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Sample records for superba strychnos nux-vomica

  1. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

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    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  2. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

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    Rajesh Bhati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.

  3. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil ...

  4. Microstructure, Content and in vitro Release of Brucine and Strychnine in Strychnos Nux-Vomica Powder with Different Particle Sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪力军; 赵雯雯; 张立国; 王南南

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of particle size on the quality uniformity and in vitro release performance of Strych-nos nux-vomica powder, seven samples of Strychnos nux-vomica powder with different particle sizes were prepared. Microstructures and particle sizes were analyzed, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to test the contents and in vitro release performances of brucine and strychnine in the samples. Results showed that the contents and the in vitro release rates of brucine (or strychnine) in different samples were different since there are different proportions of endosperms to epidermal cells in Strychnos nux-vomica powder with different particle sizes. Brucine and strychnine in each sample were promptly released in the first ten minutes and their cumulative release rates were higher than 70%after ten minutes. Eighty minutes later, the cumulative release rate tended to be a constant. Considering the quality uniformity and safety of Strychnos nux-vomica powder used as traditional Chinese medicine, it would be better to control the particle size of Strychnos nux-vomica powder between 100 and 140 mesh in which the maximum cumulative release rate in vitro of brucine and strychnine can be relatively low within this range.

  5. Simultaneous HPTLC determination of strychnine and brucine in strychnos nux-vomica seed

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    Abid Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A simple, sensitive, and specific thin layer chromatography (TLC densitometry method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine in the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica. Materials and Methods: The method involved simultaneous estimation of strychnine and brucine after resolving it by high performance TLC (HPTLC on silica gel plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (8.5:1.5:0.4 v/v/v as the mobile phase. Results: The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for precision (interday, intraday, intersystem, robustness, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response was linear within the concentration range of 50-1000 ng/spot for strychnine and 100-1000 ng/spot for brucine. The method precision was found to be 0.58-2.47 (% relative standard deviation [RSD] and 0.36-2.22 (% RSD for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery studies conducted at three different concentration levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 100.75% for strychnine and 100.52% for brucine, respectively. Conclusions: The HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine analysis and quality control of raw material of S. nux-vomica and several unani and ayurvedic formulations containing this as an ingredient.

  6. Simultaneous HPTLC determination of strychnine and brucine in strychnos nux-vomica seed.

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    Kamal, Abid; Kamal, Y T; Ahmad, Sayeed; Ahmad, F J; Saleem, Kishwar

    2012-04-01

    A simple, sensitive, and specific thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine in the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica. The method involved simultaneous estimation of strychnine and brucine after resolving it by high performance TLC (HPTLC) on silica gel plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (8.5:1.5:0.4 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for precision (interday, intraday, intersystem), robustness, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response was linear within the concentration range of 50-1000 ng/spot for strychnine and 100-1000 ng/spot for brucine. The method precision was found to be 0.58-2.47 (% relative standard deviation [RSD]) and 0.36-2.22 (% RSD) for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery studies conducted at three different concentration levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 100.75% for strychnine and 100.52% for brucine, respectively. The HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine analysis and quality control of raw material of S. nux-vomica and several unani and ayurvedic formulations containing this as an ingredient.

  7. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

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    Chetan C Anajwala; Patel, Rajesh M.; Sanjay L Dakhara; Jitesh K Jariwala

    2010-01-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water...

  8. Separation and determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica L. and its preparation by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

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    Li, Yuqin; He, Xiaojun; Qi, Shengda; Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-05-03

    An easy, rapid method for simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica L. and its preparation was developed by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) without pretreatment for the first time. Optimum separation was achieved with a fused-silica capillary column (50 cmx75 microm i.d.) and a running buffer containing 30 mM ammonium acetate, 1.0% acetic acid and 15% acetonitrile (ACN) in methanol medium. The applied voltage was 30.0 kV. The analytes were detected by UV at 214 nm. The effects of concentration of ammonium acetate, acetic acid and organic modifier on electrophoretic behavior of the analytes were studied. The established method with sophoridine as internal standard was linear in the range of 5-1000 mg/mL for both strychnine and brucine. The extracts of Strychnos nux-vomica and its preparation could be directly injected for determination with recoveries ranging from 94.5 to 104%.

  9. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-07-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.

  10. A reverse phased high-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of a poisonous matter in Strychnos nux-vomica

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    Achu Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica were subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests and its presence was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC method. The TLC profile of the methanolic extract of seeds of S. nux-vomica was developed using the solvent system toluene:chloroform:methanol in the ratio 8:2:1. The plate was observed in visible light after spraying with Dragendorff′s reagent (specific method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profile of the methanolic extracts of S. nux-vomica was developed, and the amount of strychnine seems to be 0.36% (w/w in the seeds. The TLC and HPLC profiles developed are very valuable for the identification of the original drug from their adulterants. The TLC profile identifies the presence of strychnine in the plant material. The quantification method for the strychnine in the seeds can be used for the quality standardization of the raw drug because the strychnine is reported to have some toxicity.

  11. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

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    Anajwala Chetan C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 µg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461µg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  12. A new method for the simultaneous analysis of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica unprocessed and processed seeds using a carbon-paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

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    Behpour, Mohsen; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Khayatkashani, Maryam; Motaghedifard, Mohamadhasan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae), widely used in folk medicine, is grown extensively in southern Asian countries. Its major bioactive constituents are strychnine and brucine, which are frequently used in traditional herbal medicines for treatment of nervous diseases, vomiting and traumatic pain. A new method using a carbon-paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT/CPE) was developed and validated for single or simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica seeds. Additionally, an environmentally friendly method was successfully applied to reduce the levels of strychnine and brucine in seeds. Cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry and differential pulse voltammetry were used with multi-walled carbon nanotube modified carbon-paste electrodes. The peak currents increase linearly with the strychnine and brucine concentrations in the ranges of 50-1000 and 5-355 µ m, and the detection limits for strychnine and brucine were 0.43 and 0.28 µ m, respectively. Of the processing methods used, the greatest reduction in the strychnine and brucine levels was observed in samples processed using milk and saltwater. A new, sensitive and selective method was developed for the measurement of strychnine and brucine. This method was successfully applied to the determination of strychnine and brucine in unprocessed and processed Strychnos nux-vomica seed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantitative LC-MS determination of strychnine in urine after ingestion of a Strychnos nux-vomica preparation and its consequences in doping control.

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    Van Eenoo, P; Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T

    2006-12-20

    A simple, fast and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of strychnine residues in urine has been developed and validated. The method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction step with ethyl acetate at pH 9.2, followed by LC-MS/MS in positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mode. The method is linear in the range of 1-100 ng/mL and allows for the determination of strychnine at sub-toxicological concentrations. The accuracy of the method ranged from 1.3% to 4.4%. The method was used to determine the excretion profile of strychnine after the ingestion of an over-the-counter herbal preparation of Strychnos nux-vomica. Each volunteer ingested a dose equivalent to 380 micro g of strychnine. This dose is lower than the prescription dose but results in the detection of strychnine for over 24-h post administration. Maximum detected urinary concentrations ranged from 22.6 to 176 ng/mL. The results of this study show that the use of this type of preparation by athletes can lead to a positive doping case.

  14. Effect of detoxification (tadbeer in content of toxic metabolites of Strychnos nux-vomica: A Unani approach for its use in human

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    Noman Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica, Loganiaceae has been the important Unani medicine since long time as a stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and blood purifier. It has been used very frequently by the Unani practitioner. But the Unani system recommends application of azaraqi in medicine only after its detoxification (tadbeer may be because of the presence of its deadly poisonous alkaloids (strychnine and brucine. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to quantify the actual content of their toxic alkaloids before and after the tadbeer. Materials and Methods: A sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been developed for estimation of strychnine and brucine in different samples of azaraqi before and after tadbeer. Precoated HPTLC silica gel plates were used as stationary phase and (toluene: Ethyl acetate: Dietylamine 7:2:1 v/v/v was used as mobile phase. Result: The Rfvalue of strychnine and brucine was found as 0.53 and 0.41, respectively. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at 270 nm. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 50–1000 ng of strychnine and brucine, respectively, with the correlation coefficient (r2 0.993 and 0.991 for strychnine and brucine, respectively, which confirms good linearity. The content of strychnine was 0.175, 0.07, 0.18, 0.051, and 0.075% w/w whereas brucine was 0.16, 0.117, 0.061, 0.045, and 0.057 in crude azaraqi, azaraqi without outer cover, azaraqi outer cover only, azaraqi mudabbar and azaraqi mudabbar by fried in ghee, respectively. Conclusion: The detoxification results in sharp decrease in content of toxic metabolites. The process by boiling in milk was found much effective but tedious as compare to frying method.

  15. 马钱子总生物碱的定量分析及其HPLC指纹图谱%HPLC Fingerprint and Quantitative Analysis of Total Alkaloids from Strychnos nux-vomica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈艳格; 陈军; 蔡宝昌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish fingerprint of purified total alkaloids from processed Strychnos nux-vomica by HPLC-DAD, and provide a new method for quality control of S. nux-vomica. Method: The contents of brucine, strychnine and brucine N-oxide from purified total alkaloids of S. nux-vomica were determined by HPLC, and fingerprint was investigated. Analytical conditions of content determination were: Superstar C18 chromatographic column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase of acetonitrile (A) -0.01 mol · L-1 1-heptane sulfonate and 0. 02 mol·L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed with equal amount (adjusted pH to 2. 8 with 10% phosphonic acid) (24:76) , analysis time 20 min, column tempreture 30 ℃ , detection wavelength at 264 nm; Analysis conditions of fingerprints were on Superstar C18chromatographic column (4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) , acetonitrile (A) - [ water-acetic acid-triethylamine (100:0. 2: 0. 2) ] (B) as mobile phase with a method of gradient elution (0-21 min, 10%-16% A; 21-55 min, 16%-40% A; 55-65 min, 10% A), parsing time 65 min, column tempreture 30℃, UV detection wavelength at 254 nm. Result: Parameters of content determination and fingerprint analysis of total alkaloids from 5. nux-vomica were in line with requirements of 2010 edition 'Chinese Pharmacopoeia' ; Content analysis of 10 batches of purified total alkaloids samples from S. nux-vomica showed that mass fraction of brucine, strychnine and brucine N-oxide were 32. 3%-37. 5% , 15.0%-18. 4% and 0. 19% -0. 23% , respectively; Fingerprint analysis of each batch of samples showed 10 common peaks and fingerprint similarity were all above 97.0%. Conclusion: Combination of content determination and fingerprint could well reflect the overall quality of total alkaloids from S. nux-vomica, preparation process of depurated total alkaloids from processed S. nux-vomica was stable, reproducible, reliable, so it was an effective quality analysis and evaluation method.%目的:建立纯化马钱子总

  16. 中药马钱子的药理作用探讨%The physiological functions of some nux vomica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢波

    2013-01-01

    中药马钱子具有剧毒性,但是中药马钱子却具有解毒散结、通络止痛的疗效,而且根据当前的药理研究表明,其具有抗炎、抗肿瘤、健胃、镇痛、消痰祛咳、杀菌等功效,并且其还对改善人体的微循环刺激骨髓、活血造血等具有很好的效果,另外中药马钱子对于促进神经中枢系统的兴奋具有良好的作用,因此中药马钱子对面部神经麻痹、银屑病、眶上神经痛、手足癣以及肺结核等具有很好的疗效。%Chinese medicine nux vomica is toxic, but traditional Chinese medicine of nux vomica is detoxified fights and analgesic efficacy of t2dm, and according to the current pharmacological study shows that it has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, jianwei, pain, eliminating phlegm expel ing cough, sterilization effect, and also to improve the microcirculation of the human body to stimulate the bone marrow, invigorate the circulation of blood, such as has the very good effect, and traditional Chinese medicine the excitement of the central nervous system in the promotion of strychnos nux-vomical l have good effect, so Chinese medicine nux vomica of facial nerve paralysis, psoriasis, supraorbital neuralgia, brothers tinea, and has the very good curative effect, such as tuberculosis.

  17. Pharmacological Evaluation of Total Alkaloids from Nux Vomica: Effect of Reducing Strychnine Contents

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    Jun Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF. The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP. In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  18. Pharmacological evaluation of total alkaloids from nux vomica: effect of reducing strychnine contents.

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    Chen, Jun; Qu, Yange; Wang, Dongyue; Peng, Pei; Cai, Hao; Gao, Ying; Chen, Zhipeng; Cai, Baochang

    2014-04-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF) extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF). The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP). In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  19. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.

  20. Brucine, an effective natural compound derived from nux-vomica, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in LoVo cells.

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    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Xiaoli; Luo, Wenjuan; Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2013-08-01

    Brucine is an alkaloid from nux vomica, has been shown various pharmacological actions. To study the possible anti-cancer mechanisms on LoVo cells, effects of Brucine on cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated. The results showed that Brucine revealed strong growth inhibitory effect on LoVo cells, and caused LoVo cell shrinkage and membrane blobbing, induced cellular and DNA morphological changes. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis documented that Brucine could change cell cycle and induce cell apoptosis. Brucine-mediated cell cycle arrest in G1 phase was associated with a marked increase of protein levels of CCND1 and decrease in CCNB1, cyclin E and CDC2. In addition, Brucine dose-dependently caused LoVo cells apoptosis evidenced by Annexin V/PI staining Brucine-induced apoptosis was mediated via up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Furthermore, proteins Erk1/2, p38 and Akt phosphorylation were down regulated by Brucine in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, this paper indicates Brucine is effective against LoVo cells proliferation, and promotes LoVo cells death via apoptosis. These results reveal functional interplay among a series of pathway that are deregulated in cancer and suggest that their simultaneous targeting by Brucine could result in efficacious inhibition on cancer cells.

  1. Drug: D06494 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06494 Crude, Drug Nux vomica tincture (JP16); Strychnos extract tincture (TN) Strychnine...[TAX:28545] Same as: E00050 Loganiaceae (logania family) Nux vomica seed Major component: Strychnine [CPD:C0

  2. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers for strychnine by precipitation polymerization and multistep swelling and polymerization and their application for the selective extraction of strychnine from nux-vomica extract powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Monodisperse molecularly imprinted polymers for strychnine were prepared by precipitation polymerization and multistep swelling and polymerization, respectively. In precipitation polymerization, methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene were used as a functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively, while in multistep swelling and polymerization, methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as a functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively. The retention and molecular recognition properties of the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by both methods for strychnine were evaluated using a mixture of sodium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by liquid chromatography. In addition to shape recognition, ionic and hydrophobic interactions could affect the retention of strychnine in low acetonitrile content. Furthermore, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by both methods could selectively recognize strychnine among solutes tested. The retention factors and imprinting factors of strychnine on the molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by precipitation polymerization were 220 and 58, respectively, using 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0)/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) as a mobile phase, and those on the molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by multistep swelling and polymerization were 73 and 4.5. These results indicate that precipitation polymerization is suitable for the preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer for strychnine. Furthermore, the molecularly imprinted polymer could be successfully applied for selective extraction of strychnine in nux-vomica extract powder.

  3. Drug: D06873 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nux vomica seed Major component: Strychnine [CPD:C06522] Therapeutic category of ...D06873 Crude, Drug Nux vomica extract (JP16); Nux vomica extract powder (JP16); Strychnos extract (TN) Stryc...hnine [CPD:C06522], Brucine [CPD:C09084], Vomicine [CPD:C09255], Loganin [CPD:C0143

  4. Development and validation of a TLC-densitometric method for the simultaneous quantitation of strychnine and brucine from Strychnos spp. and its formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalwal, Kamlesh; Shinde, Vaibhav M; Namdeo, Ajay G; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Kadam, Shivajirao S

    2007-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and specific thin-layer chromatography densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of strychnine and brucine. These two marker compounds are quantitated in the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica, Strychnos ignatii, and its formulations. The method involves densitometric evaluation of strychnine and brucine after resolving it by high-performance TLC on silica gel plate with toluene-ethyl acetate-diethyl amine-methanol (7:2:1:0.3 v/v) as the mobile phase. The method is validated for precision (interday and intraday), repeatability, and accuracy. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response is linear within the concentration range of 160 to 480 ng/spot for strychnine and 80 to 480 ng/spot for brucine. Instrumental precision is found to be 0.54 and 0.78 (% CV), and repeatability of the method is 1.01 and 1.06 (% CV) for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Accuracy of the method is checked by recovery study conducted at three different levels and the average percentage recovery is found to be 99.13% for strychnine and 100.16% for brucine. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantitation of strychnine and brucine is found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate, and it can be used for routine quality control of raw material of Strychnos spp. It also can be applied in quantitating any of these marker compounds in other formulations.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave Americana, strychnos Nuxvomica and Areca catechu extracts using MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan C Anajwala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC 50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Afeca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  6. TERMINALIA SUPERBA MINALIA SUPERBA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... stress design method, developed based on ... design method to the modern limit state de .... This timber specie gained wide acceptance ..... rejected. The conclusion is that, the samples of. Terminalia superba considered for ...

  7. A Fatal Case of Brucine Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaprabhu Achappa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of India people follow a religious ritual of drinking an herbal preparation made from the bark of Alstonia scholaris tree (Blackboard tree on the day of new moon in the month of July. This tree could be easily confused with Strychnos nux vomica tree. Brucine is the predominant alkaloid present in the bark of the tree Strychnos nux vomica. Toxicological property of Brucine is similar to strychnine. Brucine is a neurotoxin. A 29-year-old male presented with a history of consumption of a herbal preparation made from the bark of the Strychnos nux vomica tree confusing it for Alstonia scholaris. Soon after, he developed convulsions and later he died in the hospital on the same day. The main aim of this case report is to highlight the fact that people must be cautious when they follow religious rituals.

  8. An indole alkaloid from Strychnos erichsonii

    OpenAIRE

    Forgacs, P.; Jehanno, A.; Provost, J.; Thal, C.; Guilhem, J.; Pascard, C.; Moretti, Christian

    1986-01-01

    Le premier alcaloïde indolique de type vobasine rencontré dans les #Loganiaceae$ a été isolé des écorces de #Strychnos erichsonii$, récoltées en Guyane Française. Sa structure confirmée par cristallographie Rx. (Résumé d'auteur)

  9. Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Composition of Strychnos innocua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mal. Usman

    Keywords: Strychnos innocua, Fruits, Nutrition, Antinutritional factors, Minerals, Proximate composition ... numerous types of edible wild plants are exploited as sources of food to .... in the diet of pregnant women, nursing mothers and infants to.

  10. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

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    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  11. Environ: E00050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00050 Nux vomica tincture (JP16) Crude drug Strychnine [CPD:C06522], Brucine [CPD:...aceae (logania family) Nux vomica seed Major component: Strychnine [CPD:C06522] CAS: 8046-97-7 ...

  12. A Novel Brucine Gel Transdermal Delivery System Designed for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica. Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  13. SISTEM PERAKARAN BIDARA LAUT (Strychnos lucida R.Br. UNTUK PENGENDALIAN TANAH LONGSOR

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    Ogi Setiawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of potential Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs in West Nusa Tenggara and Bali is Strychnos lucida R.Br. which is used for medicinal purposes. The species is also potential to use in land rehabilitation of dry land where it offers an additional benefit of landslide control. Part of the plant which has important role in landslide control is root system. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the Strychnos lucida root system in landslide control. The study was held in Bali Barat National Park. Root characteristics observed in the study were the penetration position in the soil, root architecture, and Index of Roots Anchoring (IRA and Index of Roots Binding (IRB. The result showed that Strychnos lucida root was able to penetrate into deep soil layer and had R-tipe root architecture which can increase shear resistance of soil. Value of IRA and IRB indicated the species had a more vertical roots in every growth stage and a high enough horizontal roots. Based on its root characteristics, Strychnos lucida was able to decrease landslide risk, especially shallow and surface landslide.Keywords: Strychnos lucida R.Br., root system, landslide

  14. Study on Effect of Schima superba Fuelbreak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANXiaorui; ZHANGYouhui; YANGSidao; ZHONGYouhong

    2005-01-01

    Schima superba is widely used for shaded fuelbreaks in southern China. Experiments were done in the laboratory and wild for testing the effects of the shaded fuelbreaks. The cone calorimeter test results indicated that China red pine (Pinus massoniana) needles are easy to burn under the condition of the incident radiant flux at 75 kW/m2 and ignition source, the peak value of heat release rate of pine needles appears earlier (22 s) and higher (146 kW/m2). S. superba leaves burnt slowly and had a lower total heat release. The mass loss curves present that the peak value of pine needle is higher than that of S.superba leaves, which is 0.14 g/s versus S.superba 0.08 g/s. A fire experiment has been done in a suburb of Guangzhou City. It was measured that the fuel loads and their distribution of the stand of pine and fuelbreak before and after the fire experiment. There was almost no grass and litter on the ground of the fuelbreak due to clearing litter every year at the beginning of fire season. In the pine forest, there were shrubs, grasses and litter under the story.During the burning experiment, most of the pine forest has swept by surface fire at a spread speed of 2.2 m/min and fire intensity of 168-2961 kW/m. But in some area along the outside fire line, there occurred crown fire due to the high fuel load on the ground. The flame got 8.0-8.5 m high and fire intensity 24 881~28 379 kW/m. Part crown of several trees of the fuelbreak burnt because the crown fire spread. But the fire had not across the fuelbreak and no spotting fire happened. The fire experiment results indicated that the fuelbreak has effects on mitigating fire intensity and depress fire spread in some degree. The shaded fuelbreak has the ability of fire resistance and its dense crown can block spotting fire resources.

  15. ITS2 secondary structure for species circumscription: case study in southern African Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Adekunle; Lamb, Jennifer; Nicholas, Ashley; Naidoo, Yougasphree

    2016-12-01

    Recently developed computational tools in ITS2 sequence-structure phylogenetics are improving tree robustness by exploitation of the added information content of the secondary structure. Despite this strength, however, their adoption for species-level clarifications in angiosperms has been slow. We investigate the utility of combining ITS2 sequence and secondary structure to separate species of southern African Strychnos, and assess correlation between compensatory base changes (CBCs) and currently recognised species boundaries. Combined phylogenetic analysis of sequence and secondary structure datasets performed better, in terms of robustness and species resolution, than analysis involving primary sequences only, achieving 100 and 88.2 % taxa discriminations respectively. Further, the Strychnos madagascariensis complex is well-resolved by sequence-structure phylogenetic analysis. The 17 Strychnos species corresponded to 14 ITS2 CBC clades. Four of the five taxa in section Densiflorae belong to a single CBC clade, whose members tend to form natural hybrids. Our finding supports the application of ITS2 as a complementary barcoding marker for species identification. It also highlights the potential of comparative studies of ITS2 CBC features among prospective parental pairs in breeding experiments as a rapid proxy for cross compatibility assessment. This could save valuable time in crop improvement. Patterns of CBC evolution and species boundaries in Strychnos suggests a positive correlation. We conclude that the CBC pattern coupled with observed ITS2 sequence paraphyly in section Densiflorae points to a speciation work-in-progress.

  16. Analysis of strychnine and brucine in postmortem specimens by RP-HPLC: a case report of fatal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Jingzhen; Xing, Junbo; He, Yi; Guo, Dean

    2004-03-01

    A sensitive method for the identification and quantitation of the toxic alkaloids strychnine and brucine from postmortem specimens has been established. After solid-phase extraction using Oasis MCX cartridges the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. The limit of detection was 0.5 ng/mL blood for strychnine and brucine, and the limit of quantitation was 5 ng/mL blood for strychnine and brucine. The method was applied for the analysis of blood and gastric contents of a 34-year-old female who died after ingestion of a packet of herbal medicine powder containing the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Strychnine and brucine were detected in all the samples. The concentration in our case is consistent with that in previous reports.

