Range-Doppler Focus (SRDF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the urgent demand of low-observable moving target detection in complex environments, a novel method of Frequency Diverse Array (FDA radar signal processing method based on Space-Rang-Doppler Focusing (SRDF is proposed in this paper. The current development status of the FDA radar, the design of the array structure, beamforming, and joint estimation of distance and angle are systematically reviewed. The extra degrees of freedom provided by FDA radar are fully utilizsed, which include the Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs of the transmitted waveform, the location of array elements, correlation of beam azimuth and distance, and the long dwell time, which are also the DOFs in joint spatial (angle, distance, and frequency (Doppler dimensions. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the potential of improving target detection and parameter estimation for weak moving targets in complex environments and has broad application prospects in clutter and interference suppression, moving target refinement, etc..

  5. Processing and display of three-dimensional arrays of numerical data using octree encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amans, J.L.; Antoine, M.; Darier, P.

    1986-04-01

    The analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) arrays of numerical data from medical, industrial or scientific imaging, by synthetic generation of realistic images, has been widely developed. The Octree encoding, that organizes the volume data in a hierarchical tree structure, has some interesting features for 3-D arrays of data processing. The Octree encoding method, based on the recursive subdivision of a 3-D array, is an extension of the Quadtree encoding in the two-dimensional plane. We have developed a software package to validate the basic Octree encoding methodology for some manipulation and display operations of volume data. The contribution introduces the technique we have used (called ''overlay technique'') to make the projection operation of an Octree on a Quadtree encoded image plane. The application of this technique to the hidden surface display is presented [fr

  6. Using a Cray Y-MP as an array processor for a RISC Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.

    1992-01-01

    As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.

  7. HPL and STREAM Benchmarks on SANAM Supercomputer

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Sulaiman, Riman A.

    2017-01-01

    SANAM supercomputer was jointly built by KACST and FIAS in 2012 ranking second that year in the Green500 list with a power efficiency of 2.3 GFLOPS/W (Rohr et al., 2014). It is a heterogeneous accelerator-based HPC system that has 300 compute nodes. Each node includes two Intel Xeon E5?2650 CPUs, two AMD FirePro S10000 dual GPUs and 128 GiB of main memory. In this work, the seven benchmarks of HPCC were installed and configured to reassess the performance of SANAM, as part of an unpublished master thesis, after it was reassembled in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We present here detailed results of HPL and STREAM benchmarks.

  8. HPL and STREAM Benchmarks on SANAM Supercomputer

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Sulaiman, Riman A.

    2017-03-13

    SANAM supercomputer was jointly built by KACST and FIAS in 2012 ranking second that year in the Green500 list with a power efficiency of 2.3 GFLOPS/W (Rohr et al., 2014). It is a heterogeneous accelerator-based HPC system that has 300 compute nodes. Each node includes two Intel Xeon E5?2650 CPUs, two AMD FirePro S10000 dual GPUs and 128 GiB of main memory. In this work, the seven benchmarks of HPCC were installed and configured to reassess the performance of SANAM, as part of an unpublished master thesis, after it was reassembled in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We present here detailed results of HPL and STREAM benchmarks.

  9. Supercomputing Centers and Electricity Service Providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patki, Tapasya; Bates, Natalie; Ghatikar, Girish

    2016-01-01

    from a detailed, quantitative survey-based analysis and compare the perspectives of the European grid and SCs to the ones of the United States (US). We then show that contrary to the expectation, SCs in the US are more open toward cooperating and developing demand-management strategies with their ESPs......Supercomputing Centers (SCs) have high and variable power demands, which increase the challenges of the Electricity Service Providers (ESPs) with regards to efficient electricity distribution and reliable grid operation. High penetration of renewable energy generation further exacerbates...... this problem. In order to develop a symbiotic relationship between the SCs and their ESPs and to support effective power management at all levels, it is critical to understand and analyze how the existing relationships were formed and how these are expected to evolve. In this paper, we first present results...

  10. Seismic array processing and computational infrastructure for improved monitoring of Alaskan and Aleutian seismicity and volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kent Gordon

    We constructed a near-real-time system, called Iceworm, to automate seismic data collection, processing, storage, and distribution at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). Phase-picking, phase association, and interprocess communication components come from Earthworm (U.S. Geological Survey). A new generic, internal format for digital data supports unified handling of data from diverse sources. A new infrastructure for applying processing algorithms to near-real-time data streams supports automated information extraction from seismic wavefields. Integration of Datascope (U. of Colorado) provides relational database management of all automated measurements, parametric information for located hypocenters, and waveform data from Iceworm. Data from 1997 yield 329 earthquakes located by both Iceworm and the AEIC. Of these, 203 have location residuals under 22 km, sufficient for hazard response. Regionalized inversions for local magnitude in Alaska yield Msb{L} calibration curves (logAsb0) that differ from the Californian Richter magnitude. The new curve is 0.2\\ Msb{L} units more attenuative than the Californian curve at 400 km for earthquakes north of the Denali fault. South of the fault, and for a region north of Cook Inlet, the difference is 0.4\\ Msb{L}. A curve for deep events differs by 0.6\\ Msb{L} at 650 km. We expand geographic coverage of Alaskan regional seismic monitoring to the Aleutians, the Bering Sea, and the entire Arctic by initiating the processing of four short-period, Alaskan seismic arrays. To show the array stations' sensitivity, we detect and locate two microearthquakes that were missed by the AEIC. An empirical study of the location sensitivity of the arrays predicts improvements over the Alaskan regional network that are shown as map-view contour plots. We verify these predictions by detecting an Msb{L} 3.2 event near Unimak Island with one array. The detection and location of four representative earthquakes illustrates the expansion

  11. Structural control of ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays via electrodeposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodarz, Siggi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Takashi; Ishio, Shunji [Department of Materials Science, Akita University, Akita City 010-8502 (Japan); Homma, Takayuki, E-mail: t.homma@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by combining electrodeposition and electron beam lithography (EBL) for the use of bit-patterned media (BPM). To achieve precise control of deposition uniformity and coercivity of the CoPt nanodot arrays, their crystal structure and magnetic properties were controlled by controlling the diffusion state of metal ions from the initial deposition stage with the application of bath agitation. Following bath agitation, the composition gradient of the CoPt alloy with thickness was mitigated to have a near-ideal alloy composition of Co:Pt =80:20, which induces epitaxial-like growth from Ru substrate, thus resulting in the improvement of the crystal orientation of the hcp (002) structure from its initial deposition stages. Furthermore, the cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of the nanodots deposited with bath agitation showed CoPt growth along its c-axis oriented in the perpendicular direction, having uniform lattice fringes on the hcp (002) plane from the Ru underlayer interface, which is a significant factor to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic characterization of the CoPt nanodot arrays showed increase in the perpendicular coercivity and squareness of the hysteresis loops from 2.0 kOe and 0.64 (without agitation) to 4.0 kOe and 0.87 with bath agitation. Based on the detailed characterization of nanodot arrays, the precise crystal structure control of the nanodot arrays with ultra-high recording density by electrochemical process was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • Ultra-fine CoPt nanodot arrays were fabricated by electrodeposition. • Crystallinity of hcp (002) was improved with uniform composition formation. • Uniform formation of hcp lattices leads to an increase in the coercivity.

  12. Processing and display of medical three dimensional arrays of numerical data using octree encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amans, J.L.; Darier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging modalities such as X-ray computerized Tomography (CT), Nuclear Medicine and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can produce three-dimensional (3-D) arrays of numerical data of medical object internal structures. The analysis of 3-D data by synthetic generation of realistic images is an important area of computer graphics and imaging. We are currently developing experimental software that allows the analysis, processing and display of 3-D arrays of numerical data that are organized in a related hierarchical data structure using OCTREE (octal-tree) encoding technique based on a recursive subdivision of the data volume. The OCTREE encoding structure is an extension of the two-dimensional tree structure: the quadtree, developed for image processing applications. Before any operations, the 3-D array of data is OCTREE encoded, thereafter all processings are concerned with the encoded object. The elementary process for the elaboration of a synthetic image includes: conditioning the volume: volume partition (numerical and spatial segmentation), choice of the view-point..., two dimensional display, either by spatial integration (radiography) or by shaded surface representation. This paper introduces these different concepts and specifies the advantages of OCTREE encoding techniques in realizing these operations. Furthermore the application of the OCTREE encoding scheme to the display of 3-D medical volumes generated from multiple CT scans is presented

  13. NeuroSeek dual-color image processing infrared focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Huynh, Buu L.

    1998-09-01

    Several technologies have been developed in recent years to advance the state of the art of IR sensor systems including dual color affordable focal planes, on-focal plane array biologically inspired image and signal processing techniques and spectral sensing techniques. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) and the Air Force Research Lab Munitions Directorate have developed a system which incorporates the best of these capabilities into a single device. The 'NeuroSeek' device integrates these technologies into an IR focal plane array (FPA) which combines multicolor Midwave IR/Longwave IR radiometric response with on-focal plane 'smart' neuromorphic analog image processing. The readout and processing integrated circuit very large scale integration chip which was developed under this effort will be hybridized to a dual color detector array to produce the NeuroSeek FPA, which will have the capability to fuse multiple pixel-based sensor inputs directly on the focal plane. Great advantages are afforded by application of massively parallel processing algorithms to image data in the analog domain; the high speed and low power consumption of this device mimic operations performed in the human retina.

  14. OpenMP Performance on the Columbia Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoqiang, Jin; Hood, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses Columbia World Class Supercomputer which is one of the world's fastest supercomputers providing 61 TFLOPs (10/20/04). Conceived, designed, built, and deployed in just 120 days. A 20-node supercomputer built on proven 512-processor nodes. The largest SGI system in the world with over 10,000 Intel Itanium 2 processors and provides the largest node size incorporating commodity parts (512) and the largest shared-memory environment (2048) with 88% efficiency tops the scalar systems on the Top500 list.

  15. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  16. Subspace Dimensionality: A Tool for Automated QC in Seismic Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. A.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the great resolving power of seismic arrays, the application of automated processing to array data is critically important in treaty verification work. A significant problem in array analysis is the inclusion of bad sensor channels in the beamforming process. We are testing an approach to automated, on-the-fly quality control (QC) to aid in the identification of poorly performing sensor channels prior to beam-forming in routine event detection or location processing. The idea stems from methods used for large computer servers, when monitoring traffic at enormous numbers of nodes is impractical on a node-by node basis, so the dimensionality of the node traffic is instead monitoried for anomalies that could represent malware, cyber-attacks or other problems. The technique relies upon the use of subspace dimensionality or principal components of the overall system traffic. The subspace technique is not new to seismology, but its most common application has been limited to comparing waveforms to an a priori collection of templates for detecting highly similar events in a swarm or seismic cluster. In the established template application, a detector functions in a manner analogous to waveform cross-correlation, applying a statistical test to assess the similarity of the incoming data stream to known templates for events of interest. In our approach, we seek not to detect matching signals, but instead, we examine the signal subspace dimensionality in much the same way that the method addresses node traffic anomalies in large computer systems. Signal anomalies recorded on seismic arrays affect the dimensional structure of the array-wide time-series. We have shown previously that this observation is useful in identifying real seismic events, either by looking at the raw signal or derivatives thereof (entropy, kurtosis), but here we explore the effects of malfunctioning channels on the dimension of the data and its derivatives, and how to leverage this effect for

  17. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  18. Monitoring and Evaluation of Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using a Chemocapacitor Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-01-01

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument. PMID:25184490

  19. High density processing electronics for superconducting tunnel junction x-ray detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, W.K., E-mail: bill@xia.com [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Harris, J.T. [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are excellent soft x-ray (100–2000 eV) detectors, particularly for synchrotron applications, because of their ability to obtain energy resolutions below 10 eV at count rates approaching 10 kcps. In order to achieve useful solid detection angles with these very small detectors, they are typically deployed in large arrays – currently with 100+ elements, but with 1000 elements being contemplated. In this paper we review a 5-year effort to develop compact, computer controlled low-noise processing electronics for STJ detector arrays, focusing on the major issues encountered and our solutions to them. Of particular interest are our preamplifier design, which can set the STJ operating points under computer control and achieve 2.7 eV energy resolution; our low noise power supply, which produces only 2 nV/√Hz noise at the preamplifier's critical cascode node; our digital processing card that digitizes and digitally processes 32 channels; and an STJ I–V curve scanning algorithm that computes noise as a function of offset voltage, allowing an optimum operating point to be easily selected. With 32 preamplifiers laid out on a custom 3U EuroCard, and the 32 channel digital card in a 3U PXI card format, electronics for a 128 channel array occupy only two small chassis, each the size of a National Instruments 5-slot PXI crate, and allow full array control with simple extensions of existing beam line data collection packages.

  20. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-10-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  1. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; De, K; Oleynik, D; Jha, S; Wells, J

    2016-01-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  2. Phased arrays techniques and split spectrum processing for inspection of thick titanium casting components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Chahbaz, A.; Sicard, R.; Zellouf, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    In aircraft structures, titanium parts and engine members are critical structural components, and their inspection crucial. However, these structures are very difficult to inspect ultrasonically because of their large grain structure that increases noise drastically. In this work, phased array inspection setups were developed to detected small defects such as simulated inclusions and porosity contained in thick titanium casting blocks, which are frequently used in the aerospace industry. A Cut Spectrum Processing (CSP)-based algorithm was then implemented on the acquired data by employing a set of parallel bandpass filters with different center frequencies. This process led in substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio and thus, of detectability

  3. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Liao Sheng-Kai; Liang Fu-Tian; Shen Qi; Liang Hao; Peng Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators adopting single photon detection have been restricted due to the non-negligible dead time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We propose a new approach based on an APD array to improve the generation rate of random numbers significantly. This method compares the detectors' responses to consecutive optical pulses and generates the random sequence. We implement a demonstration experiment to show its simplicity, compactness and scalability. The generated numbers are proved to be unbiased, post-processing free, ready to use, and their randomness is verified by using the national institute of standard technology statistical test suite. The random bit generation efficiency is as high as 32.8% and the potential generation rate adopting the 32 × 32 APD array is up to tens of Gbits/s. (paper)

  4. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  5. Fabrication of Aligned Polyaniline Nanofiber Array via a Facile Wet Chemical Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qunhui; Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F; Ding, Yong; Deng, Yulin

    2009-06-17

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a template free approach to synthesize aligned polyaniline nanofiber (PN) array on a passivated gold (Au) substrate via a facile wet chemical process. The Au surface was first modified using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) to afford the surface functionality, followed subsequently by an oxidation polymerization of aniline (AN) monomer in an aqueous medium using ammonium persulfate as the oxidant and tartaric acid as the doping agent. The results show that a vertically aligned PANI nanofiber array with individual fiber diameters of ca. 100 nm, heights of ca. 600 nm and a packing density of ca. 40 pieces·µm(-2) , was synthesized. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Arrays of surface-normal electroabsorption modulators for the generation and signal processing of microwave photonics signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Junique, Stéphane; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an array of 16 surface-normal electroabsorption modulators operating at 1550nm is presented. The modulator array is dedicated to the generation and processing of microwave photonics signals, targeting a modulation bandwidth in excess of 5GHz. The hybrid integration of the

  7. Accelerating Science Impact through Big Data Workflow Management and Supercomputing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC, operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the the history of science, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. To manage the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers the PanDA (Production and Distributed AnalysisWorkload Management System is used. An ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF, is realizing within BigPanDA and megaPanDA projects. These projects are now exploring how PanDA might be used for managing computing jobs that run on supercomputers including OLCF’s Titan and NRC-KI HPC2. The main idea is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system that are already deployed on the LHC Grid for analysis of physics data. The next generation of PanDA will allow many data-intensive sciences employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS experience and proven tools in highly scalable processing.

  8. HEP Computing Tools, Grid and Supercomputers for Genome Sequencing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Novikov, A.; Poyda, A.; Tertychnyy, I.; Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    PanDA - Production and Distributed Analysis Workload Management System has been developed to address ATLAS experiment at LHC data processing and analysis challenges. Recently PanDA has been extended to run HEP scientific applications on Leadership Class Facilities and supercomputers. The success of the projects to use PanDA beyond HEP and Grid has drawn attention from other compute intensive sciences such as bioinformatics. Recent advances of Next Generation Genome Sequencing (NGS) technology led to increasing streams of sequencing data that need to be processed, analysed and made available for bioinformaticians worldwide. Analysis of genomes sequencing data using popular software pipeline PALEOMIX can take a month even running it on the powerful computer resource. In this paper we will describe the adaptation the PALEOMIX pipeline to run it on a distributed computing environment powered by PanDA. To run pipeline we split input files into chunks which are run separately on different nodes as separate inputs for PALEOMIX and finally merge output file, it is very similar to what it done by ATLAS to process and to simulate data. We dramatically decreased the total walltime because of jobs (re)submission automation and brokering within PanDA. Using software tools developed initially for HEP and Grid can reduce payload execution time for Mammoths DNA samples from weeks to days.

  9. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, K T; Chung, C K

    2016-01-01

    An integrated technology of CO 2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO 2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO 2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO 2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold. (paper)

  10. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  11. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  12. Direct exploitation of a top 500 Supercomputer for Analysis of CMS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillo, I; Cabellos, L; Marco, J; Fernandez, J; Gonzalez, I

    2014-01-01

    The Altamira Supercomputer hosted at the Instituto de Fisica de Cantatbria (IFCA) entered in operation in summer 2012. Its last generation FDR Infiniband network used (for message passing) in parallel jobs, supports the connection to General Parallel File System (GPFS) servers, enabling an efficient simultaneous processing of multiple data demanding jobs. Sharing a common GPFS system and a single LDAP-based identification with the existing Grid clusters at IFCA allows CMS researchers to exploit the large instantaneous capacity of this supercomputer to execute analysis jobs. The detailed experience describing this opportunistic use for skimming and final analysis of CMS 2012 data for a specific physics channel, resulting in an order of magnitude reduction of the waiting time, is presented.

  13. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, F.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Padolski, S.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job submission to Titan’s batch queues and local data management, with lightweight MPI wrappers to run single node workloads in parallel on Titan’s multi-core worker nodes. It provides for running of standard ATLAS production jobs on unused resources (backfill) on Titan. The system already allowed ATLAS to collect on Titan millions of core-hours per month, execute hundreds of thousands jobs, while simultaneously improving Titans utilization efficiency. We will discuss the details of the implementation, current experience with running the system, as well as future plans aimed at improvements in scalability and efficiency. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to

  14. Automatic Defect Detection for TFT-LCD Array Process Using Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Data Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms.

  15. Advanced ACTPol Multichroic Polarimeter Array Fabrication Process for 150 mm Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, S. M.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Datta, R.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation cosmic microwave background receiver to be deployed in 2016 on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Spanning five frequency bands from 25 to 280 GHz and having just over 5600 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, this receiver will exhibit increased sensitivity and mapping speed compared to previously fielded ACT instruments. This paper presents the fabrication processes developed by NIST to scale to large arrays of feedhorn-coupled multichroic AlMn-based TES polarimeters on 150-mm diameter wafers. In addition to describing the streamlined fabrication process which enables high yields of densely packed detectors across larger wafers, we report the details of process improvements for sensor (AlMn) and insulator (SiN_x) materials and microwave structures, and the resulting performance improvements.

  16. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohbor, M.; Soltanian, S.; Najafi, M.; Servati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. ► Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. ► Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. ► The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. ► Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co 1−x Zn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of ∼35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 °C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of the NW arrays. The changes in magnetic property of NWs are rooted in a competition between shape anisotropy and

  17. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohbor, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, S., E-mail: s.soltanian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Najafi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Hamadan University of Technology, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Servati, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of {approx}35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 Degree-Sign C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on

  18. Enabling Diverse Software Stacks on Supercomputers using High Performance Virtual Clusters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younge, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brightwell, Ron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    While large-scale simulations have been the hallmark of the High Performance Computing (HPC) community for decades, Large Scale Data Analytics (LSDA) workloads are gaining attention within the scientific community not only as a processing component to large HPC simulations, but also as standalone scientific tools for knowledge discovery. With the path towards Exascale, new HPC runtime systems are also emerging in a way that differs from classical distributed com- puting models. However, system software for such capabilities on the latest extreme-scale DOE supercomputing needs to be enhanced to more appropriately support these types of emerging soft- ware ecosystems. In this paper, we propose the use of Virtual Clusters on advanced supercomputing resources to enable systems to support not only HPC workloads, but also emerging big data stacks. Specifi- cally, we have deployed the KVM hypervisor within Cray's Compute Node Linux on a XC-series supercomputer testbed. We also use libvirt and QEMU to manage and provision VMs directly on compute nodes, leveraging Ethernet-over-Aries network emulation. To our knowledge, this is the first known use of KVM on a true MPP supercomputer. We investigate the overhead our solution using HPC benchmarks, both evaluating single-node performance as well as weak scaling of a 32-node virtual cluster. Overall, we find single node performance of our solution using KVM on a Cray is very efficient with near-native performance. However overhead increases by up to 20% as virtual cluster size increases, due to limitations of the Ethernet-over-Aries bridged network. Furthermore, we deploy Apache Spark with large data analysis workloads in a Virtual Cluster, ef- fectively demonstrating how diverse software ecosystems can be supported by High Performance Virtual Clusters.

  19. Adventures in supercomputing: An innovative program for high school teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, C.E.; Hicks, H.R.; Summers, B.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Staten, D.G. [Wartburg Central High School, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Within the realm of education, seldom does an innovative program become available with the potential to change an educator`s teaching methodology. Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is such a program. It is a program for high school teachers that changes the teacher paradigm from a teacher-directed approach of teaching to a student-centered approach. {open_quotes}A student-centered classroom offers better opportunities for development of internal motivation, planning skills, goal setting and perseverance than does the traditional teacher-directed mode{close_quotes}. Not only is the process of teaching changed, but the cross-curricula integration within the AiS materials is remarkable. Written from a teacher`s perspective, this paper will describe the AiS program and its effects on teachers and students, primarily at Wartburg Central High School, in Wartburg, Tennessee. The AiS program in Tennessee is sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  20. High-throughput fabrication of micrometer-sized compound parabolic mirror arrays by using parallel laser direct-write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wensheng; Gu, Min; Cumming, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Micrometer-sized parabolic mirror arrays have significant applications in both light emitting diodes and solar cells. However, low fabrication throughput has been identified as major obstacle for the mirror arrays towards large-scale applications due to the serial nature of the conventional method. Here, the mirror arrays are fabricated by using a parallel laser direct-write processing, which addresses this barrier. In addition, it is demonstrated that the parallel writing is able to fabricate complex arrays besides simple arrays and thus offers wider applications. Optical measurements show that each single mirror confines the full-width at half-maximum value to as small as 17.8 μm at the height of 150 μm whilst providing a transmittance of up to 68.3% at a wavelength of 633 nm in good agreement with the calculation values. (paper)

  1. Supercomputing - Use Cases, Advances, The Future (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Supercomputing has become a staple of science and the poster child for aggressive developments in silicon technology, energy efficiency and programming. In this series we examine the key components of supercomputing setups and the various advances – recent and past – that made headlines and delivered bigger and bigger machines. We also take a closer look at the future prospects of supercomputing, and the extent of its overlap with high throughput computing, in the context of main use cases ranging from oil exploration to market simulation. On the first day, we will focus on the history and theory of supercomputing, the top500 list and the hardware that makes supercomputers tick. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP an...

  2. Fabricating process of hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle arrays and properties of the integrated microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Cao, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Yigui; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Di

    2013-07-01

    Although microfluidic devices that integrate microfluidic chips with hollow out-of-plane microneedle arrays have many advantages in transdermal drug delivery applications, difficulties exist in their fabrication due to the special three-dimensional structures of hollow out-of-plane microneedles. A new, cost-effective process for the fabrication of a hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle array is presented. The integration of PDMS microchips with the Ni hollow microneedle array and the properties of microfluidic devices are also presented. The integrated microfluidic devices provide a new approach for transdermal drug delivery.

  3. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  4. Full image-processing pipeline in field-programmable gate array for a small endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Sousa, L. Natércia; Ferreira, Nuno Fábio; Sousa, Ricardo M.; Santos, Joao; Wäny, Martin; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopy is an imaging procedure used for diagnosis as well as for some surgical purposes. The camera used for the endoscopy should be small and able to produce a good quality image or video, to reduce discomfort of the patients, and to increase the efficiency of the medical team. To achieve these fundamental goals, a small endoscopy camera with a footprint of 1 mm×1 mm×1.65 mm is used. Due to the physical properties of the sensors and human vision system limitations, different image-processing algorithms, such as noise reduction, demosaicking, and gamma correction, among others, are needed to faithfully reproduce the image or video. A full image-processing pipeline is implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accomplish a high frame rate of 60 fps with minimum processing delay. Along with this, a viewer has also been developed to display and control the image-processing pipeline. The control and data transfer are done by a USB 3.0 end point in the computer. The full developed system achieves real-time processing of the image and fits in a Xilinx Spartan-6LX150 FPGA.

  5. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  6. Comments on the parallelization efficiency of the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, János

    2016-01-01

    In the world of supercomputers, the large number of processors requires to minimize the inefficiencies of parallelization, which appear as a sequential part of the program from the point of view of Amdahl's law. The recently suggested new figure of merit is applied to the recently presented supercomputer, and the timeline of "Top 500" supercomputers is scrutinized using the metric. It is demonstrated, that in addition to the computing performance and power consumption, the new supercomputer i...

  7. Compressive sensing-based electrostatic sensor array signal processing and exhausted abnormal debris detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Yue; Yang, Yongmin

    2018-05-01

    When faults happen at gas path components of gas turbines, some sparsely-distributed and charged debris will be generated and released into the exhaust gas. The debris is called abnormal debris. Electrostatic sensors can detect the debris online and further indicate the faults. It is generally considered that, under a specific working condition, a more serious fault generates more and larger debris, and a piece of larger debris carries more charge. Therefore, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are important indicators of the fault severity. However, because an electrostatic sensor can only detect the superposed effect on the electrostatic field of all the debris, it can hardly identify the amount and position of the debris. Moreover, because signals of electrostatic sensors depend on not only charge but also position of debris, and the position information is difficult to acquire, measuring debris charge accurately using the electrostatic detecting method is still a technical difficulty. To solve these problems, a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) is used, and an array signal processing method based on compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. To research in a theoretical framework of CS, the measurement model of the HSESCA is discretized into a sparse representation form by meshing. In this way, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are described as a sparse vector. It is further reconstructed by constraining l1-norm when solving an underdetermined equation. In addition, a pre-processing method based on singular value decomposition and a result calibration method based on weighted-centroid algorithm are applied to ensure the accuracy of the reconstruction. The proposed method is validated by both numerical simulations and experiments. Reconstruction errors, characteristics of the results and some related factors are discussed.