  17. Effect of strychnine hydrochloride on liver cytochrome P450 mRNA expression and monooxygenase activities in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Strychnos nux-vomica L. has been frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine but has high acute toxicity. It is commonly taken with Glycyrrhizae radix to decrease its toxicity but the mechanism of this interaction is unknown. In this work, the mRNA expression and the activity of four cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes representative of four subfamilies (CYP1A, CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2E were determined ex vivo in rat livers from groups of Wistar rats orally administered strychnine hydrochloride (SH at three doses (0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg/day alone and, at the highest dose, in combination with glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, 25 mg/kg/day or liquiritin (LQ, 20 mg/kg/day once a day for 7 consecutive days. Compared to control, the mRNA expressions of CYP3A1, 1A2 and 2E1 were higher in rats receiving the highest dose of SH but lower for CYP3A1 and CYP2E1 in rats receiving the SH+GA and SH+LQ combinations. CYP2E1 activity was higher and CYP2C, CYP3A and CYP1A2 activities were lower in rats receiving the highest dose of SH. In contrast CYP1A2 and CYP2C activities were higher and CYP2E1 and CYP3A activities lower in rats receiving the SH+GA combination. CYP2E1 and CYP3A activities were also lower in rats receiving the SH+LQ combination. The results show that treatment with SH for 7 days affects the expression and the activity of CYP enzymes and that coadministration of GA and LQ modulates these effects. This modulation may explain the role of Glycyrrhizae radix in reducing the acute toxicity of Strychnos nux-vomica L.CYPs enzymes.

  18. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  19. Determination of Strychnine in Nux Vomica with Methods of NP-HPLC and RP-HPLC%NP-HPLC与RP-HPLC两种方法测定制马钱子中士的宁含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡锡潮; 龚又明

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较NP-HPLC与RP-HPLC两种测定制马钱子中士的宁含量的方法.方法 按照2000版和2005版,采用NP-HPLC与KP-HPLC两种方法.结果 加样回收率考察中NP-HPLC法平均回收率为97.16%,RSD=0.71%(n=6);RP-HPLC法平均回收率为98.13%,RSD=0.45%(n=6).结论 此二种方法都准确可靠,RP-HPLC法更为合适.

  20. Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applica

  1. Effect of Cinnamon on Strychnos Studied by Sequential Acute Toxicity Test%序贯法观察肉桂对马钱子的减毒作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建伟; 闫雪生; 刘瑾

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the attenuated effect of cinnamon on strychnos. Method: The mice were administrated with strychnos decoction or strychnos-cinnamon decoction ( strychnos:cinnamon = 1:5) intragastrically. The half lethal dose ( LD50 ) of both decoctions were studieded and compared by the sequential acute toxicity test. Result; LD30 of the two decoction were strychnos decoction = ( 173. 161 ± 18. 289)mg·kg-1, strychnos-cinnamon decoction = (781. 345 ± 214. 744) mg·kg-1. In addition, the average time from poisoning to death of the mice administrated with strychnos-cinnamon decoction was significantly longer than that of mice with strychnos deconction. Conclusion; Cinnamon can reduce the toxicity of strychnos significantly.%目的:研究肉桂对马钱子的减毒作用.方法:单纯马钱子煎液、马钱子肉桂煎液(马桂煎液1:5),其中马钱子生药含量都是20%.用序贯试验测定两种马钱子制剂的LD50.比较其毒性.结果:单纯马钱子LD5o= (173.161±18.289) mg·kg-1,马桂煎液LD50=(781.345±214.744) mg·kg-1,马桂煎液从中毒至死亡时间明显延长.结论:马钱子与肉桂合煎后毒性明显降低.

  2. Efek Mutagenik Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kembang Sungsang (Glorioso superba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of a plant can be caused by chemical compounds contain, on the other hand can cause toxic effects. Toxic effects of chemicals can be defined as the potential of chemicals to poison the bodies of people who are exposed. kembang sungsang (Gioriosa superba Linn. including Colchicaceae families. Plants used empirically for treatment of Gout, diuretic, rheumatism, etc. Mutagenicity is a test to determine the possibility of compounds are mutagens. To see if these plants have the effect of mutagens, mutagenicity tests performed 70% ethanol extract of the leaves kembang sungsang. Mutagenicity studies conducted by the Ames method using jive test bacterial strains that have been transferred are: Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA with and without metabolic activator S-9. The dose tested was 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 µl/plate. As a negative control was DMSO solution of 100 µl/plate. The results showed that the mutagenic test 70% ethanol extract of leaves Kembang sungsang, with the addition activator without the addition of S-9 did not have the effect of mutagens.         Key Words: Kembang sungsang  (Glorioso superba Linn. Leaf extract, mutagenic activity

  3. Embryoidogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf tissue of Gloriosa superba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, G; Krishnamurthy, K V; Rajendran, T D

    2003-05-01

    The induction, maturation and germination of embryoids from leaf tissue of Gloriosa superba L. were developed by exploiting solid and liquid culture. Nodular calli were obtained from SH medium supplemented with 2,4-D and 2iP. In solid culture, the nodular calli when transferred to 2,4-D along with glycerol gave the best response (68.4 %) in embryoid induction after 20 days. After two subcultures at 7-day intervals in a medium with thiamine instead of glycerol, the embryoids matured. When mature embryoids were transferred to BAP and IBA medium, they gave rise to plantlets with single shoots and roots. In liquid culture, the medium supplemented with NAA and L-glutamine with continuous agitation, the embryoidogenic calli produced embryoids (85 %) after 21 days. The mature embryoids began to turn green and produced shoots and elongated "radicles" after 35 days.

  4. Strychnos pseudoquina and Its Purified Compounds Present an Effective In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sousa Lage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new and cost-effective alternative therapeutic strategies to treat leishmaniasis has become a high priority. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. was investigated and pure compounds that presented this biological effect were isolated. An ethyl acetate extract was prepared, and it proved to be effective against Leishmania amazonensis. A bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed, and two flavonoids were identified, quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and strychnobiflavone, which presented an effective antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis, and studies were extended to establish their minimum inhibitory concentrations (IC50, their leishmanicidal effects on the intra-macrophage Leishmania stage, as well as their cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages (CC50, and in O+ human red blood cells. The data presented in this study showed the potential of an ethyl acetate extract of S. pseudoquina, as well as two flavonoids purified from it, which can be used as a therapeutic alternative on its own, or in association with other drugs, to treat disease evoked by L. amazonensis.

  5. Storage Duration and Temperature Effects of Strychnos potatorum Stock Solutions on its Coagulation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha R Warrier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effects of storage duration and temperature of Strychnos potatorum stock solution on its coagulation efficiency. Coagulation efficiency of the seed extracts on water samples depended on the initial turbidity of the water sample. The stock solutions could clarify only highly turbid solutions. The optimum dosage of the stock solutions was 5% and optimal time required was 50 minutes. S. potatorum stock solutions, which were kept at room temperature (28 °C, had a shelf life of only five days and were able to remove turbidity from high and low turbidity water samples and no coagulation activity was observed for medium turbidity. The highest turbidity removals were observed for stock solutions, which were kept for three days. For stock solutions which were stored in refrigerator, shelf life was extended upto seven days, and the turbidity removal efficiencies improved from 45.9 to 63.8 for low and 43.7 to 64.9 % for high turbidity water samples, respectively.

  6. Population distribution, structure and growth condition of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) during the austral summer in the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongqiang; SUN Song; LI Chaolun; TAO Zhencheng

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) was collected using a High Speed Collector and an Isaac-Kidd midwater trawl (IKMT) net during the austral summer of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 in the circumpolar and Prydz Bay regions of the Southern Ocean, respectively. Combined with the simultaneous recording of environmental factors, spatial distribution, population structure and growth condition of E. superba were studied. The abundance of E. superba in the Weddell Sea was higher than in Prydz Bay. However, the abundance of E. superba in both the Weddell Sea and Prydz Bay was lower than figures reported in previous krill surveys for the same time period. With respect to the total study area, E. superba displayed a normal growing state during the two expeditions. E. superba grew relatively poorly in some stations, which may be due to the late retreat of sea ice or lower chlorophyll a concentrations. The number of juvenile E. superba collected using the High Speed Collector was proportionally greater in stations located at the edge of the sea ice, while adults dominated in long-term non-ice regions. This phenomenon reflects the different distribution pattern between juvenile and adult krill. The population structure of E. superba differed between sea regions, which may affect recruitment.

  7. Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Jayantarao Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study.

  8. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  9. Antioxidant activity of Gloriosa superba against paracetamol induced toxicity in experimental rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Indhumathi.T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol was chosen to induce hepatotoxicity in rats. Gloriosa superba tubers were extracted and used for the treatment against paracetamol induced toxicity. In this study, the animals weredivided into three groups comprising of six animals each. Group I served as a control, group II animals were administered with paracetamol(200 μg/kg orally for 10 days, group III animals were received Gloriosa superba tubers aqueous extract (500 mg/kg/bw/po for 5 days followed by paracetamol(200 μg/kg orally for 2 days.Level of LPO was found to be increased during paracetamol intoxication with concomitant decrease in the activity of enzymic and non- enzymic antioxidants. The antioxidant enzyme levels were reverted to near normal in Group III rats which results the antioxidant activity of Gloriosa superba.

  10. Size selection of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in trawls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, Ludvig A; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Krafft, Bjørn A

    2014-01-01

    Trawlers involved in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery use different trawl designs, and very little is known about the size selectivity of the various gears. Size selectivity quantifies a given trawl's ability to catch different sizes of a harvested entity, and this information is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5-40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90°. We expected the majority of krill to encounter the trawl netting in random orientations due to high towing speeds and the assumed swimming capabilities of krill. However, our results indicated that size selectivity of krill is a well-defined process in which individuals encounter meshes at an optimal orientation for escapement. The simulation-based results were supported by data from experimental trawl hauls and underwater video images of the mesh geometry during fishing. Herein we present predictions for the size selectivity of a range of netting configurations relevant to the krill fishery. The methods developed and results described are important tools for selecting optimal trawl designs for krill fishing.

  11. Some Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) leaf extracts and fractions have good antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Adamu Imam; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Aliyu, Mohammed; Magaji, Rabiu AbduSsalam; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2014-11-27

    Strychnos spinosa Lam. is a deciduous tree used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. This study is designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts and fractions from leaves of S. spinosa. Extracts were obtained by maceration with acetone, methanol and dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) while fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation of the acetone extract. A broth serial microdilution method with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical-scavenging assays, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. Four extracts and five fractions had good to weak antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 0.04 to >1.25 mg/ml against both fungi and bacteria. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Aspergillus fumigatus. The n-butanol fraction had an MIC of 0.04 mg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. The hexane and chloroform fractions had an MIC of 0.08 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant activities were much lower than that of the positive controls. Except for the alkaloid extract, all the extracts and fractions had free-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ranging from 33.66 to 314.30 μg/ml). The cytotoxicity on Vero cells was reasonable to low with LC50 values ranging between 30.56 and 689.39 μg/ml. The acetone extract and the chloroform fraction had the highest antibacterial activity. By solvent-solvent fractionation it was possible to increase the activity against A. fumigatus and to decrease the cytotoxicity leading to a potentially useful product to protect animals against aspergillosis. Our results therefore support the use of S. spinosa leaves in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases.

  12. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  13. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species, Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process.

  14. Cytotoxicity and DNA interaction of brucine and strychnine-Two alkaloids of semen strychni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Xu; Tan, Xiaoxin; Kang, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicities of the two alkaloids strychnine and brucine from the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica and their interaction with DNA were investigated. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrasolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of these alkaloids on Vero cells after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation. The cytotoxicities of strychnine and brucine were found to be time- and concentration-dependent. Strychnine was determined to be more toxic to Vero cells than brucine. At the same time, the interactions of strychnine and brucine with DNA were investigated using neutral red (NR) dye as a probe by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and an examination of the ionic strength effect, and the effects of alkaloids on DNA melting were also examined. The results indicated that a DNA-brucine mixture but not a DNA-strychnine mixture could be extracted from Vero cells after treatment with brucine and strychnine, respectively. Brucine competitively intercalated into the DNA double-helix causing fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. UV absorption spectroscopy and the melting temperature (Tm) curve also provided evidence that brucine interacted with DNA through intercalation. Furthermore, the results of the ionic strength effect experiment suggested that electrostatic interactions between brucine and phosphate groups in the DNA backbone might also play an important role in the binding of brucine to DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders A; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Zlotos, Darius P

    2006-06-06

    Strychnine and brucine from the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors, including some members of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we have characterised the pharmacological properties of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor. Although the majority of the analogues displayed significantly increased Ki values at the glycine receptors compared to strychnine and brucine, a few retained the high antagonist potencies of the parent compounds. However, mirroring the pharmacological profiles of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight into the structure-activity relationships for strychnine and brucine analogues at these ligand-gated ion channels.

  16. [Water use of re-vegetation pioneer tree species Schima superba and Acacia mangium in hilly land of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Ping; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Pei-Qiang; Niu, Jun-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The xylem sap flows of two pioneer tree species, i.e., Acacia mangium and Schima superba, in degraded hill lands of South China, were continually monitored with Granier' s thermal dissipation probes during 2004-2007 and 2008-2012, respectively, and their seasonal transpiration changes at different tree age levels were compared. The results showed that the annual transpiration of both species increased with tree ages, and S. superba demonstrated a higher value than A. mangium. The average annual whole-tree transpiration of S. superba (7014.76 kg) was higher than that of A. mangium (3704.97 kg). A. mangium (511.46-1802.17 kg) had greater seasonal variation than S. superba (1346.48-2349.35 kg). The standard regression coefficients (beta) of transpiration (Eh), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for both species increased with soil moisture, suggesting the increase of soil moisture generated a greater sensitivity of plants to environmental factors. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil moisture played an important role in the seasonal variation of transpiration of both species. The optimum soil moistures of S. superba and A. mangium were 0.22-0.40 and 0.29-0.30 (V/V), respectively, indicating the native pioneer species S. superba better adapted to water deficit compared with exotic pioneer species A. mangium.

  17. Dormancy break in seeds of "quina" (Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. Superação da dormência de sementes de quina (Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Quina" (Strychnos pseudoquina A. St. Hil is a medicinal plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado. As its seeds show dormancy, they were subjected to the treatments pre-cooling at 5ºC during 7 days, pre-heating at 40ºC during 7 days, pre-soaking in sulfuric acid PA during 5 and 15 min, pre-soaking in boiling water during 5 and 15 min, pre-soaking in 100 and 200 ppm gibberellic acid during 48 h, pre-soaking in distilled water during 24 and 48 h, and mechanical scarification to break dormancy. Counts were daily conducted from the 2nd day after the experiment implementation until the germination stabilization at the 65th day. The germination speed index (GSI and the germination percentage were evaluated. Germination rates above 96% were reached in seeds pre-soaked in water during 48 h and substrate moistened with water or KNO3.A quina (Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil é espécie medicinal do Cerrado Brasileiro. As sementes apresentam dormência e, por isso, foram submetidas aos tratamentos pré-resfriamento a 5ºC durante 7 dias, pré-aquecimento a 40ºC durante 7 dias, pré-embebição em ácido sulfúrico P.A. durante 5 e 15 minutos, pré-embebição em água fervente durante 5 e 15 minutos, pré-embebição em ácido giberélico a 100 e 200 ppm, durante 48 horas, pré-embebição em água destilada durante 24 e 48 horas e escarificação mecânica, visando à superação da dormência. Foram realizadas contagens diárias entre o 2º dia após a implantação do experimento até a estabilização da germinação, que ocorreu no 65º dia. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a porcentagem de germinação. Taxas de germinação acima de 96% foram atingidas em sementes pré-embebidas em água durante 48 horas e substrato umedecido com água ou KNO3.

  18. Growth process and model simulation of three different classes of Schima superba in a natural subtropical forest in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Deng, Xiangwen; Ouyang, Shuai; Chen, Lijun; Chu, Yonghe

    2017-01-01

    Schima superba is an important fire-resistant, high-quality timber species in southern China. Growth in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and volume of the three different classes (overtopped, average and dominant) of S. superba were examined in a natural subtropical forest. Four growth models (Richards, edited Weibull, Logistic and Gompertz) were selected to fit the growth of the three different classes of trees. The results showed that there was a fluctuation phenomenon in height and DBH current annual growth process of all three classes. Multiple intersections were found between current annual increment (CAI) and mean annual increment (MAI) curves of both height and DBH, but there was no intersection between volume CAI and MAI curves. All selected models could be used to fit the growth of the three classes of S. superba, with determinant coefficients above 0.9637. However, the edited Weibull model performed best with the highest R2 and the lowest root of mean square error (RMSE). S. superba is a fast-growing tree with a higher growth rate during youth. The height and DBH CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 5–10, 10–15 and 15–20 years, respectively. According to model simulation, the volume CAIs of overtopped, average and dominant trees reached growth peaks at ages 17, 55 and 76 years, respectively. The biological rotation ages of the overtopped, average and dominant trees of S. superba were 29, 85 and 128 years, respectively.

  19. Embryo culture is an efficient way to conserve a medicinally important endangered forest tree species Strychnos potatorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srikanth Kagithoju; Vikram Godishala; Madhusudhan Kairamkonda; Rama Swamy Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports a protocol for germination of Strychnos potatorum (ver.Tel.Chilla) using zygotic embryo culture as an embryo rescue method.A 100% germination rate was obtained by culturing the embryos on full-strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) containing 20 g/L sucrose in comparison to McCown and Lloyd's Woody Plant Medium (WPM).Germination rates decreased when the sucrose concentration was lower or higher than 20 g·L-1.WPM/MS medium containing glucose at levels 30,20,15 g·L-1 showed a smaller percentage of germination and at quarter strength,WPM/MS medium with glucose did not respond.Multiple shoot formation was found at 1.0-2.0 mg/L BAP; 3.0 mg/L Kn; 2.0 mg/L TDZ on MS medium with 20 g·L-1sucrose.Germination rates improved when the embryos were placed upright (vertically) in the medium.The in vitro germinated seedlings were acclimatized in a walk-in-chamber and maintained in the green house with the survival rate of 65%-75%.These plants were transferred to the field and were found to be phenotypically normal,healthy and similar to donor plants.This protocol will be useful to overcome seed dormancy and for rapid multiplication and conservation of S.potatorum using zygotic embryo culture.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anajwala, Chetan C; Patel, Rajesh M; Dakhara, Sanjay L; Jariwala, Jitesh K

    2010-04-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC(50) value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  1. Combination of hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction with sweeping techniques in micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the determination of Strychnos alkaloids in human urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Huan Zang; Cai Rui Li; Qiu Hua Wu; Chun Wang; Dan Dan Han; Zhi Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the enrichment of Strychnos alkaloids in biological samples via liquid-phase rnicroextraction (LPME) based on porous polypropylene hollow fibers in combination with on-line sweeping in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 20-200 ng mL-1 for both strychnine and brucine in human urine sample. The detection limits (S/N = 3:1) for strychnine and brucine were 1 ng mL-1 and 2 ng mL-1, respectively. The LPME-sweeping method has been successfully applied to the analysis of strychnine and brucine in real urine samples.

  2. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de três espécies do gênero Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae) do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Strychnos atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. e S. trinervis (Vell.) Mart., espécies de importância na medicina popular do Nordeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de elaborar morfodiagnoses que possibilitem seu reconhecimento. Coletas e estudos morfológicos foram realizados para as identificações e morfodiagnoses macroscópicas, e cortes paradérmicos e transversais da folha (pecíolo e lâmina) para as morfodiagnoses microscópicas. Observou-se qu...

  3. Investigation on Effect of Forestation by Mixing Pinus massoniana with Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGWenchao; HUANGLili

    2004-01-01

    Since forestation of pure forest of Pinus massoniana is liable to suffer from pest calamity, soil erosion, decrease of soil fertility, and difficulty in wood production in the hilly areas of southern China, we conducted an investigation on the three types of forests in Gao'an County of Jiangxi Province, namely, the pure forest of Pinus massoniana, the pure forest of Schima superba, and the mixed forest consisting of the two species, setting up standard stand, measuring and studying the growing stock, biomass, leaf area, roots,soil, vegetation, pests, litters, soil erosion, microclimate, etc., with the following results. ① The average height, diameter at chest height, and volume of the mixed forest are higher than those of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana by 30.9%, 31.7% and 10.6%, respectively. ② The biomass of the mixed forest is 2.24 times as much as that of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana. ③ The litters of the mixed forest is 3.37 times and 1.96 times as much as the litters of the pure forest of Pinus massoniana and the pure forest of Schima superba respectively. ③ The occurrence of pest calamity per tree is lower and the conditions of soil erosion and microclimate are better than those of the pure forest ofPinus massoniana. ④ The mixed forest of the two species is an excellent mixed type of needle-leaf and deciduous forest worth being popularized in China's subtropical areas, especially in the low hilly areas. It is recommended in plantation that the mixed patterns be between trees, lines, small blocks, or scattered-dots, the ratio of mixture of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba be 5 to 1, or 3 to 1, and the initial space between trees be 1.2, 1.5, or 2.0 m while the initial density be 6 944 to 4 440 trees per square hectare.

  4. Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malaivijitnond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group: distilled water, Butea superba (BS-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP. They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 TP sc, respectively, during the 30-day treatment period. Blood was collected every 15 days and luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone were measured. Changes of weight and histological appearance of sex organs were determined at the end of the 30-day treatment and 15-day post-treatment periods. TP treatment reduced serum FSH and LH levels and significantly increased the weight of the seminal vesicles and epididymis, in accordance with histopathological changes, in both intact and orchidectomized rats. No changes in serum testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were observed in any of the intact rats treated with BS, but a significant increase in seminal vesicle weight was observed only in the BS-250 group. Although a significant reduction in serum LH was detected in the BS-50 and BS-250 groups of orchidectomized rats, no significant change in weight or histology of sex organs was observed. Thus, we conclude that B. superba needs endogenous testosterone to work synergistically to stimulate the accessory sex organ of intact animals and can potentially exhibit an LH reduction effect in orchidectomized animals.

  5. Variations des apports de litière et d'éléments minéraux dans les plantations de limba (Terminalia superba au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolo, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in Litter Production and Nutrient Supply in Plantations of Limba (Terminalia superba in Congo. A study was carried out in a chronosequence of Terminalia superba (7, 12 and 48 years and a nearby natural forest. The results show that the peaks of litterfall take place in rainy season contrary to the majority of the forest formations of the humid tropical zone. The return of nutrients to the soil via the leaf litter is higher in plantations than in forest. The calcium released from the leaf litter was up to 175 kg.ha-1.year1. The values obtained indicate a moderate nutrient use efficiency by Terminalia superba.

  6. Rediscovery of Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae after 40 years at Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Van Cakenberghe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Pied Butterfly Bat, Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939, 40 years after this species was last recorded. The new specimen from Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo, is compared with the type specimens of G. s. superba and G. superba sheila Hayman, 1947 and a specimen from Matonguiné, Ivory Coast. The variation in the striking colouration of the pelage as well as in morphometric data is considered to be individual rather than geographic variation and we tentatively regard G. s. sheila as a synonym of the nominate form. Despite the wide distribution of this species in the tropical forest zone of West and Central Africa, only four specimens from four localities are known to date, which might indicate very specific habitat preferences. Contemporary land cover information around historic collection sites shows degraded landscapes. Given the highly uncertain area of occupancy of this species, we suggest changing the status of G. superba in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species from “Least Concern” to “Data Deficient”.