  8. Remote online process measurements by a fiber optic diode array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of remote online monitors for radioactive process streams is an active research area at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). A remote offline spectrophotometric measurement system has been developed and used at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) for the past year to determine the plutonium concentration of process solution samples. The system consists of a commercial diode array spectrophotometer modified with fiber optic cables that allow the instrument to be located remotely from the measurement cell. Recently, a fiber optic multiplexer has been developed for this instrument, which allows online monitoring of five locations sequentially. The multiplexer uses a motorized micrometer to drive one of five sets of optical fibers into the optical path of the instrument. A sixth optical fiber is used as an external reference and eliminates the need to flush out process lines to re-reference the spectrophotometer. The fiber optic multiplexer has been installed in a process prototype facility to monitor uranium loading and breakthrough of ion exchange columns. The design of the fiber optic multiplexer is discussed and data from the prototype facility are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system

  9. An Optimized Parallel FDTD Topology for Challenging Electromagnetic Simulations on Supercomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugang Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It may not be a challenge to run a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD code for electromagnetic simulations on a supercomputer with more than 10 thousands of CPU cores; however, to make FDTD code work with the highest efficiency is a challenge. In this paper, the performance of parallel FDTD is optimized through MPI (message passing interface virtual topology, based on which a communication model is established. The general rules of optimal topology are presented according to the model. The performance of the method is tested and analyzed on three high performance computing platforms with different architectures in China. Simulations including an airplane with a 700-wavelength wingspan, and a complex microstrip antenna array with nearly 2000 elements are performed very efficiently using a maximum of 10240 CPU cores.

  10. Continuous catchment-scale monitoring of geomorphic processes with a 2-D seismological array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Milodowski, D.; Chen, Y.-G.; Wu, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Chen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The monitoring of geomorphic processes during extreme climatic events is of a primary interest to estimate their impact on the landscape dynamics. However, available techniques to survey the surface activity do not provide a relevant time and/or space resolution. Furthermore, these methods hardly investigate the dynamics of the events since their detection are made a posteriori. To increase our knowledge of the landscape evolution and the influence of extreme climatic events on a catchment dynamics, we need to develop new tools and procedures. In many past works, it has been shown that seismic signals are relevant to detect and locate surface processes (landslides, debris flows). During the 2010 typhoon season, we deployed a network of 12 seismometers dedicated to monitor the surface processes of the Chenyoulan catchment in Taiwan. We test the ability of a two dimensional array and small inter-stations distances (~ 11 km) to map in continuous and at a catchment-scale the geomorphic activity. The spectral analysis of continuous records shows a high-frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic energy that is coherent with the occurrence of hillslope and river processes. Using a basic detection algorithm and a location approach running on the analysis of seismic amplitudes, we manage to locate the catchment activity. We mainly observe short-time events (> 300 occurrences) associated with debris falls and bank collapses during daily convective storms, where 69% of occurrences are coherent with the time distribution of precipitations. We also identify a couple of debris flows during a large tropical storm. In contrast, the FORMOSAT imagery does not detect any activity, which somehow reflects the lack of extreme climatic conditions during the experiment. However, high resolution pictures confirm the existence of links between most of geomorphic events and existing structures (landslide scars, gullies...). We thus conclude to an activity that is dominated by reactivation processes. It

  11. Convex unwraps its first grown-up supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, T.

    1988-03-03

    Convex Computer Corp.'s new supercomputer family is even more of an industry blockbuster than its first system. At a tenfold jump in performance, it's far from just an incremental upgrade over its first minisupercomputer, the C-1. The heart of the new family, the new C-2 processor, churning at 50 million floating-point operations/s, spawns a group of systems whose performance could pass for some fancy supercomputers-namely those of the Cray Research Inc. family. When added to the C-1, Convex's five new supercomputers create the C series, a six-member product group offering a performance range from 20 to 200 Mflops. They mark an important transition for Convex from a one-product high-tech startup to a multinational company with a wide-ranging product line. It's a tough transition but the Richardson, Texas, company seems to be doing it. The extended product line propels Convex into the upper end of the minisupercomputer class and nudges it into the low end of the big supercomputers. It positions Convex in an uncrowded segment of the market in the $500,000 to $1 million range offering 50 to 200 Mflops of performance. The company is making this move because the minisuper area, which it pioneered, quickly became crowded with new vendors, causing prices and gross margins to drop drastically.

  12. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented

  13. QCD on the BlueGene/L Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, G.; Chen, D.; Gara, A.; Sexton, J.; Vranas, P.

    2005-03-01

    In June 2004 QCD was simulated for the first time at sustained speed exceeding 1 TeraFlops in the BlueGene/L supercomputer at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Lab. The implementation and performance of QCD in the BlueGene/L is presented.

  14. Supercomputers and the future of computational atomic scattering physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The advent of the supercomputer has opened new vistas for the computational atomic physicist. Problems of hitherto unparalleled complexity are now being examined using these new machines, and important connections with other fields of physics are being established. This talk briefly reviews some of the most important trends in computational scattering physics and suggests some exciting possibilities for the future. 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. Mathematical methods and supercomputing in nuclear applications. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Stein, E.; Werner, W.

    1993-04-01

    All papers of the two volumes are separately indexed in the data base. Main topics are: Progress in advanced numerical techniques, fluid mechanics, on-line systems, artificial intelligence applications, nodal methods reactor kinetics, reactor design, supercomputer architecture, probabilistic estimation of risk assessment, methods in transport theory, advances in Monte Carlo techniques, and man-machine interface. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical methods and supercomputing in nuclear applications. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Stein, E.; Werner, W.

    1993-04-01

    All papers of the two volumes are separately indexed in the data base. Main topics are: Progress in advanced numerical techniques, fluid mechanics, on-line systems, artificial intelligence applications, nodal methods reactor kinetics, reactor design, supercomputer architecture, probabilistic estimation of risk assessment, methods in transport theory, advances in Monte Carlo techniques, and man-machine interface. (orig.)

  17. Role of supercomputers in magnetic fusion and energy research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1985-06-01

    The importance of computer modeling in magnetic fusion (MFE) and energy research (ER) programs is discussed. The need for the most advanced supercomputers is described, and the role of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center in meeting these needs is explained

  18. Flux-Level Transit Injection Experiments with NASA Pleiades Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    Flux-Level Transit Injection (FLTI) experiments are executed with NASA's Pleiades supercomputer for the Kepler Mission. The latest release (9.3, January 2016) of the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline is used in the FLTI experiments. Their purpose is to validate the Analytic Completeness Model (ACM), which can be computed for all Kepler target stars, thereby enabling exoplanet occurrence rate studies. Pleiades, a facility of NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Division, is one of the world's most powerful supercomputers and represents NASA's state-of-the-art technology. We discuss the details of implementing the FLTI experiments on the Pleiades supercomputer. For example, taking into account that ~16 injections are generated by one core of the Pleiades processors in an hour, the “shallow” FLTI experiment, in which ~2000 injections are required per target star, can be done for 16% of all Kepler target stars in about 200 hours. Stripping down the transit search to bare bones, i.e. only searching adjacent high/low periods at high/low pulse durations, makes the computationally intensive FLTI experiments affordable. The design of the FLTI experiments and the analysis of the resulting data are presented in “Validating an Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments” by Catanzarite et al. (#2494058).Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  19. X-ray imager using solution processed organic transistor arrays and bulk heterojunction photodiodes on thin, flexible plastic substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Kumar, A.; Moet, D.; Steen, J.L. van der; Shafique, U.; Malinowski, P.E.; Myny, K.; Rand, B.P.; Simon, M.; Rütten, W.; Douglas, A.; Jorritsma, J.; Heremans, P.L.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of large-area active-matrix X-ray/photodetector array of high quality using organic photodiodes and organic transistors. All layers with the exception of the electrodes are solution processed. Because it is processed on a very thin plastic substrate

  20. Cas4-Dependent Prespacer Processing Ensures High-Fidelity Programming of CRISPR Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hayun; Zhou, Yi; Taylor, David W; Sashital, Dipali G

    2018-04-05

    CRISPR-Cas immune systems integrate short segments of foreign DNA as spacers into the host CRISPR locus to provide molecular memory of infection. Cas4 proteins are widespread in CRISPR-Cas systems and are thought to participate in spacer acquisition, although their exact function remains unknown. Here we show that Bacillus halodurans type I-C Cas4 is required for efficient prespacer processing prior to Cas1-Cas2-mediated integration. Cas4 interacts tightly with the Cas1 integrase, forming a heterohexameric complex containing two Cas1 dimers and two Cas4 subunits. In the presence of Cas1 and Cas2, Cas4 processes double-stranded substrates with long 3' overhangs through site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage. Cas4 recognizes PAM sequences within the prespacer and prevents integration of unprocessed prespacers, ensuring that only functional spacers will be integrated into the CRISPR array. Our results reveal the critical role of Cas4 in maintaining fidelity during CRISPR adaptation, providing a structural and mechanistic model for prespacer processing and integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic alloy nanowire arrays with different lengths: Insights into the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanifar, S.; Alikhani, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Almasi Kashi, M., E-mail: almac@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Montazer, A.H. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Nanoscale magnetic alloy wires are being actively investigated, providing fundamental insights into tuning properties in magnetic data storage and processing technologies. However, previous studies give trivial information about the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process in alloy nanowires (NWs). Here, magnetic alloy NW arrays with different compositions, composed of Fe, Co and Ni have been electrochemically deposited into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with a pore diameter of approximately 150 nm. Under optimized conditions of alumina barrier layer and deposition bath concentrations, the resulting alloy NWs with aspect ratio and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) up to 550 and 1900 emu cm{sup −3}, respectively, are systematically investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure and magnetic properties. Using angular dependence of coercivity extracted from hysteresis loops, the reversal processes are evaluated, indicating non-monotonic behavior. The crossover angle (θ{sub c}) is found to depend on NW length and M{sub s}. At a constant M{sub s}, increasing NW length decreases θ{sub c}, thereby decreasing the involvement of vortex mode during the magnetization reversal process. On the other hand, decreasing M{sub s} decreases θ{sub c} in large aspect ratio (>300) alloy NWs. Phenomenologically, it is newly found that increasing Ni content in the composition decreases θ{sub c}. The angular first-order reversal curve (AFORC) measurements including the irreversibility of magnetization are also investigated to gain a more detailed insight into θ{sub c}. - Highlights: • Magnetic alloy NWs with aspect ratios up to 550 were fabricated into hard-AAO templates. • Morphology, composition, crystal structure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Angular dependence of coercivity was used to describe the magnetization reversal process. • The crossover angle of magnetization reversal was found to depend on NW length and M{sub s}.

  2. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  3. Low-Noise CMOS Circuits for On-Chip Signal Processing in Focal-Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    The performance of focal-plane arrays can be significantly enhanced through the use of on-chip signal processing. Novel, in-pixel, on-focal-plane, analog signal-processing circuits for high-performance imaging are presented in this thesis. The presence of a high background-radiation is a major impediment for infrared focal-plane array design. An in-pixel, background-suppression scheme, using dynamic analog current memory circuit, is described. The scheme also suppresses spatial noise that results from response non-uniformities of photo-detectors, leading to background limited infrared detector readout performance. Two new, low-power, compact, current memory circuits, optimized for operation at ultra-low current levels required in infrared-detection, are presented. The first one is a self-cascading current memory that increases the output impedance, and the second one is a novel, switch feed-through reducing current memory, implemented using error-current feedback. This circuit can operate with a residual absolute -error of less than 0.1%. The storage-time of the memory is long enough to also find applications in neural network circuits. In addition, a voltage-mode, accurate, low-offset, low-power, high-uniformity, random-access sample-and-hold cell, implemented using a CCD with feedback, is also presented for use in background-suppression and neural network applications. A new, low noise, ultra-low level signal readout technique, implemented by individually counting photo-electrons within the detection pixel, is presented. The output of each unit-cell is a digital word corresponding to the intensity of the photon flux, and the readout is noise free. This technique requires the use of unit-cell amplifiers that feature ultra-high-gain, low-power, self-biasing capability and noise in sub-electron levels. Both single-input and differential-input implementations of such amplifiers are investigated. A noise analysis technique is presented for analyzing sampled

  4. Watson will see you now: a supercomputer to help clinicians make informed treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle-Lindrud, Susan

    2015-02-01

    IBM has collaborated with several cancer care providers to develop and train the IBM supercomputer Watson to help clinicians make informed treatment decisions. When a patient is seen in clinic, the oncologist can input all of the clinical information into the computer system. Watson will then review all of the data and recommend treatment options based on the latest evidence and guidelines. Once the oncologist makes the treatment decision, this information can be sent directly to the insurance company for approval. Watson has the ability to standardize care and accelerate the approval process, a benefit to the healthcare provider and the patient.

  5. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic

  6. A novel, substrate independent three-step process for the growth of uniform ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, D.; McGlynn, E.; Henry, M.O.; Kumar, K.; Hughes, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report a three-step deposition process for uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods, involving chemical bath deposition of aligned seed layers followed by nanorod nucleation sites and subsequent vapour phase transport growth of nanorods. This combines chemical bath deposition techniques, which enable substrate independent seeding and nucleation site generation with vapour phase transport growth of high crystalline and optical quality ZnO nanorod arrays. Our data indicate that the three-step process produces uniform nanorod arrays with narrow and rather monodisperse rod diameters (∼ 70 nm) across substrates of centimetre dimensions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the growth mechanism and characterise the nanostructures.

  7. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  8. Proceedings of the Adaptive Sensor Array Processing Workshop (12th) Held in Lexington, MA on 16-18 March 2004 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, F

    2004-01-01

    ...: The twelfth annual workshop on Adaptive Sensor Array Processing presented a diverse agenda featuring new work on adaptive methods for communications, radar and sonar, algorithmic challenges posed...

  9. Multi-mode sensor processing on a dynamically reconfigurable massively parallel processor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul; Butts, Mike; Budlong, Brad; Wasson, Paul

    2008-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel computing architecture that can be reconfigured in real time to adapt on demand to multi-mode sensor platforms' dynamic computational and functional requirements. This 1 teraOPS reconfigurable Massively Parallel Processor Array (MPPA) has 336 32-bit processors. The programmable 32-bit communication fabric provides streamlined inter-processor connections with deterministically high performance. Software programmability, scalability, ease of use, and fast reconfiguration time (ranging from microseconds to milliseconds) are the most significant advantages over FPGAs and DSPs. This paper introduces the MPPA architecture, its programming model, and methods of reconfigurability. An MPPA platform for reconfigurable computing is based on a structural object programming model. Objects are software programs running concurrently on hundreds of 32-bit RISC processors and memories. They exchange data and control through a network of self-synchronizing channels. A common application design pattern on this platform, called a work farm, is a parallel set of worker objects, with one input and one output stream. Statically configured work farms with homogeneous and heterogeneous sets of workers have been used in video compression and decompression, network processing, and graphics applications.

  10. Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, Clyde [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Karonis, Nicholas [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Lurio, Laurence [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Xiao, Zhili [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Glatz, Andreas [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Pohlman, Nicholas [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Hou, Minmei [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Demir, Veysel [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Song, Jie [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Duffin, Kirk [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Johns, Mitrick [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Sims, Thomas [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Yin, Yanbin [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2012-11-21

    This project establishes an initiative in high speed (Teraflop)/large-memory desktop supercomputing for modeling and simulation of dynamic processes important for energy and industrial applications. It provides a training ground for employment of current students in an emerging field with skills necessary to access the large supercomputing systems now present at DOE laboratories. It also provides a foundation for NIU faculty to quantum leap beyond their current small cluster facilities. The funding extends faculty and student capability to a new level of analytic skills with concomitant publication avenues. The components of the Hewlett Packard computer obtained by the DOE funds create a hybrid combination of a Graphics Processing System (12 GPU/Teraflops) and a Beowulf CPU system (144 CPU), the first expandable via the NIU GAEA system to ~60 Teraflops integrated with a 720 CPU Beowulf system. The software is based on access to the NVIDIA/CUDA library and the ability through MATLAB multiple licenses to create additional local programs. A number of existing programs are being transferred to the CPU Beowulf Cluster. Since the expertise necessary to create the parallel processing applications has recently been obtained at NIU, this effort for software development is in an early stage. The educational program has been initiated via formal tutorials and classroom curricula designed for the coming year. Specifically, the cost focus was on hardware acquisitions and appointment of graduate students for a wide range of applications in engineering, physics and computer science.

  11. Extending ATLAS Computing to Commercial Clouds and Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Filipcic, A; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; Wu, W

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will resume data collection in 2015 with substantially increased computing requirements relative to its first 2009-2013 run. A near doubling of the energy and the data rate, high level of event pile-up, and detector upgrades will mean the number and complexity of events to be analyzed will increase dramatically. A naive extrapolation of the Run 1 experience would suggest that a 5-6 fold increase in computing resources are needed - impossible within the anticipated flat computing budgets in the near future. Consequently ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand its computing to all available resources, notably including opportunistic use of commercial clouds and supercomputers. Such resources present new challenges in managing heterogeneity, supporting data flows, parallelizing workflows, provisioning software, and other aspects of distributed computing, all while minimizing operational load. We will present the ATLAS experience to date with clouds and supercomputers, and des...

  12. Visualizing quantum scattering on the CM-2 supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    We implement parallel algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on the CM-2 supercomputer. These methods are unconditionally stable as well as unitary at each time step and have the advantage of being spatially local and explicit. We show how to visualize the dynamics of quantum scattering using techniques for visualizing complex wave functions. Several scattering problems are solved to demonstrate the use of these methods. (orig.)

  13. Cellular-automata supercomputers for fluid-dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolus, N.; Toffoli, T.; Vichniac, G.

    1986-01-01

    We report recent developments in the modeling of fluid dynamics, and give experimental results (including dynamical exponents) obtained using cellular automata machines. Because of their locality and uniformity, cellular automata lend themselves to an extremely efficient physical realization; with a suitable architecture, an amount of hardware resources comparable to that of a home computer can achieve (in the simulation of cellular automata) the performance of a conventional supercomputer

  14. Porting Ordinary Applications to Blue Gene/Q Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, Ketan C.; Wozniak, Justin M.; Armstrong, Timothy; Katz, Daniel S.; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Wilde, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Efficiently porting ordinary applications to Blue Gene/Q supercomputers is a significant challenge. Codes are often originally developed without considering advanced architectures and related tool chains. Science needs frequently lead users to want to run large numbers of relatively small jobs (often called many-task computing, an ensemble, or a workflow), which can conflict with supercomputer configurations. In this paper, we discuss techniques developed to execute ordinary applications over leadership class supercomputers. We use the high-performance Swift parallel scripting framework and build two workflow execution techniques-sub-jobs and main-wrap. The sub-jobs technique, built on top of the IBM Blue Gene/Q resource manager Cobalt's sub-block jobs, lets users submit multiple, independent, repeated smaller jobs within a single larger resource block. The main-wrap technique is a scheme that enables C/C++ programs to be defined as functions that are wrapped by a high-performance Swift wrapper and that are invoked as a Swift script. We discuss the needs, benefits, technicalities, and current limitations of these techniques. We further discuss the real-world science enabled by these techniques and the results obtained.

  15. Proceedings of the first energy research power supercomputer users symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Research Power Supercomputer Users Symposium was arranged to showcase the richness of science that has been pursued and accomplished in this program through the use of supercomputers and now high performance parallel computers over the last year: this report is the collection of the presentations given at the Symposium. ''Power users'' were invited by the ER Supercomputer Access Committee to show that the use of these computational tools and the associated data communications network, ESNet, go beyond merely speeding up computations. Today the work often directly contributes to the advancement of the conceptual developments in their fields and the computational and network resources form the very infrastructure of today's science. The Symposium also provided an opportunity, which is rare in this day of network access to computing resources, for the invited users to compare and discuss their techniques and approaches with those used in other ER disciplines. The significance of new parallel architectures was highlighted by the interesting evening talk given by Dr. Stephen Orszag of Princeton University

  16. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  17. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    primarily the result of spurious identification and incorrect association of phases, and of excessive variability in estimates for the velocity and direction of incoming seismic phases. The mitigation of these causes has led to the development of two complimentary techniques for classifying seismic sources by testing detected signals under mutually exclusive event hypotheses. Both of these techniques require appropriate calibration data from the region to be monitored, and are therefore ideally suited to mining areas or other sites with recurring seismicity. The first such technique is a classification and location algorithm where a template is designed for each site being monitored which defines which phases should be observed, and at which times, for all available regional array stations. For each phase, the variability of measurements (primarily the azimuth and apparent velocity) from previous events is examined and it is determined which processing parameters (array configuration, data window length, frequency band) provide the most stable results. This allows us to define optimal diagnostic tests for subsequent occurrences of the phase in question. The calibration of templates for this project revealed significant results with major implications for seismic processing in both automatic and analyst reviewed contexts: • one or more fixed frequency bands should be chosen for each phase tested for. • the frequency band providing the most stable parameter estimates varies from site to site and a frequency band which provides optimal measurements for one site may give substantially worse measurements for a nearby site. • slowness corrections applied depend strongly on the frequency band chosen. • the frequency band providing the most stable estimates is often neither the band providing the greatest SNR nor the band providing the best array gain. For this reason, the automatic template location estimates provided here are frequently far better than those obtained by

  18. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    primarily the result of spurious identification and incorrect association of phases, and of excessive variability in estimates for the velocity and direction of incoming seismic phases. The mitigation of these causes has led to the development of two complimentary techniques for classifying seismic sources by testing detected signals under mutually exclusive event hypotheses. Both of these techniques require appropriate calibration data from the region to be monitored, and are therefore ideally suited to mining areas or other sites with recurring seismicity. The first such technique is a classification and location algorithm where a template is designed for each site being monitored which defines which phases should be observed, and at which times, for all available regional array stations. For each phase, the variability of measurements (primarily the azimuth and apparent velocity) from previous events is examined and it is determined which processing parameters (array configuration, data window length, frequency band) provide the most stable results. This allows us to define optimal diagnostic tests for subsequent occurrences of the phase in question. The calibration of templates for this project revealed significant results with major implications for seismic processing in both automatic and analyst reviewed contexts: (1) one or more fixed frequency bands should be chosen for each phase tested for; (2) the frequency band providing the most stable parameter estimates varies from site to site and a frequency band which provides optimal measurements for one site may give substantially worse measurements for a nearby site; (3) slowness corrections applied depend strongly on the frequency band chosen; (4) the frequency band providing the most stable estimates is often neither the band providing the greatest SNR nor the band providing the best array gain. For this reason, the automatic template location estimates provided here are frequently far better than those obtained by

  19. Argonne Leadership Computing Facility 2011 annual report : Shaping future supercomputing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papka, M.; Messina, P.; Coffey, R.; Drugan, C. (LCF)

    2012-08-16

    The ALCF's Early Science Program aims to prepare key applications for the architecture and scale of Mira and to solidify libraries and infrastructure that will pave the way for other future production applications. Two billion core-hours have been allocated to 16 Early Science projects on Mira. The projects, in addition to promising delivery of exciting new science, are all based on state-of-the-art, petascale, parallel applications. The project teams, in collaboration with ALCF staff and IBM, have undertaken intensive efforts to adapt their software to take advantage of Mira's Blue Gene/Q architecture, which, in a number of ways, is a precursor to future high-performance-computing architecture. The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) enables transformative science that solves some of the most difficult challenges in biology, chemistry, energy, climate, materials, physics, and other scientific realms. Users partnering with ALCF staff have reached research milestones previously unattainable, due to the ALCF's world-class supercomputing resources and expertise in computation science. In 2011, the ALCF's commitment to providing outstanding science and leadership-class resources was honored with several prestigious awards. Research on multiscale brain blood flow simulations was named a Gordon Bell Prize finalist. Intrepid, the ALCF's BG/P system, ranked No. 1 on the Graph 500 list for the second consecutive year. The next-generation BG/Q prototype again topped the Green500 list. Skilled experts at the ALCF enable researchers to conduct breakthrough science on the Blue Gene system in key ways. The Catalyst Team matches project PIs with experienced computational scientists to maximize and accelerate research in their specific scientific domains. The Performance Engineering Team facilitates the effective use of applications on the Blue Gene system by assessing and improving the algorithms used by applications and the techniques used to

  20. Process-morphology scaling relations quantify self-organization in capillary densified nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ashley L; Stein, Itai Y; Cui, Kehang; Wardle, Brian L

    2018-02-07

    Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern. Both experiments and models show that further tuning of the cellular pattern is possible by altering the NF-substrate adhesion strength, which could enable the broad use of this facile approach to predictably pattern NF arrays for high value applications.