  7. Schima superba as a fuelbreak: Litter combustibility of three tree species with five water content levels using a cone calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guomo ZHOU; Yufeng ZHOU; Shuquan YU; Shangbin BAI; Fengzhu LU

    2009-01-01

    To determine the suitability of Schima superba Gardn. et Champ as a fuelbreak, we compared and analyzed the flammability characteristics of tree litter from three trees commonly grown in south China, i.e., Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., and S. superba, using a cone calorimeter at five different water content levels. Water content levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% for the litter were manually produced with a new technique of adding water to dry litter. The cone calorimeter utilized a radiant heat intensity for leaf litter of 20 kW/m2 (510 C) and for twig litter of 30 kW/m2 (608 C). Results show that fixing the water content level by adding water with a pipette was an acceptable technique. For S. superba, compared to P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, 1) the heat release rate (HRR) was slower and lower; 2) the total heat released (THR) from the material was lower and started later in the burning process; and 3) except for the 10% water content, pkHRR/TTI was less. These results show that overall, S. superba was the best of the three species to be used as a fuelbreak in south China.

  8. Schima superba outperforms other tree species by changing foliar chemical composition and shortening construction payback time when facilitated by shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Guo, Qinfeng; Ren, Hai; Sun, Zhongyu

    2016-01-27

    A 3.5-year field experiment was conducted in a subtropical degraded shrubland to assess how a nurse plant, the native shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, affects the growth of the target trees Pinus elliottii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, and Michelia macclurei, and to probe the intrinsic mechanisms from leaf chemical composition, construction cost (CC), and payback time aspects. We compared tree seedlings grown nearby shrub canopy (canopy subplots, CS) and in open space (open subplots, OS). S. superba in CS showed greater growth, while P. elliottii and M. macclurei were lower when compared to the plants grown in the OS. The reduced levels of high-cost compounds (proteins) and increased levels of low-cost compounds (organic acids) caused reduced CC values for P. elliottii growing in CS. While, the levels of both low-cost minerals and high-cost proteins increased in CS such that CC values of S. superba were similar in OS and CS. Based on maximum photosynthetic rates, P. elliottii required a longer payback time to construct required carbon in canopy than in OS, but the opposite was true for S. superba. The information from this study can be used to evaluate the potential of different tree species in the reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands.

  9. Antimicrobial property and antioxidant composition of crude extracts of Pueraria mirifica, Butea superba and Mucuna macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, crude extracts of Pueraria mirifica, Butea superba and Mucuna macrocarpa were prepared using sequential extraction with three different solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts obtained were then used to test for their antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method, which showed that, against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only the P. mirifica extract obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited antimicrobial activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract was also determined with values between 15 and 50 mg/ml depending on the microbes tested. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was subsequently used to separate the chemical constituents of the extract. When tested against B. cereus, there were only two bands which showed anti-B. cereus activity. Additionally, the crude extracts of P. mirifica, B. superba and M. macrocarpa were analysed for some antioxidant compounds using HPLC. Our results showed that all the extracts contained daidzin, genistin, daidzein and genistein, all of which were present in the highest amounts (0.045, 0.037, 0.049 and 0.060 % respectively in the ethyl acetate extract of P. mirifica.

  10. Diversity and function of the Antarctic krill microorganisms from Euphausia superba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoqiu; Zhu, Guoliang; Liu, Haishan; Jiang, Guoliang; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-11-01

    The diversity and ecological function of microorganisms associated with Euphausia superba, still remain unknown. This study identified 75 microbial isolates from E. superba, that is 42 fungi and 33 bacteria including eight actinobacteria. And all the isolates showed NaF tolerance in conformity with the nature of the fluoride krill. The maximum concentration was 10%, 3% and 0.5% NaF for actinobacteria, bacteria and fungi, respectively. The results demonstrated that 82.4% bacteria, 81.3% actinobacteria and 12.3% fungi produced antibacterial metabolites against pathogenic bacteria without NaF; the MIC value reached to 3.9 μg/mL. In addition, more than 60% fungi produced cytotoxic metabolites against A549, MCF-7 or K562 cell lines. The presence of NaF led to a reduction in the producing antimicrobial compounds, but stimulated the production of cytotoxic compounds. Furthermore, seven cytotoxic compounds were identified from the metabolites of Penicillium citrinum OUCMDZ4136 under 0.5% NaF, with the IC50 values of 3.6-13.1 μM for MCF-7, 2.2-19.8 μM for A549 and 5.4-15.4 μM for K562, respectively. These results indicated that the krill microbes exert their chemical defense by producing cytotoxic compounds to the mammalians and antibacterial compounds to inhibiting the pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability.

  12. Is vertical migration in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) influenced by an underlying circadian rhythm?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edward Gaten; Geraint Tarling; Harold Dowse; Charalambos Kyriacou; Ezio Rosato

    2008-12-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the southern ocean ecosystem where it is the main consumer of phytoplankton and constitutes the main food item of many higher predators. Both food and predators are most abundant at the surface, thus krill hide in the depth of the ocean during the day and migrate to the upper layers at night, to feed at a time when the predatory risk is lowest. Although the functional significance of this diel vertical migration (DVM) is clear and its modulation by environmental factors has been described, the involvement of an endogenous circadian clock in this behaviour is as yet not fully resolved. We have analysed the circadian behaviour of Euphausia superba in a laboratory setting and here we present the first description of locomotor activity rhythms for this species. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the circadian clock plays a key role in DVM. They also suggest that the interplay between food availability, social cues and the light:dark cycle acts as the predominant Zeitgeber for DVM in this species.

  13. Effect of Gloriosa superba and Catharanthus roseus Extracts on IFN-γ-Induced Keratin 17 Expression in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Pattarachotanant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa superba and Catharanthus roseus are useful in traditional medicine for treatment of various skin diseases and cancer. However, their molecular effect on psoriasis has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of ethanol extracts derived from G. superba leaves and C. roseus stems on the expression of psoriatic marker, keratin 17 (K17, was investigated in human keratinocytes using biochemical and molecular experimental approaches. Both extracts could reduce the expression of K17 in a dose-dependent manner through JAK/STAT pathway as demonstrated by an observation of reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 (p-STAT3. The inhibitory activity of G. superba extract was more potent than that of C. roseus. The Pearson's correlation between K17 and cell viability was shown positive. Taken together, the extracts of G. superba and C. roseus may be developed as alternative therapies for psoriasis.

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana de fungos endofíticos isolados de plantas tóxicas da amazônia: Palicourea longiflora (aubl. rich e Strychnos cogens bentham Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from amazonian toxic plants: Palicourea longiflora (aubl. rich and Strychnos cogens bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Queiroz Lima de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Das plantas tóxicas da Amazônia Palicourea longiflora e Strychnos cogens foram isolados 571 fungos endofíticos e 74 bactérias endofíticas. Palicourea longiflora (Rubiaceae e outras espécies desse gênero estão relacionadas a 90% das mortes de gado na região Amazônica. Strychnos cogens (Loganiaceae e outras espécies de Strychnos são utilizadas pelos indígenas na confecção de "curares". Entre os endófitos isolados de P. longiflora foram identificados os fungos: Colletotrichum sp. e seu telemorfo Glomerella sp., Guignardia sp., Aspergillus niger, Phomopsis sp. e Xylaria sp., além da bactéria Burkholderia gladioli, pertencente a um grupo de fixadoras de nitrogênio. Dos isolados de S. cogens foram identificados os fungos: Colletotrichum sp., Guignardia sp., Aspergillus niger e Trichoderma sp. Uma amostra de 79 isolados fúngicos teve seus metabólitos extracelulares bioensaiados contra microrganismos patogênicos e fitopatogênicos: 19 isolados inibiram um ou mais microrganismos-teste. Dos oito isolados com melhores resultados de inibição, as móleculas bioativas eram menores que 12.000 daltons, fato verificado pela diálise dos metabólitos.Palicourea longiflora (Rubiaceae, a toxic plant from the Amazon belonging to the genus related to 90% of cattle death in the region, and Strychnos cogens (Loganiaceaebelonging to a genus whose plants are used by Indians for manufacturing "curares", were sources of 571 fungi isolates and 74 bacteria isolates. The fungi Colletotrichum sp., Guignardia sp., Aspergillus niger, Glomerella sp., Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. and the endophytic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli were identified from P. longiflora, while the fungi Colletotrichum sp., Guignardia sp., Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. were identified from S. cogens. Bioassays of fungi metabolites excreted by 79 isolates against pathogenic and phytopathogenic microorganisms showed that 19 products inhibited at least one of the

  15. Proteomic analysis reveals differences in tolerance to acid rain in two broad-leaf tree species, Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chalifour, Annie; Chen, Juan; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR) is a serious environmental issue inducing harmful impacts on plant growth and development. It has been reported that Liquidambar formosana, considered as an AR-sensitive tree species, was largely injured by AR, compared with Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species. To clarify the different responses of these two species to AR, a comparative proteomic analysis was conducted in this study. More than 1000 protein spots were reproducibly detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. Among them, 74 protein spots from L. formosana gels and 34 protein spots from S. superba gels showed significant changes in their abundances under AR stress. In both L. formosana and S. superba, the majority proteins with more than 2 fold changes were involved in photosynthesis and energy production, followed by material metabolism, stress and defense, transcription, post-translational and modification, and signal transduction. In contrast with L. formosana, no hormone response-related protein was found in S. superba. Moreover, the changes of proteins involved in photosynthesis, starch synthesis, and translation were distinctly different between L. formosana and S. superba. Protein expression analysis of three proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) by Western blot was well correlated with the results of proteomics. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into AR stress responses in woody plants and clarifies the differences in strategies to cope with AR between L. formosana and S. superba.

  16. A transcriptome resource for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) exposed to short-term stress

    KAUST Repository

    Martins, Maria João F

    2015-10-01

    Euphausia superba is a keystone species in Antarctic food webs. However, the continued decrease in stock density raises concerns over the resilience and adaptive potential of krill to withstand the current rate of environmental change. We undertook a transcriptome-scale approach (454 pyrosequencing) as a baseline for future studies addressing the physiological response of krill to short-term food shortage and natural UV-B stress. The final assembly resulted in a total of 26,415 contigs, 39.8% of which were putatively annotated. Exploratory analyses indicate an overall reduction in protein synthesis under food shortage while UV stress resulted in the activation of photo-protective mechanisms. © 2015.

  17. KrillDB: A de novo transcriptome database for the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Gabriele; Deagle, Bruce E.; Calura, Enrica; Martini, Paolo; Biscontin, Alberto; De Pittà, Cristiano; Kawaguchi, So; Romualdi, Chiara; Meyer, Bettina; Costa, Rodolfo; Jarman, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in the Southern Ocean with an estimated biomass between 100 and 500 million tonnes. Changes in krill population viability would have catastrophic effect on the Antarctic ecosystem. One looming threat due to elevated levels of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is ocean acidification (lowering of sea water pH by CO2 dissolving into the oceans). The genetics of Antarctic krill has long been of scientific interest for both for the analysis of population structure and analysis of functional genetics. However, the genetic resources available for the species are relatively modest. We have developed the most advanced genetic database on Euphausia superba, KrillDB, which includes comprehensive data sets of former and present transcriptome projects. In particular, we have built a de novo transcriptome assembly using more than 360 million Illumina sequence reads generated from larval krill including individuals subjected to different CO2 levels. The database gives access to: 1) the full list of assembled genes and transcripts; 2) their level of similarity to transcripts and proteins from other species; 3) the predicted protein domains contained within each transcript; 4) their predicted GO terms; 5) the level of expression of each transcript in the different larval stages and CO2 treatments. All references to external entities (sequences, domains, GO terms) are equipped with a link to the appropriate source database. Moreover, the software implements a full-text search engine that makes it possible to submit free-form queries. KrillDB represents the first large-scale attempt at classifying and annotating the full krill transcriptome. For this reason, we believe it will constitute a cornerstone of future approaches devoted to physiological and molecular study of this key species in the Southern Ocean food web. PMID:28187156

  18. Dynamic detection of non-protein-bound strychnine and brucine in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid after topical application of total Strychnos alkaloid patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaibo; Yan, Miao; Li, Huande; Xun, Tianrong; Deng, Yang; Zhao, Yeye; Deng, Long

    2014-04-01

    Semen Strychni, a known toxic drug in Chinese pharmacopoeia, is notable for its therapeutic effects on local muscle and joint pain. However, oral administration can be risky. Topically administered drugs accumulate in the topical muscles and knee joints without any major increase in plasma levels; only non-protein-bound drugs in the biological fluids of target tissues are effective for therapeutic effects. A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method coupled with a microdialysis technique was developed to determine the non-protein-bound strychnine (Str) and brucine (Bru) in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid microdialysate. The UPLC separation was carried out using a 1.7μm BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: water (29.5:70.5, v/v) with 0.1% formic acid and 20 mM ammonium acetate in water. The method was validated at concentrations ranging from 0.58 ng/ml to 467.20 ng/ml for Str and from 0.42 ng/ml to 422.40 ng/ml for Bru. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from 99.1% to 103.2% for Str and from 95.8% to 108.8% for Bru with intra-day and inter-day precision within 9.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine non-protein-bound Str and Bru, and the analysates concentration remained stable in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid after topical application of total Strychnos alkaloid patches, which indicated that total Strychnos alkaloid patches could substitute for the traditional oral administration of Semen Strychni. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Method development and validation for the simultaneous determination of four coumarins in Saussurea superba by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Hong-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoretic method has been developed for the determination of four coumarins--skimmin, scopolin, scopoletin, and umbelliferone-in Saussurea superba with UV detection at 254 nm. The capillary temperature was kept constant at 25 degrees C. Effects of buffer pH, electrolyte concentration, organic modifier, and applied voltage on migration behavior were studied systematically. The optimum conditions for separation were achieved by using 30 mM borate buffer at pH 9.02 containing 15% (v/v) methanol as the electrolyte and 25 kV as the applied voltage. For all analytes a good linear regression relationship (r > 0.999) was obtained between peak area and concentration over a relatively wide range. The method was validated for repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four analytes in S. superba.

  20. [Aboveground biomass of natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Li, Gen; Zhou, Guang-Yi; Wu, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Hou-Ben; Qiu, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Rui-You

    2013-09-01

    By the method of clear cutting, a measurement was made on the aboveground biomass (AGB) of 24-year old natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in an 800 m2 plot in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China. The distribution patterns of the total AGB in different forest layers, tree species, and tree layer organs were investigated, and the AGB regression models were constructed. The results showed that when constructing the AGB regression models, more than 12 samples would be feasible. Based on the measured AGB of 265 felled trees, the AGB models of mixed broadleaved species were AGB = 0. 128D(2.372) and AGB = 242.331(D2H)(0.947). The single tree's AGB model of C. carlesii, S. superba, and Cunninghamia lanceolata was also established. The total AGB of the forest community was 115.20 t x hm(-2), of which, the AGB of tree layer, understory layer, liana, and litter layer was 111.25, 1.01, 0.36, and 2.58 t x hm(-2), respectively. The AGB of C. carlesii and S. superba took up 39.1% and 28.7% of the tree layer AGB, respectively. The AGB of tree stem and branch-leaf occupied 81.0% and 19.0% of the tree layer AGB, respectively.

  1. Inhibition of human Na(v)1.5 sodium channels by strychnine and its analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chunhua; Sun, Lirong; Zhang, Meng; Li, Shuji; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Tianming; Zhu, Xinhong

    2011-08-15

    Strychnine and brucine from the seeds of the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors. In this study, we have characterized the pharmacological properties of strychnine and its analogs on human Na(v)1.5 channels to assess their potential therapeutic advantage in certain arrhythmias. Among the eight alkaloids, only strychnine and icajine exhibited inhibition potency on the Na(v)1.5 channel with the half-maximum inhibition (IC(50)) values of 83.1μM and 104.6μM, respectively. Structure-function analysis indicated that the increased bulky methoxy groups on the phenyl ring or the negatively charged oxygen atom may account for this lack of inhibition on the Na(v)1.5 channel. Strychnine and icajine may bind to the channel by cation-π interactions. The substitution with a large side chain on the phenyl ring or the increased molecular volume may alter the optimized position for the compound close to the binding sites of the channel. Strychnine and icajine bind to the Na(v)1.5 channel with a new mechanism that is different from TTX and local anesthetics. They bind to the outer vestibule of the channel pore with fast association and dissociation rates at resting state. Strychnine and icajine had little effect on steady-state fast inactivation but markedly shifted the slow inactivation of Na(v)1.5 currents toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The property of icajine influencing slow-inactivated state of Na(v)1.5 channel would be potential therapeutic advantages in certain arrhythmias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical and functional responses to the presence of a competitor--the case of Aggregata sp. (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) and Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence of interference competition between the eimeriorin coccidian Aggregata sp. and the octopicolid copepod Octopicola superba at the level of the gills of naturally infected Octopus vulgaris is evaluated. Numerical and functional responses are considered for analysis, and the fundamental and realized spatial niches (FSNs and RSNs) are measured as part of the study. While it was not possible to measure the FSN of Aggregata sp., the analysis of the infection levels of O. superba recorded for non-concomitantly and concomitantly infected hosts suggests that the gills and body skin constitute, respectively, the main and accessory sites of infection of the parasite. According to the evidence found, the gills function mainly as an accessory site of infection of Aggregata sp., in specimens in which the caecum and intestine are massively infected. Evidence for a negative interaction between Aggregata sp. and O. superba has been found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of host size. Furthermore, the presence of O. superba on gill lamellae appears to have been negatively affected by the presence of Aggregata sp., while this latter remained mostly undisturbed. The mean number of oocysts of Aggregata sp. in the gills was higher in spring and summer, which were also the seasons presenting the broadest RSN for O. superba.

  3. Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Reproductive Success is Influenced by Krill (Euphausia superba) Density and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboth, Elisa; Groch, Karina R; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Reid, Keith; Flores, Paulo A C; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive success of southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) depends on body condition and, therefore, on foraging success. This, in turn, might be affected by climatically driven change in the abundance of the species main prey, krill (Euphausia superba), on the feeding grounds. Annual data on southern right whale number of calves were obtained from aerial surveys carried out between 1997 and 2013 in southern Brazil, where the species concentrate during their breeding season. The number of calves recorded each year varied from 7 to 43 ( = 21.11 ± 11.88). Using cross-correlation analysis we examined the response of the species to climate anomalies and krill densities. Significant correlations were found with krill densities (r = 0.69, p = 0.002, lag 0 years), Oceanic Niño Index (r = -0.65, p = 0.03, lag 6 years), Antarctic Oscillation (r = 0.76, p = 0.01, lag 7 years) and Antarctic sea ice area (r = -0.68, p = 0.002, lag 0 years). Our results suggest that global climate indices influence southern right whale breeding success in southern Brazil by determining variation in food (krill) availability for the species. Therefore, increased frequency of years with reduced krill abundance, due to global warming, is likely to reduce the current rate of recovery of southern right whales from historical overexploitation.

  4. Crystalline structure and thermal property characterization of chitin from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanchao; Chang, Yaoguang; Yu, Long; Zhang, Cuiyu; Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Changhu

    2013-01-30

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been widely studied and extensively recognized as a target for commercial fishing. In this study, Antarctic krill chitin was extracted from defatted Antarctic krill shell, and its crystalline structure and thermal properties were characterized by employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results showed that Antarctic krill chitin corresponded to the α-polymorph, and was composed of small, stable, and uniform microcrystals. The degree of N-deacetylation was 11.28 ± 0.86%. The d-spacings of Antarctic krill chitin were 9.78 Å and 4.63 Å at (020) and (110) planes. The crystalline sizes were 6.07 nm and 5.16 nm at (020) and (110) planes, respectively. The activation energy of the polysaccharide chain decomposition was 123.35 kJ/mol and the glass transition (T(g)) of Antarctic krill chitin was 164.96 °C.

  5. Quantifying the Escape Mortality of Trawl Caught Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Bjørn A.; Krag, Ludvig A.; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Bruheim, Inge; Herrmann, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is an abundant fishery resource, the harvest levels of which are expected to increase. However, many of the length classes of krill can escape through commonly used commercial trawl mesh sizes. A vital component of the overall management of a fishery is to estimate the total fishing mortality and quantify the mortality rate of individuals that escape from fishing gear. The methods for determining fishing mortality in krill are still poorly developed. We used a covered codend sampling technique followed by onboard observations made in holding tanks to monitor mortality rates of escaped krill. Haul duration, hydrological conditions, maximum fishing depth and catch composition all had no significant effect on mortality of krill escaping 16 mm mesh size nets, nor was any further mortality associated with the holding tank conditions. A non- parametric Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to model the relationship between mortality rates of escapees and time. There was a weak tendency, though not significant, for smaller individuals to suffer higher mortality than larger individuals. The mortality of krill escaping the trawl nets in our study was 4.4 ± 4.4%, suggesting that krill are fairly tolerant of the capture-and-escape process in trawls. PMID:27622510

  6. Extraction of proteins with low fluoride level from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and their composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingzhao; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bao

    2011-06-08

    The extraction of proteins with low fluoride level (LFP) from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) was investigated in this work. The optimal conditions for protein solubilization were determined to be pH 11.5 and 4 °C. The proteins were solubilized two times; a water/krill ratio (mL/g) of 6 and a time of 30 min were used for the first step, whereas the second used a water/krill residue ratio (mL/g) of 3 and a time of 30 min. The optimum pH for protein precipitation was 4.6. A LFP with fluoride content of 9.86 mg/kg (dry weight) was finally obtained through a fluoride removal program. The protein yield of LFP was 52.68%. Composition analysis of LFP indicated it was composed of 66.96% of crude proteins (dry weight) and 33.01% of total lipids (dry weight),, and all nine essential amino acids were in sufficient amounts to meet FAO/WHO/UNU requirements for adults and infants. In addition, LFP could be taken as a good source of EPA and DHA for consideration of use as a food item for human consumption.

  7. Hydroethanolic Extract of Strychnos pseudoquina Accelerates Skin Wound Healing by Modulating the Oxidative Status and Microstructural Reorganization of Scar Tissue in Experimental Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariáurea M. Sarandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of topical application of ointment based on Strychnos pseudoquina hydroethanolic extract in the cutaneous wounds healing in diabetic rats was evaluated. Samples of S. pseudoquina were submitted to phytochemical prospection and in vitro antioxidant assay. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Sal-wounds treated with 0.9% saline solution; VH-wounds treated with 0.6 g of lanolin cream (vehicle; SS-wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine cream (10 mg/g; ES5- and ES10-wounds treated with an ointment of S. pseudoquina extract, 5% and 10%, respectively. Fragments of wounds were removed for histological and biochemical analysis every 7 days during 21 days. ES showed equivalent levels per gram of extract of total phenols and flavonoids equal to 122.04 mg for TAE and 0.60 mg for RE. The chlorogenic acid was one of the major constituents. S. pseudoquina extract presented high antioxidant potential in vitro. ES5 and ES10 showed higher wound healing rate and higher amount of cells, blood vessels, and type III and I collagen. The oxidative stress markers were lower in the ES5 and ES10 groups, while the antioxidants enzymes levels were higher. Ointment based on S. pseudoquina extract promotes a fast and efficient cutaneous repair in diabetic rats.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  9. Unambiguous detection of astaxanthin and astaxanthin fatty acid esters in krill (Euphausia superba Dana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynbaum, Marc David; Hentschel, Petra; Putzbach, Karsten; Rehbein, Jens; Krucker, Manfred; Nicholson, Graeme; Albert, Klaus

    2005-09-01

    HPLC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/MS, GC MS, HPLC diode array detection (DAD), and NMR were used for the identification of astaxanthin and astaxanthin fatty acid esters in krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Matrix solid phase dispersion was applied for the extraction of the carotenoids. This gentle and expeditious extraction technique for solid and viscous samples leads to distinct higher enrichment rates than the conventional liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved employing a C30 RP column that allows the separation of shape-constrained geometrical isomers. A methanol/tert-butylmethyl ether/water gradient was applied. (all-E) Astaxanthin and the geometrical isomers were identified by HPLC APCI/MS, by coelution with isomerized authentical standard, by UV spectroscopy (DAD), and three isomers were unambiguously assigned by microcoil NMR spectroscopy. In this method, microcoils are transversally aligned to the magnetic field and have an increased sensitivity compared to the conventional double-saddle Helmholtz coils, thus enabling the measurement on small samples. The carotenol fatty acid esters were saponified enzymatically with Lipase type VII from Candida rugosa. The fatty acids were detected by GC MS after transesterification, but also without previous derivatization by HPLC APCI/MS. C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C20:0, C20:5, and C22:6 were found in astaxanthin monoesters and in astaxanthin diesters. (all-E) Astaxanthin was identified as the main isomer in six fatty acid ester fractions by NMR. Quantitation was carried out by the method of internal standard. (13-cis) Astaxanthin (70 microg/g), 542 microg/g (all-E) astaxanthin, 36 microg/g unidentified astaxanthin isomer, 62 microg/g (9-cis) astaxanthin, and 7842 microg/g astaxanthin fatty acid esters were found.

  10. AGE GROUPS OF ANTARCTIC KRILL,EUPHAUSIA SUPERBA DANA,IN THE PRYDZ BAY REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+ , or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the yearly growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  11. Ice Algae-Produced Carbon Is Critical for Overwintering of Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Kohlbach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (“krill” constitute a fundamental food source for Antarctic seabirds and mammals, and a globally important fisheries resource. The future resilience of krill to climate change depends critically on the winter survival of young krill. To survive periods of extremely low production by pelagic algae during winter, krill are assumed to rely partly on carbon produced by ice algae. The true dependency on ice algae-produced carbon, however, is so far unquantified. This confounds predictions on the future resilience of krill stocks to sea ice decline. Fatty acid (FA analysis, bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA, and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA of diatom- and dinoflagellate-associated marker FAs were applied to quantify the dependency of overwintering larval, juvenile, and adult krill on ice algae-produced carbon (αIce during winter 2013 in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence Zone. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the carbon uptake of the overwintering larval and juvenile krill originated from ice algae (up to 88% of the carbon budget, and that the dependency on ice algal carbon decreased with ontogeny, reaching <56% of the carbon budget in adults. Spatio-temporal variability in the utilization of ice algal carbon was more pronounced in larvae and juvenile krill than in adults. Differences between αIce estimates derived from short- vs. long-term FA-specific isotopic compositions suggested that ice algae-produced carbon gained importance as the winter progressed, and might become critical at the late winter-spring transition, before the phytoplankton bloom commences. Where the sea ice season shortens, reduced availability of ice algae might possibly not be compensated by surplus phytoplankton production during wintertime. Hence, sea ice decline could seriously endanger the winter survival of recruits, and subsequently overall biomass of krill.

  12. High-resolution proxies for wood density variations in Terminalia superba

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Maaike; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Vansteenkiste, Dries; Van Loo, Denis; Dierick, Manuel; Masschaele, Bert; De Witte, Yoni; Mannes, David; Lehmann, Eberhard; Beeckman, Hans; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Van Acker, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Density is a crucial variable in forest and wood science and is evaluated by a multitude of methods. Direct gravimetric methods are mostly destructive and time-consuming. Therefore, faster and semi- to non-destructive indirect methods have been developed. Methods Profiles of wood density variations with a resolution of approx. 50 µm were derived from one-dimensional resistance drillings, two-dimensional neutron scans, and three-dimensional neutron and X-ray scans. All methods were applied on Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, an African pioneer species which sometimes exhibits a brown heart (limba noir). Key Results The use of X-ray tomography combined with a reference material permitted direct estimates of wood density. These X-ray-derived densities overestimated gravimetrically determined densities non-significantly and showed high correlation (linear regression, R2 = 0·995). When comparing X-ray densities with the attenuation coefficients of neutron scans and the amplitude of drilling resistance, a significant linear relation was found with the neutron attenuation coefficient (R2 = 0·986) yet a weak relation with drilling resistance (R2 = 0·243). When density patterns are compared, all three methods are capable of revealing the same trends. Differences are mainly due to the orientation of tree rings and the different characteristics of the indirect methods. Conclusions High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is a promising technique for research on wood cores and will be explored further on other temperate and tropical species. Further study on limba noir is necessary to reveal the causes of density variations and to determine how resistance drillings can be further refined. PMID:21131386

  13. Geographical distribution and age composition of Euphausia superba larvae (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the South Shetland Islands region and southern Scotia Sea in relation to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qian; XU Zhaoli; HUANG Hongliang; CHEN Xuezhong; FENG Chunlei; LI Lingzhi

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of the different life stages of Euphausia superba in the region of the South Shet-land Islands and southern Scotia Sea (Antarctica) were assessed based on scientific survey data collected in January and February of 2010. Adults, eggs, nauplii, metanauplii, calyptopis I-III, and furcilia I-II were found in the investigation. The abundance of larvae averaged 1 172.8 ind./m2, with calyptopis I and II as the dominant stages. Habitat occupancy patterns varied among Euphausia superba at different stages, and three sub-regions were identified by cluster analysis. The degree of larval development increased from west to east. Larvae were not observed north of the South Shetland Islands. Calyptopis I was predominant in the water between Elephant Island and the South Orkney Islands, which featured no thermocline. Older stages, including calyptopis II and III and furcilia I and II, were common in north and northeast of the South Orkney Islands, which were characterized by high temperature and high chlorophyll concentration. Distri-bution and abundance of the early life stages of E. superba were associated with specific environmental con-ditions. According to Biota-Environment matching (BIOENV ), the distributions of E. superba larvae were correlated with a combination of temperature at the surface and 200 m, and 0-100 m integrated chlorophyll a concentration.

  14. Biodiversity and phylogenetic analysis of the gut microbiome ofEuphausia superba Dana from the Rose Sea of the Antarctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Lidong; LI Lingzhi; TIAN Xiaoqing; TANG Yingying; FAN Chengqi; HUANG Hongliang; YANG Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites derived from marine symbiotic microorganisms have great potential as lead compounds for the discovery of novel marine drugs.Euphausia superba Dana, which lives in the Antarctic Ocean, is regarded as a new source of marine microbial natural products. However, no studies have examined the biodiversity of the symbiotic intestinal microbiome ofE. superba. To address this issue, the species diversity and abundance of the gut microbiome ofE. superba Dana from the Rose Sea of the Antarctic Ocean were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing and pure culture methods. A comparison with gene databases revealed that the microbiome contained 61 known microbial species and a plethora of uncultivable microorganisms. Additionally, 7% of the species in the microbiome were currently unknown. The microbes belonged to 56 genera, eight of which, includingArthrobacter,Bacillus,Candidatus,Lactococcus,Lysinibacillus,Leuconostoc,Solibacillus, andVibrio, were dominant, as wereVibrionaceae spp. Moreover, 81 microbial strains were isolated by the pure culture method, and they belonged to 36 genera, includingMobilicoccus,Rhodococcus,Arthrobacter, andMicrobacterium. The results obtained by two different methods demonstrate the richness of the microbial biodiversity of the gut microbiome ofE. superba, and it also suggests that they have good potential for the discovery of novel marine microbial species.

  15. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  16. The biomass and aboveground net primary productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses.The total community biomass was(225.3±30.1) t hm-2,of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%.About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer.The resprouting biomass was small,of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer.The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was(386.8±98.9) g m-2a-1,in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level.The trunk’s contribution to productivity was the greatest,while that of leaves was the smallest.In China,the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest.The community biomass of the 52-year-old S.superba-C.carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China,and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world.Moreover,its productivity was lower than the model estimate,indicating that without disturbance,this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity.

  17. The biomass and aboveground net primary productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, TongHui; Song, Kun; Da, LiangJun; Li, XiuPeng; Wu, JianPing

    2010-07-01

    The biomass and productivity of Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii forests in Tiantong, Zhejiang Province, were determined using overlapping quadrants and stem analyses. The total community biomass was (225.3+/-30.1) t hm(-2), of which the aboveground parts accounted for 72.0% and the underground parts accounted for 28.0%. About 87.2% of biomass existed in the tree layer. The resprouting biomass was small, of which over 95.0% occurred in the shrub layer. The productivity of the aboveground parts of the community was (386.8+/-98.9) g m(-2)a(-1), in which more than 96.0% was present at the tree level. The trunk's contribution to productivity was the greatest, while that of leaves was the smallest. In China, the community biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests differs significantly with the age of the forest. The community biomass of the 52-year-old S. superba-C. carlesii forests in this study was lower than the average biomass of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests in China, and was lower than the biomass of other subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests elsewhere in the world. Moreover, its productivity was lower than the model estimate, indicating that without disturbance, this community has great developmental potential in terms of community biomass and productivity.

  18. Euphausiid community structure and population structure of Euphausia superba off Adélie Land in the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2003, 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Atsushi; Moteki, Masato; Amakasu, Kazuo; Toda, Ryoji; Horimoto, Naho; Hirano, Daisuke; Ishimaru, Takashi; Hosie, Graham W.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution and community structure of euphausiids and the population structure of Euphausia superba were investigated mainly along 140°E off Adélie Land in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summers of 2003, 2005 and 2008. Euphausiids were collected from six discrete depth layers, primarily between 0 and 2000 m, using an RMT 8 net. Euphausia frigida and Euphausia triacantha mainly occurred north of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB) whereas E. superba was distributed south of the SB, and occurred abundantly in the continental slope area where Antarctic Winter Water was observed. E. frigida and E. triacantha occurred in the upper 200 m during the night whereas they were mainly found below 200 m during the daytime. Cluster analysis on stations suggested that the SB is an important biological boundary for euphausiid communities. The population structure of E. superba in 2003 was different from that of 2005 and 2008. While large mature individuals dominated in 2003, small immature krill (juveniles and subadult males) were more abundant in 2005 and 2008. Further sea-ice extension in the preceding winter in 2005 and 2008 likely provided favourable conditions for spawning and survival. A cluster analysis based on similarity of the maturity stages of E. superba revealed that mature males and gravid females (stage IIIC-E) were mainly distributed in the offshore area and mesopelagic zone, while juveniles and subadult males were found in the epipelagic zone of the continental slope area. Therefore, it is considered that E. superba migrates to the offshore area and mesopelagic zone as it grows.

  19. The association of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba with the under-ice habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke Flores

    Full Text Available The association of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba with the under-ice habitat was investigated in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean during austral summer, autumn and winter. Data were obtained using novel Surface and Under Ice Trawls (SUIT, which sampled the 0-2 m surface layer both under sea ice and in open water. Average surface layer densities ranged between 0.8 individuals m(-2 in summer and autumn, and 2.7 individuals m(-2 in winter. In summer, under-ice densities of Antarctic krill were significantly higher than in open waters. In autumn, the opposite pattern was observed. Under winter sea ice, densities were often low, but repeatedly far exceeded summer and autumn maxima. Statistical models showed that during summer high densities of Antarctic krill in the 0-2 m layer were associated with high ice coverage and shallow mixed layer depths, among other factors. In autumn and winter, density was related to hydrographical parameters. Average under-ice densities from the 0-2 m layer were higher than corresponding values from the 0-200 m layer collected with Rectangular Midwater Trawls (RMT in summer. In winter, under-ice densities far surpassed maximum 0-200 m densities on several occasions. This indicates that the importance of the ice-water interface layer may be under-estimated by the pelagic nets and sonars commonly used to estimate the population size of Antarctic krill for management purposes, due to their limited ability to sample this habitat. Our results provide evidence for an almost year-round association of Antarctic krill with the under-ice habitat, hundreds of kilometres into the ice-covered area of the Lazarev Sea. Local concentrations of postlarval Antarctic krill under winter sea ice suggest that sea ice biota are important for their winter survival. These findings emphasise the susceptibility of an ecological key species to changing sea ice habitats, suggesting potential ramifications on Antarctic ecosystems induced by climate

  20. Transport of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) across the Scotia Sea. Part II: Krill growth and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, Bettina A.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Murphy, Eugene J.

    2006-06-01

    A time-dependent, size-structured, physiologically based krill growth model was used in conjunction with a circulation model to test the hypothesis that Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) populations at South Georgia are sustained by import of individuals from upstream regions. Surface phytoplankton concentrations along the simulated drifter trajectories were extracted from historical Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) measurements and sea ice biota concentrations were calculated from sea ice concentration and extent extracted along drifter trajectories from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements. As additional food sources, a time series of heterotrophic food was constructed from historical data, and time series of detritus concentrations were calculated using phytoplankton concentrations extracted from CZCS measurements together with measured particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a ratios. These food resources along specified drifter trajectories were then input to the krill growth model to determine the size and viability of krill during transport from the source region to South Georgia. The krill growth model simulations showed that no single food source can support continuous growth of krill during the 58-306 days needed for transport to South Georgia. However, under the current assumptions results indicate that combinations of food sources during the transport time enhanced krill survival, with heterotrophic food and detritus being particularly important during periods of low phytoplankton concentrations. The growth model simulations also showed that larval and juvenile krill originating along the western Antarctic Peninsula can grow to 1+ (14-36 mm) and 2+ (26-45 mm) age and size classes observed at South Georgia during the time needed for transport to this region. Krill originating in the Weddell Sea need 20 months for transport, which allows retention in a potentially high food environment, provided by sea ice, for almost 1 year. Krill then

  1. Synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract and their structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Ayyakannu, E-mail: sixmuga@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Haja Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed [PG and Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Gopinath, Kasi; Gowri, Shanmugam; Karthika, Viswanathan [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-04-01

    CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized using Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the cubic structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The oxidation states of the elements (C (1s), O (1s) and Ce (3d)) were confirmed by XPS studies. TEM images showed that the NPs possessed spherical shape and particle size of 5 nm. The Ce–O stretching bands were observed at 451 cm{sup −1} and 457 cm{sup −1} from the FT-IR and Raman spectra respectively. The band gap of the CeO{sub 2} NPs was estimated as 3.78 eV from the UV–visible spectrum. From the photoluminescence measurements, the broad emission composed of eight different bands were found. The antibacterial studies performed against a set of bacterial strains showed that Gram positive (G +) bacteria were relatively more susceptible to the NPs than Gram negative (G −) bacteria. The toxicological behavior of CeO{sub 2} NPs was found due to the synthesized NPs with uneven ridges and oxygen defects in CeO{sub 2} NPs. - Highlights: • Phytosynthesis of CeO{sub 2} NPs using Gloriosa superba leaf extract • Single step synthesis • Characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM, FTIR, Raman, UV–vis, PL and TG/DTA analyses • CeO{sub 2} NPs were of spherical shape with an average size of 5 nm. • CeO{sub 2} NPs showed highly potent antibacterial activity.

  2. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR.

  3. Effect of Habitat Strychnos Pill Combined with Leflunomide for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis%生地马钱丸配合来氟米特治疗类风湿性关节炎50例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙智霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察中药生地马钱丸配合来氟米特治疗类风湿性关节炎(RA)的疗效及安全性.方法:90例RA患者随机分为两组,对照组40例患者给予来氟米特口服以及对症治疗;治疗组50例在对照组治疗的基础上口服生地马钱丸,3g/次,3次/d.两组疗程均为6个月.监测治疗前后临床疗效指标的变化及药物的不良反应.结果:治疗组总有效率显著高于对照组(P<0.05);两组在关节疼痛数、关节压痛积分、关节肿胀积分、晨僵时间及20 m步行时间等及血沉(ESR),慢反应物质(CRP)方面均与用药前比较有显著改善(P<0.05或P<0.01),且治疗组均优于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01);口服生地马钱丸未发生明显的不良反应.结论:生地马钱丸配合来氟米特治疗RA疗效优于单用来氟米特,且安全性好.%Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of Habitat Strychnos pill Combined with leflunomide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ( RA ). Method: Ninety cases of RA were randomly divided into 2 groups, control group (40 cases) given leflunomide with oral, as well as symptomatic treatment; the treatment group (50 cases)received oral Chinese medicine Habitat Strychnos pill on the basis of therapy in the control group.The course of treatment was 6 months. Before and after treatment changes in indicators of clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions were monitored. Result: The treatment group was significantly higher than the control group for the total effective rate ( P < 0. 05 ). Compared with pre-treatment, the treatment significantly improved efficacy in the number of joint pain, joint tenderness score, joint swelling score, morning stiffness time and 20 m walking time, ESR,CRP (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01 ). Oral medicine pills habitat Strychnos did not show obvious side effects.Conclusion:Habitat Strychnos pill with leflunomide for the treatment of RA is more effective than leflunomide alone, and the safety is good.

  4. Synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract and their structural, optical and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ayyakannu; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Haja Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed; Gopinath, Kasi; Gowri, Shanmugam; Karthika, Viswanathan

    2015-04-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized using Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the cubic structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The oxidation states of the elements (C (1s), O (1s) and Ce (3d)) were confirmed by XPS studies. TEM images showed that the NPs possessed spherical shape and particle size of 5nm. The Ce-O stretching bands were observed at 451cm(-1) and 457cm(-1) from the FT-IR and Raman spectra respectively. The band gap of the CeO2 NPs was estimated as 3.78eV from the UV-visible spectrum. From the photoluminescence measurements, the broad emission composed of eight different bands were found. The antibacterial studies performed against a set of bacterial strains showed that Gram positive (G+) bacteria were relatively more susceptible to the NPs than Gram negative (G-) bacteria. The toxicological behavior of CeO2 NPs was found due to the synthesized NPs with uneven ridges and oxygen defects in CeO2 NPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Grace K; Schofield, Oscar; Torres, Joseph J; Ombres, Erica H; Steinberg, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2) concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO(2) perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Under elevated CO(2) conditions (∼672 ppm), ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1) d(-1) and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2) concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2) treatment than at ambient CO(2) concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2) treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were consistently higher in the high CO(2) treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  6. Phosphorylated Peptides from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) Prevent Estrogen Deficiency Induced Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Bone Resorption in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Zhao, Yanlei; Yu, Zhe; Tian, Yingying; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-11-04

    In the current study, we investigated the improvement of phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (PP-AKP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. PP-AKP was supplemented to ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The results showed that PP-AKP treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass and improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. PP-AKP also significantly decreased serum contents of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), cathepsin K (Cath-k), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX-1), Ca, and P. Mechanism investigation revealed that PP-AKP significantly increased the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio in mRNA expression, protein expression, and serum content. Further research suggested that NF-κB signaling pathways were inhibited by suppressing the mRNA and protein expressions of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), diminishing the mRNA expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), three key transcription factors in NF-κB pathways. These results suggest that PP-AKP can improve osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption via suppressing the activation of osteoclastogenesis related NF-κB pathways.

  7. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  8. Population Structure of Schima superba in Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve%清凉峰自然保护区木荷种群结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳新红; 李因刚; 沈国春; 翁东明; 张宏伟; 张方钢

    2011-01-01

    The population structure and spatial distribution patterns of Schima superba on 1 hm2 permanent sample plot located at Qingliangfeng Nature Reserve were analyzed by measuring , registering, tagging, identifying and mapping all the trees with DBH≥ 1 cm in the 1 hm2 permanent sample plot. The result indicated the percentage of Schima superba with DBH≤ 17.5 cm and DBH > 27.5 cm was 80.5%, 8.4%. With self-renewal ability, the population was stable. Based on analysis of population size class structure, the trend of population density of Schima superba changing with individual DBH was similar to skew normal distribution. Possibly attributed to the choice of plot, Schima superba, distribution of which took on obvious spatial heterogeneity, mostly gathered at slope and ridge. The analysis of population spatial association indicated there was negative correlation between individuals with DBH≥ 16.1 cm and those with 1 cm≤DBH < 16.1 cm at scales ≤8 m, and no correlation at larger scales. Importance values of Schima superba in 25 little plots were 0 ~34.35%,and the average was 8.24%. The great difference among little plots was due to aggregation of spatial distribution of Schima superba.%以位于浙江清凉峰国家级自然保护区1 hm永久样地为研究材料,逐一测量并记录了样地中所有胸径≥1 cm树木的胸围,并对其挂牌标记、鉴定种名和确定坐标位置,分析了样地内木荷种群结构与空间格局.研究结果表明,DBH≤17.5 cm的木荷个体数量占80.5%,DBH>27.5 cm的仅占8.4%,种群能够实现自我更新,属稳定型种群.基于种群径级结构分析,木荷种群密度随个体胸径的变化趋势类似于偏正态分布形曲线.木荷在整个样地中的分布表现出明显的空间异质性,多数聚集于坡面和山脊的生境中.种群空间关联性分析表明,木荷大径级(DBH≥16.1 cm)和小径级(1 cm≤DBH<16.1 cm)间在0~8 m的尺度上负相关,8~25 m

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ENDANGERED PLANTS (COSTUS SPECIOUS, GLORIOSSA SUPERBA LINN AND RAUVOLFIA SERPENTINE (LINN BENTH FROM KANKER DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH, INDIA

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    NITISH KUMAR SAHU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh, the herbal state houses with rich and unique biodiversity of medicinal plants which are widely usedby traditional healers of the state for treatment of various disease and extensively exploited for commercialpurpose which leads to serious threat. Several plants have been studied and listed as rare and endangered whichneed to be conserved. We selected three such plants viz. Costus specious, Gloriossa superba Linn and Rauvolfiaserpentine (Linn Benth., from Kanker district of Chhattisgarh for their phytochemical analysis by chemicalscreening and Thin layer chromatography. On primary analysis of the methanolic and ethanolic extract ofrhizome of C. specious and G. superba and root and leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth. we found the presenceof phytocompounds like saponin, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycosides in them. Thisphytocompounds were further separated by TLC using petroleum ether: methanol: benzene (8:1:1.5 as mobilephase in silica gel coated glass plates. Maximum 9 bands were observed in methanolic extract of rhizome of C.specious with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.97 and 6 bands in methanolic extract of rhizome of G. superba with Rfvalue between 0.02 – 0.94.Similarily in ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth.Maximum 13 bands were observed with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.96 and 0.04 – 0.98 respectively whereasethanolic extract of root showed maximum 11 bands with Rf value between 0.04 – 0.98 in comparison withchloroform and petroleum ether extracts. This result can further help in development of new drugs for diseaseslike cancer and hypertension based on their traditional uses.

  10. The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba), and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plants on the growth of MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdshewasart, W; Cheewasopit, W; Picha, P

    2004-08-01

    The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba) and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plant extracts on the growth of MCF-7 cells was evaluated after 4 days of incubation. The percent cell growth comparison was based on protein determination of the harvested cells in parallel with the control group and Pueraria lobata treatment group. Pueraria lobata led to no proliferation and a mild anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Pueraria mirifica caused proliferation at 1 microg/mL and an anti-proliferative effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 642.83 microg/mL. Butea superba led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 10, 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 370.91 microg/mL. Mucuna collettii led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 85.36 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that only Pueraria mirifica showed an estrogenic effect on MCF-7 cell growth and a clear antagonistic effect with E2 at high concentration. Butea superba and Mucuna collettii exhibited only anti-proliferation effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells in relation with a possible anti-estrogen mechanism or a potent cytotoxic effect.

  11. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.

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    Mathias Teschke

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.

  12. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Mathias; Wendt, Sabrina; Kawaguchi, So; Kramer, Achim; Meyer, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period) in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.

  13. Three-dimensional observations of swarms of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) made using a multi-beam echosounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Martin J.; Warren, Joseph D.; Demer, David A.; Cutter, George R.; Brierley, Andrew S.