  1. A supercomputer for parallel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.; Senner, A.E.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The project of a powerful multiprocessor system is proposed. The main purpose of the project is to develop a low cost computer system with a processing rate of a few tens of millions of operations per second. The system solves many problems of data analysis from high-energy physics spectrometers. It includes about 70 MOTOROLA-68020 based powerful slave microprocessor boards liaisoned through the VME crates to a host VAX micro computer. Each single microprocessor board performs the same algorithm requiring large computing time. The host computer distributes data over the microprocessor board, collects and combines obtained results. The architecture of the system easily allows one to use it in the real time mode

  2. Communication Characterization and Optimization of Applications Using Topology-Aware Task Mapping on Large Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreepathi, Sarat [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    On large supercomputers, the job scheduling systems may assign a non-contiguous node allocation for user applications depending on available resources. With parallel applications using MPI (Message Passing Interface), the default process ordering does not take into account the actual physical node layout available to the application. This contributes to non-locality in terms of physical network topology and impacts communication performance of the application. In order to mitigate such performance penalties, this work describes techniques to identify suitable task mapping that takes the layout of the allocated nodes as well as the application's communication behavior into account. During the first phase of this research, we instrumented and collected performance data to characterize communication behavior of critical US DOE (United States - Department of Energy) applications using an augmented version of the mpiP tool. Subsequently, we developed several reordering methods (spectral bisection, neighbor join tree etc.) to combine node layout and application communication data for optimized task placement. We developed a tool called mpiAproxy to facilitate detailed evaluation of the various reordering algorithms without requiring full application executions. This work presents a comprehensive performance evaluation (14,000 experiments) of the various task mapping techniques in lowering communication costs on Titan, the leadership class supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Computational Science with the Titan Supercomputer: Early Outcomes and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Modeling and simulation with petascale computing has supercharged the process of innovation and understanding, dramatically accelerating time-to-insight and time-to-discovery. This presentation will focus on early outcomes from the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Titan has over 18,000 hybrid compute nodes consisting of both CPUs and GPUs. In this presentation, I will discuss the lessons we have learned in deploying Titan and preparing applications to move from conventional CPU architectures to a hybrid machine. I will present early results of materials applications running on Titan and the implications for the research community as we prepare for exascale supercomputer in the next decade. Lastly, I will provide an overview of user programs at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility with specific information how researchers may apply for allocations of computing resources. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Parallel Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Large Ecological Datasets on Hybrid Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreepathi, Sarat [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Mills, Richard T. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL; Sripathi, Vamsi [Intel Corporation; Hargrove, William Walter [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS)

    2017-09-01

    A proliferation of data from vast networks of remote sensing platforms (satellites, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), airborne etc.), observational facilities (meteorological, eddy covariance etc.), state-of-the-art sensors, and simulation models offer unprecedented opportunities for scientific discovery. Unsupervised classification is a widely applied data mining approach to derive insights from such data. However, classification of very large data sets is a complex computational problem that requires efficient numerical algorithms and implementations on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. Additionally, increasing power, space, cooling and efficiency requirements has led to the deployment of hybrid supercomputing platforms with complex architectures and memory hierarchies like the Titan system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The advent of such accelerated computing architectures offers new challenges and opportunities for big data analytics in general and specifically, large scale cluster analysis in our case. Although there is an existing body of work on parallel cluster analysis, those approaches do not fully meet the needs imposed by the nature and size of our large data sets. Moreover, they had scaling limitations and were mostly limited to traditional distributed memory computing platforms. We present a parallel Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering (MSTC) technique based on k-means cluster analysis that can target hybrid supercomputers like Titan. We developed a hybrid MPI, CUDA and OpenACC implementation that can utilize both CPU and GPU resources on computational nodes. We describe performance results on Titan that demonstrate the scalability and efficacy of our approach in processing large ecological data sets.

  5. Uniform illumination rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongming; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Rietman, R.

    2009-01-01

    An array of a large number of LEDs will be widely used in future indoor illumination systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of rendering uniform illumination by a regular LED array on the ceiling of a room. We first present two general results on the scaling property of the basic illumination pattern, i.e., the light pattern of a single LED, and the setting of LED illumination levels, respectively. Thereafter, we propose to use the relative mean squared error as the cost function ...

  6. Applications of supercomputing and the utility industry: Calculation of power transfer capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Behling, S.R.; Betancourt, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models and iterative simulation using supercomputers can furnish cost-effective answers to utility industry problems that are all but intractable using conventional computing equipment. An example of the use of supercomputers by the utility industry is the determination of power transfer capability limits for power transmission systems. This work has the goal of markedly reducing the run time of transient stability codes used to determine power distributions following major system disturbances. To date, run times of several hours on a conventional computer have been reduced to several minutes on state-of-the-art supercomputers, with further improvements anticipated to reduce run times to less than a minute. In spite of the potential advantages of supercomputers, few utilities have sufficient need for a dedicated in-house supercomputing capability. This problem is resolved using a supercomputer center serving a geographically distributed user base coupled via high speed communication networks

  7. Supercomputer modeling of volcanic eruption dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, S.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Woo, Mahn-Ling [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Our specific goals are to: (1) provide a set of models based on well-defined assumptions about initial and boundary conditions to constrain interpretations of observations of active volcanic eruptions--including movies of flow front velocities, satellite observations of temperature in plumes vs. time, and still photographs of the dimensions of erupting plumes and flows on Earth and other planets; (2) to examine the influence of subsurface conditions on exit plane conditions and plume characteristics, and to compare the models of subsurface fluid flow with seismic constraints where possible; (3) to relate equations-of-state for magma-gas mixtures to flow dynamics; (4) to examine, in some detail, the interaction of the flowing fluid with the conduit walls and ground topography through boundary layer theory so that field observations of erosion and deposition can be related to fluid processes; and (5) to test the applicability of existing two-phase flow codes for problems related to the generation of volcanic long-period seismic signals; (6) to extend our understanding and simulation capability to problems associated with emplacement of fragmental ejecta from large meteorite impacts.

  8. Dust modelling and forecasting in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center: Activities and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Jimenez-Guerrero, P; Jorba, O; Haustein, K; Basart, S [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center. Barcelona (Spain); Cuevas, E [Izanaa Atmospheric Research Center. Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: carlos.perez@bsc.es

    2009-03-01

    The Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) is the National Supercomputer Facility in Spain, hosting MareNostrum, one of the most powerful Supercomputers in Europe. The Earth Sciences Department of BSC operates daily regional dust and air quality forecasts and conducts intensive modelling research for short-term operational prediction. This contribution summarizes the latest developments and current activities in the field of sand and dust storm modelling and forecasting.

  9. Dust modelling and forecasting in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center: Activities and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Jimenez-Guerrero, P; Jorba, O; Haustein, K; Basart, S; Cuevas, E; Nickovic, S

    2009-01-01

    The Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) is the National Supercomputer Facility in Spain, hosting MareNostrum, one of the most powerful Supercomputers in Europe. The Earth Sciences Department of BSC operates daily regional dust and air quality forecasts and conducts intensive modelling research for short-term operational prediction. This contribution summarizes the latest developments and current activities in the field of sand and dust storm modelling and forecasting.

  10. Reliability Lessons Learned From GPU Experience With The Titan Supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallarno, George [Christian Brothers University; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The high computational capability of graphics processing units (GPUs) is enabling and driving the scientific discovery process at large-scale. The world s second fastest supercomputer for open science, Titan, has more than 18,000 GPUs that computational scientists use to perform scientific simu- lations and data analysis. Understanding of GPU reliability characteristics, however, is still in its nascent stage since GPUs have only recently been deployed at large-scale. This paper presents a detailed study of GPU errors and their impact on system operations and applications, describing experiences with the 18,688 GPUs on the Titan supercom- puter as well as lessons learned in the process of efficient operation of GPUs at scale. These experiences are helpful to HPC sites which already have large-scale GPU clusters or plan to deploy GPUs in the future.

  11. Processing And Display Of Medical Three Dimensional Arrays Of Numerical Data Using Octree Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amans, Jean-Louis; Darier, Pierre

    1986-05-01

    imaging modalities such as X-Ray computerized Tomography (CT), Nuclear Medecine and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can produce three-dimensional (3-D) arrays of numerical data of medical object internal structures. The analysis of 3-D data by synthetic generation of realistic images is an important area of computer graphics and imaging.

  12. Mathematical analysis of the real time array PCR (RTA PCR) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Johan Frederik; Pierik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Real time array PCR (RTA PCR) is a recently developed biochemical technique that measures amplification curves (like with quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT PCR)) of a multitude of different templates in a sample. It combines two different methods in order to profit from the

  13. Co-Prime Frequency and Aperture Design for HF Surveillance, Wideband Radar Imaging, and Nonstationary Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-10

    circuit boards. A computational electromagnetics software package, FEKO [24], is used to model the antenna arrays, and the RMIM [12] is used to...Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications Systems, Chengdu, China, 2010. [24] FEKO Suite 6.3, EM Software & Systems- S.A. (Pty) Ltd...including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and

  14. Performance Evaluation of Supercomputers using HPCC and IMB Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Ciotti, Robert; Gunney, Brian T. N.; Spelce, Thomas E.; Koniges, Alice; Dossa, Don; Adamidis, Panagiotis; Rabenseifner, Rolf; Tiyyagura, Sunil R.; Mueller, Matthias; hide

    2006-01-01

    The HPC Challenge (HPCC) benchmark suite and the Intel MPI Benchmark (IMB) are used to compare and evaluate the combined performance of processor, memory subsystem and interconnect fabric of five leading supercomputers - SGI Altix BX2, Cray XI, Cray Opteron Cluster, Dell Xeon cluster, and NEC SX-8. These five systems use five different networks (SGI NUMALINK4, Cray network, Myrinet, InfiniBand, and NEC IXS). The complete set of HPCC benchmarks are run on each of these systems. Additionally, we present Intel MPI Benchmarks (IMB) results to study the performance of 11 MPI communication functions on these systems.

  15. A fast random number generator for the Intel Paragon supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    1995-06-01

    A pseudo-random number generator is presented which makes optimal use of the architecture of the i860-microprocessor and which is expected to have a very long period. It is therefore a good candidate for use on the parallel supercomputer Paragon XP. In the assembler version, it needs 6.4 cycles for a real∗4 random number. There is a FORTRAN routine which yields identical numbers up to rare and minor rounding discrepancies, and it needs 28 cycles. The FORTRAN performance on other microprocessors is somewhat better. Arguments for the quality of the generator and some numerical tests are given.

  16. Real-time data acquisition and parallel data processing solution for TJ-II Bolometer arrays diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, S. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Machon, D. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km. 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ochando, M. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    Maps of local plasma emissivity of TJ-II plasmas are determined using three-array cameras of silicon photodiodes (AXUV type from IRD). They have assigned the top and side ports of the same sector of the vacuum vessel. Each array consists of 20 unfiltered detectors. The signals from each of these detectors are the inputs to an iterative algorithm of tomographic reconstruction. Currently, these signals are acquired by a PXI standard system at approximately 50 kS/s, with 12 bits of resolution and are stored for off-line processing. A 0.5 s discharge generates 3 Mbytes of raw data. The algorithm's load exceeds the CPU capacity of the PXI system's controller in a continuous mode, making unfeasible to process the samples in parallel with their acquisition in a PXI standard system. A new architecture model has been developed, making possible to add one or several processing cards to a standard PXI system. With this model, it is possible to define how to distribute, in real-time, the data from all acquired signals in the system among the processing cards and the PXI controller. This way, by distributing the data processing among the system controller and two processing cards, the data processing can be done in parallel with the acquisition. Hence, this system configuration would be able to measure even in long pulse devices.

  17. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  18. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due-Hansen, J; Poppe, E; Summanwar, A; Jensen, G U; Breivik, L; Wang, D T; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K; Midtbø, K

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging. (paper)

  19. Conversion of electromagnetic energy in Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays at 1.5 MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangping, Wang; Mo, Li; Juanjuan, Han; Ning, Guo; Jian, Wu; Aici, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic energy conversion in the Z-pinch process of single planar wire arrays was studied on Qiangguang generator (1.5 MA, 100 ns). Electrical diagnostics were established to monitor the voltage of the cathode-anode gap and the load current for calculating the electromagnetic energy. Lumped-element circuit model of wire arrays was employed to analyze the electromagnetic energy conversion. Inductance as well as resistance of a wire array during the Z-pinch process was also investigated. Experimental data indicate that the electromagnetic energy is mainly converted to magnetic energy and kinetic energy and ohmic heating energy can be neglected before the final stagnation. The kinetic energy can be responsible for the x-ray radiation before the peak power. After the stagnation, the electromagnetic energy coupled by the load continues increasing and the resistance of the load achieves its maximum of 0.6–1.0 Ω in about 10–20 ns

  20. Optimal control of stretching process of flexible solar arrays on spacecraft based on a hybrid optimization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijia Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control of multibody spacecraft during the stretching process of solar arrays is investigated, and a hybrid optimization strategy based on Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and direct shooting method (DSM is presented. First, the elastic deformation of flexible solar arrays was described approximately by the assumed mode method, and a dynamic model was established by the second Lagrangian equation. Then, the nonholonomic motion planning problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem by using GPM. By giving fewer LG points, initial values of the state variables and control variables were obtained. A serial optimization framework was adopted to obtain the approximate optimal solution from a feasible solution. Finally, the control variables were discretized at LG points, and the precise optimal control inputs were obtained by DSM. The optimal trajectory of the system can be obtained through numerical integration. Through numerical simulation, the stretching process of solar arrays is stable with no detours, and the control inputs match the various constraints of actual conditions. The results indicate that the method is effective with good robustness. Keywords: Motion planning, Multibody spacecraft, Optimal control, Gauss pseudospectral method, Direct shooting method

  1. Fully Integrated Linear Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) Array with Parallel Readout Circuit in a Standard 180 nm CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, S.; Bull, S.; Pitter, M. C.; Harrison, Ian.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SPAD device and its subsequent use in an actively quenched single photon counting imaging system, and was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. A low-doped p- guard ring (t-well layer) encircling the active area to prevent the premature reverse breakdown. The array is a 16×1 parallel output SPAD array, which comprises of an active quenched SPAD circuit in each pixel with the current value being set by an external resistor RRef = 300 kΩ. The SPAD I-V response, ID was found to slowly increase until VBD was reached at excess bias voltage, Ve = 11.03 V, and then rapidly increase due to avalanche multiplication. Digital circuitry to control the SPAD array and perform the necessary data processing was designed in VHDL and implemented on a FPGA chip. At room temperature, the dark count was found to be approximately 13 KHz for most of the 16 SPAD pixels and the dead time was estimated to be 40 ns.

  2. Maximum-likelihood methods for array processing based on time-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Mu, Weifeng; Amin, Moeness G.

    1999-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel time-frequency maximum likelihood (t-f ML) method for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for non- stationary signals, and compares this method with conventional maximum likelihood DOA estimation techniques. Time-frequency distributions localize the signal power in the time-frequency domain, and as such enhance the effective SNR, leading to improved DOA estimation. The localization of signals with different t-f signatures permits the division of the time-frequency domain into smaller regions, each contains fewer signals than those incident on the array. The reduction of the number of signals within different time-frequency regions not only reduces the required number of sensors, but also decreases the computational load in multi- dimensional optimizations. Compared to the recently proposed time- frequency MUSIC (t-f MUSIC), the proposed t-f ML method can be applied in coherent environments, without the need to perform any type of preprocessing that is subject to both array geometry and array aperture.

  3. Centralized supercomputer support for magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, D.; Tull, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed computers with large memories are vital to magnetic fusion energy research. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), transport, equilibrium, Vlasov, particle, and Fokker-Planck codes that model plasma behavior play an important role in designing experimental hardware and interpreting the resulting data, as well as in advancing plasma theory itself. The size, architecture, and software of supercomputers to run these codes are often the crucial constraints on the benefits such computational modeling can provide. Hence, vector computers such as the CRAY-1 offer a valuable research resource. To meet the computational needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established in 1974 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Supercomputers at the central computing facility are linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major fusion laboratories by a satellite communication network. In addition to providing large-scale computing, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes and data among the many fusion researchers in a cost-effective manner

  4. Plane-wave electronic structure calculations on a parallel supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.S.; Plimpton, S.J.; Sears, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The development of iterative solutions of Schrodinger's equation in a plane-wave (pw) basis over the last several years has coincided with great advances in the computational power available for performing the calculations. These dual developments have enabled many new and interesting condensed matter phenomena to be studied from a first-principles approach. The authors present a detailed description of the implementation on a parallel supercomputer (hypercube) of the first-order equation-of-motion solution to Schrodinger's equation, using plane-wave basis functions and ab initio separable pseudopotentials. By distributing the plane-waves across the processors of the hypercube many of the computations can be performed in parallel, resulting in decreases in the overall computation time relative to conventional vector supercomputers. This partitioning also provides ample memory for large Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) meshes and the storage of plane-wave coefficients for many hundreds of energy bands. The usefulness of the parallel techniques is demonstrated by benchmark timings for both the FFT's and iterations of the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's equation for different sized Si unit cells of up to 512 atoms

  5. The TeraGyroid Experiment – Supercomputing 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Blake

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphiles are molecules with hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads. When dispersed in solvents, they self assemble into complex mesophases including the beautiful cubic gyroid phase. The goal of the TeraGyroid experiment was to study defect pathways and dynamics in these gyroids. The UK's supercomputing and USA's TeraGrid facilities were coupled together, through a dedicated high-speed network, into a single computational Grid for research work that peaked around the Supercomputing 2003 conference. The gyroids were modeled using lattice Boltzmann methods with parameter spaces explored using many 1283 and 3grid point simulations, this data being used to inform the world's largest three-dimensional time dependent simulation with 10243-grid points. The experiment generated some 2 TBytes of useful data. In terms of Grid technology the project demonstrated the migration of simulations (using Globus middleware to and fro across the Atlantic exploiting the availability of resources. Integration of the systems accelerated the time to insight. Distributed visualisation of the output datasets enabled the parameter space of the interactions within the complex fluid to be explored from a number of sites, informed by discourse over the Access Grid. The project was sponsored by EPSRC (UK and NSF (USA with trans-Atlantic optical bandwidth provided by British Telecommunications.

  6. Simulation of x-rays in refractive structure by the Monte Carlo method using the supercomputer SKIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaskevich, Yu.R.; Kravchenko, O.I.; Soroka, I.I.; Chembrovskij, A.G.; Kolesnik, A.S.; Serikova, N.V.; Petrov, P.V.; Kol'chevskij, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Software 'Xray-SKIF' for the simulation of the X-rays in refractive structures by the Monte-Carlo method using the supercomputer SKIF BSU are developed. The program generates a large number of rays propagated from a source to the refractive structure. The ray trajectory under assumption of geometrical optics is calculated. Absorption is calculated for each ray inside of refractive structure. Dynamic arrays are used for results of calculation rays parameters, its restore the X-ray field distributions very fast at different position of detector. It was found that increasing the number of processors leads to proportional decreasing of calculation time: simulation of 10 8 X-rays using supercomputer with the number of processors from 1 to 30 run-times equal 3 hours and 6 minutes, respectively. 10 9 X-rays are calculated by software 'Xray-SKIF' which allows to reconstruct the X-ray field after refractive structure with a special resolution of 1 micron. (authors)

  7. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  8. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  9. High Temporal Resolution Mapping of Seismic Noise Sources Using Heterogeneous Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, P.; Gokhberg, A.; Ermert, L. A.; Fichtner, A.

    2017-12-01

    The time- and space-dependent distribution of seismic noise sources is becoming a key ingredient of modern real-time monitoring of various geo-systems like earthquake fault zones, volcanoes, geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We present results of an ongoing research project conducted in collaboration with the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS). The project aims at building a service providing seismic noise source maps for Central Europe with high temporal resolution. We use source imaging methods based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise records from all seismic stations available in the region of interest. The service is hosted on the CSCS computing infrastructure; all computationally intensive processing is performed on the massively parallel heterogeneous supercomputer "Piz Daint". The solution architecture is based on the Application-as-a-Service concept to provide the interested researchers worldwide with regular access to the noise source maps. The solution architecture includes the following sub-systems: (1) data acquisition responsible for collecting, on a periodic basis, raw seismic records from the European seismic networks, (2) high-performance noise source mapping application responsible for the generation of source maps using cross-correlation of seismic records, (3) back-end infrastructure for the coordination of various tasks and computations, (4) front-end Web interface providing the service to the end-users and (5) data repository. The noise source mapping itself rests on the measurement of logarithmic amplitude ratios in suitably pre-processed noise correlations, and the use of simplified sensitivity kernels. During the implementation we addressed various challenges, in particular, selection of data sources and transfer protocols, automation and monitoring of daily data downloads, ensuring the required data processing performance, design of a general service-oriented architecture for coordination of various sub-systems, and

  10. KfK-seminar series on supercomputing und visualization from May till September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenhinnebusch, W.

    1993-05-01

    During the period of may 1992 to september 1992 a series of seminars was held at KfK on several topics of supercomputing in different fields of application. The aim was to demonstrate the importance of supercomputing and visualization in numerical simulations of complex physical and technical phenomena. This report contains the collection of all submitted seminar papers. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Comprehensive efficiency analysis of supercomputer resource usage based on system monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, A. A.; Shaykhislamov, D. I.; Voevodin, Vad V.; Zhumatiy, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    One of the main problems of modern supercomputers is the low efficiency of their usage, which leads to the significant idle time of computational resources, and, in turn, to the decrease in speed of scientific research. This paper presents three approaches to study the efficiency of supercomputer resource usage based on monitoring data analysis. The first approach performs an analysis of computing resource utilization statistics, which allows to identify different typical classes of programs, to explore the structure of the supercomputer job flow and to track overall trends in the supercomputer behavior. The second approach is aimed specifically at analyzing off-the-shelf software packages and libraries installed on the supercomputer, since efficiency of their usage is becoming an increasingly important factor for the efficient functioning of the entire supercomputer. Within the third approach, abnormal jobs – jobs with abnormally inefficient behavior that differs significantly from the standard behavior of the overall supercomputer job flow – are being detected. For each approach, the results obtained in practice in the Supercomputer Center of Moscow State University are demonstrated.

  12. A Spatiotemporal Indexing Approach for Efficient Processing of Big Array-Based Climate Data with MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlong; Hu, Fei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Lee, Tsengdar; Bowen, Michael K.; Yang, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are producing vast amounts of array-based spatiotemporal data. Efficient processing of these data is essential for assessing global challenges such as climate change, natural disasters, and diseases. This is challenging not only because of the large data volume, but also because of the intrinsic high-dimensional nature of geoscience data. To tackle this challenge, we propose a spatiotemporal indexing approach to efficiently manage and process big climate data with MapReduce in a highly scalable environment. Using this approach, big climate data are directly stored in a Hadoop Distributed File System in its original, native file format. A spatiotemporal index is built to bridge the logical array-based data model and the physical data layout, which enables fast data retrieval when performing spatiotemporal queries. Based on the index, a data-partitioning algorithm is applied to enable MapReduce to achieve high data locality, as well as balancing the workload. The proposed indexing approach is evaluated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. The experimental results show that the index can significantly accelerate querying and processing (10 speedup compared to the baseline test using the same computing cluster), while keeping the index-to-data ratio small (0.0328). The applicability of the indexing approach is demonstrated by a climate anomaly detection deployed on a NASA Hadoop cluster. This approach is also able to support efficient processing of general array-based spatiotemporal data in various geoscience domains without special configuration on a Hadoop cluster.

  13. A Novel Self-aligned and Maskless Process for Formation of Highly Uniform Arrays of Nanoholes and Nanopillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFabrication of a large area of periodic structures with deep sub-wavelength features is required in many applications such as solar cells, photonic crystals, and artificial kidneys. We present a low-cost and high-throughput process for realization of 2D arrays of deep sub-wavelength features using a self-assembled monolayer of hexagonally close packed (HCP silica and polystyrene microspheres. This method utilizes the microspheres as super-lenses to fabricate nanohole and pillar arrays over large areas on conventional positive and negative photoresist, and with a high aspect ratio. The period and diameter of the holes and pillars formed with this technique can be controlled precisely and independently. We demonstrate that the method can produce HCP arrays of hole of sub-250 nm size using a conventional photolithography system with a broadband UV source centered at 400 nm. We also present our 3D FDTD modeling, which shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Solution-Processed Wide-Bandgap Organic Semiconductor Nanostructures Arrays for Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Yi, Mingdong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wenjun; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the development of organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory device based on isolated and ordered nanostructures (NSs) arrays of wide-bandgap (WBG) small-molecule organic semiconductor material [2-(9-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)thiophene]3 (WG 3 ) is reported. The WG 3 NSs are prepared from phase separation by spin-coating blend solutions of WG 3 /trimethylolpropane (TMP), and then introduced as charge storage elements for nonvolatile OFET memory devices. Compared to the OFET memory device with smooth WG 3 film, the device based on WG 3 NSs arrays exhibits significant improvements in memory performance including larger memory window (≈45 V), faster switching speed (≈1 s), stable retention capability (>10 4 s), and reliable switching properties. A quantitative study of the WG 3 NSs morphology reveals that enhanced memory performance is attributed to the improved charge trapping/charge-exciton annihilation efficiency induced by increased contact area between the WG 3 NSs and pentacene layer. This versatile solution-processing approach to preparing WG 3 NSs arrays as charge trapping sites allows for fabrication of high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices, which could be applicable to a wide range of WBG organic semiconductor materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nanofabrication and characterization of ZnO nanorod arrays and branched microrods by aqueous solution route and rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Chai, Guangyu; Roldan, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed; Schulte, Alfons; Heinrich, Helge

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive and fast fabrication method for one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and branched two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) - nanoarchitectures. Our synthesis technique includes the use of an aqueous solution route and post-growth rapid thermal annealing. It permits rapid and controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays of 1D - rods, 2D - crosses, and 3D - tetrapods without the use of templates or seeds. The obtained ZnO nanorods are uniformly distributed on the surface of Si substrates and individual or branched nano/microrods can be easily transferred to other substrates. Process parameters such as concentration, temperature and time, type of substrate and the reactor design are critical for the formation of nanorod arrays with thin diameter and transferable nanoarchitectures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the samples

  16. Affordable and accurate large-scale hybrid-functional calculations on GPU-accelerated supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Laura E.; Degomme, A.; Flores-Livas, José A.; Goedecker, Stefan; Genovese, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    Performing high accuracy hybrid functional calculations for condensed matter systems containing a large number of atoms is at present computationally very demanding or even out of reach if high quality basis sets are used. We present a highly optimized multiple graphics processing unit implementation of the exact exchange operator which allows one to perform fast hybrid functional density-functional theory (DFT) calculations with systematic basis sets without additional approximations for up to a thousand atoms. With this method hybrid DFT calculations of high quality become accessible on state-of-the-art supercomputers within a time-to-solution that is of the same order of magnitude as traditional semilocal-GGA functionals. The method is implemented in a portable open-source library.

  17. Automatic discovery of the communication network topology for building a supercomputer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Sergey; Stefanov, Konstantin; Voevodin, Vadim

    2016-10-01

    The Research Computing Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University is developing the Octotron software suite for automatic monitoring and mitigation of emergency situations in supercomputers so as to maximize hardware reliability. The suite is based on a software model of the supercomputer. The model uses a graph to describe the computing system components and their interconnections. One of the most complex components of a supercomputer that needs to be included in the model is its communication network. This work describes the proposed approach for automatically discovering the Ethernet communication network topology in a supercomputer and its description in terms of the Octotron model. This suite automatically detects computing nodes and switches, collects information about them and identifies their interconnections. The application of this approach is demonstrated on the "Lomonosov" and "Lomonosov-2" supercomputers.

  18. A new process for fabricating nanodot arrays on selective regions with diblock copolymer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-12

    A procedure for micropatterning a single layer of nanodot arrays in selective regions is demonstrated by using thin films of polystyrene-b-poly(t-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) diblock copolymer. The thin-film self-assembled into hexagonally arranged PtBA nanodomains in a PS matrix on a substrate by solvent annealing with 1,4-dioxane. The PtBA nanodomains were converted into poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) having carboxylic-acid-functionalized nanodomains by exposure to hydrochloric acid vapor, or were removed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to generate vacant sites without any functional groups due to the elimination of PtBA domains. By sequential treatment with aqueous sodium bicarbonate and aqueous zinc acetate solution, zinc cations were selectively loaded only on the carboxylic-acid-functionalized nanodomains prepared via hydrolysis. Macroscopic patterning through a photomask via UV irradiation, hydrolysis, sequential zinc cation loading and calcination left a nanodot array of zinc oxide on a selectively UV-shaded region.

  19. SOFTWARE FOR SUPERCOMPUTER SKIF “ProLit-lC” and “ProNRS-lC” FOR FOUNDRY AND METALLURGICAL PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of modeling on supercomputer system SKIF of technological process of  molds filling by means of computer system 'ProLIT-lc', and also data of modeling of the steel pouring process by means ofTroNRS-lc'are presented. The influence of number of  processors of  multinuclear computer system SKIF on acceleration and time of  modeling of technological processes, connected with production of castings and slugs, is shown.

  20. Free-running ADC- and FPGA-based signal processing method for brain PET using GAPD arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Key Jo [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin Ho [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Youn Suk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Keong; Kim, Sang Su [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Tae [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yonghyun [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Health Science, 234 Meaji, Heungup Wonju, Kangwon-Do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Currently, for most photomultiplier tube (PMT)-based PET systems, constant fraction discriminators (CFD) and time to digital converters (TDC) have been employed to detect gamma ray signal arrival time, whereas anger logic circuits and peak detection analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have been implemented to acquire position and energy information of detected events. As compared to PMT the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) have a variety of advantages, such as compactness, low bias voltage requirement and MRI compatibility. Furthermore, the individual read-out method using a GAPD array coupled 1:1 with an array scintillator can provide better image uniformity than can be achieved using PMT and anger logic circuits. Recently, a brain PET using 72 GAPD arrays (4 Multiplication-Sign 4 array, pixel size: 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm) coupled 1:1 with LYSO scintillators (4 Multiplication-Sign 4 array, pixel size: 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm) has been developed for simultaneous PET/MRI imaging in our laboratory. Eighteen 64:1 position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to reduce GAPD channel number and three off-the-shelf free-running ADC and field programmable gate array (FPGA) combined data acquisition (DAQ) cards were used for data acquisition and processing. In this study, a free-running ADC- and FPGA-based signal processing method was developed for the detection of gamma ray signal arrival time, energy and position information all together for each GAPD channel. For the method developed herein, three DAQ cards continuously acquired 18 channels of pre-amplified analog gamma ray signals and 108-bit digital addresses from 18 PDCs. In the FPGA, the digitized gamma ray pulses and digital addresses were processed to generate data packages containing pulse arrival time, baseline value, energy value and GAPD channel ID. Finally, these data packages were saved to a 128 Mbyte on-board synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) and

  1. Scalable stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror for astronomy and laser processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L., E-mail: K.L.Wlodarczyk@hw.ac.uk; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Bryce, Emma; Hutson, David; Kirk, Katherine [School of Engineering and Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Schwartz, Noah; Atkinson, David; Beard, Steven; Baillie, Tom; Parr-Burman, Phil [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Strachan, Mel [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    A prototype of a scalable and potentially low-cost stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror (SA-PDM) with 35 active elements is presented in this paper. This prototype is characterized by a 2 μm maximum actuator stroke, a 1.4 μm mirror sag (measured for a 14 mm × 14 mm area of the unpowered SA-PDM), and a ±200 nm hysteresis error. The initial proof of concept experiments described here show that this mirror can be successfully used for shaping a high power laser beam in order to improve laser machining performance. Various beam shapes have been obtained with the SA-PDM and examples of laser machining with the shaped beams are presented.

  2. A High Performance Backend for Array-Oriented Programming on Next-Generation Processing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Simon Andreas Frimann

    The financial crisis, which started in 2008, spawned the HIPERFIT research center as a preventive measure against future financial crises. The goal of prevention is to be met by improving mathematical models for finance, the verifiable description of them in domain-specific languages...... and the efficient execution of them on high performance systems. This work investigates the requirements for, and the implementation of, a high performance backend supporting these goals. This involves an outline of the hardware available today, in the near future and how to program it for high performance....... The main challenge is to bridge the gaps between performance, productivity and portability. A declarative high-level array-oriented programming model is explored to achieve this goal and a backend implemented to support it. Different strategies to the backend design and application of optimizations...

  3. Primary Dendrite Array Morphology: Observations from Ground-based and Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard; Erdmann, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, "Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST)". Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K/cm (MICAST6) and 28 K/cm (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 micron/s) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 micron/s). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  4. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  5. SUPERCOMPUTER SIMULATION OF CRITICAL PHENOMENA IN COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus M.A. Sloot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a problem of computer simulation of critical phenomena in complex social systems on a petascale computing systems in frames of complex networks approach. The three-layer system of nested models of complex networks is proposed including aggregated analytical model to identify critical phenomena, detailed model of individualized network dynamics and model to adjust a topological structure of a complex network. The scalable parallel algorithm covering all layers of complex networks simulation is proposed. Performance of the algorithm is studied on different supercomputing systems. The issues of software and information infrastructure of complex networks simulation are discussed including organization of distributed calculations, crawling the data in social networks and results visualization. The applications of developed methods and technologies are considered including simulation of criminal networks disruption, fast rumors spreading in social networks, evolution of financial networks and epidemics spreading.

  6. Cooperative visualization and simulation in a supercomputer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.; Lang, U.; Wierse, A.

    1993-01-01

    The article takes a closer look on the requirements being imposed by the idea to integrate all the components into a homogeneous software environment. To this end several methods for the distribtuion of applications in dependence of certain problem types are discussed. The currently available methods at the University of Stuttgart Computer Center for the distribution of applications are further explained. Finally the aims and characteristics of a European sponsored project, called PAGEIN, are explained, which fits perfectly into the line of developments at RUS. The aim of the project is to experiment with future cooperative working modes of aerospace scientists in a high speed distributed supercomputing environment. Project results will have an impact on the development of real future scientific application environments. (orig./DG)

  7. Lectures in Supercomputational Neurosciences Dynamics in Complex Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience is a burgeoning field of research where only the combined effort of neuroscientists, biologists, psychologists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers and other specialists, e.g. from linguistics and medicine, seem to be able to expand the limits of our knowledge. The present volume is an introduction, largely from the physicists' perspective, to the subject matter with in-depth contributions by system neuroscientists. A conceptual model for complex networks of neurons is introduced that incorporates many important features of the real brain, such as various types of neurons, various brain areas, inhibitory and excitatory coupling and the plasticity of the network. The computational implementation on supercomputers, which is introduced and discussed in detail in this book, will enable the readers to modify and adapt the algortihm for their own research. Worked-out examples of applications are presented for networks of Morris-Lecar neurons to model the cortical co...

  8. Double-sided anodic titania nanotube arrays: a lopsided growth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Yanli

    2010-12-07

    In the past decade, the pore diameter of anodic titania nanotubes was reported to be influenced by a number of factors in organic electrolyte, for example, applied potential, working distance, water content, and temperature. All these were closely related to potential drop in the organic electrolyte. In this work, the essential role of electric field originating from the potential drop was directly revealed for the first time using a simple two-electrode anodizing method. Anodic titania nanotube arrays were grown simultaneously at both sides of a titanium foil, with tube length being longer at the front side than that at the back side. This lopsided growth was attributed to the higher ionic flux induced by electric field at the front side. Accordingly, the nanotube length was further tailored to be comparable at both sides by modulating the electric field. These results are promising to be used in parallel configuration dye-sensitized solar cells, water splitting, and gas sensors, as a result of high surface area produced by the double-sided architecture.

  9. Single event upset susceptibilities of latchup immune CMOS process programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.; Lau, D. D.; Tsubota, T. K.

    Single event upsets (SEU) and latchup susceptibilities of complementary metal oxide semiconductor programmable gate arrays (CMOS PPGA's) were measured at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-in. cyclotron facility with Xe (603 MeV), Cu (290 MeV), and Ar (180 MeV) ion beams. The PPGA devices tested were those which may be used in space. Most of the SEU measurements were taken with a newly constructed tester called the Bus Access Storage and Comparison System (BASACS) operating via a Macintosh II computer. When BASACS finds that an output does not match a prerecorded pattern, the state of all outputs, position in the test cycle, and other necessary information is transmitted and stored in the Macintosh. The upset rate was kept between 1 and 3 per second. After a sufficient number of errors are stored, the test is stopped and the total fluence of particles and total errors are recorded. The device power supply current was closely monitored to check for occurrence of latchup. Results of the tests are presented, indicating that some of the PPGA's are good candidates for selected space applications.

  10. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  11. Optical technology for microwave applications VI and optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay; Hendrickson, Brian M.

    The following topics related to optical technology for microwave applications are discussed: advanced acoustooptic devices, signal processing device technologies, optical signal processor technologies, microwave and optomicrowave devices, advanced lasers and sources, wideband electrooptic modulators, and wideband optical communications. The topics considered in the discussion of optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas include devices, signal processing, and antenna systems.

  12. Proceedings of the Adaptive Sensor Array Processing (ASAP) Workshop 12-14 March 1997. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donovan, G

    1997-01-01

    ... was included in the first and third ASAP workshops, ASAP has traditionally concentrated on radar core topics include airborne radar testbed systems, space time adaptive processing, multipath jamming...

  13. Hydrogen Detection With a Gas Sensor ArrayProcessing and Recognition of Dynamic Responses Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwiżdż Patryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm, methane (167-3000 ppm and propane (167-3000 ppm concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.

  14. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  15. Physical features of the wire-array Z-pinch plasmas imploding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Feng Kaiming

    2001-01-01

    In the process of research on controlled fusion reactors, scientists found that the Z-pinch plasma can produce very strong X-rays, comparing with other X-ray sources. In researching the process of imploding, the snowplow model and Haines model are introduced and proved. About amassing X-rays, several ways of discharging X-rays are carefully analyzed and the relative theories are proved. In doing simulations, the one dimension model is used in writing codes, the match relationships are calculated and the process of imploding is also simulated. Some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  16. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [flat plate solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak is described. The major accomplishments include (1) an improved AR coating technique; (2) the use of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor; and (3) the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. Cells were processed to evaluate different process steps, a cell and minimodule test plan was prepared and data were collected for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

  17. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Images: Data Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S.; Mather, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations that would otherwise corrupt the results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large-scale ([greater, similar]30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power-law components. We discuss the relationship between fluctuations measured at different wavelengths and depths, and the relations between constraints on the mean intensity of the CIB and its fluctuation spectrum. Consistent with growing evidence that the [approx]1-5 [mu]m mean intensity of the CIB may not be as far above the integrated emission of resolved galaxies as has been reported in some analyses of DIRBE and IRTS observations, our measurements of spatial fluctuations of the CIB intensity indicate the mean emission from the objects producing the fluctuations is quite low ([greater, similar]1 nW m-2 sr-1 at 3-5 [mu]m), and thus consistent with current [gamma]-ray absorption constraints. The source of the fluctuations may be high-z Population III objects, or a more local component of very low luminosity objects with clustering properties that differ from the resolved galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the upcoming space-based surveys to directly measure the epochs

  18. COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA IMAGES: DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations that would otherwise corrupt the results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large-scale (∼>30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power-law components. We discuss the relationship between fluctuations measured at different wavelengths and depths, and the relations between constraints on the mean intensity of the CIB and its fluctuation spectrum. Consistent with growing evidence that the ∼1-5 μm mean intensity of the CIB may not be as far above the integrated emission of resolved galaxies as has been reported in some analyses of DIRBE and IRTS observations, our measurements of spatial fluctuations of the CIB intensity indicate the mean emission from the objects producing the fluctuations is quite low (∼>1 nW m -2 sr -1 at 3-5 μm), and thus consistent with current γ-ray absorption constraints. The source of the fluctuations may be high-z Population III objects, or a more local component of very low luminosity objects with clustering properties that differ from the resolved galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects of the upcoming space-based surveys to directly measure the epochs inhabited by the populations producing these

  19. Image processing system design for microcantilever-based optical readout infrared arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the traditional infrared imaging technology, the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS has many advantages, such as low cost, small size, producing simple. In addition, the theory proves that the technology's high thermal detection sensitivity. So it has a very broad application prospects in the field of high performance infrared detection. The paper mainly focuses on an image capturing and processing system in the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS. The image capturing and processing system consists of software and hardware. We build our image processing core hardware platform based on TI's high performance DSP chip which is the TMS320DM642, and then design our image capturing board based on the MT9P031. MT9P031 is Micron's company high frame rate, low power consumption CMOS chip. Last we use Intel's company network transceiver devices-LXT971A to design the network output board. The software system is built on the real-time operating system DSP/BIOS. We design our video capture driver program based on TI's class-mini driver and network output program based on the NDK kit for image capturing and processing and transmitting. The experiment shows that the system has the advantages of high capturing resolution and fast processing speed. The speed of the network transmission is up to 100Mbps.

  20. High temporal resolution mapping of seismic noise sources using heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Paitz, Patrick; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Time- and space-dependent distribution of seismic noise sources is becoming a key ingredient of modern real-time monitoring of various geo-systems. Significant interest in seismic noise source maps with high temporal resolution (days) is expected to come from a number of domains, including natural resources exploration, analysis of active earthquake fault zones and volcanoes, as well as geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring. Currently, knowledge of noise sources is insufficient for high-resolution subsurface monitoring applications. Near-real-time seismic data, as well as advanced imaging methods to constrain seismic noise sources have recently become available. These methods are based on the massive cross-correlation of seismic noise records from all available seismic stations in the region of interest and are therefore very computationally intensive. Heterogeneous massively parallel supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years combine conventional multi-core CPU with GPU accelerators and provide an opportunity for manifold increase and computing performance. Therefore, these systems represent an efficient platform for implementation of a noise source mapping solution. We present the first results of an ongoing research project conducted in collaboration with the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS). The project aims at building a service that provides seismic noise source maps for Central Europe with high temporal resolution (days to few weeks depending on frequency and data availability). The service is hosted on the CSCS computing infrastructure; all computationally intensive processing is performed on the massively parallel heterogeneous supercomputer "Piz Daint". The solution architecture is based on the Application-as-a-Service concept in order to provide the interested external researchers the regular access to the noise source maps. The solution architecture includes the following sub-systems: (1) data acquisition responsible for

  1. Novel Supercomputing Approaches for High Performance Linear Algebra Using FPGAs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supercomputing plays a major role in many areas of science and engineering, and it has had tremendous impact for decades in areas such as aerospace, defense, energy,...

  2. A Sparsity-Based Approach to 3D Binaural Sound Synthesis Using Time-Frequency Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Maximo; Lopez, JoseJ; Spors, Sascha

    2010-12-01

    Localization of sounds in physical space plays a very important role in multiple audio-related disciplines, such as music, telecommunications, and audiovisual productions. Binaural recording is the most commonly used method to provide an immersive sound experience by means of headphone reproduction. However, it requires a very specific recording setup using high-fidelity microphones mounted in a dummy head. In this paper, we present a novel processing framework for binaural sound recording and reproduction that avoids the use of dummy heads, which is specially suitable for immersive teleconferencing applications. The method is based on a time-frequency analysis of the spatial properties of the sound picked up by a simple tetrahedral microphone array, assuming source sparseness. The experiments carried out using simulations and a real-time prototype confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  3. Numerical microstructural analysis of automotive-grade steels when joined with an array of welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, J.E.; Khurana, S.P.; Li, T.

    2004-01-01

    Weld strength, formability, and impact resistance for joints on automotive steels is dependent on the underlying microstructure. A martensitic weld area is often a precursor to reduced mechanical performance. In this paper, efforts are made to predict underlying joint microstructures for a range of processing approaches, steel types, and gauges. This was done first by calculating cooling rates for some typical automotive processes [resistance spot welding (RSW), resistance mash seam welding (RMSEW), laser beam welding (LBW), and gas metal arc welding (GMAW)]. Then, critical cooling rates for martensite formation were calculated for a range of automotive steels using an available thermodynamically based phase transformation model. These were then used to define combinations of process type, steel type, and gauge where welds could be formed avoiding martensite in the weld area microstructure

  4. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  5. Optimizing laser beam profiles using micro-lens arrays for efficient material processing: applications to solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk; Homburg, Oliver; Mitra, Thomas; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Jarczynski, Manfred; Meinschien, Jens; Bayer, Andreas; Lissotschenko, Vitalij

    2009-02-01

    High power laser sources are used in various production tools for microelectronic products and solar cells, including the applications annealing, lithography, edge isolation as well as dicing and patterning. Besides the right choice of the laser source suitable high performance optics for generating the appropriate beam profile and intensity distribution are of high importance for the right processing speed, quality and yield. For industrial applications equally important is an adequate understanding of the physics of the light-matter interaction behind the process. In advance simulations of the tool performance can minimize technical and financial risk as well as lead times for prototyping and introduction into series production. LIMO has developed its own software founded on the Maxwell equations taking into account all important physical aspects of the laser based process: the light source, the beam shaping optical system and the light-matter interaction. Based on this knowledge together with a unique free-form micro-lens array production technology and patented micro-optics beam shaping designs a number of novel solar cell production tool sub-systems have been built. The basic functionalities, design principles and performance results are presented with a special emphasis on resilience, cost reduction and process reliability.

  6. ZnO nanorods arrays with Ag nanoparticles on the (002) plane derived by liquid epitaxy growth and electrodeposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xingtian; Que Wenxiu; Shen Fengyu

    2011-01-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) arrays with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the (002) plane are obtained by combining a liquid epitaxy technique with an electrodeposition process. Cyclic voltammetry study is employed to understand the electrochemical behaviors of the electrodeposition system, and potentiostatic method is employed to deposit silver NPs on the ZnO NRs in the electrolyte with an Ag + concentration of 1 mM. X-ray diffraction analysis is used to study the crystalline properties of the as-prepared samples, and energy dispersive X-ray is adopted to confirm the composition at the surface of the deposited samples. Results indicate only a small quantity of silver can be deposited on the surface of the samples. Effect of the deposition potential and time on the morphological properties of the resultant Ag NPs/ZnO NRs are investigated in detail. Scanning electron microscopy images and transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the Ag NPs deposited on the (002) plane of the ZnO NRs with a large dispersion in diameter can be obtained by a single potentiostatic deposition process, while dense Ag NPs with a much smaller diameter dispersion on the top of the ZnO NRs, most of which locate on the conical tip of the ZnO NRs, can be obtained by a two-potentiostatic deposition process, The mechanism of this deposition process is also suggested.

  7. A Parallel Supercomputer Implementation of a Biological Inspired Neural Network and its use for Pattern Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ladurantaye, Vincent; Lavoie, Jean; Bergeron, Jocelyn; Parenteau, Maxime; Lu Huizhong; Pichevar, Ramin; Rouat, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A parallel implementation of a large spiking neural network is proposed and evaluated. The neural network implements the binding by synchrony process using the Oscillatory Dynamic Link Matcher (ODLM). Scalability, speed and performance are compared for 2 implementations: Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) running on clusters of multicore supercomputers and NVIDIA graphical processing units respectively. A global spiking list that represents at each instant the state of the neural network is described. This list indexes each neuron that fires during the current simulation time so that the influence of their spikes are simultaneously processed on all computing units. Our implementation shows a good scalability for very large networks. A complex and large spiking neural network has been implemented in parallel with success, thus paving the road towards real-life applications based on networks of spiking neurons. MPI offers a better scalability than CUDA, while the CUDA implementation on a GeForce GTX 285 gives the best cost to performance ratio. When running the neural network on the GTX 285, the processing speed is comparable to the MPI implementation on RQCHP's Mammouth parallel with 64 notes (128 cores).

  8. Symbolic simulation of engineering systems on a supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Gvillo, D.; Makowitz, H.

    1986-01-01

    Model-Based Production-Rule systems for analysis are developed for the symbolic simulation of Complex Engineering systems on a CRAY X-MP Supercomputer. The Fault-Tree and Event-Tree Analysis methodologies from Systems-Analysis are used for problem representation and are coupled to the Rule-Based System Paradigm from Knowledge Engineering to provide modelling of engineering devices. Modelling is based on knowledge of the structure and function of the device rather than on human expertise alone. To implement the methodology, we developed a production-Rule Analysis System that uses both backward-chaining and forward-chaining: HAL-1986. The inference engine uses an Induction-Deduction-Oriented antecedent-consequent logic and is programmed in Portable Standard Lisp (PSL). The inference engine is general and can accommodate general modifications and additions to the knowledge base. The methodologies used will be demonstrated using a model for the identification of faults, and subsequent recovery from abnormal situations in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis. The use of the exposed methodologies for the prognostication of future device responses under operational and accident conditions using coupled symbolic and procedural programming is discussed

  9. A visual analytics system for optimizing the performance of large-scale networks in supercomputing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Fujiwara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall efficiency of an extreme-scale supercomputer largely relies on the performance of its network interconnects. Several of the state of the art supercomputers use networks based on the increasingly popular Dragonfly topology. It is crucial to study the behavior and performance of different parallel applications running on Dragonfly networks in order to make optimal system configurations and design choices, such as job scheduling and routing strategies. However, in order to study these temporal network behavior, we would need a tool to analyze and correlate numerous sets of multivariate time-series data collected from the Dragonfly’s multi-level hierarchies. This paper presents such a tool–a visual analytics system–that uses the Dragonfly network to investigate the temporal behavior and optimize the communication performance of a supercomputer. We coupled interactive visualization with time-series analysis methods to help reveal hidden patterns in the network behavior with respect to different parallel applications and system configurations. Our system also provides multiple coordinated views for connecting behaviors observed at different levels of the network hierarchies, which effectively helps visual analysis tasks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the system with a set of case studies. Our system and findings can not only help improve the communication performance of supercomputing applications, but also the network performance of next-generation supercomputers. Keywords: Supercomputing, Parallel communication network, Dragonfly networks, Time-series data, Performance analysis, Visual analytics

  10. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  11. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  12. Supercomputations and big-data analysis in strong-field ultrafast optical physics: filamentation of high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses propagating in gas media or in condensed matter undergo complex nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution where temporal transformations of optical field waveforms are strongly coupled to an intricate beam dynamics and ultrafast field-induced ionization processes. At the level of laser peak powers orders of magnitude above the critical power of self-focusing, the beam exhibits modulation instabilities, producing random field hot spots and breaking up into multiple noise-seeded filaments. This problem is described by a (3  +  1)-dimensional nonlinear field evolution equation, which needs to be solved jointly with the equation for ultrafast ionization of a medium. Analysis of this problem, which is equivalent to solving a billion-dimensional evolution problem, is only possible by means of supercomputer simulations augmented with coordinated big-data processing of large volumes of information acquired through theory-guiding experiments and supercomputations. Here, we review the main challenges of supercomputations and big-data processing encountered in strong-field ultrafast optical physics and discuss strategies to confront these challenges.

  13. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  14. Co-Prime Frequency and Aperture Design for HF Surveillance, Wideband Radar Imaging, and Nonstationary Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    to develop novel co-prime sampling and array design strategies that achieve high-resolution estimation of spectral power distributions and signal...by the array geometry and the frequency offset. We overcome this limitation by introducing a novel sparsity-based multi-target localization approach...estimation using a sparse uniform linear array with two CW signals of co-prime frequencies,” IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances

  15. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  16. Site Effect Assessment of Earthquake Ground Motion Based on Advanced Data Processing of Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; He, K.; Mehl, R.; Wang, W.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution near-surface geologic information is essential for earthquake ground motion prediction. The near-surface geology forms the critical constituent to influence seismic wave propagation, which is known as the local site effects. We have collected microtremor data over 1000 sites in Beijing area for extracting the much needed earthquake engineering parameters (primarily sediment thickness, with the shear wave velocity profiling at a few important control points) in this heavily populated urban area. Advanced data processing algorithms are employed in various stages in assessing the local site effect on earthquake ground motion. First, we used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), also known as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), to enhance the microtremor data analysis by excluding the local transients and continuous monochromic industrial noises. With this enhancement we have significantly increased the number of data points to be useful in delineating sediment thickness in this area. Second, we have used the cross-correlation of microtremor data acquired for the pairs of two adjacent sites to generate a 'pseudo-reflection' record, which can be treated as the Green function of the 1D layered earth model at the site. The sediment thickness information obtained this way is also consistent with the results obtained by the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method (HVSR). For most sites in this area, we can achieve 'self consistent' results among different processing skechems regarding to the sediment thickness - the fundamental information to be used in assessing the local site effect. Finally, the pseudo-spectral time domain method was used to simulate the seismic wave propagation caused by a scenario earthquake in this area - the 1679 M8 Sanhe-pinggu earthquake. The characteristics of the simulated earthquake ground motion have found a general correlation with the thickness of the sediments in this area. And more importantly, it is also in agreement

  17. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  18. A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetrical-shape microlens array fabricated by a UV imprinting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ta-Wei; Liao, Yunn-Shiuan; Chen, Chi-Feng; Yang, Jauh-Jung

    2008-01-01

    A dual-directional light-control film with a high-sag and high-asymmetric-shape long gapless hexagonal microlens array fabricated by an ultra-violent (UV) imprinting process is presented. Such a lens array is designed by ray-tracing simulation and fabricated by a micro-replication process including gray-scale lithography, electroplating process and UV curing. The shape of the designed lens array is similar to that of a near half-cylindrical lens array with a periodical ripple. The measurement results of a prototype show that the incident lights using a collimated LED with the FWHM of dispersion angle, 12°, are diversified differently in short and long axes. The numerical and experimental results show that the FWHMs of the view angle for angular brightness in long and short axis directions through the long hexagonal lens are about 34.3° and 18.1° and 31° and 13°, respectively. Compared with the simulation result, the errors in long and short axes are about 5% and 16%, respectively. Obviously, the asymmetric gapless microlens array can realize the aim of the controlled asymmetric angular brightness. Such a light-control film can be used as a power saving screen compared with convention diffusing film for the application of a rear projection display

  19. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM). [flat plate solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance-limiting mechanisms in large-grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm in diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by fabricating a matrix of 4 sq cm solar cells of various thickness from 10 cm x 10 cm polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. Analysis of the illuminated I-V characteristics of these cells suggests that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short-circuit current. The average open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is 30 to 70 mV lower than that of co-processed single-crystal cells; the fill-factor is comparable. Both open-circuit voltage and fill-factor of the polycrystalline cells have substantial scatter that is not related to either thickness or resistivity. This implies that these characteristics are sensitive to an additional mechanism that is probably spatial in nature. A damage-gettering heat-treatment improved the minority-carrier diffusion length in low lifetime polycrystalline silicon, however, extended high temperature heat-treatment degraded the lifetime.