    2010-04-01

    Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) aggregate in dense swarms. Previous investigations of krill swarms have used conventional single- or split-beam echosounders that, with post-processing, provide a two-dimensional (2-D) view of the water column, leaving the third dimension to be inferred. We used a multi-beam echosounder system (SM20, 200 kHz, Kongsberg Mesotech Ltd, Canada) from an inflatable boat (length=5.5 m) to sample water-column backscatter, particularly krill swarms, directly in 2-D and, with post-processing, to provide a three dimensional (3-D) view of entire krill swarms. The study took place over six days (2-8 February 2006) in the vicinity of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica (62.4°S, 60.7°W). An automatic 3-D aggregation detection algorithm resolved 1006 krill swarms from the survey data. Principal component analyses indicated that swarm morphology metrics such as length, surface area and volume accounted for the largest between swarm variance, followed by echo energy, and finally swarm geographic location. Swarms did not form basic cylindrical or spherical shapes, but had quite consistent surface area to volume ratios of 3.3 m -1. Swarms were spatially segregated, with larger sizes (mean north-south length=276 m, at least double that of two other swarm classifications), found to the northwest of the survey area. The apparent clustering of swarm types suggests that krill biomass surveys and ecosystem investigations may require stratified survey design, in response to varying 3-D swarm morphology, variation that may be driven in turn by environmental characteristics such as bathymetry.

  14. Estratégias de utilização de luz e estabilidade do desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cordia superba Cham. (Boraginaceae crescidas em diferentes ambientes luminosos Light utilization strategies and developmental stability of Cordia superba Cham. (Boraginaceae seedlings grown in different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização fotossintética da luz é um componente fundamental para a distribuição das espécies ao longo de um gradiente de regeneração de clareiras. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as estratégias de utilização da luz e como isto poderia afetar a estabilidade do desenvolvimento de plantas da espécie Cordia superba crescidas em dois ambientes com irradiações contrastantes. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento com plantas de 12 meses de idade de C. superba, uma espécie pioneira arbórea, crescidas a pleno sol e sombreamento de 85%. Foram avaliados aspectos fisiológicos como crescimento e fluorescência da clorofila, e aspectos da arquitetura das copas como ângulo de folha e índice de área foliar. Também foi realizada uma análise da estabilidade do desenvolvimento por meio da avaliação da simetria foliar. Os resultados mostraram que esta espécie possui a capacidade de desenvolver diferentes fenótipos em resposta a disponibilidades de luz contrastantes, apresentando características de plantas de sol bem como de sombra nos respectivos ambientes de crescimento. Todavia, as plantas crescidas no ambiente ensolarado apresentaram folhas mais simétricas, em relação às plantas de sombra. Isto sugere que, apesar do ambiente de pleno sol possuir uma maior heterogeneidade ambiental do que ambientes sombreados, o status de espécie pioneira de C. superba parece ser uma característica adaptativa suficientemente desenvolvida para permitir a formação de um fenótipo estável em um ambiente variávelPhotosynthetic light utilization plays a major role in species distribution along gap regeneration gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies of light utilization and the possible influence on developmental stability of seedlings of the woody pioneer species Cordia superba grown under contrasting light environments. To this end, an experiment was carried out with 12-month-old C. superba seedlings grown under

  15. Preparation, Purification and Property of Polysaccharides in Shuanqian Fungal Substance%栓钱菌质多糖的制备、纯化及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学湘; 陈建伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:制备、纯化栓钱菌质中的多糖成分,研究其单糖组成及性质。方法通过红栓菌固体发酵马钱子药材,培养30 d后,将发酵产物栓钱菌质烘干,粉碎,经水煮、浓缩、脱色、脱蛋白、醇沉处理后得到粗多糖,苯酚-硫酸法测定其多糖含量。采用透析、Sephadex G-150凝胶柱色谱法进一步纯化,酸水解后薄层色谱分析其单糖组成。结果栓钱菌质粗多糖含量为47.68%,得率为10.52%,经纯化后的多糖不含核酸和蛋白质,由葡萄糖和半乳糖2种单糖组成。结论栓钱菌质多糖是由葡萄糖和半乳糖组成的灰白色粉末状杂多糖。%Objective To prepare and purify the polysaccharides in Shuanqian fungal substance (FS);To study its monosaccharide composition and property. Methods Strychnos nux-vomica was under a thirty-day solid fermentation through Trametes cinnabarina. Then crude polysaccharide was got after the process of drying, smashing, water boiling, condensing, decoloring, removing protein and ethanol precipitation. The content of polysaccharides in Shuanqian FS was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. Dialysis and gel chromatography method was used to purify the crude polysaccharide. The purified composition was analyzed by acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography. Results The content of crude polysaccharide was 47.68%and yield was 10.52%. It showed that polysaccharide in Shuanqian FS contained glucose and galactose, but no nucleic acid and protein. Conclusion Polysaccharide in Shuanqian FS was an offwhite powdery heteropolysaccharide, which contained glucose and galactose.

  16. Temporal Variation in Sap-Flux-Scaled Transpiration and Cooling Effect of a Subtropical Schima superba Plantation in the Urban Area of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-wei; ZHAO Ping

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture could suffer the water stress induced by climate change. Because climate warming affects global hydrological cycles, it is vital to explore the effect of tree transpiration, as an important component of terrestrial evapotranspiration, on the environment. Thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flux density of a Schima superba plantation in the urban area of Guangzhou City, South China. Stand transpiration was calculated by mean sap flux density times total sapwood area. The occurrence of the maximum sap flux density on the daily scale was later in wet season than in dry season. The peak of daily sap flux density was the highest of 59 g m-2 s-1 in July and August, and the lowest of 28 g m-2 s-1 in December. In the two periods (November 2007-October 2008 and November 2008-October 2009), the stand transpiration reached 263.2 and 291.6 mm, respectively. During our study period, stand transpiration in wet season (from April to September) could account for about 58.5 and 53.8%of the annual transpiration, respectively. Heat energy absorbed by tree transpiration averaged 1.4×108 and 1.6×108 kJ per month in this Schima superba plantation with the area of 2 885 m2, and temperature was reduced by 4.3 and 4.7°C s-1 per 10 m3 air.

  17. Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

    2013-07-01

    The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species.

  18. Population genetic variation of the Southern Ocean krill, Euphausia superba, in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region based on mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta-Lona, Paola G.; Bucklin, Ann; Wiebe, Peter H.; Patarnello, Tomaso; Copley, Nancy J.

    2011-07-01

    The Southern Ocean krill, Euphausia superba, is one of the best-studied marine zooplankton species in terms of population genetic diversity and structure; with few exceptions, previous studies have shown the species to be genetically homogeneous at larger spatial scales. The goals of this study are to examine sub-regional scale population genetic diversity and structure of E. superba using molecular characters selected with this goal in mind, and to thereby examine hypotheses of the source(s) of recruitment for krill populations of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Collections were made throughout the WAP region during US GLOBEC cruises in austral fall, 2001 and 2002. A total of 585 E. superba (including all 6 furcilia larval stages, juveniles, and adults) was analyzed after confirmation of species identification using a competitive multiplexed species-specific PCR (SS-PCR) reaction based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences. The molecular markers used were allele frequencies at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the gene encoding mitochondrial Cytochrome b (cyt b). Four SNP sites that showed desirable patterns of allelic variation were selected; alleles were detected using a multiplexed single-base extension PCR protocol. A total of 22 SNP haplotypes (i.e., strings of polymorphisms at the four SNP sites) was observed; haplotype diversity (Hd)=0.811 (s.d.=0.008). Analysis of molecular variation within and among samples, areas (i.e., Marguerite Bay, Crystal Sound, shelf, and offshore) and collection years revealed no difference between 2001 and 2002 collections overall, although differences between 2001 and 2002 collections from Marguerite Bay explained 7.4% of the variance ( FST=0.072; p=0.002±0.001). Most of the variation (96.3%) occurred within samples each year, with no significant differentiation among areas. There was small, but significant differentiation among samples within areas in 2001 (4.6%; FST=0.045; p=0.015±0

  19. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow from Schima superba and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-fen; YANG Yu-sheng; CHEN Guang-shui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in forest nutrient cycling, their monthly concentration dynamics in forest ecosystems, especially in subtropical forests only were little known. The goal of this study is to measure the concentrations and monthly dynamics of DOC and DON in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow for two plantations of Schima superba (SS) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) in Jianou, Fujian, China. Samples of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected on a rain event base from January 2002 to December 2002. Upon collection, all water samples were analyzed for DOC, NO3--N, NH4+-N and total dissolved N (TDN). DON was calculated by subtracting NO3--N and NH4+-N from TDN. The results showed that the precipitation had a mean DOC concentration of 1.7 mg·L-1 and DON concentration of 0.13 mg·L-1. The mean DOC and DON concentrations in throughfall were 11.2 and 0.24 mg·L-1 in the SS and 10.3 and 0.19 mg·L-1 in the CF respectively. Stemflow DOC and DON concentrations in the CF (19.1 and 0.66 mg·L-1 respectively) were significantly higher than those in the SS (17.6 and 0.48 mg·L-1 respectively). No clear monthly variation in precipitation DOC concentration was found in our study, while DON concentration in precipitation tended to be higher in summer or autumn. The monthly variations of DON concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at both forests, showing an increase at the beginning of the rainy season in March. In contrast, monthly changes of the DOC concentrations in throughfall of the SS and CF were different to those in stemflow. Throughfall DOC concentrations were higher from February to April, while relatively higher DOC concentrations in stemflow were found during September-November period.

  20. Aboveground Biomass of a Naturaly-regenerated Schima superba Community at Xiaokeng of the Nanling Mountain%南岭小坑木荷群落地上生物量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根; 周光益; 吴仲民; 梁瑞友

    2012-01-01

    Biomass of a naturally-regenerated Schima superba community was measured using the harvest method in an 800 mz plot at Xiaokeng of the Nanling Mountain, Southern China, where 20 tree species were recorded and S. superba was the dominant tree species. Dry weight of stem, branch and leaf, and tree height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH or D) were measured for all 210 trees with DBH above 3.0 centimeter in the plot. Aboveground biomass (AGB) of the forest community and its distribution among different layers, tree species and organs of the tree layer were estimated, respectively. Regression models of biomass were established based on these AGB data. The results showed that total aboveground biomass of the S. superba community amounted to 118.472 t-hm 1. Biomass of the tree layer, understory layer, liana and litter layer were 114.085, 1. 126, 0.38, 2.881 t-hnT2, respectively. Tree stem, branch and leaf accounted for 78. 2% , 13. 1% and 8. 7% of total biomass in the tree layer, respectively. Biomass of dominant tree species, S. superba, occupied about 33. 3% of total biomass of the tree layer, suggesting that biomass of forest community in the early succession phase was mainly allocated to dominant tree species. The allocation of total aboveground biomass for each DBH class was about 0. 4% for 25 cm DBH classes, respectively. The distribution of biomass pattern among different DBH classes indicated that the forest community was in an early succession phase.

  1. 长汀水土流失区马尾松与木荷气孔导度的模拟%Simulation on Stomatal Conductance of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba in the Soil Erosion Area of Changting County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怀舟; 李机密; 黄儒珠; 王健; 朱锦懋

    2010-01-01

    利用Jarvis和Ball两种常用的气孔导度模拟模型对长汀水土流失区马尾松(Pinus massoniana)与木荷(Schima superba)叶片气孔导度变化进行了模拟.对气孔导度模型的验证表明,两树种的最优模拟模型均为Ball模型.

  2. Influences of food addictive on protein autolysis of Euphausia superba%食品添加剂对南极大磷虾蛋白自溶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟海; 李学英; 杭虞杰; 杨宪时; 郭全友

    2011-01-01

    以氨基态氮、可溶性蛋白质含量和可溶性固形物含量为指标,研究了食品添加剂对南极大磷虾(Euphausia superba)蛋白自溶的影响.结果显示,氯化镁和柠檬酸对南极大磷虾蛋白的自溶有一定的促进作用,两者作用显著的添加量分别为2%和0.2%,结合可溶性蛋白质和可溶性固形物指标,促进作用最显著的为添加0.2%柠檬酸;葡萄糖和氯化钙对南极大磷虾蛋白的自溶影响不大;氯化钾、氯化钠、EDTA-2Na对南极大磷虾蛋白的自溶有一定的抑制作用,氯化钠和EDTA-2Na的抑制作用相近,但优于氯化钾,三者作用显著的添加量分别为2%、4%、0.05%,考虑到可溶性蛋白质含量,抑制作用最显著为添加0.05% EDTA-2Na.%Based on the testing indexes of Amino Nitrogen Contents (ANC), Soluble Protein Concentration ( SPC) and Total Soluble Solids (TSS), influences of food addictive on protein autolysis of Euphausia superba were studied. Results showed that effects of magnesium chloride and citric acid on protein autolysis of Euphausia superba had certain simulative effect. Both optimum substitutabilities were 2% and 0. 2% , respectively. Combined soluble protein concentration and total soluble solid indexes, the optimum was adding 0.2% citric acid. Glucose and calcium chloride protein autolysis of Euphausia superba had little impact on protein autolysis; Potassium chloride, sodium chloride and EDTA-2Na had certain inhibition on protein autolysis of Euphausia superba, and inhibition of sodium chloride and EDTA-2Na was similar, both better than potassium chloride. The most suitable adding amount of for the three were 2% , 4% , and 0. 05%. Considering the soluble protein concentration, the best for autolysis was adding 0.05% EDTA-2Na.

  3. 重庆酸雨区马尾松与木荷的叶凋落物分解特征%Decomposition characteristics of leaf litter of Pinus massoniana and Schima superba in the acid rain region of Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任来阳; 于澎涛; 刘霞; 王彦辉; 李振华; 王轶浩

    2013-01-01

    The Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests grow widely in south China, and are seriously damaged by the long-term acid rain. It is expected that an intercropping with broadleaved tree species, such as Schima superba which can grow well under the canopy of Masson pine forests, can improve the health condition of Masson pine trees damaged by acid rain by accelerating the nutrition cycling of forest ecosystems. In order to assess the possible improving effect of intercropping with Schima superba, a field study of litter decomposition was carried out at Tieshanping forest Farm of Chingqing, a region with severe acid rain and forest damage, to compare the decomposition rate of Masson pine needle litter with that of the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba, and to see if the decomposition rate of Pinus massoniana needle litter can be increased by mixing them with the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba. It was found that the decomposition rate of leaf litter of both tree species was very low because of the severe soil acidification, with the annual decomposition coefficient of 0.345 0 and 0.413 2 for Pinus massoninana and Schima superba respectively. The decomposition rates in Tieshanping amounted to only about half of that reported in the forests of Fuzhou City in Fujian Province (with the annul decomposition coefficient of 0.651 2 and 0.813 3). It needs 2.0 and 1.68 years for a 50%decomposition of the litter of Pinus massoninana and Schima superba, and 8.64 and 7.26 years for a 95%decomposition of them. It was also found that the decomposition rate of Pinus massoniana needles was not increased when it was mixed with the broad-leaf litter of Schima superba, probably because of the decomposer quantity reduction and the change of decomposer composition caused by severe soil acidification. It seems from this study that the intercropping of Schima superba can no more play the role of improving the health condition of Masson pine forests damaged by acid rain. Moreover, it was

  4. Pollination Biology of Ficus superba var. japonica in Fuzhou%福州笔管榕传粉生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑翠芳; 陈晓倩; 陈友铃; 王爱芳; 王钊; 吴文珊

    2015-01-01

    Ficus superba var. japonica is one type of deciduous and monoecious trees,however its reproductive behavior is very little known. In this study,we investigated the reproductive biology of F. superba var. japonica in Fuzhou and the results are shown in the following. (1) F. superba var. japonica plants bear multiple batches of fruits (0 -5 crops) annually,among which the 1 or 2 batches per year is the most case. The fig developmental patterns exhibited synchronous intra-tree,asynchronous or synchronous inter-tree. There was no overlap of different developmental stages in trees. The fig developmental period was obviously affected by seasons. In the autumn and winter ( from November to the next February) when the sunshine period is short and the temperature is lower related to the rest of year,the fig developmental cycle usually lasted for 2 to 5 months;while in the spring and summer ( from March to October) ,the plant grows faster,and the fig developmental cycle was completed in only 1 to 2 months. 2) F. superba var. japonica plants renewed their leaves 1 to 2 times each year. Both defoliation and leaf-renewing peaked in early spring and late summer. The new leaves always started to emerge within 1 or 2 weeks after defoliation. It seems that the fig development and the growth of new leaves would be associated with defoliation of old leaves. The carbohydrates for fig production are provided by leaves through the process of photosynthesis. 3 ) The foundress of F. superba var. japonica during the female flowering phase was usually occupied by only 1 -3 wasps. Therefore,the large quantity of small-sized figs had chances to host sufficient pollinating wasps to ensure their development. This circumstance can also avoid the adverse consequences such as the wasp death and the low spawning efficiency caused by too many pollinators in the limited fig space. It was found that the pollinators that enter syconia all had to some degrees disability. 4) In the female phase

  5. [Effects of tree diameter at breast height and soil moisture on transpiration of Schima superba based on sap flow pattern and normalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ting-ting; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Quan; Cai, Xi-an; Yu, Meng-hao; Zhu, Li-wei; Zou, Lü-liu; Zeng, Xiao-ping

    2010-10-01

    The eigenvalues of continuous sap flow pattern, i. e. , skewness and kurtosis, were used to investigate the water usage of Schima superba with different diameter at breast height (DBH), and the method of normalization was firstly applied to eliminate the effects of strong affecting factor (photosynthetic active radiation, PAR) to explore the possible relationship between weak affecting factor (soil moisture) and sap flow. Generally, the trees with larger DBH had smaller skewness of sap flux density and later-appeared but larger peak values, suggesting that much more water was transpired, and the larger trees showed smaller skewness and later-appeared larger peak values in wet season than in dry season, suggesting that more water was transpired in wet season. On the other hand, smaller trees had lesser differences in the skewness between dry and wet seasons, suggesting that there was no significant difference in the transpiration between the two seasons. The relationship between individual tree's transpiration and soil moisture was significant and positive after the two parameters being normalized with PAR peak values. When the soil moisture content was higher, the transpiration of the trees with larger DBH was steadily increasing with soil moisture, while that of the trees with moderate or smaller DBH had opposite trend, presumably due to their transpiration and water absorption were approached to the limit.

  6. Green synthesis of silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles using the Gloriosa superba leaf extract and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kasi; Kumaraguru, Shanmugasundaram; Bhakyaraj, Kasi; Mohan, Subramanian; Venkatesh, Kunga Sukumaran; Esakkirajan, Masanam; Kaleeswarran, Periyannan; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni; Arumugam, Ayyakannu

    2016-12-01

    The green fabrication of metal nanoparticles using botanical extracts is gaining increasing research attention in nanotechnology, since it does not require high energy inputs or the production of highly toxic chemical byproducts. Here, silver (Ag), gold (Au) and their bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized using the Gloriosa superba aqueous leaf extract. Metal NPs were studied by spectroscopic (UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and EDX) and microscopic (AFM and TEM) analysis. AFM and TEM showed that Ag and Au NPs had triangular and spherical morphologies, with an average size of 20 nm. Bimetallic Ag/Au NPs showed spherical shapes with an average size of 10 nm. Ag and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs showed high antibacterial and antibiofilm activities towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the proposed synthesis route of Ag, Au and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs can be exploited by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs effective in the fight against microbic infections.

  7. Lignans from the Stem of Schima superba%木荷茎中木脂素类化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文; 周光雄; 姚新生

    2010-01-01

    为了研究山茶科植物木荷(Schima superba Gardn.et Champ.)茎中的化学成分,采用硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20、HPLC等色谱方法进行分离,NMR和MS等波谱学方法进行结构鉴定,从木荷茎中分离鉴定了9个木脂素类化合物,分别为丁香脂素(syringaresinol,1)、pinoresinol(2)、落叶松脂醇(1ariciresinol,3)、balanophortin(4)、3-acetoxymethyl-5-[(E)-2-formylethen-1-y1]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran(5)、4,9-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignane-9'-yl acetate(6)、二聚松柏醇(dihydrodehydrodieo-nifery alcohol,7)、异落叶松脂素(isolariciresinol,8)和1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-O-(2-methoxy-4-omegahydroxypmpylphenyl)propane-1,3-diol(9).以上木脂素类化合物均为首次从该植物分离得到.

  8. [Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on litterfall production and nutrient dynamics in a Schima superba forest in Zhejiang Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yan; Zheng, Ze-Mei; Meiliban, Mamuti; Lu, Jiang; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-11-01

    In 2011, an investigation was made on the litterfall production and nutrient dynamics in a phosphorus-limited subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest dominated by Schima superba in Tiantong, Zhejiang Province of East China under different levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilization. After the N and P fertilization, the annual litterfall production ranged from 6.82 to 8.30 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), with three peaks in May or June, August, and October, respectively. Under fertilization, the annual average N and P concentrations of the litterfall (except the annual average N concentration under P fertilization) increased, and had a seasonal variation. There were no significant differences in the nitrogen return amount (60.05-71.47 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1)) and phosphorus return amount (2.94-3.93 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1)) of the litterfall among different treatments. As compared to the control, the N:P ratio of the litterfall under fertilization was higher at the beginning of the experiment (spring, 2011), but lower in the winter, 2011, indicating that nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization could alter the original nitrogen and phosphorus limited conditions of the studied forest ecosystem.

  9. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Amaya; Nadler, Lauren E; Foo, Nicholas; Dick, James R; Watts, Andrew J R; Philp, Heather; Neil, Douglas M; Monroig, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area) contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of EPA and DHA and changes in

  10. [Changes in the bacteriological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the Antartic krill (Euphausia superba) during storage at 0-2 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, G A; Espeche, M E; Fraile, E R

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the bacteriological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of antartic krill (Euphausia superba) stored at 0-2 degrees C. After 6-8 hours of storage a dark color started in the head and legs and spread slowly to the tail. Within 24 hours 17% of the total nitrogen was lost by hepatopancreas autolisis. After 72 hours the krill became inedible due to strong amoniacal odor and flavor. These changes were associated with the multiplication of aerobic psychrophilic bacteria. The bacterial counts of freshly caught krill ranged between 3,7 X 10(2)/g and 2,5 X 10(5)/g at 21 degrees C. During storage at 0-2 degrees C the counts gradually increased and off-odors were produced when they reached values of 10(6)/g at 21 degrees C. The total volatile bases content of freshly caught krill, 0.018 to 0.038%, increased considerably during storage reaching values of approximately 0.100% when off-odors became noticeable and 0.200% or more when the odor was clearly ammoniacal. Pseudomonas spp Gp. II (Shewan) were predominant in the bacterial flora of the freshly caught krill along with Moraxella spp Alcalígenes spp, Vibrio spp, Micrococcus spp and coryneforms. The spoilage flora developed during cold storage consisted mainly of Pseudomonas spp G. II (96-100%). The results were related to the saline composition of medium; however, Pseudomonas spp Gp. II were predominant with both media used.