  20. Case for a field-programmable gate array multicore hybrid machine for an image-processing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Lira, Javier; Molina, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    General purpose computer designers have recently begun adding cores to their processors in order to increase performance. For example, Intel has adopted a homogeneous quad-core processor as a base for general purpose computing. PlayStation3 (PS3) game consoles contain a multicore heterogeneous processor known as the Cell, which is designed to perform complex image processing algorithms at a high level. Can modern image-processing algorithms utilize these additional cores? On the other hand, modern advancements in configurable hardware, most notably field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have created an interesting question for general purpose computer designers. Is there a reason to combine FPGAs with multicore processors to create an FPGA multicore hybrid general purpose computer? Iris matching, a repeatedly executed portion of a modern iris-recognition algorithm, is parallelized on an Intel-based homogeneous multicore Xeon system, a heterogeneous multicore Cell system, and an FPGA multicore hybrid system. Surprisingly, the cheaper PS3 slightly outperforms the Intel-based multicore on a core-for-core basis. However, both multicore systems are beaten by the FPGA multicore hybrid system by >50%.

  1. Demonstration of array eddy current technology for real-time monitoring of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni; Boulware, Paul; Gaah, Kingsley

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at various fabrication stages is required to assure quality of feedstock and solid builds. Industry efforts are shifting towards solutions that can provide real-time monitoring of additive manufacturing (AM) fabrication process layer-by-layer while the component is being built to reduce or eliminate dependence on post-process inspection. Array eddy current (AEC), electromagnetic NDE technique was developed and implemented to directly scan the component without physical contact with the powder and fused layer surfaces at elevated temperatures inside a LPBF chamber. The technique can detect discontinuities, surface irregularities, and undesirable metallurgical phase transformations in magnetic and nonmagnetic conductive materials used for laser fusion. The AEC hardware and software were integrated with the L-PBF test bed. Two layer-by-layer tests of Inconel 625 coupons with AM built discontinuities and lack of fusion were conducted inside the L-PBF chamber. The AEC technology demonstrated excellent sensitivity to seeded, natural surface, and near-surface-embedded discontinuities, while also detecting surface topography. The data was acquired and imaged in a layer-by-layer sequence demonstrating the real-time monitoring capabilities of this new technology.

  2. PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan; Mills, Richard T.

    2012-04-18

    PFLOTRAN, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed from the ground up to run efficiently on machines ranging from leadership-class supercomputers to laptops. Based on an object-oriented design, the code is easily extensible to incorporate additional processes. It can interface seamlessly with Fortran 9X, C and C++ codes. Domain decomposition parallelism is employed, with the PETSc parallel framework used to manage parallel solvers, data structures and communication. Features of the code include a modular input file, implementation of high-performance I/O using parallel HDF5, ability to perform multiple realization simulations with multiple processors per realization in a seamless manner, and multiple modes for multiphase flow and multicomponent geochemical transport. Chemical reactions currently implemented in the code include homogeneous aqueous complexing reactions and heterogeneous mineral precipitation/dissolution, ion exchange, surface complexation and a multirate kinetic sorption model. PFLOTRAN has demonstrated petascale performance using 2{sup 17} processor cores with over 2 billion degrees of freedom. Accomplishments achieved to date include applications to the Hanford 300 Area and modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep geologic formations.

  3. Fast and Accurate Simulation of the Cray XMT Multithreaded Supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.

    2012-12-31

    Irregular applications, such as data mining and analysis or graph-based computations, show unpredictable memory/network access patterns and control structures. Highly multithreaded architectures with large processor counts, like the Cray MTA-1, MTA-2 and XMT, appear to address their requirements better than commodity clusters. However, the research on highly multithreaded systems is currently limited by the lack of adequate architectural simulation infrastructures due to issues such as size of the machines, memory footprint, simulation speed, accuracy and customization. At the same time, Shared-memory MultiProcessors (SMPs) with multi-core processors have become an attractive platform to simulate large scale machines. In this paper, we introduce a cycle-level simulator of the highly multithreaded Cray XMT supercomputer. The simulator runs unmodified XMT applications. We discuss how we tackled the challenges posed by its development, detailing the techniques introduced to make the simulation as fast as possible while maintaining a high accuracy. By mapping XMT processors (ThreadStorm with 128 hardware threads) to host computing cores, the simulation speed remains constant as the number of simulated processors increases, up to the number of available host cores. The simulator supports zero-overhead switching among different accuracy levels at run-time and includes a network model that takes into account contention. On a modern 48-core SMP host, our infrastructure simulates a large set of irregular applications 500 to 2000 times slower than real time when compared to a 128-processor XMT, while remaining within 10\\% of accuracy. Emulation is only from 25 to 200 times slower than real time.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  5. Modeling radiative transport in ICF plasmas on an IBM SP2 supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, J.A.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-Madison the authors have integrated a collisional-radiative-equilibrium model into their CONRAD radiation-hydrodynamics code. This integrated package allows them to accurately simulate the transport processes involved in ICF plasmas; including the important effects of self-absorption of line-radiation. However, as they increase the amount of atomic structure utilized in their transport models, the computational demands increase nonlinearly. In an attempt to meet this increased computational demand, they have recently embarked on a mission to parallelize the CONRAD program. The parallel CONRAD development is being performed on an IBM SP2 supercomputer. The parallelism is based on a message passing paradigm, and is being implemented using PVM. At the present time they have determined that approximately 70% of the sequential program can be executed in parallel. Accordingly, they expect that the parallel version will yield a speedup on the order of three times that of the sequential version. This translates into only 10 hours of execution time for the parallel version, whereas the sequential version required 30 hours

  6. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  7. Guide to dataflow supercomputing basic concepts, case studies, and a detailed example

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic, Veljko; Trifunovic, Nemanja; Giorgi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This unique text/reference describes an exciting and novel approach to supercomputing in the DataFlow paradigm. The major advantages and applications of this approach are clearly described, and a detailed explanation of the programming model is provided using simple yet effective examples. The work is developed from a series of lecture courses taught by the authors in more than 40 universities across more than 20 countries, and from research carried out by Maxeler Technologies, Inc. Topics and features: presents a thorough introduction to DataFlow supercomputing for big data problems; revie

  8. NASA's Climate in a Box: Desktop Supercomputing for Open Scientific Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, G. S.; Seablom, M. S.; Lee, T. J.; McConaughy, G. R.; Syed, R.; Oloso, A.; Kemp, E. M.; Greenseid, J.; Smith, R.

    2009-12-01

    NASA's High Performance Computing Portfolio in cooperation with its Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction program intends to make its climate and earth science models more accessible to a larger community. A key goal of this effort is to open the model development and validation process to the scientific community at large such that a natural selection process is enabled and results in a more efficient scientific process. One obstacle to others using NASA models is the complexity of the models and the difficulty in learning how to use them. This situation applies not only to scientists who regularly use these models but also non-typical users who may want to use the models such as scientists from different domains, policy makers, and teachers. Another obstacle to the use of these models is that access to high performance computing (HPC) accounts, from which the models are implemented, can be restrictive with long wait times in job queues and delays caused by an arduous process of obtaining an account, especially for foreign nationals. This project explores the utility of using desktop supercomputers in providing a complete ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products to investigators and on demand access to an HPC system. One objective of this work is to pre-package NASA and NOAA models so that new users will not have to spend significant time porting the models. In addition, the prepackaged toolkit will include tools, such as workflow, visualization, social networking web sites, and analysis tools, to assist users in running the models and analyzing the data. The system architecture to be developed will allow for automatic code updates for each user and an effective means with which to deal with data that are generated. We plan to investigate several desktop systems, but our work to date has focused on a Cray CX1. Currently, we are investigating the potential capabilities of several non-traditional development environments. While most NASA and NOAA models are

  9. Interactive real-time nuclear plant simulations on a UNIX based supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Interactive real-time nuclear plant simulations are critically important to train nuclear power plant engineers and operators. In addition, real-time simulations can be used to test the validity and timing of plant technical specifications and operational procedures. To accurately and confidently simulate a nuclear power plant transient in real-time, sufficient computer resources must be available. Since some important transients cannot be simulated using preprogrammed responses or non-physical models, commonly used simulation techniques may not be adequate. However, the power of a supercomputer allows one to accurately calculate the behavior of nuclear power plants even during very complex transients. Many of these transients can be calculated in real-time or quicker on the fastest supercomputers. The concept of running interactive real-time nuclear power plant transients on a supercomputer has been tested. This paper describes the architecture of the simulation program, the techniques used to establish real-time synchronization, and other issues related to the use of supercomputers in a new and potentially very important area. (author)

  10. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Argonne National Lab deploys Force10 networks' massively dense ethernet switch for supercomputing cluster

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Force10 Networks, Inc. today announced that Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has successfully deployed Force10 E-Series switch/routers to connect to the TeraGrid, the world's largest supercomputing grid, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF)" (1/2 page).

  12. Design and performance characterization of electronic structure calculations on massively parallel supercomputers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, N. A.; Glinsvad, Christian; Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    Density function theory (DFT) is the most widely employed electronic structure method because of its favorable scaling with system size and accuracy for a broad range of molecular and condensed-phase systems. The advent of massively parallel supercomputers has enhanced the scientific community...

  13. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. An efficient implementation of a backpropagation learning algorithm on quadrics parallel supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraglio, S.; Massaioli, F.

    1995-08-01

    A parallel implementation of a library to build and train Multi Layer Perceptrons via the Back Propagation algorithm is presented. The target machine is the SIMD massively parallel supercomputer Quadrics. Performance measures are provided on three different machines with different number of processors, for two network examples. A sample source code is given

  15. Applying the sequential neural-network approximation and orthogonal array algorithm to optimize the axial-flow cooling system for rapid thermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shih-Yu; Shen, Ming-Ho; Chang, Ying-Pin

    2009-01-01

    The sequential neural-network approximation and orthogonal array (SNAOA) were used to shorten the cooling time for the rapid cooling process such that the normalized maximum resolved stress in silicon wafer was always below one in this study. An orthogonal array was first conducted to obtain the initial solution set. The initial solution set was treated as the initial training sample. Next, a back-propagation sequential neural network was trained to simulate the feasible domain to obtain the optimal parameter setting. The size of the training sample was greatly reduced due to the use of the orthogonal array. In addition, a restart strategy was also incorporated into the SNAOA so that the searching process may have a better opportunity to reach a near global optimum. In this work, we considered three different cooling control schemes during the rapid thermal process: (1) downward axial gas flow cooling scheme; (2) upward axial gas flow cooling scheme; (3) dual axial gas flow cooling scheme. Based on the maximum shear stress failure criterion, the other control factors such as flow rate, inlet diameter, outlet width, chamber height and chamber diameter were also examined with respect to cooling time. The results showed that the cooling time could be significantly reduced using the SNAOA approach

  16. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. F., E-mail: mfmalek07@gmail.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Musa, M. Z., E-mail: musa948@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang, Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A., E-mail: ishak@sarawak.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-06

    Optimization of the growth time parameter was conducted to synthesize high-quality c-axis ZnO nanorod arrays. The effects of the parameter on the crystal growth and properties were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the growth time influence the properties of ZnO nanorods where the crystallite size of the structures was increased at higher deposition time. Field emission scanning electron microsope analysis confirmed the morphologies structure of the ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanostructures prepared under the optimized growth conditions showed an intense XRD peak which reveal a higher c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays thus demonstrating the formation of defect free structure.

  17. Biological Inspired Stochastic Optimization Technique (PSO for DOA and Amplitude Estimation of Antenna Arrays Signal Processing in RADAR Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Hammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic global optimization technique known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for joint estimation of amplitude and direction of arrival of the targets in RADAR communication system. The proposed scheme is an excellent optimization methodology and a promising approach for solving the DOA problems in communication systems. Moreover, PSO is quite suitable for real time scenario and easy to implement in hardware. In this study, uniform linear array is used and targets are supposed to be in far field of the arrays. Formulation of the fitness function is based on mean square error and this function requires a single snapshot to obtain the best possible solution. To check the accuracy of the algorithm, all of the results are taken by varying the number of antenna elements and targets. Finally, these results are compared with existing heuristic techniques to show the accuracy of PSO.

  18. Imaging RF Phased Array Receivers using Optically-Coherent Up-conversion for High Beam-Bandwidth Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    It does so by using an optical lens to perform an inverse spatial Fourier Transform on the up-converted RF signals, thereby rendering a real-time... simultaneous beams or other engineered beam patterns. There are two general approaches to array-based beam forming: digital and analog. In digital beam...of significantly limiting the number of beams that can be formed simultaneously and narrowing the operational bandwidth. An alternate approach that

  19. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  20. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  1. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  2. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  3. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  4. BSMBench: a flexible and scalable supercomputer benchmark from computational particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Ed; Del Debbio, Luigi; Jordan, Kirk; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Benchmarking plays a central role in the evaluation of High Performance Computing architectures. Several benchmarks have been designed that allow users to stress various components of supercomputers. In order for the figures they provide to be useful, benchmarks need to be representative of the most common real-world scenarios. In this work, we introduce BSMBench, a benchmarking suite derived from Monte Carlo code used in computational particle physics. The advantage of this suite (which can be freely downloaded from http://www.bsmbench.org/) over others is the capacity to vary the relative importance of computation and communication. This enables the tests to simulate various practical situations. To showcase BSMBench, we perform a wide range of tests on various architectures, from desktop computers to state-of-the-art supercomputers, and discuss the corresponding results. Possible future directions of development of the benchmark are also outlined.

  5. Explaining the gap between theoretical peak performance and real performance for supercomputer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenauer, W.; Haefner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The basic architectures of vector and parallel computers with their properties are presented. Then the memory size and the arithmetic operations in the context of memory bandwidth are discussed. For the exemplary discussion of a single operation micro-measurements of the vector triad for the IBM 3090 VF and the CRAY Y-MP/8 are presented. They reveal the details of the losses for a single operation. Then we analyze the global performance of a whole supercomputer by identifying reduction factors that bring down the theoretical peak performance to the poor real performance. The responsibilities of the manufacturer and of the user for these losses are dicussed. Then the price-performance ratio for different architectures in a snapshot of January 1991 is briefly mentioned. Finally some remarks to a user-friendly architecture for a supercomputer will be made. (orig.)

  6. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  7. Heat dissipation computations of a HVDC ground electrode using a supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiss, H.; Mukhedkar, D.; Lagace, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the temperature, of soil surrounding a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) toroidal ground electrode of practical dimensions, in both homogeneous and non-homogeneous soils that was computed at incremental points in time using finite difference methods on a supercomputer. Curves of the response were computed and plotted at several locations within the soil in the vicinity of the ground electrode for various values of the soil parameters

  8. Analyzing the Interplay of Failures and Workload on a Leadership-Class Supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Esteban [University of Pittsburgh; Ni, Xiang [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented computational power of cur- rent supercomputers now makes possible the exploration of complex problems in many scientific fields, from genomic analysis to computational fluid dynamics. Modern machines are powerful because they are massive: they assemble millions of cores and a huge quantity of disks, cards, routers, and other components. But it is precisely the size of these machines that glooms the future of supercomputing. A system that comprises many components has a high chance to fail, and fail often. In order to make the next generation of supercomputers usable, it is imperative to use some type of fault tolerance platform to run applications on large machines. Most fault tolerance strategies can be optimized for the peculiarities of each system and boost efficacy by keeping the system productive. In this paper, we aim to understand how failure characterization can improve resilience in several layers of the software stack: applications, runtime systems, and job schedulers. We examine the Titan supercomputer, one of the fastest systems in the world. We analyze a full year of Titan in production and distill the failure patterns of the machine. By looking into Titan s log files and using the criteria of experts, we provide a detailed description of the types of failures. In addition, we inspect the job submission files and describe how the system is used. Using those two sources, we cross correlate failures in the machine to executing jobs and provide a picture of how failures affect the user experience. We believe such characterization is fundamental in developing appropriate fault tolerance solutions for Cray systems similar to Titan.

  9. High Performance Simulation of Large-Scale Red Sea Ocean Bottom Seismic Data on the Supercomputer Shaheen II

    KAUST Repository

    Tonellot, Thierry; Etienne, Vincent; Gashawbeza, Ewenet; Curiel, Emesto Sandoval; Khan, Azizur; Feki, Saber; Kortas, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    A combination of both shallow and deepwater, plus islands and coral reefs, are some of the main features contributing to the complexity of subsalt seismic exploration in the Red Sea transition zone. These features often result in degrading effects on seismic images. State-of-the-art ocean bottom acquisition technologies are therefore required to record seismic data with optimal fold and offset, as well as advanced processing and imaging techniques. Numerical simulations of such complex seismic data can help improve acquisition design and also help in customizing, validating and benchmarking the processing and imaging workflows that will be applied on the field data. Subsequently, realistic simulation of wave propagation is a computationally intensive process requiring a realistic model and an efficient 3D wave equation solver. Large-scale computing resources are also required to meet turnaround time compatible with a production time frame. In this work, we present the numerical simulation of an ocean bottom seismic survey to be acquired in the Red Sea transition zone starting in summer 2016. The survey's acquisition geometry comprises nearly 300,000 unique shot locations and 21,000 unique receiver locations, covering about 760 km2. Using well log measurements and legacy 2D seismic lines in this area, a 3D P-wave velocity model was built, with a maximum depth of 7 km. The model was sampled at 10 m in each direction, resulting in more than 5 billion cells. Wave propagation in this model was performed using a 3D finite difference solver in the time domain based on a staggered grid velocity-pressure formulation of acoustodynamics. To ensure that the resulting data could be generated sufficiently fast, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) supercomputer Shaheen II Cray XC40 was used. A total of 21,000 three-component (pressure and vertical and horizontal velocity) common receiver gathers with a 50 Hz maximum frequency were computed in less than

  10. High Performance Simulation of Large-Scale Red Sea Ocean Bottom Seismic Data on the Supercomputer Shaheen II

    KAUST Repository

    Tonellot, Thierry

    2017-02-27

    A combination of both shallow and deepwater, plus islands and coral reefs, are some of the main features contributing to the complexity of subsalt seismic exploration in the Red Sea transition zone. These features often result in degrading effects on seismic images. State-of-the-art ocean bottom acquisition technologies are therefore required to record seismic data with optimal fold and offset, as well as advanced processing and imaging techniques. Numerical simulations of such complex seismic data can help improve acquisition design and also help in customizing, validating and benchmarking the processing and imaging workflows that will be applied on the field data. Subsequently, realistic simulation of wave propagation is a computationally intensive process requiring a realistic model and an efficient 3D wave equation solver. Large-scale computing resources are also required to meet turnaround time compatible with a production time frame. In this work, we present the numerical simulation of an ocean bottom seismic survey to be acquired in the Red Sea transition zone starting in summer 2016. The survey\\'s acquisition geometry comprises nearly 300,000 unique shot locations and 21,000 unique receiver locations, covering about 760 km2. Using well log measurements and legacy 2D seismic lines in this area, a 3D P-wave velocity model was built, with a maximum depth of 7 km. The model was sampled at 10 m in each direction, resulting in more than 5 billion cells. Wave propagation in this model was performed using a 3D finite difference solver in the time domain based on a staggered grid velocity-pressure formulation of acoustodynamics. To ensure that the resulting data could be generated sufficiently fast, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) supercomputer Shaheen II Cray XC40 was used. A total of 21,000 three-component (pressure and vertical and horizontal velocity) common receiver gathers with a 50 Hz maximum frequency were computed in less

  11. Low-cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the Silane Process for Producing Semiconductor-grade Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of Union Carbide's silane process for commercial application was established. An integrated process design for an experimental process system development unit and a commercial facility were developed. The corresponding commercial plant economic performance was then estimated.

  12. Design of multiple sequence alignment algorithms on parallel, distributed memory supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Philip C; Goscinski, Andrzej; Holt, Kathryn; Inouye, Michael; Ghoting, Amol; Makarychev, Konstantin; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of comparing two or more genomes that have undergone recombination and substantial amounts of segmental loss and gain has recently been addressed for small numbers of genomes. However, datasets of hundreds of genomes are now common and their sizes will only increase in the future. Multiple sequence alignment of hundreds of genomes remains an intractable problem due to quadratic increases in compute time and memory footprint. To date, most alignment algorithms are designed for commodity clusters without parallelism. Hence, we propose the design of a multiple sequence alignment algorithm on massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputers to enable research into comparative genomics on large data sets. Following the methodology of the sequential progressiveMauve algorithm, we design data structures including sequences and sorted k-mer lists on the IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer (BG/P). Preliminary results show that we can reduce the memory footprint so that we can potentially align over 250 bacterial genomes on a single BG/P compute node. We verify our results on a dataset of E.coli, Shigella and S.pneumoniae genomes. Our implementation returns results matching those of the original algorithm but in 1/2 the time and with 1/4 the memory footprint for scaffold building. In this study, we have laid the basis for multiple sequence alignment of large-scale datasets on a massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputer, thus enabling comparison of hundreds instead of a few genome sequences within reasonable time.

  13. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  14. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Eli Joseph

    We present a single-station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 sec the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 sec, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher ( 2%) and significantly higher (>20%), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e., Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves.

  15. Scalable geocomputation: evolving an environmental model building platform from single-core to supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; de Jong, Kor; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing demand to run environmental models on a big scale: simulations over large areas at high resolution. The heterogeneity of available computing hardware such as multi-core CPUs, GPUs or supercomputer potentially provides significant computing power to fulfil this demand. However, this requires detailed knowledge of the underlying hardware, parallel algorithm design and the implementation thereof in an efficient system programming language. Domain scientists such as hydrologists or ecologists often lack this specific software engineering knowledge, their emphasis is (and should be) on exploratory building and analysis of simulation models. As a result, models constructed by domain specialists mostly do not take full advantage of the available hardware. A promising solution is to separate the model building activity from software engineering by offering domain specialists a model building framework with pre-programmed building blocks that they combine to construct a model. The model building framework, consequently, needs to have built-in capabilities to make full usage of the available hardware. Developing such a framework providing understandable code for domain scientists and being runtime efficient at the same time poses several challenges on developers of such a framework. For example, optimisations can be performed on individual operations or the whole model, or tasks need to be generated for a well-balanced execution without explicitly knowing the complexity of the domain problem provided by the modeller. Ideally, a modelling framework supports the optimal use of available hardware whichsoever combination of model building blocks scientists use. We demonstrate our ongoing work on developing parallel algorithms for spatio-temporal modelling and demonstrate 1) PCRaster, an environmental software framework (http://www.pcraster.eu) providing spatio-temporal model building blocks and 2) parallelisation of about 50 of these building blocks using

  16. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  17. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens μm diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 μm width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition

  18. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: takahasi@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-11-30

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens {mu}m diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 {mu}m width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition.

  19. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  20. ATLAS FTK a - very complex - custom parallel supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Naoki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In the ever increasing pile-up LHC environment advanced techniques of analysing the data are implemented in order to increase the rate of relevant physics processes with respect to background processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is a track finding implementation at hardware level that is designed to deliver full-scan tracks with $p_{T}$ above 1GeV to the ATLAS trigger system for every L1 accept (at a maximum rate of 100kHz). In order to achieve this performance a highly parallel system was designed and now it is under installation in ATLAS. In the beginning of 2016 it will provide tracks for the trigger system in a region covering the central part of the ATLAS detector, and during the year it's coverage will be extended to the full detector coverage. The system relies on matching hits coming from the silicon tracking detectors against 1 billion patterns stored in specially designed ASICS chips (Associative memory - AM06). In a first stage coarse resolution hits are matched against the patterns and the accepted h...

  1. Functional response of osteoblasts in functionally gradient titanium alloy mesh arrays processed by 3D additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, K C; Kumar, A; Misra, R D K; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2017-02-01

    We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure. The interconnected porous architecture contributed to the distribution of cells from the large pore size (G1) to the small pore size (G3), with consequent synthesis of extracellular matrix and calcium precipitation. The gradient mesh structure significantly impacted cell adhesion and influenced the proliferation stage, such that there was high distribution of cells on struts of the gradient mesh structure. Actin and vinculin showed a significant difference in normalized expression level of protein per cell, which was absent in the case of fibronectin. Osteoblasts present on mesh struts formed a confluent sheet, bridging the pores through numerous cytoplasmic extensions. The gradient mesh structure fabricated by electron beam melting was explored to obtain fundamental insights on cellular activity with respect to osteoblast functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Supercritical CO2 extraction of candlenut oil: process optimization using Taguchi orthogonal array and physicochemical properties of the oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subroto, Erna; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2017-04-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine optimum conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of candlenut oil. A Taguchi experimental design with L 9 orthogonal array (four factors in three levels) was employed to evaluate the effects of pressure of 25-35 MPa, temperature of 40-60 °C, CO 2 flow rate of 10-20 g/min and particle size of 0.3-0.8 mm on oil solubility. The obtained results showed that increase in particle size, pressure and temperature improved the oil solubility. The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at optimized parameters resulted in oil yield extraction of 61.4% at solubility of 9.6 g oil/kg CO 2 . The obtained candlenut oil from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction has better oil quality than oil which was extracted by Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane. The oil contains high unsaturated oil (linoleic acid and linolenic acid), which have many beneficial effects on human health.

  3. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Belyaev, Nikita; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at high occupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualisation tools and more. WLCG...

  4. Study of ATLAS TRT performance with GRID and supercomputers.

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration; Belyaev, Nikita; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Ryabinkin, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    After the early success in discovering a new particle consistent with the long awaited Higgs boson, Large Hadron Collider experiments are ready for the precision measurements and further discoveries that will be made possible by much higher LHC collision rates from spring 2015. A proper understanding of the detectors performance at highoccupancy conditions is important for many on-going physics analyses. The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of these detectors. TRT is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). TRT contributes significantly to the resolution for high-pT tracks in the ID providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. ATLAS experiment is using Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. WLCG is a global collaboration of computer centers and provides seamless access to computing resources which include data storage capacity, processing power, sensors, visualization tools and more. WLCG ...

  5. Nonlinear Circuits and Neural Networks: Chip Implementation and Applications of the TeraOPS CNN Dynamic Array Supercomputer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chua, L

    1998-01-01

    .... Advances in research have been made in the following areas: (1) The design and implementation of the first-ever ARAM in the CNN Chip Set Architecture was successfully competed, and the samples were successfully tested; (2...

  6. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of slicing processes and junction formation processes are presented. A simple method for evaluation of the relative economic merits of competing process options with respect to the cost of energy produced by the system is described. An energy consumption analysis was developed and applied to determine the energy consumption in the solar module fabrication process sequence, from the mining of the SiO2 to shipping. The analysis shows that, in current technology practice, inordinate energy use in the purification step, and large wastage of the invested energy through losses, particularly poor conversion in slicing, as well as inadequate yields throughout. The cell process energy expenditures already show a downward trend based on increased throughput rates. The large improvement, however, depends on the introduction of a more efficient purification process and of acceptable ribbon growing techniques.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of quantum systems on massively parallel supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.Q.

    1993-01-01

    A large class of quantum physics applications uses operator representations that are discrete integers by nature. This class includes magnetic properties of solids, interacting bosons modeling superfluids and Cooper pairs in superconductors, and Hubbard models for strongly correlated electrons systems. This kind of application typically uses integer data representations and the resulting algorithms are dominated entirely by integer operations. The authors implemented an efficient algorithm for one such application on the Intel Touchstone Delta and iPSC/860. The algorithm uses a multispin coding technique which allows significant data compactification and efficient vectorization of Monte Carlo updates. The algorithm regularly switches between two data decompositions, corresponding naturally to different Monte Carlo updating processes and observable measurements such that only nearest-neighbor communications are needed within a given decomposition. On 128 nodes of Intel Delta, this algorithm updates 183 million spins per second (compared to 21 million on CM-2 and 6.2 million on a Cray Y-MP). A systematic performance analysis shows a better than 90% efficiency in the parallel implementation

  8. Multiscale Hy3S: Hybrid stochastic simulation for supercomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stochastic simulation has become a useful tool to both study natural biological systems and design new synthetic ones. By capturing the intrinsic molecular fluctuations of "small" systems, these simulations produce a more accurate picture of single cell dynamics, including interesting phenomena missed by deterministic methods, such as noise-induced oscillations and transitions between stable states. However, the computational cost of the original stochastic simulation algorithm can be high, motivating the use of hybrid stochastic methods. Hybrid stochastic methods partition the system into multiple subsets and describe each subset as a different representation, such as a jump Markov, Poisson, continuous Markov, or deterministic process. By applying valid approximations and self-consistently merging disparate descriptions, a method can be considerably faster, while retaining accuracy. In this paper, we describe Hy3S, a collection of multiscale simulation programs. Results Building on our previous work on developing novel hybrid stochastic algorithms, we have created the Hy3S software package to enable scientists and engineers to both study and design extremely large well-mixed biological systems with many thousands of reactions and chemical species. We have added adaptive stochastic numerical integrators to permit the robust simulation of dynamically stiff biological systems. In addition, Hy3S has many useful features, including embarrassingly parallelized simulations with MPI; special discrete events, such as transcriptional and translation elongation and cell division; mid-simulation perturbations in both the number of molecules of species and reaction kinetic parameters; combinatorial variation of both initial conditions and kinetic parameters to enable sensitivity analysis; use of NetCDF optimized binary format to quickly read and write large datasets; and a simple graphical user interface, written in Matlab, to help users

  9. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional kinetic simulations of whistler turbulence in solar wind on parallel supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ouliang

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the physics of whistler turbulence evolution and its role in energy transport and dissipation in the solar wind plasmas through computational and theoretical investigations. This dissertation presents the first fully three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of whistler turbulence forward cascade in a homogeneous, collisionless plasma with a uniform background magnetic field B o, and the first 3D PIC simulation of whistler turbulence with both forward and inverse cascades. Such computationally demanding research is made possible through the use of massively parallel, high performance electromagnetic PIC simulations on state-of-the-art supercomputers. Simulations are carried out to study characteristic properties of whistler turbulence under variable solar wind fluctuation amplitude (epsilon e) and electron beta (betae), relative contributions to energy dissipation and electron heating in whistler turbulence from the quasilinear scenario and the intermittency scenario, and whistler turbulence preferential cascading direction and wavevector anisotropy. The 3D simulations of whistler turbulence exhibit a forward cascade of fluctuations into broadband, anisotropic, turbulent spectrum at shorter wavelengths with wavevectors preferentially quasi-perpendicular to B o. The overall electron heating yields T ∥ > T⊥ for all epsilone and betae values, indicating the primary linear wave-particle interaction is Landau damping. But linear wave-particle interactions play a minor role in shaping the wavevector spectrum, whereas nonlinear wave-wave interactions are overall stronger and faster processes, and ultimately determine the wavevector anisotropy. Simulated magnetic energy spectra as function of wavenumber show a spectral break to steeper slopes, which scales as k⊥lambda e ≃ 1 independent of betae values, where lambdae is electron inertial length, qualitatively similar to solar wind observations. Specific

  11. Evaluating Satellite and Supercomputing Technologies for Improved Coastal Ecosystem Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew James

    along the Gulf of Mexico. Land cover assessments could not be used as an explanatory variable because of the low temporal resolution (i.e. approximately one map per five-year period). Ocean color metrics were evaluated against atmospheric, meteorological, and oceanographic variables including precipitation, wind speed, U and V wind vectors, river discharge, and water level over weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual time steps. Climate indices like the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation index were also examined as possible drivers of long-term changes. Extreme turbidity events were defined by the 90th and 95th percentile observations over each time step. Wind speed, river discharge and El Nino best explained variability in turbidity time-series and extreme events (R2 > 0.2, p Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and National Wetland Inventory, we found that these historical land cover products overestimated by 2-10 times the actual extent of wetlands as identified in the WorldView-2 maps. We could find no study that had utilized more than six of these commercial images for a given project. Part of the problem is cost of the images, but there is also the cost of processing the images, which is typically done one at a time and with substantial human interaction. Chapter four explains an approach to automate the preprocessing and classification of imagery to detect wetlands within the Tampa Bay watershed (6,500 km2). Software scripts in Python, Matlab and Linux were used to ingest 130 WorldView-2 images and to generate maps that included wetlands, uplands, water, and bare and developed land. These maps proved to be more accurate at identifying forested wetland (78%) than those by NOAA, SWFWMD, and NWI (45-65%) based on ground validation data. Typical processing methods would have required 4-5 months to complete this work, but this protocol completed the 130 images in under 24 hours. Chapter five of the

  12. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  13. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  14. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  15. Process research of non-cz silicon material. Low cost solar array project, cell and module formation research area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated.

  16. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Re-inventing electromagnetics - Supercomputing solution of Maxwell's equations via direct time integration on space grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taflove, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present state and future directions of applying finite-difference and finite-volume time-domain techniques for Maxwell's equations on supercomputers to model complex electromagnetic wave interactions with structures. Applications so far have been dominated by radar cross section technology, but by no means are limited to this area. In fact, the gains we have made place us on the threshold of being able to make tremendous contributions to non-defense electronics and optical technology. Some of the most interesting research in these commercial areas is summarized. 47 refs

  18. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  19. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  20. Low cost solar array project cell and module formation research area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid applied dopants to replace the CVD Silox masking and gaseous diffusion operations specified for forming junctions in the Westinghouse baseline process sequence for producing solar cells from dendritic web silicon were investigated. The baseline diffusion masking and drive processes were compared with those involving direct liquid applications to the dendritic web silicon strips. Attempts were made to control the number of variables by subjecting dendritic web strips cut from a single web crystal to both types of operations. Data generated reinforced earlier conclusions that efficiency levels at least as high as those achieved with the baseline back junction formation process can be achieved using liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants. The deliveries of dendritic web sheet material and solar cells specified by the current contract were made as scheduled.

  1. Effect of thermal implying during ageing process of nanorods growth on the properties of zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com; Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Sin, M. D., E-mail: diyana0366@johor.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Undoped and Sn-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been fabricated using a simple sol-gel immersion method at 95°C of growth temperature. Thermal sourced by hot plate stirrer was supplied to the solution during ageing process of nanorods growth. The results showed significant decrement in the quality of layer produced after the immersion process where the conductivity and porosity of the samples reduced significantly due to the thermal appliance. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  2. Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Centre for Theoretical Studies and Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, ... the parent to the offspring, sensory information conveyed by the sense organ to the .... The task involved in genetic information processing is. ASSEMBLY.

  3. Grassroots Supercomputing

    CERN Multimedia

    Buchanan, Mark

    2005-01-01

    What started out as a way for SETI to plow through its piles or radio-signal data from deep space has turned into a powerful research tool as computer users acrosse the globe donate their screen-saver time to projects as diverse as climate-change prediction, gravitational-wave searches, and protein folding (4 pages)

  4. Development of a Post-Processing Algorithm for Accurate Human Skull Profile Extraction via Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Mariam Luay Y.

    Ultrasound Imaging has been favored by clinicians for its safety, affordability, accessibility, and speed compared to other imaging modalities. However, the trade-offs to these benefits are a relatively lower image quality and interpretability, which can be addressed by, for example, post-processing methods. One particularly difficult imaging case is associated with the presence of a barrier, such as a human skull, with significantly different acoustical properties than the brain tissue as the target medium. Some methods were proposed in the literature to account for this structure if the skull's geometry is known. Measuring the skull's geometry is therefore an important task that requires attention. In this work, a new edge detection method for accurate human skull profile extraction via post-processing of ultrasonic A-Scans is introduced. This method, referred to as the Selective Echo Extraction algorithm, SEE, processes each A-Scan separately and determines the outermost and innermost boundaries of the skull by means of adaptive filtering. The method can also be used to determine the average attenuation coefficient of the skull. When applied to simulated B-Mode images of the skull profile, promising results were obtained. The profiles obtained from the proposed process in simulations were found to be within 0.15lambda +/- 0.11lambda or 0.09 +/- 0.07mm from the actual profiles. Experiments were also performed to test SEE on skull mimicking phantoms with major acoustical properties similar to those of the actual human skull. With experimental data, the profiles obtained with the proposed process were within 0.32lambda +/- 0.25lambda or 0.19 +/- 0.15mm from the actual profile.

  5. Low cost solar array project. Cell and module formation research area. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Liquid diffusion masks and liquid dopants to replace the more expensive CVD SiO2 mask and gaseous diffusion processes were investigated. Silicon pellets were prepared in the silicon shot tower; and solar cells were fabricated using web grown where the pellets were used as a replenishment material. Verification runs were made using the boron dopant and liquid diffusion mask materials. The average of cells produced in these runs was 13%. The relationship of sheet resistivity, temperature, gas flows, and gas composition for the diffusion of the P-8 liquid phosphorus solution was investigated. Solar cells processed from web grown from Si shot material were evaluated, and results qualified the use of the material produced in the shot tower for web furnace feed stock.

  6. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.

  7. Frequently updated noise threat maps created with use of supercomputing grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative supercomputing grid services devoted to noise threat evaluation were presented. The services described in this paper concern two issues, first is related to the noise mapping, while the second one focuses on assessment of the noise dose and its influence on the human hearing system. The discussed serviceswere developed within the PL-Grid Plus Infrastructure which accumulates Polish academic supercomputer centers. Selected experimental results achieved by the usage of the services proposed were presented. The assessment of the environmental noise threats includes creation of the noise maps using either ofline or online data, acquired through a grid of the monitoring stations. A concept of estimation of the source model parameters based on the measured sound level for the purpose of creating frequently updated noise maps was presented. Connecting the noise mapping grid service with a distributed sensor network enables to automatically update noise maps for a specified time period. Moreover, a unique attribute of the developed software is the estimation of the auditory effects evoked by the exposure to noise. The estimation method uses a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and is based on the calculated noise level values and on the given exposure period. Potential use scenarios of the grid services for research or educational purpose were introduced. Presentation of the results of predicted hearing threshold shift caused by exposure to excessive noise can raise the public awareness of the noise threats.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  9. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00300320; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre; Schovancova, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modi ed PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused...

  10. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, Alexei; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking run will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real tim...

  11. Feynman diagrams sampling for quantum field theories on the QPACE 2 supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappl, Florian

    2016-08-01

    This work discusses the application of Feynman diagram sampling in quantum field theories. The method uses a computer simulation to sample the diagrammatic space obtained in a series expansion. For running large physical simulations powerful computers are obligatory, effectively splitting the thesis in two parts. The first part deals with the method of Feynman diagram sampling. Here the theoretical background of the method itself is discussed. Additionally, important statistical concepts and the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics, are introduced. This sets the context of the simulations. We create and evaluate a variety of models to estimate the applicability of diagrammatic methods. The method is then applied to sample the perturbative expansion of the vertex correction. In the end we obtain the value for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. The second part looks at the QPACE 2 supercomputer. This includes a short introduction to supercomputers in general, as well as a closer look at the architecture and the cooling system of QPACE 2. Guiding benchmarks of the InfiniBand network are presented. At the core of this part, a collection of best practices and useful programming concepts are outlined, which enables the development of efficient, yet easily portable, applications for the QPACE 2 system.

  12. Federal Market Information Technology in the Post Flash Crash Era: Roles for Supercomputing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-16

    This paper describes collaborative work between active traders, regulators, economists, and supercomputing researchers to replicate and extend investigations of the Flash Crash and other market anomalies in a National Laboratory HPC environment. Our work suggests that supercomputing tools and methods will be valuable to market regulators in achieving the goal of market safety, stability, and security. Research results using high frequency data and analytics are described, and directions for future development are discussed. Currently the key mechanism for preventing catastrophic market action are “circuit breakers.” We believe a more graduated approach, similar to the “yellow light” approach in motorsports to slow down traffic, might be a better way to achieve the same goal. To enable this objective, we study a number of indicators that could foresee hazards in market conditions and explore options to confirm such predictions. Our tests confirm that Volume Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN) and a version of volume Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for measuring market fragmentation can indeed give strong signals ahead of the Flash Crash event on May 6 2010. This is a preliminary step toward a full-fledged early-warning system for unusual market conditions.

  13. Chemical analysis of raw and processed Fructus arctii by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunming; Liu, Qidi; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Lu, Tulin; Shen, Baojia; Shu, Yachun; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), raw and processed herbs are used to treat the different diseases. Fructus Arctii, the dried fruits of Arctium lappa l. (Compositae), is widely used in the TCM. Stir-frying is the most common processing method, which might modify the chemical compositions in Fructus Arctii. Materials and Methods: To test this hypothesis, we focused on analysis and identification of the main chemical constituents in raw and processed Fructus Arctii (PFA) by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results: The results indicated that there was less arctiin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. however, there were higher levels of arctigenin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. Conclusion: We suggest that arctiin reduced significantly following the thermal conversion of arctiin to arctigenin. In conclusion, this finding may shed some light on understanding the differences in the therapeutic values of raw versus PFA in TCM. PMID:25422559

  14. Modular and efficient ozone systems based on massively parallel chemical processing in microchannel plasma arrays: performance and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-H.; Cho, J. H.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Plasmachemical systems based on the production of a specific molecule (O3) in literally thousands of microchannel plasmas simultaneously have been demonstrated, developed and engineered over the past seven years, and commercialized. At the heart of this new plasma technology is the plasma chip, a flat aluminum strip fabricated by photolithographic and wet chemical processes and comprising 24-48 channels, micromachined into nanoporous aluminum oxide, with embedded electrodes. By integrating 4-6 chips into a module, the mass output of an ozone microplasma system is scaled linearly with the number of modules operating in parallel. A 115 g/hr (2.7 kg/day) ozone system, for example, is realized by the combined output of 18 modules comprising 72 chips and 1,800 microchannels. The implications of this plasma processing architecture for scaling ozone production capability, and reducing capital and service costs when introducing redundancy into the system, are profound. In contrast to conventional ozone generator technology, microplasma systems operate reliably (albeit with reduced output) in ambient air and humidity levels up to 90%, a characteristic attributable to the water adsorption/desorption properties and electrical breakdown strength of nanoporous alumina. Extensive testing has documented chip and system lifetimes (MTBF) beyond 5,000 hours, and efficiencies >130 g/kWh when oxygen is the feedstock gas. Furthermore, the weight and volume of microplasma systems are a factor of 3-10 lower than those for conventional ozone systems of comparable output. Massively-parallel plasmachemical processing offers functionality, performance, and commercial value beyond that afforded by conventional technology, and is currently in operation in more than 30 countries worldwide.

  15. Advances in Supercomputing for the Modeling of Atomic Processes in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, J. A.; Ballance, C. P.; Loch, S. D.; Lee, T. G.; Pindzola, M. S.; Griffin, D. C.; McLaughlin, B. M.; Colgan, J.

    2009-01-01

    An overview will be given of recent atomic and molecular collision methods developed to take advantage of modern massively parallel computers. The focus will be on direct solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for simple systems using large numerical lattices, as found in the time-dependent close-coupling method, and for configuration interaction solutions of the time-independent Schroedinger equation for more complex systems using large numbers of basis functions, as found in the R-matrix with pseudo-states method. Results from these large scale calculations are extremely useful in benchmarking less accurate theoretical methods and experimental data. To take full advantage of future petascale and exascale computing resources, it appears that even finer grain parallelism will be needed.

  16. Pleiades and OCO-2: Using Supercomputing Resources to Process OCO-2 Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, Nick

    2012-01-01

    For a period of ten weeks I got the opportunity to assist in doing research for the OCO-2 project in the Science Data Operations System Team. This research involved writing a prototype interface that would work as a model for the system implemented for the project's operations. This would only be the case if when the system is tested it worked properly and up to the team's standards. This paper gives the details of the research done and its results.

  17. Proteolytic processing of the cilium adhesin MHJ_0194 (P123J ) in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae generates a functionally diverse array of cleavage fragments that bind multiple host molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Jenkins, Cheryl; Seymour, Lisa M; Tacchi, Jessica L; Widjaja, Michael; Jarocki, Veronica M; Deutscher, Ania T; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the aetiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, regulates the presentation of proteins on its cell surface via endoproteolysis, including those of the cilial adhesin P123 (MHJ_0194). These proteolytic cleavage events create functional adhesins that bind to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and to the circulatory host molecule plasminogen. Two dominant cleavage events of the P123 preprotein have been previously characterized; however, immunoblotting studies suggest that more complex processing events occur. These extensive processing events are characterized here. The functional significance of the P97 cleavage fragments is also poorly understood. Affinity chromatography using heparin, fibronectin and plasminogen as bait and peptide arrays were used to expand our knowledge of the adhesive capabilities of P123 cleavage fragments and characterize a novel binding motif in the C-terminus of P123. Further, we use immunohistochemistry to examine in vivo, the biological significance of interactions between M. hyopneumoniae and fibronectin and show that M. hyopneumoniae induces fibronectin deposition at the site of infection on the ciliated epithelium. Our data supports the hypothesis that M. hyopneumoniae possesses the molecular machinery to influence key molecular communication pathways in host cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  19. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles,

  20. Seismicity And Accretion Processes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores using data from the MARCHE Autonomous Hydrophone Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Julie; Cevatoglu, Melis; Cannat, Mathilde; Escartin, Javier; Maia, Marcia; Tisseau, Chantal; Dziak, Robert; Goslin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    The seismicity of the South Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by the MARCHE network of 4 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed south of the Azores Plateau between 32° and 39°N from July 2005 to August 2008. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~4.3 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=2.1 using this hydrophone array. A spatio-temporal analysis has been performed among the 5600 events recorded inside the MARCHE array. Most events are distributed along the ridge between lat. 39°N on the Azores Platform and the Rainbow (36°N) segment. In the hydrophone catalogue, acoustic magnitude (Source Level, SL) is used as a measure of earthquake size. The source level above which the data set is complete is SLc=205 dB. We look for seismic swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN package. The criterion used are a minimum SL of 210 to detect a possible mainshock, and a radius of 30 km and a time window of 40 days after this mainshock (Cevatoglu, 2010, Goslin et al., 2012). 7 swarms with more than 15 events are identified using this approach between 32°et 39°N of latitude. The maximum number of earthquake in a swarm is 57 events. This result differs from the study of Simao et al. (2010) as we processed a further year of data and selected sequences with fewer events. Looking at the distribution of the SL as a function of time after the mainshock, we discuss the possible mechanism of these earthquakes : tectonic events with a "mainshock-aftershock" distribution fitting a modified Omori law or volcanic events showing more constant SL values. We also present the geophysical setting of these 7 swarms, using gravity, bathymetry, and available local geological data. This study illustrates the potential of

  1. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  2. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  3. Wavelet transform-vector quantization compression of supercomputer ocean model simulation output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J N; Brislawn, C M

    1992-11-12

    We describe a new procedure for efficient compression of digital information for storage and transmission purposes. The algorithm involves a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition of the data set, followed by vector quantization of the wavelet transform coefficients using application-specific vector quantizers. The new vector quantizer design procedure optimizes the assignment of both memory resources and vector dimensions to the transform subbands by minimizing an exponential rate-distortion functional subject to constraints on both overall bit-rate and encoder complexity. The wavelet-vector quantization method, which originates in digital image compression. is applicable to the compression of other multidimensional data sets possessing some degree of smoothness. In this paper we discuss the use of this technique for compressing the output of supercomputer simulations of global climate models. The data presented here comes from Semtner-Chervin global ocean models run at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and at the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Laboratory.

  4. Palacios and Kitten : high performance operating systems for scalable virtualized and native supercomputing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, Patrick (University of New Mexico); Jaconette, Steven (Northwestern University); Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Xia, Lei (Northwestern University); Dinda, Peter (Northwestern University); Cui, Zheng.; Lange, John (Northwestern University); Hudson, Trammell B.; Levenhagen, Michael J.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-09-01

    Palacios and Kitten are new open source tools that enable applications, whether ported or not, to achieve scalable high performance on large machines. They provide a thin layer over the hardware to support both full-featured virtualized environments and native code bases. Kitten is an OS under development at Sandia that implements a lightweight kernel architecture to provide predictable behavior and increased flexibility on large machines, while also providing Linux binary compatibility. Palacios is a VMM that is under development at Northwestern University and the University of New Mexico. Palacios, which can be embedded into Kitten and other OSes, supports existing, unmodified applications and operating systems by using virtualization that leverages hardware technologies. We describe the design and implementation of both Kitten and Palacios. Our benchmarks show that they provide near native, scalable performance. Palacios and Kitten provide an incremental path to using supercomputer resources that is not performance-compromised.

  5. Use of QUADRICS supercomputer as embedded simulator in emergency management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bove, R.; Di Costanzo, G.; Ziparo, A.

    1996-07-01

    The experience related to the implementation of a MRBT, atmospheric spreading model with a short duration releasing, are reported. This model was implemented on a QUADRICS-Q1 supercomputer. First is reported a description of the MRBT model. It is an analytical model to study the speadings of light gases realised in the atmosphere cause incidental releasing. The solution of diffusion equation is Gaussian like. It yield the concentration of pollutant substance released. The concentration is function of space and time. Thus the QUADRICS architecture is introduced. And the implementation of the model is described. At the end it will be consider the integration of the QUADRICS-based model as simulator in a emergency management system

  6. Reactive flow simulations in complex geometries with high-performance supercomputing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Gerndt, M.; Jahn, W.; Vogelsang, R.; Binninger, B.; Herrmann, M.; Olivier, H.; Weber, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a modern field code cluster consisting of state-of-the-art reactive Navier-Stokes- and reactive Euler solvers that has been developed on vector- and parallel supercomputers at the research center Juelich. This field code cluster is used for hydrogen safety analyses of technical systems, for example, in the field of nuclear reactor safety and conventional hydrogen demonstration plants with fuel cells. Emphasis is put on the assessment of combustion loads, which could result from slow, fast or rapid flames, including transition from deflagration to detonation. As a sample of proof tests, the special tools have been tested for specific tasks, based on the comparison of experimental and numerical results, which are in reasonable agreement. (author)

  7. Research to application: Supercomputing trends for the 90's - Opportunities for interdisciplinary computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.

    1991-01-01

    The progression of supercomputing is reviewed from the point of view of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and multidisciplinary problems impacting the design of advanced aerospace configurations are addressed. The application of full potential and Euler equations to transonic and supersonic problems in the 70s and early 80s is outlined, along with Navier-Stokes computations widespread during the late 80s and early 90s. Multidisciplinary computations currently in progress are discussed, including CFD and aeroelastic coupling for both static and dynamic flexible computations, CFD, aeroelastic, and controls coupling for flutter suppression and active control, and the development of a computational electromagnetics technology based on CFD methods. Attention is given to computational challenges standing in a way of the concept of establishing a computational environment including many technologies. 40 refs

  8. MILC Code Performance on High End CPU and GPU Supercomputer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTar, Carleton; Gottlieb, Steven; Li, Ruizi; Toussaint, Doug

    2018-03-01

    With recent developments in parallel supercomputing architecture, many core, multi-core, and GPU processors are now commonplace, resulting in more levels of parallelism, memory hierarchy, and programming complexity. It has been necessary to adapt the MILC code to these new processors starting with NVIDIA GPUs, and more recently, the Intel Xeon Phi processors. We report on our efforts to port and optimize our code for the Intel Knights Landing architecture. We consider performance of the MILC code with MPI and OpenMP, and optimizations with QOPQDP and QPhiX. For the latter approach, we concentrate on the staggered conjugate gradient and gauge force. We also consider performance on recent NVIDIA GPUs using the QUDA library.

  9. MILC Code Performance on High End CPU and GPU Supercomputer Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeTar Carleton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent developments in parallel supercomputing architecture, many core, multi-core, and GPU processors are now commonplace, resulting in more levels of parallelism, memory hierarchy, and programming complexity. It has been necessary to adapt the MILC code to these new processors starting with NVIDIA GPUs, and more recently, the Intel Xeon Phi processors. We report on our efforts to port and optimize our code for the Intel Knights Landing architecture. We consider performance of the MILC code with MPI and OpenMP, and optimizations with QOPQDP and QPhiX. For the latter approach, we concentrate on the staggered conjugate gradient and gauge force. We also consider performance on recent NVIDIA GPUs using the QUDA library.

  10. Solving sparse linear least squares problems on some supercomputers by using large dense blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Ostromsky, T; Sameh, A

    1997-01-01

    technique is preferable to sparse matrix technique when the matrices are not large, because the high computational speed compensates fully the disadvantages of using more arithmetic operations and more storage. For very large matrices the computations must be organized as a sequence of tasks in each......Efficient subroutines for dense matrix computations have recently been developed and are available on many high-speed computers. On some computers the speed of many dense matrix operations is near to the peak-performance. For sparse matrices storage and operations can be saved by operating only...... and storing only nonzero elements. However, the price is a great degradation of the speed of computations on supercomputers (due to the use of indirect addresses, to the need to insert new nonzeros in the sparse storage scheme, to the lack of data locality, etc.). On many high-speed computers a dense matrix...