  11. POPULATION BIOLOGY OF ANTARTIC KRILL (EUPHAUSIA SUPERBA) III-FEEDING ECOLOGY%南极磷虾种群生物学研究进展III-摄食

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 朱小艳

    2014-01-01

    The feeding activities of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) have significantly important impact on the An-tarctic marine ecosystem for its key position in the Antarctic food web. Due to the seasonally and spatially difference, the food composition of Antarctic krill has changed and it still has great difficulties to classify and identify those species of stomach content. Selective mechanism also has different opinions. In order to provide the basic information for domestic and foreign researchers to carry out the related research, and provide the scientific minds for further research on its feeding ecology, the present paper attempts to conclude and summarize that the study of Antarctic krill’s feeding ecology in the recent century from the aspects of feeding targets, feeding pattern, selective mechanism and feeding rate.%鉴于南极磷虾在南极食物网中所处的关键地位,其摄食活动对南大洋海洋生态系统有着极为重要的影响。南极磷虾食物组成因季节、空间等不同而存在差异,且摄食对象的分类和鉴别也存在着较大困难,选食机制目前尚有不同意见。本文从摄食对象、摄食方式、选食机制及摄食率等方面对近百年来南极磷虾摄食生态学研究进行了总结和归纳,以期为国内外学者开展相关研究提供基础信息,并为进一步开展其摄食生态学研究提供科学思路。

  12. Determination of heavy metals in Antarctic krill(Euphausia superba)%南极磷虾中重金属含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢坤俊; 吴继魁; 汪之和; 施文正; 邸向乾

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metai iron (Fe) ,zinc (Zn) .manganese (Mn),cadmium (Gel),chromium (Cr) ,nickel (Ni), copper (Cu),mercury(Hg),rnolybdenum(Mo),arsenic(Astsubnnetallic) in whole shrimp,shrimp paste,minced shrimp, shrimp meat and shrimp sauce of Antarctic Krill(Euphausia superba) derivatives were determined by microwave digestion-ICP-MS method. The result showed that these heavy metals were all detected in different derivatives, but their contents were below the level of national food heavy metal sanitation limits. Content of zinc and copper were at a reasonable level .Derivatives of Antarctic krill were safe in the aspect of heavy metal indicator. It had wide application prospects in the future.%采用微波消解-电感耦合等离子-质谱法(MD-[CP-MS)测定了南极磷虾整虾、虾膏、虾糜、虾粉、虾油中铁(Fe)、锌(Zn)、锰(Mn)、镉(Cd)、铬(Cr)、镍(Ni)、铜(Cu)、汞(Hg)、钼(Mo)、砷(As,类金属)的含量.结果表明,这10种重金属在南极磷虾各衍生产品中均被不同程度的检测出来,含量均在国家食品限量标准范围内,南极磷虾各衍生产品中锌铜含量处于合理的水平 在重金属指标这方面,南极磷虾各衍生产品均是安全的,具有广阔的应用前景.

  13. Condition of larval (furcilia VI) and one year old juvenile Euphausia superba during the winter-spring transition in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Patti; Meyer, Bettina; Freier, Ulrich; Nichols, Peter D.; Jia, Zhongnan; King, Rob; Virtue, Jacob; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kawaguchi, So

    2016-09-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is an important species in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Information on krill condition during winter and early spring is slowly evolving with our enhanced ability to sample at this time of year. However, because of the limited spatial and temporal data, our understanding of fundamental biological parameters for krill during winter is limited. Our study assessed the condition of larval (furcilia VI) and one year old juvenile krill collected in East Antarctica (115°E-130°E and 64°S-66°S) from September to October 2012. Krill condition was assessed using morphometric, elemental and biochemical body composition, growth rates, oxygen uptake and lipid content and composition. Diet was assessed using fatty acid biomarkers analysed in the krill. The growth rate of larvae was 0.0038 mm day with an inter-moult period of 14 days. The average oxygen uptake of juvenile krill was 0.30±0.02 μl oxygen consumed per mg dry weight per hour. Although protein was not significantly different amongst the krill analysed, the lipid content of krill was highly variable ranging from 9% to 27% dry weight in juveniles and from 4% to 13% dry weight in larvae. Specific algal biomarkers, fatty acids ratios, levels of both long-chain (≥C20) monounsaturated fatty acids and bacterial fatty acids found in krill were indicative of the mixed nature of dietary sources and the opportunistic feeding capability of larval and juvenile krill at the end of winter.

  14. A new Strychnos from Borneo (Loganiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    A subsp. maingayi praecipue characteribus sequentibus differt: Folia 13 cm longa, 5½ cm lata. Inflorescentiae praecipue axillares, tenerae, 1½—2 cm longae, 3—11-florae, glabrae. Flores 4- vel 5-meri. Calyx heterosepalus, sepala dua 1.2 mm longa, tria 0.8 mm longa, omnia ovata, obtusa, extus glabra,

  15. (Strychnos madagascariensis) for conservation of L. ankaranensis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mise en place d'actions de conservation ayant pour but de maintenir ou ..... nounced seasonality with food and water shortage (Drack et al. 1999, Wright 1999 ..... blications, Museum of Texas Tech University 49: 1 –47. Meyers, D. M. and ...

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Strychnos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... malaria, diarrhoea, fever, hypertension, cancer, diabetes mellitus and skin infections. ... subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes) with MICs ...

  17. 檫树、米槠、木荷板材燃烧热释放率研究%Study on Burning Heat Release Rate of Sassafras tzumu, Castanopsis Carlesii, Schima Superba Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓东; 刘雁; 刘武

    2001-01-01

    In order to select qualified fire retardant lumber, the burning heat release rate of Sassafras tzu mu, Castanopsis Carlesii and Schima Superba lumber was measured with HRR3 system produced by AT LAS company, and the fire-retardancy of lumber of the species was appraised according to Airworthiness Approval Tag US Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administation.%采用美国阿特拉斯公司生产的HRR3热释放率系统,按照美国航空局(FAA)的标准要求测试檫树、米槠、木荷板材燃烧的热释放率(HRR),为阻燃板材选择合格基材。

  18. Effect of Three Types of Simulated Acid Rain on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Schima superba%模拟3种类型酸雨对木荷光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 江洪; 陶欣桐; 胡莉

    2013-01-01

    我国酸雨类型正在由硫酸型酸雨(Sulfuric acid rain,SAR)逐步向混合型酸雨(Mixed acid rain,MAR)、硝酸型酸雨(Nitric acid rain,NAR)转变,电此将产生各种未知环境效应.以木荷(Schima superba)为试验材料,在试验大棚内测定其在此3种光合生理特性参数.结果表明,在酸雨胁迫下木荷都受到不同程度的伤害.在同酸雨类型不同pH值处理下,3种酸雨类型均以pH 2.5处理各类光合参数数值较低,但是在pH 4.0时MAR处理的光饱和点(LSP)值最高,达到508.3 μmol/(m2·s),此时对应的表观量子效率(AQE)值最低,为0.023 CO2/photon;对照组(CK,pH 5.6)在3种类型酸雨处理中,以SAR处理数值最低.不同酸雨类型同pH值处理下,SAR和MAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组均低于pH 2.5组和CK组,而NAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组高于pH 2.5组和CK组;而且,3种酸雨类型处理pH 2.5组的最大光合速率(Amax)始终低于CK组.这说明植物的Amax在一定程度上随着酸雨浓度的增加而减小.%Types of acid rain in China have been in transformation from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to mixed acid rain (MAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). To explore the effect of acid rain on Schima superba in Zhejiang Province, photosynthetic characteristics of Schima superba were studied under SAR, NAR and MAR stress with pH 2.5,4.0 and 5.6 (CK). Results showed that simulated acid rain can inhibit photosynthesis of Schima superba in various degrees. At pH 2.5, values for photosynthetic parameters were lower among all the treatments. At pH 4.0, light saturation point peaked at 508.3μmol/m2·s, and apparent quantum efficiency dropped to a minimum of 0.023 CO2/photon accordingly. Data changes of CK, pH 5.6 in the pattern of SAR was least observable. In the pattern of SAR and MAR, the light response curve at pH 4.0 was lower than that at pH 2.5 and CK. But there was a contrary result in the pattern of NAR. Maximum photosynthetic rate at pH 2.5 had been consistently

  19. Distribution and population structures of immature and adult Euphausia superba in the western Bransfield Strait region during the 1986-87 summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Edward

    Interrelationships among body size, maturity state and spatial distribution in immature and adult Euphausia superba were examined through the course of the 1986-87 reproductive season in a region centered in western Bransfield Strait and extending northward into Drake Passage and southward into Gerlache Strait. During an initial (December to January) peak in production to phytoplankton and krill larvae in Gerlache Strait and adjacent parts of Bransfield Strait, so few post-larvae and adults were caught that the parent stock of those larvae could not be identified with certainty. However, small adults of 36-42 mm body length were caught in abundance later in the summer (February to March), after larval recruitment in and near Gerlache Strait had ceased. Many of these small adults then appeared to be post-reproductive. In Bransfield Strait during late summer (late February to March) there was a nearly equal mixture of small adults (which dominated in Gerlache Strait) and large adults (>42 mm): the large adults showed most evidence of recent reproductive activity and could have been responsible for much of the late summer larval recruitment in Bransfield Strait. In Drake Passage, large adults were usually dominant; the few caught in December were undergoing maturation near the South Shetlands, and in January they were reproductive and dispersed in more offshore oceanic waters. During late February to March, krill became more available in Drake Passage with many having reassembled in aggregations near Livingston Island (South Shetlands). By then, not only small adults but also large adults appeared post-reproductive in all areas. Evidence relating to growth rate in adults was obscured by erratic variations in ratios of body-length classes, month-to-month, considered artifacts on sampling. However, adult growth appeared negligible during January to March. After midsummer (January) there were distinct changes in relative abundances of males to females of >42 mm: within

  20. 木荷次生林地土壤养分空间异质性研究%Spatial variability of soil nutrients in Schima superba secondary forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘静静; 曾思齐; 肖化顺; 刘发林; 彭其龙

    2014-01-01

    altitude. The distribution of organic matter and total nitrogen was a little complex, was significantly influenced by humanity. It was more directly to understand the soil nutrients status of Schima superba secondary forests with distribution maps of the nutrients content which were drew by the Bestinterpolation of Kriging method. And it also may give a scientific foundation for sustainable use of soil and the recovery and reconstruction of secondary forests.

  1. The effects of variability in Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) spawning behavior and sex/maturity stage distribution on Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2010-04-01

    Factors that control variability in energy density of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) populations, and the consequences of this variability for growth and fledging mass of Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks, were investigated using an individual-based energetics model. Lipid content as a function of sex/maturity stage and season was used to calculate the energy density of krill ingested by chicks. Simulations tested the influence of variability in krill size-class distribution, sex-ratio, length-at-maturity, and the timing of spawning on krill population energy density and penguin chick fledging mass. Of the parameters included in simulations, variability in the timing of krill spawning had the greatest influence on predicted Adélie penguin fledging mass, with fledging mass decreasing from 3.30 to 2.92 kg when peak spawning was shifted from early December to early March. Adélie penguin chicks that fledge from colonies along the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP) and survive to recruit into the breeding population are 0.117 kg heavier than those that do not survive to breed. Thus, it appears that small differences in fledging mass potentially have significant implications for Adélie penguin chick survivorship. Therefore, the timing of krill spawning may have important consequences for Adélie penguins, and other top-predator species, that may time critical activities to coincide with a period of dependable prey availability with maximum energy density.

  2. Study on the effect of Antarctic krill(Euphausia superba) oil on model of ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice%南极磷虾(Euphausiasuperba)油对小鼠酒精性脂肪肝模型作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军仁; 赵传凯; 吴志强; 赵复江; 宋迪; 姜国良

    2012-01-01

    Mice were fed with fat-rich forage plus ethanol infusion for 30d in order to make model success. The injured mice were randomly and averagely divided into four groups:high,medium and low dose of Euphausia Superba oil groups and natural recovery group. At the same time,a normal group was set as control group. The mice in each group were treated with different reagents for 10d and detected related biochemical and pathological index,respectively, As a result,compared with natural recovery group,the levels of serum lipids including the triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) decreased and the levels of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease(AST),glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) also decreased in Euphausia Superba oil groups (p〈0.01 or p〈0.05). After treatment of Euphausia Superba oil,the levels of TG and TC in hepatic tissue were lower than those in natural recovery group(p〈0.01 or p〈0.05), The frozen sections of fat dyeing results showed that the accumulation of lipid in liver cell droped significantly in Euphausia Superba oil groups.%摘要:对小鼠以高脂饲料辅以乙醇灌胃30d造成酒精性脂肪肝模型后,随机、平均分为南极磷虾油低、中、高剂量纽和自然恢复组4组,同时、在整个实验中设置正常组作对照,连续给药10dN,检测相关生化和病理指标。结果显示,南极磷虾油组与自然恢复组相比,血清中的三酰甘油(TG)和胆固醇(TC)、谷草转氨酶(AST)以及谷丙转氨酶(ALT)水平有显著改善(p〈0.01或p〈0.05);肝组织中的三酰甘油(TG)和胆固醇(TC)含量显著降低(p〈0.01或p〈0.05),冷冻切片脂肪染色结果显示南极磷虾油剂量纽肝细胞脂滴蓄积明显减少,脂肪变性程度减轻。

  3. 氮沉降对木荷马尾松混交林土壤有效磷的影响%Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Available Phosphorus in Schima superba and Pinus massoniana Mixed Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 范海兰; 陈灿; 李键; 林晗

    2009-01-01

    采用野外试验和室内测量法,研究了氮沉降处理对木荷马尾松混交林土壤有效磷的影响.结果表明,相同氮沉降处理后,土壤有效磷质量分数随土壤深度的加深而降低;不同氮沉降量对相同土壤层有效磷质量分数的影响呈现先抑制后促进的趋势.9个月的高氮处理(150kg·hm~(-2)·a~(-1))最有利于土壤有效磷的吸收.%An experiment was conducted to study the impacts of nitrogen deposition on soil available phosphorus in a Schima superba and Pinus massoniana mixed forest in Fuzhou National Forest Park of Fuzhou City by field test and laboratory measurement. Re-sults showed that, for the same nitrogen deposition treatment, the content of available phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth; while for different nitrogen deposition treatments, the content of available phosphorus in the same soil layer was first restrained by the nitrogen deposition and then turned to increase. The treatment of high contents of nitrogen (150 kg ·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)) simulated nine months was proved to be helpful to the absorption of soil available phosphorus.

  4. Half-sib Progeny Test and Early Selection of Schima superba Plus Trees in East Guangdong%粤东木荷优树半同胞家系测定与早期选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉永; 丁文恩; 肖腊兴; 张钦源

    2013-01-01

    Progeny test of Schima superba plus trees was carried out in Meinan forest farm in 2005. Data of individual tree height, DBH and volume were measured in 2012. Results of ANOVA showed that differences among families in all measured traits were significant. According to the magnitude of volume, 4 families were selected and average genetic gain in height, DBH and volume reached 13. 7%, 12. 8% and 15. 8% , respectively. Meanwhile 7 individual tree were also selected, and the average genetic gain were as high as 31.9% , 42.6% and 59.7% in height, DBH and volume, respectively.%对2005年广东省梅州市梅南林场营造的木荷优树子代测定林进行树高、胸径、材积测定,结果如下:造林7a各指标在家系间存在极显著差异.以材积为主要评选指标,评选出优良家系4个,其树高、胸径、材积平均遗传增益分别为13.7%,12.8%,15.8%;同时评选出优良单株7株,其树高、胸径、材积平均遗传增益分别为31.9%,42.6%,59.7%.

  5. 木荷天然林分个体类型及材性性状变异%Variation Pattern of Individual Types and Wood Characters in Natural Stands of Schima superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀花; 马雪红; 金国庆; 陈柳英; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    Six natural stands of Schima superba with latitude and elevation gradient were selected in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces to study individual phenotypic variation in stem form, bark morphology and wood properties, as well as effect of latitude and elevation on these traits.The purpose of our experiment was to provide a theoretical basis for the further exploitation and utilization of within-species variation of S.superba.The results revealed various types of bark traits and wood color among natural stands of S.superba.There were significant differences in stem form, bark type and wood basic density, but not in wood texture distortion degree among different stands.In contrast, the largest within-stand variation in wood texture distortion degree and the lesser within-stand variation in stem fullness, stem straightness and wood basic density were observed.Radial analysis in wood property showed that wood basic density decreased from pith to bark gradually.The ring width was increased at first but followed by reduction, and remain constant during 15th to 25th rings.Results also demonstrated that natural stands from higher latitudes exhibited higher stem fullness and straightness, thinner bark and lighter wood color relatively, whereas no clear regularity were observed for other characters.The effect of elevation was more significant in comparison with latitude, as increased trunk fullness, thinner and smoother bark, as well as decreased trunk straightness, ring width and wood basic density were observed in natural stands from higher elevation.The individual correlation analysis based on two natural stands from different elevation in the central production region showed that the correlation among traits were quite different and depending on different elevation of stands.In high elevation stands, bark traits could be used as good morphological indicators for wood properties and diameter growth.Individuals with higher stem fullness usually exhibited less wood basic density

  6. 青藏高原强UV-B辐射对美丽风毛菊光合作用和色素含量的影响%Effects of strong solar UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment contents of Saussurea superba on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 朱鹏锦; 张德罡

    2011-01-01

    以青藏高原矮嵩草草甸的主要伴随种美丽风毛菊为材料,通过滤除太阳辐射光谱中UV-B成分的模拟试验,研究了强太阳UV-B辐射对高山植物光合作用、光合色素和紫外吸收物质的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,弱UV-B处理能促使美丽风毛菊叶片净光合速率增加和提高稳态PSⅡ光化学效率;对照中叶片厚度的相对增加能弥补单位叶面积光合色素的光氧化损失,是高山植物对强UV-B辐射的一种适应方式.短期滤除UV-B辐射处理时紫外吸收物质含量几乎没有变化,说明高山植物叶表皮层中该类物质受环境波动的影响较小.强UV-B环境下光合色素的相对增加是一种表象,而青藏高原强太阳UV-B辐射对高山植物美丽风毛菊的光合生理过程仍具有潜在的负影响.%Taking the main companion species Saussurea superba in an alpine Kobresia humilis meadow on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as test material, a UV-B exclusion experiment with UV-B excluding and UV-B transmitting filters was performed to study the effects of strong solar UV-B on the photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and UV-B-absorbing compounds of S. superba, aimed to examine the adaptation capability of alpine plants to strong solar UV-B radiation. The removal of UV-B components from natural sunlight increased the net photosynthetic rate (P<0. 05 ) and PS Ⅱ photochemistry efficiency of S. superba. The relatively increased leaf thickness under ambient UV-B could compensate the photo-oxidation of photosynthetic pigments, an inherent characteristic of alpine plants growing in intense UV-B. Short-term removal of UV-B radiation had no obvious effects on the UV-B-absorbing compounds, suggesting that these compounds in epidermal layer of S. superba could hardly be affected by the environment. It was concluded that the increase of photosynthetic pigment contents due to the enhancement of leaf thickness was a specious phenomenon, but the strong solar UV

  7. Notice sur la Tyana superba, Moore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, P.C.T.

    1890-01-01

    Monsieur Ritsema, ayant reçu de Mr. A. L. van Hasselt, Résident à Padang Sidempoean (Sumatra occid.), pour le Musée de Leide, un exemplaire très-frais et assez bien conservé de cette belle espèce, qui mérite bien son nom, me permit à ma demande de l’examiner afin de bien déterminer sa position systé

  8. Oxidative stability of krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, I.

    Krill oil has been reported in many studies to have high oxidative stability when evaluated by peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). However, recent studies have shown that other compounds than primary and secondary oxidation products are formed when krill oil is exposed to oxidative...

  9. 不同生境、初植密度及林龄木荷人工林生长、材性变异及林分分化%Variation in Growth and Wood Property and the Structure Differentiation of Schima superba Plantation with Different Sites,Stand Densities and Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚秀丽; 王艺; 金国庆; 范辉华; 周志春

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the growth,wood basic density,diameter distribution and structure stability of Schima superba plantation were investigated in 12 sample plots with different biotopes,operating measures and ages in Nanping and Sanming city of Fujian province. Results showed that,the average tree height,diameter at breast height ( DBH ) and individual volume of stand in shady slope were significantly larger than that of plantation in sunny slope; The tree growth, especially in DBH and individual volume of stand,in lowerslope was obviously greater than that in the middleslope and the upperslope; The average tree height of the stand increased with initial planting density; However,DBH and individual volume displayed converse trend with increase of planting density; Growth of the plantation gradually increased with stand age; Average individual volume of trees at 29 age was over 4 times greater than of trees at 13 age,and the 46-year-old stand still grew fast. There were no significant differences in wood basic density between different aspects of slope;However,the wood basic density in upperslope was significantly greater than that in middleslope and lowerslope;The wood basic density was relatively greater when the initial spacing was set at 1 667 plants per hectare; The greater or less stand density significantly reduced the wood basic density and hence wood properties; Wood basic density progressively reduced with the forest age and the varied pattern met with the variation type of Pashin Ⅲ. Differentiation in height and diameter growth and wood basic density of the plantations with the same age in the same direction and position of slope was relatively small. But the initial stand density obviously affected growth. The smaller the initial planting density the greater the variation in diameter was. The diameter distribution of S. superba plantation in different habitats ( slope,position of slope) ,with forest management measures ( initial stem-numbers) and ages was

  10. 一株南极大磷虾共附生细菌的分离鉴定及一氧化氮靶向抑制活性筛选%Isolation, identification and screening of nitric oxide targeted inhibition bioactivity of a symbiotic/epiphytic bacterium from Euphausia superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 杨桥; 樊成奇; 陆亚男; 田晓清; 黄洪亮; 陈雪忠

    2011-01-01

    A new symbiotic/epiphytic bacteria, NJC-06 strain, was isolated from Euphausia superba samples captured at FAO 48.1 area in Antarctica Ocean. The polyphase taxonomic identification was then performed. HPLC analysis was done after microbial strain fermentation and culture extraction. The screening of nitric oxide ( NO) targeted bioactivity of the crude extract was subsequently carried out. The polyphase identification analysis showed that the strain belonged to the genus of salegentibacter. The strain was most close to Salegentibacter salinus ISL-6 strain with the similarity value of 93.2% (less than the threshold value of 97% for the new specie establishment) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence homology analysis. According to these integrated analysis, this strain was finally identified as a new strain and nominated as Salegentibacter sp.NJC-06. The HPLC analysis of the culture extract demonstrated that the main compound in the crude extract belonged to terpene-like substance and the crude extract showed significant inhibitory bioactivity against NO.%从我国南极磷虾科学探捕项目所采集的南极大磷虾(Euphausia superba)样品中分离纯化到一株共附生细菌,对其进行了细菌多相分类学分析、发酵培养、代谢产物提取及HPLC分析,并对其发酵粗提物进行了针对多种重大疾病药物靶标一氧化氮(N0)抑制活性的靶向筛选.结果表明,该菌株与其进化关系最近的需盐杆菌(Salegentibacter salinus)ISL-6之间的16S rRNA基因序列同源性为93.2%(小于确定新种的阈值97%).综合该菌株的多相分类学指标分析结果,将其鉴定为需盐杆菌属的一个新种,命名为Salegentibacter sp.NJC-06,其发酵代谢产物中主要活性成分为富含双键的萜类物质,发酵液粗提物具有较强的NO靶向抑制活性.

  11. Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R; Brooks, Audrey J

    2012-07-01

    Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stages 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-min segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 增补UV-B辐射对高山植物美丽风毛菊叶片PSⅡ光化学效率的影响%Effect of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on PS Ⅱ Photochemistry Efficiency in Alpine Plants Saussurea superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 朱鹏锦; 杨莉

    2011-01-01

    Strong solar UV-B radiation as one factor of global change is a main environmental factor on alpine plants in Qinghai-Tibet region. Based on previous UV-B-supplementation report on alpine plant Saus-surea superba, the dynamic changes of PS Ⅱ operating efficiency, ΦPSⅡ and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, qP and NPQ, were analyzed during periods of enhancement of UV-B radiation. Results indicated that 3 mins dark adapted quantum efficiency of PS Ⅱ photochemistry, F(v)/F(m), was decreased when compared with the UV-A control. PS II operating efficiency, ΦPSⅡ showed an increased trend during the first 7 days of enhanced UV-B radiation treatment then decreased after continuously treatment. This suggested that an accumulation of UV-B radiation damage could reduce PS Ⅱ photochemistry efficiency. There were similar changes in qP and ΦPSⅡ , but NPQ has a decreasing trend at 9 days. This may result from increased photosynthetic pigments due to thicking leaves that absorb and utilize more energy. There was no influence on UV-B-absorbing compounds after enhancing UV-B radiation that suggested flavonoids compounds can provide enough protection on photosynthetic function from UV-B damage. In summary, although photosynthetic pigments enhanced photosynthesis, negative effects still existed especially at the end of plant development.%太阳紫外线-B(UV-B)辐射增强作为全球环境变化的一个方面,也是影响青藏高原植物生存的主要环境因子之一.以美丽风毛菊(Saussurea superba)为材料,分析增补UV-B辐射期间叶片PSⅡ运行效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学和非光化学猝灭系数(qP和NPQ),及光合色素和UV-B吸收物质含量的变化,探讨高山植物的UV-B驯化适应过程.结果表明:增补UV-B辐射能抑制暗适应3 min后PSⅡ光化学量子效率F(v)/F(m)的恢复过程;尽管增补前期ΦPSⅡ有升高趋势,但第7d以后ΦPsⅡ呈下降趋势,说明UV-B辐射对光合机构具有负影响,F(v)/F(m

  13. 短期UV-B辐射对青藏高原美丽风毛菊PS Ⅱ光化学效率的影响%Effects of short term enhanced UV-B radiation on the PS Ⅱ photochemical efficiency of alpine plant Saussurea superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 朱鹏锦; 杨莉

    2011-01-01

    通过短期增补UV-B辐射模拟试验,研究了青藏高原典型天气(晴天、多云、阴天)下高山植物美丽风毛菊叶片的叶绿素荧光参数变化.结果表明:随天气由晴变阴,美丽风毛菊叶片暗适应3 min的PSⅡ最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)显著升高,实际PSⅡ光化学效率(ФPSⅡ)和光化学猝灭系数(qp)也升高,而非光化学猝灭系数(NPQ)则降低,可见光辐射(PAR)是影响PSⅡ光能转化效率的主要因素.增补UV-B辐射后,3种典型天气下,美丽风毛菊叶片的Fv/Fm和NPQ略有降低,ФPSⅡ和qp略微增加,但对光合气体交换过程没有产生负影响.叶片净光合速率Pn和ФPSⅡ的增高趋势与增补UV-B辐射下相对较多的UV-A成分有关,同时也得益于叶片厚度的增加.UV-B辐射对叶片光合机构具有潜在负影响.%A simulation experiment of short term supplementation of UV-B was conducted to study the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence coefficients of alpine plant Saussurea superba under three typical weather conditions ( sunny, cloudy, and shady) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. When the weather changed from sunny to shady, the maximal quantum efficiency of PS Ⅱ photochemistry ( Fv/Fm)after 3 minutes of dark adaptation increased significantly, the actual photochemical efficiency of Ps Ⅱ ( ΦpsⅡ ) and photochemical quenching (qp) also increased. but the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased. demonstrating that PAR was the main factor affecting the PSⅡ photochemical efficiency of S. superba. After the short term supplementation of UV-B. the Fv/Fm and NPQ under the three typical weather conditions had a slight decrease but the ΦPsⅡ and qp had a slight increase. while the photosynthetic gas exchange had less change. The increasing trend of net photosynthetic rate Pn and ΦPsⅡ under enhanced UV-B radiation could be related to the existence of more UV-A component. and also. benefited from the increased leaf thickness. UV-B radiation had potential

  14. 不同生育期美丽风毛菊PSⅡ光化学效率和色素含量对UV-B辐射的响应%Response of PS Ⅱ photochemistry efficiency and photosynthetic pigments during exposure of alpine plants Saussurea superba to natural UV-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伟; 尚艳霞; 师瑞; 师生波

    2012-01-01

    A UV-B-exclusion study was performed in alpine Kobresia humilis meadow during plants growing season. The PS II photochemistry efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and UV-B-absorbing compounds were measured on native alpine plant Saussurea superba. 1) The 3 min dark adapted quantum efficiency of PS II photochemistry, Fv/Fm, showed an increasing trend after a short-term removal UV-B radiation from natural sunlight in all measurements. These means there were photo-inactivation and/or photo-damage of photosynthesis occurred in PS II reaction center. 2)There were same tendency in PS II photochemistry efficiency ΦPSII and photochemical quenching qP for all measurements during plants growing season; The ΦPSII and qP were increased and NPQ decreased after removal UV-B treatment, which means that there was an increasing in PS II photochemistry efficiency and a decreasing in non-photochemical quenching and current solar UV-B intensity can impair photosynthetic function. 3) The reduction of photosynthetic pigments contents were mainly caused by the reducing of leaf thickness and relative increase of photosynthetic pigments contents in amb UV-B treatment a specious phenomenon. In summary, strong solar UV-B radiation in Qinghai-Tibet region has a potential negative influence on photosynthetic physiology process in S. superba. UV-B-absorbing compounds were not influenced during the short-term removal of UV-B radiation, mainly due to strong stabilization of these compounds existed in the epidermal layer of the alpine plant S. superba and can provide effective defense against the natural solar UV-B intensity.%以高山植物美丽风毛菊为材料,在矮嵩草草甸植物群落生长季的不同月份,采用短期滤除太阳辐射光谱中UV-B成分的方法,研究了UV-R辐射对PSⅡ光化学效率、光合色素和紫外吸收物质的影响.结果表明,1)与对照相比,low UV-B处理时3 min暗适应的PSⅡ最大光化学量子效率Fv/Fm呈升高的趋势,说明UV-B辐

  15. Responses of PSII photochemistry efficiency and photosynthetic pigments of Saussurea superba to short-term UV-B-supplementation%高山植物美丽风毛菊PSII光化学效率和光合色素对短期增补UV-B辐射的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 师瑞; 张波

    2012-01-01

    Aims Native alpine plants that have grown and evolved on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China for a long time have developed a strong adaptation capacity for harsh environmental factors, such as low temperature, low air pressure, strong sunlight and solar UV-B radiation. The objective of this study was to determine the response of PSII photochemistry efficiency to short-term enhanced solar UV-B intensity in alpine plants. We examined whether UV-B-absorbing compounds were sufficiently efficient to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from UV-B photo-inactivation or photo-damage and evaluated the influence of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic pigments. Methods Field experiments were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons in alpine Kobresia hu-milis meadow near Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station (37°29'-37°45' N, 101°12'-101°33' E; alt. 3 200 m) using the native alpine plant Saussurea superba. Short-term UV-B-supplementation studies were performed over 5 days using UV-B-313 fluorescence lamps, which were filtered with a cellulose diacetate film to get increased UV-B treatment and a Mylar film as a control. Pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence was used to obtain rapid information of UV-B on photosynthetic processes. The 3-min dark-adapted maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry, F(V)/F(m), and PSII photochemistry efficiency were measured under natural sunlight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments and UV-B-absorbing compounds were analyzed based on leaf area unit. Important findings Although there was no significant difference, F(v)/F(m) showed a decreasing trend after short-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in all measurements throughout the growing season. The reduction of the actual photochemical quantum efficiency and photochemical quenching as well as the increase of non-photochemical quenching in UV-B supplemented treatment, when compared to the control, indicated there was a decrease in PSII

  16. 短期增补UV-B辐射处理对美丽风毛菊光合色素和紫外吸收物质的影响%Effects of Short-term Increased UV--B Radiation on Photosynthetic Pigments and UV--B Absorbing Compounds in Saussurea superba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 朱鹏锦; 杨莉

    2011-01-01

    以中国科学院海北高寒草甸生态系统定位研究站地区的美丽风毛菊为材料,通过短期增补UV-B辐射的模拟试验,研究了叶片光合色素和紫外吸收物质含量对增强UV-B的响应.不同处理天数的取样分析表明,与对照UV-A相比,增补UV-B+UV-A处理时光合色素有增高的趋势,紫外吸收物质含量也略有增高.说明高山植物叶片中丰富的黄酮类物质能有效保护光合机构,短期内UV-B辐射强度的增加所加剧的色素光氧化现象并不严重,受叶片增厚的影响单位叶片面积的光合色素含量有增加趋势.%The short--term field experiments of UV--B supplementation studying were conducted with alpine plant Saussurea superba in Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station area. The photosyn-thetic pigments and UV--B absorbing compounds were measured after 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. The results indicated that compared with control UV--A treatment, there were an increasing of the photosynthetic pigments after enhancement of UV--B radiation (UV--B+UV--A) treatment, and UV--B absorbing compounds were also having small increasing trend. These means that high contents of UV--B absorbing compounds could provide effective protection on photosynthetic function in alpine plants, and shortterm of UV-- B supplement have no additional photo-- oxidation on photosynthetic pigments. Benefited with increase of leave thickness, there was an increased trend of the photosynthetic pigments contents when based on leave area.

  17. Nutrient enrichment effect of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) powder on the fatty acid and amino acid compositions in Artemia nauplii%南极大磷虾粉对卤虫脂肪酸和氨基酸的营养强化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建学; 林听听; 黄艳青; 高露姣; 龚洋洋; 夏连军; 黄洪亮

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the nutrient enrichment effect of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) powder at four concentrations (0,75,150,and 225 mg · L-1) on the fatty acid and amino acid compositions in brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii.The nauplii samples were taken every 6 h until 18 h.As compared with the control,the nauplii fed with Antarctic krill powder had significantly higher contents of docosahexaenoic acid,total ω3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids,and total poly-unsaturated fatty acids at each sampling time.Except that the eicosapentaenoic acid content in the treatments of 75 and 225 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder at the sampling time of 6 h had no significant difference with the control,the eicosapentaenoic acid content in the treatments of feeding with Antarctic krill powder at other sampling time was significantly higher than that of the control.The arachidonic acid in the treatments of 75 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder at the sampling time of 18 h and of 150 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder at the time of 12 and 18 h was also increased significantly.For amino acids,the contents of essential amino acids (EAA) or total amino acids (TAA) in the treatment of 150 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder were significantly higher than those of the control.Moreover,the EAA/TAA ratio in the treatment of 150 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder was significantly higher than that in the other three treatments.A significantly higher EAA/TAA ratio was also found in the treatment of 225 mg · L-1 of Antarctic krill powder at the sampling time 12 h,as compared to the control.In sum,Antarctic krill powder had better effect in enriching the fatty acid and amino acid compositions in Artemia sp.nauplii,and the recommended concentration and treatment time for the enrichment were 150 mg · L-1 and 12 or 18 h,respectively.%以卤虫(Artemia sp.)Ⅱ龄无节幼体作为试验材料,研究0、75、150、225 mg·L-1的南极大磷虾(Euphausia superba)粉对卤虫体内脂

  18. Variation analysis on soil micro-eco-environment of Pinus massoniana pure forest and Liquidambar formosana+Schima superba mixed forest%马尾松纯林与枫香木荷混交林土壤微生态环境差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 喻荣岗; 万佳蕾; 徐爱珍; 杨洁

    2015-01-01

    以南方红壤侵蚀区马尾松纯林、枫香木荷混交林为研究对象,分析马尾松、枫香先锋树种成林后土壤微生态环境的差异,从土壤改良的角度,为南方红壤侵蚀区植被恢复先锋树种选择提供基础数据和科学依据。研究发现:(1)以马尾松纯林为对照,枫香木荷混交林根际、非根际土壤 pH 值和养分含量升高;根际土壤过氧化氢酶、磷酸酶和非根际土壤脲酶活性升高,非根际土壤蔗糖酶活性降低;根际土壤放线菌数量增加,真菌数量减少。(2)以非根际土壤为对照,马尾松纯林、枫香木荷混交林根际土壤 pH 值降低,有机质和速效磷含量以及微生物数量均增加。前者 pH 值和有机质的变化幅度更大,后者速效磷含量和微生物数量的变化幅度更大。此外,马尾松纯林根际土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶活性增加,磷酸酶活性降低;混交林根际土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶和磷酸酶活性增加。因此,枫香木荷混交林改善林下土壤微生态环境效果更为明显,土壤 pH 值和磷酸酶活性是影响马尾松林下土壤微生态环境的重要因素。%In order to provide basic and scientific evidence for the selection of pioneer species in the southern China red soil area vegetation restoration, from the point of view of soil improvement, the differences and effects of soil micro-eco-environment between pure forest of Pinus massoniana and Liquidambar formosana+Schima superba mixed forest were investigated and analyzed. The summarized results are: (i) Compared with P. massoniana, L.formosana rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil pH and nutrient content increased, rhizosphere soil phosphatase, catalase and non-rhizosphere soil urease activity increased, the rhizosphere soil invertase activity decreased, the number of rhizosphere actinomycetes increased, the number of fungi decreased. (ii) Compared with the non-rhizosphere soil

  19. Effects of UV-B exclusion on photosynthetic physiology in alpine plant Saussurea superba%滤除自然光中UV-B辐射成分对高山植物美丽风毛菊光合生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师生波; 尚艳霞; 朱鹏锦; 张德罡

    2011-01-01

    采用滤除自然光谱中UV-B辐射成分的方法,探讨了高山植物美丽风毛菊(Saussurea superba)光合机构对青藏高原强UV-B辐射的响应和适应特性.结果表明,强太阳光中的UV-B成分能引起净光合速率的降低.连续16天不同天气下的观测表明,滤除UV-B处理时3 min暗适应的光化学量子效率有升高的趋势;晴天下稳态光化学效率的分析也显示滤除UV-B处理的实际光化学量子效率和光化学猝灭系数有升高趋势,意味着自然光中的UV-B成分可限制美丽风毛菊叶片PSII反应中心的激发能捕获效率.PSII有效光化学量子效率的增加和非光化学猝灭系数的降低进一步表明,UV-B辐射能导致有效光化学效率的降低和非光化学能量耗散的增加.由上可知,自然强UV-B辐射是限制美丽风毛菊叶片光合作用的一个因素.滤除UV-B辐射处理对光合色素含量的影响较小,无论以叶面积还是叶鲜重为基础的滤除UV-B处理仅有微弱的增加趋势,说明强UV-B辐射具有加速光合色素的光氧化进程,促进细胞成熟和叶片衰亡的潜在作用.同样UV-B吸收物质的含量也几乎没有变化,表明强太阳辐射环境下生活的高山植物美丽风毛菊叶表皮层中已具有较多的紫外线屏蔽物质,足以抵御目前环境中强太阳UV-B辐射可能引起的伤害,较少受UV-B辐射波动的影响.%Aims In the Qinghai-Tibet area, high levels of UV-B radiation reach the earth's surface as part of strong solar radiation.It is therefore important to examine the response and adaptation of native alpine plants to strong UV-B radiation.Our objective was to determine the physiological response of the photosynthetic apparatus to current ambient UV-B intensity.Methods UV-B-exclusion experiments were conducted on a field site with UV-B-excluding and UV-B-transmining filters.The two filters transmitted similar levels of photosynthetically active radiation, and there were no differences

  20. 中草药对DNA氧化损伤水平的微分脉冲伏安法测定%Determination of the Levels of DNA Damage Induced by Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    利健文; 陈任宏; 崔丽京; 汪小根

    2012-01-01

    Effects of DNA damage induced by Chinese herbal medicine were studied by differential pulse voltammetric ( DPV) method. The voltammeitric behaviour of 8-hydorxy-2'-deoxyano-sine ( 8-OHdG) in the phosphate buffer (pH 5. 0) was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and DPV. A well-defined oxidation peak of 8-OHdG at +0. 5 V was found, and its current intensity was proportional to concentration of 8-OHdG in the range of 1. 0×10 -6 - 7. 1 ×10-4 mol/L. The regression equation was Ip((μA) =0.004 3e(mol/L) +4 ×10-8 ( r =0. 999 8) and the detection limit (S/N = 3 ) was 3. 5× 10-7 mol/L. The method was applied in analysis of the levels of 8-OHdG in the calf thymus DNA(ctDNA) exposed to concentration of 40 g/L of glycynhiza, cherokee rose, eucommia ulmoides, pinellia, nux vomica extract for 2 h, respectively, and the blood of Kunming mice exposed to low and high concentration of nux vomica extract by mouth injection for 30 consecutive days. The results showed that glycyrrhiza, cherokee rose, eucommia ulmoides, pinellia ex-tract could not cause ctDNA oxidative damage, and nux vomica extract can cause DNA oxidative dam-age to the formation of 8-OHdG in the average level of (3. 2 0. 2)μmol/L. The average levels of 8-OHdG were (2. 0 0. 1) (μmol/L and (5. 3 0. 3) μmol/L in the blood after a long-term administration of low concentration and high concentration of nux vomica extracts of Kunming mice, respectively. The study indicated that nux vomica contained the potential genotoxicity.%采用微分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了中草药对脱氧核糖核酸分子(DNA)的损伤效应.在pH 5.0的磷酸盐缓冲液中,采用DPV法研究了8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)在玻碳电极上的伏安行为,发现8-OHdG在+0.5 V电位处产生一灵敏的微分脉冲阳极氧化峰.该氧化峰的峰电流与8-OHdG的浓度在1.0×10-6~7.1 ×10-4 mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.9998,检出限(S/N=3)为3.5×10-7 mol/L.将该方法应

  1. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Saponin Extracts from Schima superba in Combination with Sapindus mukorossi against Piricularia oryzae%木荷及其与无患子皂甙抽提物单复配体外抗稻瘟病活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光华; 詹五根; 付日辉; 陈明辉

    2010-01-01

    来自木荷叶和无患子中果皮的皂甙抽提物对抗稻瘟病原活性被试验.皂甙抽提物体外抑制活性显示了皂甙剂量与抗真菌效果高度相关性.它们的抗稻瘟有效中浓度EC50:木荷叶乙醇抽提物为42.95μg/mL,木荷叶水抽提物为452.91 μg/mL,无患子中果皮的甲醇抽提物为95.65μg/mL.一个重要的结果是当上述木荷叶和无患子中果皮醇抽提物以3:4到15:8的质量配比时产生了显著的增效抗稻瘟作用,而在其它配比时有相加作用.通过乙醚/丙酮沉析、硅胶柱色谱分离,以及酸水解和薄层过程,检测出木荷抽提物皂甙中含有2种三萜类皂甙元和5种单糖.纯化后的皂甙在150 μg/mL时显示了98.28%的抑制率.此研究结果表明:木荷叶抽提物,或木荷叶和无患子中果皮抽提复配物对毁灭性的稻瘟病害具有重要地抗病效果.%Saponin extracts from Schima superba leaves (SSL) and Sapindus makorossi fruit mesocarp (SMFM) have been tested against the pathogen Piricularia oryzae. The inhibitory effect of these extracts measured In vitro show a nearly relationship between the saponin dose and the antifungal effect. Their values of EC50 (effective concentrations at 50% in-hibitory rate) are 42.95 μg/mL for an ethanolic extract of SSL,452.91 μg/mL for a water extract of SSL and 95.65 μg/mL for a methanolic extract of SMFM respectively. An important result was that combination of extracts from SSL and SMFM have notable synergistic effect at ratios ranged from 3:4 to 15:8 (m/m) and additive effect at other ratio. In ad-dition,antifungal components of SSL were established as triterpenoid saponins composed of 2 aglycones and 5 monosac-charides after purification by ethyl ether/acetone precipitation, silica gel chromatography, hydrolysis and TLC procedure.The purified saponin complex showed up to a 98.28% inhibitory rate at 150 μg/mL. The results suggested that selected extracts from SSL or a combination of SSL and SMFM can

  2. Size selection of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A.

    2014-01-01

    is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5-40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90 degrees. We expected...

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Strychnos Alkaloids as MDR Reversal Agents for Cancer Cell Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    quinine in combination with chemotherapy showed an increase in complete remission rates and patient survival in Pgp- positive MDS cases.8 The low...Glide’s XS docking protocol. Two cyclic peptide inhibitors (QZ59-SSS and QZ59-RRR) that were previously co-crystallized with mouse Pgp (Aller et al. Science

  4. Experimental evidence in support of the biological effects and physical basis of homeopathic potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Sukul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic potencies 12 cH and above cross the Avogadro number and, for this, do not contain any original drug molecules. Two major problems involved in the scientific study of potencies are (1 understanding the physical basis of potencies and (2 demonstrating the biological effects of potencies. The present study aims to address these questions. Methods and Results: In course of our experimental studies spanned over more than 30 years we have demonstrated significant effects of homeopathic potencies on man, animals and plants. We have also showed that potencies could be differentiated through their electronic spectra, and this difference in spectra can be attributed to the electron transfer interaction. In a molecular complex, electron of one molecule absorbs a quantum of visible radiation and is excited, not to a higher energy level of this molecule, but to one of the vacant high energy levels of the neighboring molecules. This process is known as electron or charge transfer interaction. This has been demonstrated in Iodine Ó© in two different solvents of CCl4 and aqueous ethanol (Sukul N C, Environ Ecol 17,866-872, 1999. We have further demonstrated that the effect of a homeopathic potency can be transmitted from one part of a plant to another, and also from one plant to another through water. I am presenting here a few selected cases of our experimental studies. Potentized Nux vomica significantly reduced ethanol consumption in rats by 73.7%and ethanol-induced sleep time in albino mice by 44.4%. Causticum 30 C and Rhus tox 30 C produced anti-inflamatory and anti-nocicptive effect on adjuvant arthritis in albino rats. Potentized homeopathic drugs reduced microfilaraemia by 28 to 100% and filariasis in two villages of West Bengal endemic for Bancroftian filaiasis. Potentized Cina and Thuja ameliorated trichinellosis in mice reducing larval population in muscles by 84% and 68%, respectively. Potencies of Agaricus and Nux

  5. Loganin improves learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2009-10-01

    Loganin is an iridoid glycoside found in the Flos lonicerae, Fruit cornus, and Strychonos nux vomica. We investigated the effect of loganin on learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), a muscarinic antagonist, using the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and the Morris water maze tests in mice. In the Y-maze test, loganin (40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. In addition, loganin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced impairments measured by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests. A day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), loganin (20 and 40 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased the latency time in the target quadrant. Furthermore, loganin significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Loganin may have anti-amnesic activity that may hold significant therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairments observed in Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions in Antarctic krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill oil has gained much consideration recently due to its rich content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of phospholipids and its powerful antioxidant known as astaxanthin. To secure these valuable bioactive nutrients in krill oil, a gentle and ...

  7. Purification of antimicrobial peptide from Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba) and its function mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yin, Bangzhong; Liu, Qi; Cao, Rong

    2013-09-01

    The preliminary purification and antimicrobial mechanism of antimicrobial peptide from Antarctic Krill were studied in this paper. The results showed that the molecular weight range of antimicrobial polypeptide (CMCC-1) obtained by cation exchange chromatography was between 245-709D as detected by molecular sieve chromatography, and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of CMCC-1 against Staphylococcus aureus was 5.0 mg mL-1. The antimicrobial mechanism of CMCC-1 was studied with S. aureus as indicator bacterium. Compared with control group, the results of the experimental group in which S. aureus was treated with CMCC-1 were as follows: 1) CMCC-1 could inhibit cell division at logarithmic phase. 2) The protein and reducing sugar content, and the conductivity of culture medium increased, and the activity of alkaline phosphatase and β-galactosidase could be detected in the culture medium. 3) Observation under scanning electron microscope revealed that somatic morphology became irregular, and then somatic surface became coarse. The cell became much smaller, and most somatic cells gathered. The boundary between cells became dim and finally fused as a whole. 4) Observation under transmission electron microscope showed that the surface of S. aureus became rough and the reproducing ability was restrained. The cell wall became thin and the cytoplasm shrunk. Substances inside cell leaked out, which caused cells death. 5) SDS-PAGE analysis showed that some bands disappeared, and the residual bands became vague. 6) The genomic DNA electrophoresis results showed that the genomic DNA bands of S. aureus were not degraded but the brightness significantly reduced. Thus, it is supposed that CMCC-1 could destroy the cell wall and membrane of S. aureu, increase the cell membrane permeability and the leaking-out of intracellular substances, and thus cause the death of S. aureu.