  11. EDF's experience with supercomputing and challenges ahead - towards multi-physics and multi-scale approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.; Banner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are a major asset of the EDF company. To remain so, in particular in a context of deregulation, competitiveness, safety and public acceptance are three conditions. These stakes apply both to existing plants and to future reactors. The purpose of the presentation is to explain how supercomputing can help EDF to satisfy these requirements. Three examples are described in detail: ensuring optimal use of nuclear fuel under wholly safe conditions, understanding and simulating the material deterioration mechanisms and moving forward with numerical simulation for the performance of EDF's activities. In conclusion, a broader vision of EDF long term R and D in the field of numerical simulation is given and especially of five challenges taken up by EDF together with its industrial and scientific partners. (author)

  12. Development of a high performance eigensolver on the peta-scale next generation supercomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Susumu; Machida, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    For the present supercomputer systems, a multicore and multisocket processors are necessary to build a system, and choice of interconnection is essential. In addition, for effective development of a new code, high performance, scalable, and reliable numerical software is one of the key items. ScaLAPACK and PETSc are well-known software on distributed memory parallel computer systems. It is needless to say that highly tuned software towards new architecture like many-core processors must be chosen for real computation. In this study, we present a high-performance and high-scalable eigenvalue solver towards the next-generation supercomputer system, so called 'K-computer' system. We have developed two versions, the standard version (eigen s) and enhanced performance version (eigen sx), which are developed on the T2K cluster system housed at University of Tokyo. Eigen s employs the conventional algorithms; Householder tridiagonalization, divide and conquer (DC) algorithm, and Householder back-transformation. They are carefully implemented with blocking technique and flexible two-dimensional data-distribution to reduce the overhead of memory traffic and data transfer, respectively. Eigen s performs excellently on the T2K system with 4096 cores (theoretical peak is 37.6 TFLOPS), and it shows fine performance 3.0 TFLOPS with a two hundred thousand dimensional matrix. The enhanced version, eigen sx, uses more advanced algorithms; the narrow-band reduction algorithm, DC for band matrices, and the block Householder back-transformation with WY-representation. Even though this version is still on a test stage, it shows 4.7 TFLOPS with the same dimensional matrix on eigen s. (author)

  13. Harnessing Petaflop-Scale Multi-Core Supercomputing for Problems in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K. J.; Daughton, W.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The particle-in-cell kinetic plasma code VPIC has been migrated successfully to the world's fastest supercomputer, Roadrunner, a hybrid multi-core platform built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. How this was achieved will be described and examples of state-of-the-art calculations in space science, in particular, the study of magnetic reconnection, will be presented. With VPIC on Roadrunner, we have performed, for the first time, plasma PIC calculations with over one trillion particles, >100× larger than calculations considered "heroic" by community standards. This allows examination of physics at unprecedented scale and fidelity. Roadrunner is an example of an emerging paradigm in supercomputing: the trend toward multi-core systems with deep hierarchies and where memory bandwidth optimization is vital to achieving high performance. Getting VPIC to perform well on such systems is a formidable challenge: the core algorithm is memory bandwidth limited with low compute-to-data ratio and requires random access to memory in its inner loop. That we were able to get VPIC to perform and scale well, achieving >0.374 Pflop/s and linear weak scaling on real physics problems on up to the full 12240-core Roadrunner machine, bodes well for harnessing these machines for our community's needs in the future. Many of the design considerations encountered commute to other multi-core and accelerated (e.g., via GPU) platforms and we modified VPIC with flexibility in mind. These will be summarized and strategies for how one might adapt a code for such platforms will be shared. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Bowers is a LANL Guest Scientist; he is presently at D. E. Shaw Research LLC, 120 W 45th Street, 39th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

  14. Efficient development of memory bounded geo-applications to scale on modern supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Licul, Aleksandar; Podladchikov, Yuri; Herman, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modeling is an actual key tool in the area of geosciences. The current challenge is to solve problems that are multi-physics and for which the length scale and the place of occurrence might not be known in advance. Also, the spatial extend of the investigated domain might strongly vary in size, ranging from millimeters for reactive transport to kilometers for glacier erosion dynamics. An efficient way to proceed is to develop simple but robust algorithms that perform well and scale on modern supercomputers and permit therefore very high-resolution simulations. We propose an efficient approach to solve memory bounded real-world applications on modern supercomputers architectures. We optimize the software to run on our newly acquired state-of-the-art GPU cluster "octopus". Our approach shows promising preliminary results on important geodynamical and geomechanical problematics: we have developed a Stokes solver for glacier flow and a poromechanical solver including complex rheologies for nonlinear waves in stressed rocks porous rocks. We solve the system of partial differential equations on a regular Cartesian grid and use an iterative finite difference scheme with preconditioning of the residuals. The MPI communication happens only locally (point-to-point); this method is known to scale linearly by construction. The "octopus" GPU cluster, which we use for the computations, has been designed to achieve maximal data transfer throughput at minimal hardware cost. It is composed of twenty compute nodes, each hosting four Nvidia Titan X GPU accelerators. These high-density nodes are interconnected with a parallel (dual-rail) FDR InfiniBand network. Our efforts show promising preliminary results for the different physics investigated. The glacier flow solver achieves good accuracy in the relevant benchmarks and the coupled poromechanical solver permits to explain previously unresolvable focused fluid flow as a natural outcome of the porosity setup. In both cases

  15. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  16. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  17. New generation of docking programs: Supercomputer validation of force fields and quantum-chemical methods for docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimov, Alexey V; Kutov, Danil C; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Ilin, Ivan S; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2017-11-01

    Discovery of new inhibitors of the protein associated with a given disease is the initial and most important stage of the whole process of the rational development of new pharmaceutical substances. New inhibitors block the active site of the target protein and the disease is cured. Computer-aided molecular modeling can considerably increase effectiveness of new inhibitors development. Reliable predictions of the target protein inhibition by a small molecule, ligand, is defined by the accuracy of docking programs. Such programs position a ligand in the target protein and estimate the protein-ligand binding energy. Positioning accuracy of modern docking programs is satisfactory. However, the accuracy of binding energy calculations is too low to predict good inhibitors. For effective application of docking programs to new inhibitors development the accuracy of binding energy calculations should be higher than 1kcal/mol. Reasons of limited accuracy of modern docking programs are discussed. One of the most important aspects limiting this accuracy is imperfection of protein-ligand energy calculations. Results of supercomputer validation of several force fields and quantum-chemical methods for docking are presented. The validation was performed by quasi-docking as follows. First, the low energy minima spectra of 16 protein-ligand complexes were found by exhaustive minima search in the MMFF94 force field. Second, energies of the lowest 8192 minima are recalculated with CHARMM force field and PM6-D3H4X and PM7 quantum-chemical methods for each complex. The analysis of minima energies reveals the docking positioning accuracies of the PM7 and PM6-D3H4X quantum-chemical methods and the CHARMM force field are close to one another and they are better than the positioning accuracy of the MMFF94 force field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  19. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  20. Processes for design, construction and utilisation of arrays of light-emitting diodes and light-emitting diode-coupled optical fibres for multi-site brain light delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jacob G; Allen, Brian D; Guerra, Alexander A; Boyden, Edward S

    2015-05-01

    Optogenetics enables light to be used to control the activity of genetically targeted cells in the living brain. Optical fibers can be used to deliver light to deep targets, and LEDs can be spatially arranged to enable patterned light delivery. In combination, arrays of LED-coupled optical fibers can enable patterned light delivery to deep targets in the brain. Here we describe the process flow for making LED arrays and LED-coupled optical fiber arrays, explaining key optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical design principles to enable the manufacturing, assembly, and testing of such multi-site targetable optical devices. We also explore accessory strategies such as surgical automation approaches as well as innovations to enable low-noise concurrent electrophysiology.

  1. Building the Support for Radar Processing across Memory Hierarchies: On the Development of an Array Class with Shapes using Expression Templates in C++̂

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullin, Lenore

    2004-01-01

    ...), could be used to develop software for radar and other DSP applications. This software needs to be tuned to use the levels of memory hierarchies efficiently without the materialization of array valued temporaries 3...

  2. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  3. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  4. Acoustic array systems theory, implementation, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mingsian R; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applic

  5. Electrochemically Obtained TiO2/CuxOy Nanotube Arrays Presenting a Photocatalytic Response in Processes of Pollutants Degradation and Bacteria Inactivation in Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kozak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/CuxOy nanotube (NT arrays were synthesized using the anodization method in the presence of ethylene glycol and different parameters applied. The presence, morphology, and chemical character of the obtained structures was characterized using a variety of methods—SEM (scanning electron microscopy, XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray crystallography, PL (photoluminescence, and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A p-n mixed oxide heterojunction of Ti-Cu was created with a proved response to the visible light range and the stable form that were in contact with Ti. TiO2/CuxOy NTs presented the appearance of both Cu2O (mainly and CuO components influencing the dimensions of the NTs (1.1–1.3 µm. Additionally, changes in voltage have been proven to affect the NTs’ length, which reached a value of 3.5 µm for Ti90Cu10_50V. Degradation of phenol in the aqueous phase was observed in 16% of Ti85Cu15_30V after 1 h of visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm. Scavenger tests for phenol degradation process in presence of NT samples exposed the responsibility of superoxide radicals for degradation of organic compounds in Vis light region. Inactivation of bacteria strains Escherichia coli (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, and Clostridium sp. in presence of obtained TiO2/CuxOy NT photocatalysts, and Vis light has been studied showing a great improvement in inactivation efficiency with a response rate of 97% inactivation for E. coli and 98% for Clostridium sp. in 60 min. Evidently, TEM (transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the bacteria cells’ damage.

  6. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  7. De Novo Ultrascale Atomistic Simulations On High-End Parallel Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, A; Kalia, R K; Nomura, K; Sharma, A; Vashishta, P; Shimojo, F; van Duin, A; Goddard, III, W A; Biswas, R; Srivastava, D; Yang, L H

    2006-09-04

    We present a de novo hierarchical simulation framework for first-principles based predictive simulations of materials and their validation on high-end parallel supercomputers and geographically distributed clusters. In this framework, high-end chemically reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations explore a wide solution space to discover microscopic mechanisms that govern macroscopic material properties, into which highly accurate quantum mechanical (QM) simulations are embedded to validate the discovered mechanisms and quantify the uncertainty of the solution. The framework includes an embedded divide-and-conquer (EDC) algorithmic framework for the design of linear-scaling simulation algorithms with minimal bandwidth complexity and tight error control. The EDC framework also enables adaptive hierarchical simulation with automated model transitioning assisted by graph-based event tracking. A tunable hierarchical cellular decomposition parallelization framework then maps the O(N) EDC algorithms onto Petaflops computers, while achieving performance tunability through a hierarchy of parameterized cell data/computation structures, as well as its implementation using hybrid Grid remote procedure call + message passing + threads programming. High-end computing platforms such as IBM BlueGene/L, SGI Altix 3000 and the NSF TeraGrid provide an excellent test grounds for the framework. On these platforms, we have achieved unprecedented scales of quantum-mechanically accurate and well validated, chemically reactive atomistic simulations--1.06 billion-atom fast reactive force-field MD and 11.8 million-atom (1.04 trillion grid points) quantum-mechanical MD in the framework of the EDC density functional theory on adaptive multigrids--in addition to 134 billion-atom non-reactive space-time multiresolution MD, with the parallel efficiency as high as 0.998 on 65,536 dual-processor BlueGene/L nodes. We have also achieved an automated execution of hierarchical QM

  8. Systematic genetic array analysis links the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 component Tra1 to multiple cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Brenda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tra1 is an essential 437-kDa component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. It is a member of a group of key signaling molecules that share a carboxyl-terminal domain related to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase but unlike many family members, it lacks kinase activity. To identify genetic interactions for TRA1 and provide insight into its function we have performed a systematic genetic array analysis (SGA on tra1SRR3413, an allele that is defective in transcriptional regulation. Results The SGA analysis revealed 114 synthetic slow growth/lethal (SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413. The interacting genes are involved in a range of cellular processes including gene expression, mitochondrial function, and membrane sorting/protein trafficking. In addition many of the genes have roles in the cellular response to stress. A hierarchal cluster analysis revealed that the pattern of SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413 most closely resembles deletions of a group of regulatory GTPases required for membrane sorting/protein trafficking. Consistent with a role for Tra1 in cellular stress, the tra1SRR3413 strain was sensitive to rapamycin. In addition, calcofluor white sensitivity of the strain was enhanced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, a phenotype shared with the Ada components of the SAGA/SLIK complex. Through analysis of a GFP-Tra1 fusion we show that Tra1 is principally localized to the nucleus. Conclusion We have demonstrated a genetic association of Tra1 with nuclear, mitochondrial and membrane processes. The identity of the SSL genes also connects Tra1 with cellular stress, a result confirmed by the sensitivity of the tra1SRR3413 strain to a variety of stress conditions. Based upon the nuclear localization of GFP-Tra1 and the finding that deletion of the Ada components of the SAGA complex result in similar phenotypes as tra1SRR3413, we suggest that the effects of tra1SRR3413

  9. Research center Juelich to install Germany's most powerful supercomputer new IBM System for science and research will achieve 5.8 trillion computations per second

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Research Center Juelich, Germany, and IBM today announced that they have signed a contract for the delivery and installation of a new IBM supercomputer at the Central Institute for Applied Mathematics" (1/2 page).

  10. Earth and environmental science in the 1980's: Part 1: Environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Overview descriptions of on-line environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities, and networks are presented. Each description addresses the concepts of content, capability, and user access relevant to the point of view of potential utilization by the Earth and environmental science community. The information on similar systems or facilities is presented in parallel fashion to encourage and facilitate intercomparison. In addition, summary sheets are given for each description, and a summary table precedes each section.

  11. The BlueGene/L Supercomputer and Quantum ChromoDynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranas, P; Soltz, R

    2006-01-01

    In summary our update contains: (1) Perfect speedup sustaining 19.3% of peak for the Wilson D D-slash Dirac operator. (2) Measurements of the full Conjugate Gradient (CG) inverter that inverts the Dirac operator. The CG inverter contains two global sums over the entire machine. Nevertheless, our measurements retain perfect speedup scaling demonstrating the robustness of our methods. (3) We ran on the largest BG/L system, the LLNL 64 rack BG/L supercomputer, and obtained a sustained speed of 59.1 TFlops. Furthermore, the speedup scaling of the Dirac operator and of the CG inverter are perfect all the way up to the full size of the machine, 131,072 cores (please see Figure II). The local lattice is rather small (4 x 4 x 4 x 16) while the total lattice has been a lattice QCD vision for thermodynamic studies (a total of 128 x 128 x 256 x 32 lattice sites). This speed is about five times larger compared to the speed we quoted in our submission. As we have pointed out in our paper QCD is notoriously sensitive to network and memory latencies, has a relatively high communication to computation ratio which can not be overlapped in BGL in virtual node mode, and as an application is in a class of its own. The above results are thrilling to us and a 30 year long dream for lattice QCD

  12. Parallel supercomputing: Advanced methods, algorithms, and software for large-scale linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.F.; Young, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    The program outlined here is directed to research on methods, algorithms, and software for distributed parallel supercomputers. Of particular interest are finite element methods and finite difference methods together with sparse iterative solution schemes for scientific and engineering computations of very large-scale systems. Both linear and nonlinear problems will be investigated. In the nonlinear case, applications with bifurcation to multiple solutions will be considered using continuation strategies. The parallelizable numerical methods of particular interest are a family of partitioning schemes embracing domain decomposition, element-by-element strategies, and multi-level techniques. The methods will be further developed incorporating parallel iterative solution algorithms with associated preconditioners in parallel computer software. The schemes will be implemented on distributed memory parallel architectures such as the CRAY MPP, Intel Paragon, the NCUBE3, and the Connection Machine. We will also consider other new architectures such as the Kendall-Square (KSQ) and proposed machines such as the TERA. The applications will focus on large-scale three-dimensional nonlinear flow and reservoir problems with strong convective transport contributions. These are legitimate grand challenge class computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems of significant practical interest to DOE. The methods developed and algorithms will, however, be of wider interest.

  13. 369 TFlop/s molecular dynamics simulations on the Roadrunner general-purpose heterogeneous supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminarayan, Sriram [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fossum, Gordon C [IBM CORPORATION

    2008-01-01

    The authors present timing and performance numbers for a short-range parallel molecular dynamics (MD) code, SPaSM, that has been rewritten for the heterogeneous Roadrunner supercomputer. Each Roadrunner compute node consists of two AMD Opteron dual-core microprocessors and four PowerXCell 8i enhanced Cell microprocessors, so that there are four MPI ranks per node, each with one Opteron and one Cell. The interatomic forces are computed on the Cells (each with one PPU and eight SPU cores), while the Opterons are used to direct inter-rank communication and perform I/O-heavy periodic analysis, visualization, and checkpointing tasks. The performance measured for our initial implementation of a standard Lennard-Jones pair potential benchmark reached a peak of 369 Tflop/s double-precision floating-point performance on the full Roadrunner system (27.7% of peak), corresponding to 124 MFlop/Watt/s at a price of approximately 3.69 MFlops/dollar. They demonstrate an initial target application, the jetting and ejection of material from a shocked surface.

  14. A user-friendly web portal for T-Coffee on supercomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koetsier Jos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parallel T-Coffee (PTC was the first parallel implementation of the T-Coffee multiple sequence alignment tool. It is based on MPI and RMA mechanisms. Its purpose is to reduce the execution time of the large-scale sequence alignments. It can be run on distributed memory clusters allowing users to align data sets consisting of hundreds of proteins within a reasonable time. However, most of the potential users of this tool are not familiar with the use of grids or supercomputers. Results In this paper we show how PTC can be easily deployed and controlled on a super computer architecture using a web portal developed using Rapid. Rapid is a tool for efficiently generating standardized portlets for a wide range of applications and the approach described here is generic enough to be applied to other applications, or to deploy PTC on different HPC environments. Conclusions The PTC portal allows users to upload a large number of sequences to be aligned by the parallel version of TC that cannot be aligned by a single machine due to memory and execution time constraints. The web portal provides a user-friendly solution.

  15. Portable implementation model for CFD simulations. Application to hybrid CPU/GPU supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Guillermo; Borrell, Ricard; Gorobets, Andrey; Oliva, Assensi

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, high performance computing (HPC) systems experience a disruptive moment with a variety of novel architectures and frameworks, without any clarity of which one is going to prevail. In this context, the portability of codes across different architectures is of major importance. This paper presents a portable implementation model based on an algebraic operational approach for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent flows using unstructured hybrid meshes. The strategy proposed consists in representing the whole time-integration algorithm using only three basic algebraic operations: sparse matrix-vector product, a linear combination of vectors and dot product. The main idea is based on decomposing the nonlinear operators into a concatenation of two SpMV operations. This provides high modularity and portability. An exhaustive analysis of the proposed implementation for hybrid CPU/GPU supercomputers has been conducted with tests using up to 128 GPUs. The main objective consists in understanding the challenges of implementing CFD codes on new architectures.

  16. Assessment techniques for a learning-centered curriculum: evaluation design for adventures in supercomputing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helland, B. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Summers, B.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-09-01

    As the classroom paradigm shifts from being teacher-centered to being learner-centered, student assessments are evolving from typical paper and pencil testing to other methods of evaluation. Students should be probed for understanding, reasoning, and critical thinking abilities rather than their ability to return memorized facts. The assessment of the Department of Energy`s pilot program, Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS), offers one example of assessment techniques developed for learner-centered curricula. This assessment has employed a variety of methods to collect student data. Methods of assessment used were traditional testing, performance testing, interviews, short questionnaires via email, and student presentations of projects. The data obtained from these sources have been analyzed by a professional assessment team at the Center for Children and Technology. The results have been used to improve the AiS curriculum and establish the quality of the overall AiS program. This paper will discuss the various methods of assessment used and the results.

  17. Visualization at supercomputing centers: the tale of little big iron and the three skinny guys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, E W; van Rosendale, J; Southard, D; Gaither, K; Childs, H; Brugger, E; Ahern, S

    2011-01-01

    Supercomputing centers are unique resources that aim to enable scientific knowledge discovery by employing large computational resources-the "Big Iron." Design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Big Iron are carefully planned and monitored. Because these Big Iron systems produce a tsunami of data, it's natural to colocate the visualization and analysis infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of hardware (Little Iron) and staff (Skinny Guys). Our collective experience suggests that design, acquisition, installation, and management of the Little Iron and Skinny Guys doesn't receive the same level of treatment as that of the Big Iron. This article explores the following questions about the Little Iron: How should we size the Little Iron to adequately support visualization and analysis of data coming off the Big Iron? What sort of capabilities must it have? Related questions concern the size of visualization support staff: How big should a visualization program be-that is, how many Skinny Guys should it have? What should the staff do? How much of the visualization should be provided as a support service, and how much should applications scientists be expected to do on their own?

  18. Benchmarking Further Single Board Computers for Building a Mini Supercomputer for Simulation of Telecommunication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel Discrete Event Simulation (PDES with the conservative synchronization method can be efficiently used for the performance analysis of telecommunication systems because of their good lookahead properties. For PDES, a cost effective execution platform may be built by using single board computers (SBCs, which offer relatively high computation capacity compared to their price or power consumption and especially to the space they take up. A benchmarking method is proposed and its operation is demonstrated by benchmarking ten different SBCs, namely Banana Pi, Beaglebone Black, Cubieboard2, Odroid-C1+, Odroid-U3+, Odroid-XU3 Lite, Orange Pi Plus, Radxa Rock Lite, Raspberry Pi Model B+, and Raspberry Pi 2 Model B+. Their benchmarking results are compared to find out which one should be used for building a mini supercomputer for parallel discrete-event simulation of telecommunication systems. The SBCs are also used to build a heterogeneous cluster and the performance of the cluster is tested, too.

  19. A Fusion Approach to Feature Extraction by Wavelet Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis in Transient Signal Processing of SAW Odor Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of a new approach for development of surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array based odor recognition system. The construction of sensor array employs a single polymer interface for selective sorption of odorant chemicals in vapor phase. The individual sensors are however coated with different thicknesses. The idea of sensor coating thickness variation is for terminating solvation and diffusion kinetics of vapors into polymer up to different stages of equilibration on different sensors. This is expected to generate diversity in information content of the sensors transient. The analysis is based on wavelet decomposition of transient signals. The single sensor transients have been used earlier for generating odor identity signatures based on wavelet approximation coefficients. In the present work, however, we exploit variability in diffusion kinetics due to polymer thicknesses for making odor signatures. This is done by fusion of the wavelet coefficients from different sensors in the array, and then applying the principal component analysis. We find that the present approach substantially enhances the vapor class separability in feature space. The validation is done by generating synthetic sensor array data based on well-established SAW sensor theory.

  20. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO2. In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO2/Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.026 mA cm‑2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO2. This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Impact of the limitations of state-of-the-art micro-fabrication processes on the performance of pillar array columns for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Jeff; De Malsche, Wim; Tezcan, Deniz S; De Moor, Piet; Desmet, Gert

    2012-05-25

    We report on the practical limitations of the current state-of-the-art in micro-fabrication technology to produce the small pillar sizes that are needed to obtain high efficiency pillar array columns. For this purpose, nine channels with a different pillar diameter, ranging from 5 to 0.5 μm were fabricated using state-of the-art deep-UV lithography and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) etching technology. The obtained results strongly deviated from the theoretically expected trend, wherein the minimal plate height (H(min)) would reduce linearly with the pillar diameter. The minimal plate height decreases from 1.7 to 1.2 μm when going from 4.80 to 3.81 μm diameter pillars, but as the dimensions are further reduced, the minimal plate heights rise again to values around 2 μm. The smallest pillar diameter even produced the worst minimal plate height (4 μm). An in-depth scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inspection of the different channels clearly reveals that these findings can be attributed to the micro-fabrication limitations that are inevitably encountered when exploring the limits of deep-UV lithography and DRIE etching processes. When the target dimensions of the design approach the etching resolution limits, the band broadening increases in a strongly non-linear way with the decreased pillar dimensions. This highly non-linear relationship can be understood from first principles: when the machining error is of the order of 100-200 nm and when the target design size for the inter-pillar distance is of the order of 250 nm, this inevitably leads to pores that will range in size between 50 and 450 nm that we want to highlight with our paper highly non-linear relationship. This highly non-linear relationship can be understood from first principles: when the machining error is of the order of 100-200 nm and when the target design size for the inter-pillar distance is of the order of 250 nm, this inevitably leads to pores that will range in size between 50 and 450

  2. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  3. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  4. Parallel simulation of tsunami inundation on a large-scale supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate prediction of tsunami inundation is important for disaster mitigation purposes. One approach is to approximate the tsunami wave source through an instant inversion analysis using real-time observation data (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2009) and then use the resulting wave source data in an instant tsunami inundation simulation. However, a bottleneck of this approach is the large computational cost of the non-linear inundation simulation and the computational power of recent massively parallel supercomputers is helpful to enable faster than real-time execution of a tsunami inundation simulation. Parallel computers have become approximately 1000 times faster in 10 years (www.top500.org), and so it is expected that very fast parallel computers will be more and more prevalent in the near future. Therefore, it is important to investigate how to efficiently conduct a tsunami simulation on parallel computers. In this study, we are targeting very fast tsunami inundation simulations on the K computer, currently the fastest Japanese supercomputer, which has a theoretical peak performance of 11.2 PFLOPS. One computing node of the K computer consists of 1 CPU with 8 cores that share memory, and the nodes are connected through a high-performance torus-mesh network. The K computer is designed for distributed-memory parallel computation, so we have developed a parallel tsunami model. Our model is based on TUNAMI-N2 model of Tohoku University, which is based on a leap-frog finite difference method. A grid nesting scheme is employed to apply high-resolution grids only at the coastal regions. To balance the computation load of each CPU in the parallelization, CPUs are first allocated to each nested layer in proportion to the number of grid points of the nested layer. Using CPUs allocated to each layer, 1-D domain decomposition is performed on each layer. In the parallel computation, three types of communication are necessary: (1) communication to adjacent neighbours for the

  5. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  6. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  7. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  8. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  9. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  10. Micromolding for ceramic microneedle arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; Lüttge, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication process of ceramic microneedle arrays (MNAs) is presented. This includes the manufacturing of an SU-8/Si-master, its double replication resulting in a PDMS mold for production by micromolding and ceramic sintering. The robustness of the replicated structures was tested by means of

  11. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  12. Dumand-array data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; Dau, W.D.; Geelhood, B.D.; Harris, F.; Learned, J.G.; Stenger, V.; March, R.; Roos, C.; Shumard, E.

    1982-04-01

    An overall data acquisition approach for DUMAND is described. The scheme assumes one array to shore optical fiber transmission line for each string of the array. The basic event sampling period is approx. 13 μsec. All potentially interesting data is transmitted to shore where the major processing is performed

  13. Configuration Considerations for Low Frequency Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The advance of digital signal processing capabilities has spurred a new effort to exploit the lowest radio frequencies observable from the ground, from ˜10 MHz to a few hundred MHz. Multiple scientifically and technically complementary instruments are planned, including the Mileura Widefield Array (MWA) in the 80-300 MHz range, and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) in the 20-80 MHz range. The latter instrument will target relatively high angular resolution, and baselines up to a few hundred km. An important practical question for the design of such an array is how to distribute the collecting area on the ground. The answer to this question profoundly affects both cost and performance. In this contribution, the factors which determine the anticipated performance of any such array are examined, paying particular attention to the viability and accuracy of array calibration. It is argued that due to the severity of ionospheric effects in particular, it will be difficult or impossible to achieve routine, high dynamic range imaging with a geographically large low frequency array, unless a large number of physically separate array stations is built. This conclusion is general, is based on the need for adequate sampling of ionospheric irregularities, and is independent of the calibration algorithms and techniques that might be employed. It is further argued that array configuration figures of merit that are traditionally used for higher frequency arrays are inappropriate, and a different set of criteria are proposed.

  14. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  15. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  16. Power and thermal efficient numerical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Numerical processing is at the core of applications in many areas ranging from scientific and engineering calculations to financial computing. These applications are usually executed on large servers or supercomputers to exploit their high speed, high level of parallelism and high bandwidth...

  17. Analysis of the influence of processing of stir-baking with glycyrrhizae on the main components of Euodiae Fructus by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Wu, Xin; Cao, Gang; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    Euodiae Fructus is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in China. Specifically, the crude Euodiae Fructus and its processed products of Gancao Zhi Pin are used clinically for the treatment of different diseases. In order to improve the quality control standard and evaluate the crude and processed Euodiae Fructus, in this study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major compounds in Euodiae Fructus. The results indicated that the five components had significant linear relation (r(2) ≥ 0.9997) between the peak area and the injected concentration. The average recoveries of the five components were in the range from 97.38% to 102.56%. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.36%. The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of crude and processed Euodiae Fructus.

  18. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  19. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  20. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  1. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  2. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  3. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  4. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  5. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  6. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  7. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  8. MaMiCo: Transient multi-instance molecular-continuum flow simulation on supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Philipp; Bian, Xin

    2017-11-01

    We present extensions of the macro-micro-coupling tool MaMiCo, which was designed to couple continuum fluid dynamics solvers with discrete particle dynamics. To enable local extraction of smooth flow field quantities especially on rather short time scales, sampling over an ensemble of molecular dynamics simulations is introduced. We provide details on these extensions including the transient coupling algorithm, open boundary forcing, and multi-instance sampling. Furthermore, we validate the coupling in Couette flow using different particle simulation software packages and particle models, i.e. molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate the parallel scalability of the molecular-continuum simulations by using up to 65 536 compute cores of the supercomputer Shaheen II located at KAUST. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/w7rgdrhb85.1 Licensing provisions: BSD 3-clause Programming language: C, C++ External routines/libraries: For compiling: SCons, MPI (optional) Subprograms used: ESPResSo, LAMMPS, ls1 mardyn, waLBerla For installation procedures of the MaMiCo interfaces, see the README files in the respective code directories located in coupling/interface/impl. Journal reference of previous version: P. Neumann, H. Flohr, R. Arora, P. Jarmatz, N. Tchipev, H.-J. Bungartz. MaMiCo: Software design for parallel molecular-continuum flow simulations, Computer Physics Communications 200: 324-335, 2016 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. The functionality of the previous version is completely retained in the new version. Nature of problem: Coupled molecular-continuum simulation for multi-resolution fluid dynamics: parts of the domain are resolved by molecular dynamics or another particle-based solver whereas large parts are covered by a mesh-based CFD solver, e.g. a lattice Boltzmann automaton. Solution method: We couple existing MD and CFD solvers via MaMiCo (macro-micro coupling tool). Data exchange and

  9. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S; Sedukhin, S [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I

    1998-03-01

    The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

  10. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  11. A Novel Phase-Transformation Activation Process toward Ni-Mn-O Nanoprism Arrays for 2.4 V Ultrahigh-Voltage Aqueous Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Xie, Chaoyue; Xu, Pan; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2017-09-01

    One of the key challenges of aqueous supercapacitors is the relatively low voltage (0.8-2.0 V), which significantly limits the energy density and feasibility of practical applications of the device. Herein, this study reports a novel Ni-Mn-O solid-solution cathode to widen the supercapacitor device voltage, which can potentially suppress the oxygen evolution reaction and thus be operated stably within a quite wide potential window of 0-1.4 V (vs saturated calomel electrode) after a simple but unique phase-transformation electrochemical activation. The solid-solution structure is designed with an ordered array architecture and in situ nanocarbon modification to promote the charge/mass transfer kinetics. By paring with commercial activated carbon anode, an ultrahigh voltage asymmetric supercapacitor in neutral aqueous LiCl electrolyte is assembled (2.4 V; among the highest for single-cell supercapacitors). Moreover, by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-LiCl electrolyte, a 2.4 V hydrogel supercapacitor is further developed with an excellent Coulombic efficiency, good rate capability, and remarkable cycle life (>5000 cycles; 95.5% capacity retention). Only one cell can power the light-emitting diode indicator brightly. The resulting maximum volumetric energy density is 4.72 mWh cm -3 , which is much superior to previous thin-film manganese-oxide-based supercapacitors and even battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Low-Noise, Modular, and Versatile Analog Front-End Intended for Processing In Vitro Neuronal Signals Detected by Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Regalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of good quality extracellular neuronal spikes from neuronal cultures coupled to Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs is a binding requirement to gather reliable data. Due to physical constraints, low power requirement, or the need of customizability, commercial recording platforms are not fully adequate for the development of experimental setups integrating MEA technology with other equipment needed to perform experiments under climate controlled conditions, like environmental chambers or cell culture incubators. To address this issue, we developed a custom MEA interfacing system featuring low noise, low power, and the capability to be readily integrated inside an incubator-like environment. Two stages, a preamplifier and a filter amplifier, were designed, implemented on printed circuit boards, and tested. The system is characterized by a low input-referred noise (70 dB, and signal-to-noise ratio values of neuronal recordings comparable to those obtained with the benchmark commercial MEA system. In addition, the system was successfully integrated with an environmental MEA chamber, without harming cell cultures during experiments and without being damaged by the high humidity level. The devised system is of practical value in the development of in vitro platforms to study temporally extended neuronal network dynamics by means of MEAs.

  13. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  14. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  15. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  16. Investigation of proposed process sequence for the array automated assembly task. Phase I and II. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardesich, N.; Garcia, A.; Eskenas, K.

    1980-08-01

    A selected process sequence for the low cost fabrication of photovoltaic modules was defined during this contract. Each part of the process sequence was looked at regarding its contribution to the overall dollars per watt cost. During the course of the research done, some of the initially included processes were dropped due to technological deficiencies. The printed dielectric diffusion mask, codiffusion of the n+ and p+ regions, wraparound front contacts and retention of the diffusion oxide for use as an AR coating were all the processes that were removed for this reason. Other process steps were retained to achieve the desired overall cost and efficiency. Square wafers, a polymeric spin-on PX-10 diffusion source, a p+ back surface field and silver front contacts are all processes that have been recommended for use in this program. The printed silver solderable pad for making contact to the aluminum back was replaced by an ultrasonically applied tin-zinc pad. Also, the texturized front surface was dropped as inappropriate for the sheet silicon likely to be available in 1986. Progress has also been made on the process sequence for module fabrication. A shift from bonding with a conformal coating to laminating with ethylene vinyl acetate and a glass superstrate is recommended for further module fabrication. The finalized process sequence is described.

  17. Car2x with software defined networks, network functions virtualization and supercomputers technical and scientific preparations for the Amsterdam Arena telecoms fieldlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer R.J.; Cushing R.; De Laat C.; Jackson P.; Klous S.; Koning R.; Makkes M.X.; Meerwijk A.

    2015-01-01

    In the invited talk 'Car2x with SDN, NFV and supercomputers' we report about how our past work with SDN [1, 2] allows the design of a smart mobility fieldlab in the huge parking lot the Amsterdam Arena. We explain how we can engineer and test software that handle the complex conditions of the Car2X

  18. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  19. MEGADOCK 4.0: an ultra-high-performance protein-protein docking software for heterogeneous supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohue, Masahito; Shimoda, Takehiro; Suzuki, Shuji; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2014-11-15

    The application of protein-protein docking in large-scale interactome analysis is a major challenge in structural bioinformatics and requires huge computing resources. In this work, we present MEGADOCK 4.0, an FFT-based docking software that makes extensive use of recent heterogeneous supercomputers and shows powerful, scalable performance of >97% strong scaling. MEGADOCK 4.0 is written in C++ with OpenMPI and NVIDIA CUDA 5.0 (or later) and is freely available to all academic and non-profit users at: http://www.bi.cs.titech.ac.jp/megadock. akiyama@cs.titech.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. A criticality safety analysis code using a vectorized Monte Carlo method on the HITAC S-810 supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Maruyama, H.

    1987-01-01

    A vectorized Monte Carlo criticality safety analysis code has been developed on the vector supercomputer HITAC S-810. In this code, a multi-particle tracking algorithm was adopted for effective utilization of the vector processor. A flight analysis with pseudo-scattering was developed to reduce the computational time needed for flight analysis, which represents the bulk of computational time. This new algorithm realized a speed-up of factor 1.5 over the conventional flight analysis. The code also adopted the multigroup cross section constants library of the Bodarenko type with 190 groups, with 132 groups being for fast and epithermal regions and 58 groups being for the thermal region. Evaluation work showed that this code reproduce the experimental results to an accuracy of about 1 % for the effective neutron multiplication factor. (author)

  1. EDF's experience with supercomputing and challenges ahead - towards multi-physics and multi-scale approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M.; Banner, D. [Electricite de France (EDF)- R and D Division, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are a major asset of the EDF company. To remain so, in particular in a context of deregulation, competitiveness, safety and public acceptance are three conditions. These stakes apply both to existing plants and to future reactors. The purpose of the presentation is to explain how supercomputing can help EDF to satisfy these requirements. Three examples are described in detail: ensuring optimal use of nuclear fuel under wholly safe conditions, understanding and simulating the material deterioration mechanisms and moving forward with numerical simulation for the performance of EDF's activities. In conclusion, a broader vision of EDF long term R and D in the field of numerical simulation is given and especially of five challenges taken up by EDF together with its industrial and scientific partners. (author)

  2. Using the LANSCE irradiation facility to predict the number of fatal soft errors in one of the world's fastest supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, S.E.; Harris, K.W.; Hengartner, N.W.; Takala, B.E.; Wender, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). LANSCE is a unique facility because its neutron spectrum closely mimics the neutron spectrum at terrestrial and aircraft altitudes, but is many times more intense. Thus, LANSCE provides an ideal setting for accelerated testing of semiconductor and other devices that are susceptible to cosmic ray induced neutrons. Many industrial companies use LANSCE to estimate device susceptibility to cosmic ray induced neutrons, and it has also been used to test parts from one of LANL's supercomputers, the ASC (Advanced Simulation and Computing Program) Q. This paper discusses our use of the LANSCE facility to study components in Q including a comparison with failure data from Q

  3. Evaluating the networking characteristics of the Cray XC-40 Intel Knights Landing-based Cori supercomputer at NERSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, Douglas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Austin, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Brandon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deslippe, Jack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kandalla, Krishna [Cray Inc, Bloomington, MN (United States); Mendygral, Peter [Cray Inc, Bloomington, MN (United States)

    2017-09-12

    There are many potential issues associated with deploying the Intel Xeon Phi™ (code named Knights Landing [KNL]) manycore processor in a large-scale supercomputer. One in particular is the ability to fully utilize the high-speed communications network, given that the serial performance of a Xeon Phi TM core is a fraction of a Xeon®core. In this paper, we take a look at the trade-offs associated with allocating enough cores to fully utilize the Aries high-speed network versus cores dedicated to computation, e.g., the trade-off between MPI and OpenMP. In addition, we evaluate new features of Cray MPI in support of KNL, such as internode optimizations. We also evaluate one-sided programming models such as Unified Parallel C. We quantify the impact of the above trade-offs and features using a suite of National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center applications.

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Intel Haswell- and Ivy Bridge-Based Supercomputer Using Scientific and Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Hood, Robert T.; Chang, Johnny; Baron, John

    2016-01-01

    We present a performance evaluation conducted on a production supercomputer of the Intel Xeon Processor E5- 2680v3, a twelve-core implementation of the fourth-generation Haswell architecture, and compare it with Intel Xeon Processor E5-2680v2, an Ivy Bridge implementation of the third-generation Sandy Bridge architecture. Several new architectural features have been incorporated in Haswell including improvements in all levels of the memory hierarchy as well as improvements to vector instructions and power management. We critically evaluate these new features of Haswell and compare with Ivy Bridge using several low-level benchmarks including subset of HPCC, HPCG and four full-scale scientific and engineering applications. We also present a model to predict the performance of HPCG and Cart3D within 5%, and Overflow within 10% accuracy.

  5. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  6. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  7. DNA electrophoresis through microlithographic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevick, E.M.; Williams, D.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophoresis is one of the most widely used techniques in biochemistry and genetics for size-separating charged molecular chains such as DNA or synthetic polyelectrolytes. The separation is achieved by driving the chains through a gel with an external electric field. As a result of the field and the obstacles that the medium provides, the chains have different mobilities and are physically separated after a given process time. The macroscopically observed mobility scales inversely with chain size: small molecules move through the medium quickly while larger molecules move more slowly. However, electrophoresis remains a tool that has yet to be optimised for most efficient size separation of polyelectrolytes, particularly large polyelectrolytes, e.g. DNA in excess of 30-50 kbp. Microlithographic arrays etched with an ordered pattern of obstacles provide an attractive alternative to gel media and provide wider avenues for size separation of polyelectrolytes and promote a better understanding of the separation process. Its advantages over gels are (1) the ordered array is durable and can be re-used, (2) the array morphology is ordered and can be standardized for specific separation, and (3) calibration with a marker polyelectrolyte is not required as the array is reproduced to high precision. Most importantly, the array geometry can be graduated along the chip so as to expand the size-dependent regime over larger chain lengths and postpone saturation. In order to predict the effect of obstacles upon the chain-length dependence in mobility and hence, size separation, we study the dynamics of single chains using theory and simulation. We present recent work describing: 1) the release kinetics of a single DNA molecule hooked around a point, frictionless obstacle and in both weak and strong field limits, 2) the mobility of a chain impinging upon point obstacles in an ordered array of obstacles, demonstrating the wide range of interactions possible between the chain and

  8. Silver Nanowire Arrays : Fabrication and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuyi

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire arrays have increasingly received attention for their use in a variety of applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and electrodes for photoelectric devices. However, until now, large scale fabrication of device-suitable metallic nanowire arrays on supporting substrates has seen very limited success. This thesis describes my work rst on the development of a novel successful processing route for the fabrication of uniform noble metallic (e.g. A...

  9. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  10. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  11. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  12. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  13. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  14. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  15. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  16. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis E. H.; Miao, Jianmin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF6/O2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  17. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jing; Tay, Francis E H; Miao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF 6 /O 2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases

  18. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Jing [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, Francis E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  19. Study on transfer rule of chemical constituents of tianshu capsule in productive process by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Y.P.; Xie, D.W.; Li, Y.J.; Xiao, W.; Huang, W.Z.; Ding, G.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a sensitive and accurate method for the fingerprint study and transfer rule of chemical constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and Gastrodia elata Blume to Tianshu capsule in productive process, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS) method was established for analysis. The reference fingerprints of aqueous extract intermediate of medicinal material, alcohol extract intermediate of medicinal material and Tianshu capsule was established. The methodology was studied and the similarity was more than 0.99. The chromatographic methods demonstrated a good precision, repeatability, stability, with relative standard deviations of less than 3 percent for relative retention time and relative peak area. According to these fingerprints, some chemical constituents in the fingerprints were identified or tentatively identified based on their retention time, exact molecular weight and literature. Among of them 26 constituents were from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and nine components were from Gastrodia elata Blume. 25 out of 26 compounds had entered a transfer process and 17 compounds were transferred from intermediates to the final preparation, the Tianshu capsule. Thus, it is reasonable enough to use this transfer process to demonstrate the production technology. To sum up, this method is sensitive, accurate and useful,and it could provide us an approach to evaluate the production technology of Tianshu capsule. (author)

  20. Blending of phased array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Arno; van Groenestijn, Gert-Jan; van Neer, Paul; Blacquière, Gerrit; Volker, Arno

    2018-04-01

    The use of phased arrays is growing in the non-destructive testing industry and the trend is towards large 2D arrays, but due to limitations, it is currently not possible to record the signals from all elements, resulting in aliased data. In the past, we have presented a data interpolation scheme `beyond spatial aliasing' to overcome this aliasing. In this paper, we present a different approach: blending and deblending of data. On the hardware side, groups of receivers are blended (grouped) in only a few transmit/recording channels. This allows for transmission and recording with all elements, in a shorter acquisition time and with less channels. On the data processing side, this blended data is deblended (separated) by transforming it to a different domain and applying an iterative filtering and thresholding. Two different filtering methods are compared: f-k filtering and wavefield extrapolation filtering. The deblending and filtering methods are demonstrated on simulated experimental data. The wavefield extrapolation filtering proves to outperform f-k filtering. The wavefield extrapolation method can deal with groups of up to 24 receivers, in a phased array of 48 × 48 elements.

  1. Low cost silicon solar array project. Task 1: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low cost, high volume production of silane, SiH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Mui, J. Y. P.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the redistribution of dichlorosilane and trichlorosilane vapor over a tertiary amine ion exchange resin catalyst were investigated. The hydrogenation of SiCl4 to form HSiCl3 and the direct synthesis of H2SiCl2 from HCl gas and metallurgical silicon metal were also studied. The purification of SiH4 using activated carbon adsorbent was studied along with a process for storing SiH4 absorbed on carbon. The latter makes possible a higher volumetric efficiency than compressed gas storage. A mini-plant designed to produce ten pounds per day of SiH4 is described.

  2. A complete implementation of the conjugate gradient algorithm on a reconfigurable supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, David H.; Dubois, Andrew J.; Connor, Carolyn M.; Boorman, Thomas M.; Poole, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    The conjugate gradient is a prominent iterative method for solving systems of sparse linear equations. Large-scale scientific applications often utilize a conjugate gradient solver at their computational core. In this paper we present a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based implementation of a double precision, non-preconditioned, conjugate gradient solver for fmite-element or finite-difference methods. OUf work utilizes the SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation hardware platform along with the 'Carte' software programming environment to ease the programming workload when working with the hybrid (CPUIFPGA) environment. The implementation is designed to handle large sparse matrices of up to order N x N where N <= 116,394, with up to 7 non-zero, 64-bit elements per sparse row. This implementation utilizes an optimized sparse matrix-vector multiply operation which is critical for obtaining high performance. Direct parallel implementations of loop unrolling and loop fusion are utilized to extract performance from the various vector/matrix operations. Rather than utilize the FPGA devices as function off-load accelerators, our implementation uses the FPGAs to implement the core conjugate gradient algorithm. Measured run-time performance data is presented comparing the FPGA implementation to a software-only version showing that the FPGA can outperform processors running up to 30x the clock rate. In conclusion we take a look at the new SRC-7 system and estimate the performance of this algorithm on that architecture.

  3. Computational investigation of hydrokinetic turbine arrays in an open channel using an actuator disk-LES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokkoo; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-11-01

    While a considerable amount of work has focused on studying the effects and performance of wind farms, very little is known about the performance of hydrokinetic turbine arrays in open channels. Unlike large wind farms, where the vertical fluxes of momentum and energy from the atmospheric boundary layer comprise the main transport mechanisms, the presence of free surface in hydrokinetic turbine arrays inhibits vertical transport. To explore this fundamental difference between wind and hydrokinetic turbine arrays, we carry out LES with the actuator disk model to systematically investigate various layouts of hydrokinetic turbine arrays mounted on the bed of a straight open channel with fully-developed turbulent flow fed at the channel inlet. Mean flow quantities and turbulence statistics within and downstream of the arrays will be analyzed and the effect of the turbine arrays as means for increasing the effective roughness of the channel bed will be extensively discussed. This work was supported by Initiative for Renewable Energy & the Environment (IREE) (Grant No. RO-0004-12), and computational resources were provided by Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  4. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh

    2017-10-01

    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  5. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  6. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Mohd Yusri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf.

  7. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  8. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  9. Performance characteristics of hybrid MPI/OpenMP implementations of NAS parallel benchmarks SP and BT on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with the fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore supercomputers provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use SP and BT benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore supercomputers. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76%, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58% on up to 10,000 cores on BlueGene/P at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these supercomputers to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT.

  10. Performance characteristics of hybrid MPI/OpenMP implementations of NAS parallel benchmarks SP and BT on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-03-29

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with the fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore supercomputers provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use SP and BT benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore supercomputers. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76%, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58% on up to 10,000 cores on BlueGene/P at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these supercomputers to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT.

  11. The ASCI Network for SC '99: A Step on the Path to a 100 Gigabit Per Second Supercomputing Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRATT,THOMAS J.; TARMAN,THOMAS D.; MARTINEZ,LUIS M.; MILLER,MARC M.; ADAMS,ROGER L.; CHEN,HELEN Y.; BRANDT,JAMES M.; WYCKOFF,PETER S.

    2000-07-24

    This document highlights the Discom{sup 2}'s Distance computing and communication team activities at the 1999 Supercomputing conference in Portland, Oregon. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia, Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National laboratories have participated in this conference for eleven years. For the last four years the three laboratories have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives rubric. Communication support for the ASCI exhibit is provided by the ASCI DISCOM{sup 2} project. The DISCOM{sup 2} communication team uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and networking developments within the community. At SC 99, DISCOM built a prototype of the next generation ASCI network demonstrated remote clustering techniques, demonstrated the capabilities of the emerging Terabit Routers products, demonstrated the latest technologies for delivering visualization data to the scientific users, and demonstrated the latest in encryption methods including IP VPN technologies and ATM encryption research. The authors also coordinated the other production networking activities within the booth and between their demonstration partners on the exhibit floor. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their implementation, and describes how these demonstrations support Sandia's overall strategies in ASCI networking.

  12. Combining density functional theory calculations, supercomputing, and data-driven methods to design new materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anubhav

    2017-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) simulations solve for the electronic structure of materials starting from the Schrödinger equation. Many case studies have now demonstrated that researchers can often use DFT to design new compounds in the computer (e.g., for batteries, catalysts, and hydrogen storage) before synthesis and characterization in the lab. In this talk, I will focus on how DFT calculations can be executed on large supercomputing resources in order to generate very large data sets on new materials for functional applications. First, I will briefly describe the Materials Project, an effort at LBNL that has virtually characterized over 60,000 materials using DFT and has shared the results with over 17,000 registered users. Next, I will talk about how such data can help discover new materials, describing how preliminary computational screening led to the identification and confirmation of a new family of bulk AMX2 thermoelectric compounds with measured zT reaching 0.8. I will outline future plans for how such data-driven methods can be used to better understand the factors that control thermoelectric behavior, e.g., for the rational design of electronic band structures, in ways that are different from conventional approaches.

  13. Getting To Exascale: Applying Novel Parallel Programming Models To Lab Applications For The Next Generation Of Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, Evi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shereda, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nau, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harris, Lance [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-27

    As supercomputing moves toward exascale, node architectures will change significantly. CPU core counts on nodes will increase by an order of magnitude or more. Heterogeneous architectures will become more commonplace, with GPUs or FPGAs providing additional computational power. Novel programming models may make better use of on-node parallelism in these new architectures than do current models. In this paper we examine several of these novel models – UPC, CUDA, and OpenCL –to determine their suitability to LLNL scientific application codes. Our study consisted of several phases: We conducted interviews with code teams and selected two codes to port; We learned how to program in the new models and ported the codes; We debugged and tuned the ported applications; We measured results, and documented our findings. We conclude that UPC is a challenge for porting code, Berkeley UPC is not very robust, and UPC is not suitable as a general alternative to OpenMP for a number of reasons. CUDA is well supported and robust but is a proprietary NVIDIA standard, while OpenCL is an open standard. Both are well suited to a specific set of application problems that can be run on GPUs, but some problems are not suited to GPUs. Further study of the landscape of novel models is recommended.

  14. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  15. Automated installation methods for photovoltaic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R.; Daniels, A.; Greenaway, R.; Oster, J., Jr.; Racki, D.; Stoeltzing, R.

    1982-11-01

    Since installation expenses constitute a substantial portion of the cost of a large photovoltaic power system, methods for reduction of these costs were investigated. The installation of the photovoltaic arrays includes all areas, starting with site preparation (i.e., trenching, wiring, drainage, foundation installation, lightning protection, grounding and installation of the panel) and concluding with the termination of the bus at the power conditioner building. To identify the optimum combination of standard installation procedures and automated/mechanized techniques, the installation process was investigated including the equipment and hardware available, the photovoltaic array structure systems and interfaces, and the array field and site characteristics. Preliminary designs of hardware for both the standard installation method, the automated/mechanized method, and a mix of standard installation procedures and mechanized procedures were identified to determine which process effectively reduced installation costs. In addition, costs associated with each type of installation method and with the design, development and fabrication of new installation hardware were generated.

  16. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  17. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  18. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  19. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  20. Supercomputing with toys: harnessing the power of NVIDIA 8800GTX and playstation 3 for bioinformatics problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Justin; Dai, Manhong; Jakupovic, Elvis; Watson, Stanley; Meng, Fan

    2007-01-01

    Modern video cards and game consoles typically have much better performance to price ratios than that of general purpose CPUs. The parallel processing capabilities of game hardware are well-suited for high throughput biomedical data analysis. Our initial results suggest that game hardware is a cost-effective platform for some computationally demanding bioinformatics problems.