  8. Differential gene expression during the moult cycle of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaten Edward

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All crustaceans periodically moult to renew their exoskeleton. In krill this involves partial digestion and resorption of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of new cuticle. Molecular events that underlie the moult cycle are poorly understood in calcifying crustaceans and even less so in non-calcifying organisms such as krill. To address this we constructed an Antarctic krill cDNA microarray in order to generate gene expression profiles across the moult cycle and identify possible activation pathways. Results A total of 26 different cuticle genes were identified that showed differential gene expression across the moult cycle. Almost all cuticle genes were up regulated during premoult and down regulated during late intermoult. There were a number of transcripts with significant sequence homology to genes potentially involved in the synthesis, breakdown and resorption of chitin. During early premoult glutamine synthetase, a gene involved in generating an amino acid used in the synthesis of glucosamine, a constituent of chitin, was up regulated more than twofold. Mannosyltransferase 1, a member of the glycosyltransferase family of enzymes that includes chitin synthase was also up regulated during early premoult. Transcripts homologous to a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (β-NAGase precursor were expressed at a higher level during late intermoult (prior to apolysis than during premoult. This observation coincided with the up regulation during late intermoult, of a coatomer subunit epsilon involved in the production of vesicles that maybe used to transport the β-NAGase precursors into the exuvial cleft. Trypsin, known to activate the β-NAGase precursor, was up regulated more than fourfold during premoult. The up regulation of a predicted oligopeptide transporter during premoult may allow the transport of chitin breakdown products across the newly synthesised epi- and exocuticle layers. Conclusion We have identified many genes differentially expressed across the moult cycle of krill that correspond with known phenotypic structural changes. This study has provided a better understanding of the processes involved in krill moulting and how they may be controlled at the gene expression level.

  9. The application of optical coherence tomography to image subsurface tissue structure of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bellini

    Full Text Available Many small open ocean animals, such as Antarctic krill, are an important part of marine ecosystems. To discover what will happen to animals such as krill in a changing ocean, experiments are run in aquaria where conditions can be controlled to simulate water characteristics predicted to occur in the future. The response of individual animals to changing water conditions can be hard to observe, and with current observation techniques it is very difficult to follow the progress of an individual animal through its life. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging technique that allows images at high resolution to be obtained from depths up to a few millimeters inside biological specimens. It is compatible with in vivo imaging and can be used repeatedly on the same specimens. In this work, we show how OCT may be applied to post mortem krill samples and how important physiological data such as shell thickness and estimates of organ volume can be obtained. Using OCT we find an average value for the thickness of krill exoskeleton to be (30±4 µm along a 1 cm length of the animal body. We also show that the technique may be used to provide detailed imagery of the internal structure of a pleopod joint and provide an estimate for the heart volume of (0.73±0.03 mm3.

  10. Purification of Antimicrobial Peptide from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) and its Function Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; YIN Bangzhong; LIU Qi; CAO Rong

    2013-01-01

    The preliminary purification and antimicrobial mechanism of antimicrobial peptide from Antarctic Krill were studied in this paper.The results showed that the molecular weight range of antimicrobial polypeptide (CMCC-1) obtained by cation exchange chromatography was between 245-709D as detected by molecular sieve chromatography,and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of CMCC-1 against Staphylococcus aureus was 5.0mgmL-1.The antimicrobial mechanism of CMCC-1 was studied with S.aureus as indicator bacterium.Compared with control group,the results of the experimental group in which S.aureus was treated with CMCC-1 were as follows:1) CMCC-1 could inhibit cell division at logarithmic phase.2) The protein and reducing sugar content,and the conductivity of culture medium increased,and the activity of alkaline phosphatase and β-galactosidase could be detected in the culture medium.3) Observation under scanning electron microscope revealed that somatic morphology became irregular,and then somatic surface became coarse.The cell became much smaller,and most somatic cells gathered.The boundary between cells became dim and finally fused as a whole.4) Observation under transmission electron microscope showed that the surface of S.aureus became rough and the reproducing ability was restrained.The cell wall became thin and the cytoplasm shrunk.Substances inside cell leaked out,which caused cells death.5) SDS-PAGE analysis showed that some bands disappeared,and the residual bands became vague.6) The genomic DNA electrophoresis results showed that the genomic DNA bands ofS.aureus were not degraded but the brightness significantly reduced.Thus,it is supposed that CMCC-1 could destroy the cell wall and membrane of S.aureu,increase the cell membrane permeability and the leaking-out of intracellular substances,and thus cause the death of S.aureu.

  11. A randomized comparative trial in the management of Alcohol Dependence: Individualized Homoeopathy versus standard Allopathic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of IH with standard allopathic (SA treatment. Methods: A randomized controlled, open-label, comparative trial, was conducted, in which alcohol dependents were screened verbally using the CAGE scale. The participants 80 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized either IH (n=40 or SA (n=40 and treated cum followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was more than 50% reduction in the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire [SADQ] rating scale at 12 th month. Data analysis was done for both intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP populations. Results: ITT analysis reflected 80% (n = 32 of the patients in IH and 37.5% (n = 15 of the patients in the SA responding to CI before 2.4 treatment with absolute difference was 42.5% (42.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.0, 61.6] and estimated effect: 6.6 (95% C.I: 2.4, 18.2, P = 0.0002. A significant difference favoring IH was also observed in three out of four domains of WHO QOL-BREF. Statistically significant difference was found in the number of drinking days (median difference: −24.00; CI: −39.0-−8.0; P = 0.001 and number of drinks per drinking day (median difference: −6.3 [95% CI: −11.3-−1.9]; P = 0.004, favoring IH. The results showed a similar trend in PP analysis. Medicines found useful were Sulphur, Lycopodium clavatum, Arsenicum album, Nux vomica, Phosphorus, and Lachesis. Conclusion: The results conclude that IH is not inferior to SA in the management of AD patients. More rigorous studies with large sample size are however desirable.

  12. Homeopathy for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Markoski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colic and diarrhea are among the most common gastrointestinal disorders in childhood, which manifest spontaneously and acute. The allopathic treatment consists, in most cases, in the administration of the association homatropine-dimethicone to relieve colic, and oral rehydration and loperamide in cases of diarrhea [1,2]. The ineffectiveness of the conventional treatment and the possible adverse effects they may cause have led to increase the demand from children’ parents for complementary and alternative therapies, and homeopathy can be one of the first choices in this disorders [3]. Aims: make a literature review evaluating the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for colic and diarrhea in children, observing the relation between the main medicines prescribed in these disorders and their pathogenesis described in materia medica. Methodology: a literature research was performed applying electronic database, including Medline, HomeoIndex, BIREME, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, and ScienceDirect in the period from September to December 2010. Results: Data found indicate that few studies are available in the literature to prove the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines for colic and diarrhea in children, but the applicability of this therapeutic modality seems to be useful, safe and low cost, which are important factors for less favored communities. Besides, studies concerning diarrhea are more frequent, not only because of its gravity, but also for the duration, which makes more adequate the monitoring, on the contrary to acute colic. The most cited medicines were Chamomilla, Nux vomica, Arsenicum album and Mercurius solubilis. Conclusions: Homeopathy can be an important source of colic and diarrhea relief. However, more investigations should be performed in order to show parents how valuable this kind of therapy can be to children and the whole family.

  13. Nota sobre o transporte de krill (euphausia superba Dana vivo da antártica para o Brasil Note on the transportation of a live krill (Euphausia superba Dana from Antartic to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ngan Phan

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado nesta nota experimento sobre o transporte do krill vivo da Antartica para o Brasil, realizado durante a V Expedição Brasileira à Antártica, verão 1986-1987. O sistema de aquário utilizado e a mortalidade do krill em função do tempo e de outros eventos durante o experimento são descritos. A importância deste experimento para o desenvolvimento do estudo experimental do krill é discutida.In this note an experiment on transportation of alive krill from the Antarctica to Brazil during the V Brazilian Expedition to the Antarcticas austral summer 1986-198?3 was reported. The aquarium system and the krill mortality in function of time and other events dur-lng the experiment were described. The importance of this experiment for the development of experimental studies of krill was discussed.

  14. Screening of microorganisms from deep-sea mud for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fermentation and evaluation of the bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianan; Kan, Feifei; Liu, Pei; He, Shuai; Mou, Haijin; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2015-02-01

    Twelve kinds of strains were isolated from deep-sea mud which can use Antarctic krill powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. These strains were identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis and grouped into eight different genera, including Bacillus, Shewanella, Psychrobacter, Klebsiella, Macrococcus, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Saccharomyces. After fermentation of Antarctic krill powder using these strains, bioactive compounds including total phenolics, free amino acids, and enzyme activities were investigated. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of the fermentation liquors were also detected. Results showed that bioactive compounds could be effectively produced through fermentation process by these strains, of which three strains (Bacillus subtilis OKF04, Macrococcus caseolyticus OKF09, and Aeromonas veronii OKF10) could produce more than 650 mg/L total phenolics or 2000 mg/L total free amino acids. In terms of enzyme activities, almost all of the strains showed protease activity and amylase activity, but only Bacillus cereus OKF01 and Bacillus megaterium OKF05 performed lipase activity and chitinase activity, respectively. All of the fermentation liquors showed antioxidant activity, within which Bacillus megaterium OKF05, Macrococcus caseolyticus OKF09, and Aeromonas veronii OKF10 displayed it more prominently. These results demonstrate that the Antarctic krill powder could be effectively converted by microorganisms isolated from deep-sea mud for production of bioactive compounds mixture.

  15. Determination of biotin in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) by high-performance TLC with different post-chromatographic derivatizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Peishan; Liu, Daicheng

    2013-08-01

    A new efficient method was developed to detect biotin in Antarctic krill by Vis-absorbance detection. DMF was used after chloroform pretreatment to extract biotin and two chromogenic methods were developed. The development system consisted of dichloromethane/dimethylcarbinol/methanol/glacial acetic acid (3:3:2:0.015, v/v/v/v). Samples were separated on precoated silica gel GF254 high-performance TLC plates. Densitometric analysis of biotin was carried out in the absorbance mode at 400 and 530 nm. The biotin content was determined to be 1.0948 ± 0.0097 and 1.1212 ± 0.0155 mg/g in Antarctic krill with the two chromogenic methods, which had no significant difference.

  16. Zooplankton biomass and abundance of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba DANA in Indian Ocean sector of the southern ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    aims to understand the distribution of biomass of zooplankton, especially the krill, using the data collectEd. by net sampling techniques. Total zooplankton biomass for all the sampling station ranged from 9 to 684 ml/1000 super(3) (x:143.34 + or - 138...

  17. 名老中医郑伟达应用慈丹胶囊治疗原发性肺癌医案3则%Famous Chinese Medicine Doctor Zheng Weida’s Three Cases of Primary Lung Cancer Treated with Cidan Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东京; 郑东海; 郑伟鸿; 许鑫; 郑伟达

    2015-01-01

    Primary bronchial lung cancer,short for lung cancer,refers to the alveolar carcinoma originated at bronchial mucosa. Based on long -term clinical experience,Professor Zheng Weida summarized that the cancer was mostly caused by the weakness of inner healthy qi and inner accumulation of evil toxin.The pathogenesis of the cancer is the following:stasis evil invading lung;phlegm -dampness accumulation and the weakness of inner healthy qi.The principles of treatment should be resolving stasis and removing toxin,nourishing yin and clearing heat,invigorating spleen and resolving phlegm as well as replenishing qi and tonifying deficiency.Formulated by Zedoray Rhizome,Edible Tulip,Nux Vomica,Cow -Bezoar,Milkvetch Root,Radix Angelicae Sinen-sis and other five materia medicas,Cidan Capsule has the effect of resolving stasis and removing toxin,alleviating edema and dissi-pating mass,replenishing qi and tonifying middle.Professor Zheng made great improvement in treating primary lung cancer by Ci-dan Capsule.This passage summarized his classical cases in treating the cancer and clinical experience of using Cidan Capsule.%原发性支气管肺癌简称为肺癌,是指原发于支气管黏膜的肺泡癌。郑伟达教授经过长期临床实践总结出肺癌多由正气内虚,邪毒内结所致,病机有下列3点:1)瘀毒侵肺;2)痰湿内聚;3)正气内虚。治宜化瘀解毒,养阴清热,健脾化痰,益气补虚。慈丹胶囊组成为莪术,山慈姑、马钱子、牛黄、黄芪、当归等11味药。具有化瘀解毒、散结消肿、益气健脾的疗效。郑教授运用慈丹胶囊治疗原发性肺癌、取得显著疗效。本文提取郑教授诊治原发性肺癌的经典医案,总结郑教授灵活运用慈丹胶囊的临床经验。

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in an Italian cohort of pediatric headache patients: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, D; Colombo, B; Pavan, G; Comi, G

    2014-05-01

    The use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) in paediatric populations is considerably increased, especially for pain and chronic conditions, as demonstrated by epidemiological surveys both in Europe and in the USA. In our study, CAM was used in 76 % patients of a cohort of 124 children affected by headache (age 4-16 years; 67 % female; 70 % migraine without aura, 12 % migraine with aura, 18 % tensive headache according to IHS criteria) consecutively recruited at a Pediatric Headache University Center. CAM was used as preventive treatment in 80 % cases. The main reasons for seeking CAM were: the wish of avoiding chronic use of drugs with their related side effects, the desire of an integrated approach, the reported inefficacy of conventional medicine, and a more suitable children disposition to CAM than to pharmacological compound. Female gender, younger age, migraine without aura, parents' higher educational status, maternal use of CAM and other associated chronic conditions, correlated with CAM use (p insomnia, muscle-scheletric disorders and dysmenorrhoea). The most assumed CAM were: herbal remedies (64 %) such as Valeriana, Ginkgo biloba, Boswellia serrata, Vitex agnus-castus, passion flower, Linden tree; vitamins/minerals supplements (40 %) with magnesium, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, vitamin B6 or B12, Multivitamin compounds; Homeopathy (47 %) with Silicea, Ignatia Amara, Pulsatilla, Aconitum, Nux Vomica, Calcarea phosphorica; physical treatment (45 %) such as Ayurvedic massage, shiatsu, osteopathy; yoga (33 %); acupuncture (11 %). CAM-often integrated with conventional care-was auto-prescribed in 30 % of the cases, suggested by non-physician in 22 %, by the General Practitioner in 24 % and by paediatrician in 24 %. Both general practitioners and neurologists were mostly unaware of their patients' CAM use. In conclusion, neurologists should inquire for CAM use and be prepared to learn about CAM therapies or to directly interact with CAM trained experts, in

  19. [The therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) supplementation on oxidative stress and DNA damages markers in cafeteria diet-overfed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Z; Agustina, M; Ramirez, M; Pena, K; Arivalo, J

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil supplementation in modulation of oxidative stress components and DNA oxidative damages marker in cafeteria diet-overfed-rats. Eighteen aging male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each and were exposed for the ensuing 8 weeks to one of the diets: control group (TS) which was submitted to standard chow (330kcal/100g), containing 24% of proteins, 5% of lipids and 70% of carbohydrates. Cafeteria standard group (TC) exposed to cafeteria diet (420kcal/100g). The last group received a cafeteria diet enriched in oral force-feeding krill oil 2% (CK). The plasma and tissues pro-oxydant status were assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxydes, and isoprostans. The determination of DNA oxidative damages was evaluated by the measurement of the major products of DNA oxidation (8-OHdG). Exposure to a cafeteria diet increases the metabolic response to the radical attack and DNA oxidative damages in both plasma and key tissues involved in antioxidant defense. Krill oil supplementation in cafeteria diet relieves oxidative stress and DNA damages by lowering several lipid peroxidation components and the main marker of DNA oxidation in obese rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of Schima superba leaf litter%木荷叶凋落物的分解及养分动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兆飞

    2009-01-01

    采用网袋法研究木荷Schima superba叶凋落物分解及其养分动态.结果表明:木荷叶凋落物分解1 a后质量损失率为41.5%,分解率为0.001 6 d-1,完成50%分解以及完成95%分解所需的时间分别为1.36和5.47 a.分解过程中,氮存在一定的富集现象,磷处于波动的富集状态,钾呈现单调下降的变化趋势,而碳氮比和碳质量分数都是前期少量上升而后期下降.各营养元素的年释放率大小顺序依次为钾(81.3%)>碳(54.8%)>氮(35.7%)>磷(28.6%).图1表2参10

  1. Distribution, abundance and vertical migration pattern of krill - Euphausia superba Dana at fishing area 58 of the Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    .e. stage of development, sex and physi o logical conditions. The open circulation of water may develop and cause large concentrations of krill. Our u n derstanding of these factors is still insufficient, and many problems await sol u tions. 1...

  2. 南极磷虾保鲜剂工艺参数的优化%Optimization of technological parameter of preservative on Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟海; 杨峰; 杨宪时; 李学英

    2013-01-01

    Technological parameter of preservative on Antarctic krill was optimized using response surface methodology , based on concentration of preservative, soaking period and temperature as well as sensory evaluation and storage period as testing indexes.The optimal technological parameters were preservatives concentration 21.80 g/L, soaking temperature 6.1 ℃ as and soaking time 6.56 min.Under the above condition, the practical comprehensive score was the highest and was close to the theoretical value, which exhibited the model was selected correctly.In addition , the optimal technological parameter was verified by testing texture analysis, color and muscle slice.The experimental results exhibited that the qualities of Antarctic krill in verification group was much better than control group, which meant that technological parameters played roles in qualities control.%以保鲜剂浓度、浸泡时间和浸泡温度为单因素指标,并以感官评分和贮藏时间为综合评价指标,采用响应面法对南极磷虾保鲜剂工艺参数进行优化.经优化确定的工艺参数为:保鲜剂浓度21.80 g/L,浸泡温度6.1℃,浸泡时间6.56 min,实际综合得分最高,与理论值接近,这说明回归模型正确,并通过质构、色泽和肌肉组织切片对工艺参数进行验证.实验结果显示,验证组南极磷虾品质高于空白组,这说明该工艺条件对南极磷虾品质保持起到一定的作用.

  3. 南极磷虾油对小鼠免疫功能的调节作用%Immunomodulatory effects of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil on mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大勇; 王君妍; 刘潇阳; 林竹一; 郑琳; 阴法文; 辛丘岩

    2015-01-01

    为研究南极磷虾油对小鼠免疫功能的影响,分别将高、中、低剂量(400、200、50mg/kg)全脂型虾油组(WKO)和磷脂型虾油组(PKO)每日灌胃1次.4周后测定小鼠免疫器官指数、淋巴细胞增殖能力、巨噬细胞吞噬能力及血浆IL-2、INF-γ水平.与空白组相比,高剂量PKO组小鼠胸腺指数显著升高;低、高剂量WKO组小鼠脾脏指数显著升高;中、高低剂量WKO组和低、中剂量PKO组小鼠淋巴细胞增殖能力显著提高;低、高剂量WKO组和中剂量PKO组小鼠巨噬细胞吞噬能力显著提高;3个剂量WKO组和低剂量PKO组小鼠血浆IL-2水平显著升高;低、高剂量WKO组和中剂量PKO组小鼠INF-γ水平显著升高.

  4. Zooplankton studies with special reference to krill Euphausia superba Dana from fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector in Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    Ocean, zooplan k ton. T HE Antarctic pelagic system is one of the most intriguing ecosystems, with its extreme environmental conditions and wide seasonal fluctuations. The typical conditions of the An t- arc tic waters have large implications.... M., The distribution of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean and its dependence on the circulation of water. Sarisa , 1968, 34 , 264 ? 272. 25. Clarke, A., Energy flow in the Southern Ocean food web. In Antar c tic Nutrient Cycles and Food...

  5. Clinical-Homeopathic Profile in the Pediatric Ward at the University Hospital – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Alves dos Santos Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Homeopathy; Diagnosis for admission: 73% respiratory, 11.5% dermatological, 4% gastrointestinal and 11.5% other diseases (malnutrition, adenomegaly, eyelid edema; 37% had secondary diseases. An average of 4.7 medicaments (min 01-max09 was used per patient, 31% repeated the medication in two different dinamizations. “Diagnosis for admission and medication used”: a respiratory: 79% Pulmao histaminum, 32% Antimonium tartaricum, 21% Natrum sulfuricum, 21% Sambucus nigra, 16% Ipecacuanha, 16% Nux vomica, 16% Medorrhinum; b dermatological: 100% Apis mellifica, 33% Dulcamara, 33% Mezereum, 33% Psorinum, 33% Rhus toxicodendron, 33% Alumina; c gastrointestinal: 100% Ipecacuanha, 50% Gambogia, 50% Alumina. Dinamizations used: 5, 6, 12, 30 and 200CH, and 200FC. 55.5% of the medication used were only local effect medicines, 45.5% of the medication used were in association with the general effect medicines. Conclusion: The need to use several homeopathic medicines was obseved. The practice of inpatients was shown to be similar to the emergency outpatient when using medicine for local effect and medicine for general effect. Due to the positive results obtained with homeopathy, patients not initially foreseen in the research were included in this study on demand from parents or persons responsible for the children. This study demonstrates the need for a greater number of patients to allow the creation of prescription protocols and case-control studies to identify the most effective homeopathic prescription techniques.

  6. Biological effects of high-diluted substances and periodic table of elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloe Taddei-Ferretti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. There are several experimental evidences for the effects of high-diluted substances (see e.g. C. Taddei-Ferretti, A. Cotugno 1997, on effects of high-diluted drugs on the prevention and control of mice teratogenicity induced by purine derivatives; N.C. Sukul, C. Taddei-Ferretti, S.P. Sinha Babu, A. De, B. Nandi, A. Sukul, R. Dutta-Nag 2000, on high-diluted Nux vomica countering alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex in toads. Also the physical characterization and mechanism of action of high-diluted drugs have been studied (see e.g. N.C. Sukul, A. Sukul, High dilution effects: Physical and biochemical basis 2004. However, further experimental researches are needed to clarify how physical characteristics of a drug are linked to its global biological effects. Considerations on some high-diluted mineral remedies will be developer here. Methods. In Organon, sect. 119, S. Hahnemann writes: «As certainly each species of plants is different from every other one with regard to external appearance, way of life and growth, taste and smell, and as certainly each mineral, each salt is different from the others with regard to external, internal, physical and chemical qualities [...], so certainly all these vegetal and mineral substances have pathogenetic – and thus also curative – effects different among themselves [...]». This statement may be taken as basis for considering the characteristics of some elements, as ordered in the periodic table, in relation to those of some high-diluted mineral remedies. Conclusions. The elements were previously ordered in the periodic table according to the atomic weight chemically determined, and later more precisely according to the atomic number (number of protons. Then also the electronic configuration was taken into account: properties depending on atomic mass and deep electrons are not periodical, while chemical and several physical properties

  7. Spectral variability within species and its effects on savanna tree species discrimination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . buxifolia and G. senegalensis), Lonchocarpus capassa, Peltoforum africanum, Piliostigma thonningii, Pterocarpus rotundifolia, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos sp (S. madagascariensis, S. usambarensis), Terminalia sericea and Ziziphus mucronata. Discriminating...

  8. 南极磷虾渔业CPUE及其丰度估算适用性%Catch per unit effort of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery and its suitability to abundance estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 王芮

    2016-01-01

    作为一种衡量渔业资源丰度变化的指标,CPUE常用于多种渔业资源评估.南极磷虾作为一种集群性的生物资源,其资源存在着较为明显的时空变化特征,加之该物种本身所具有的特殊性以及渔业特点,这也使得采用CPUE作为衡量该资源丰度指标的有效性存在着较大的不确定性.为此,本实验详细介绍了4种南极磷虾渔业CPUE的常用估算方法,并总结了这些方法所具有的特点、优势以及劣势,在此基础上从时空尺度和环境影响因素等方面对南极磷虾渔业CPUE估算的影响进行了分析.最后,实验就CPUE作为评估南极磷虾资源丰度的适用性及可行性进行了探讨.近年来,南极磷虾渔业日益受到全球的关注,但如何将渔业调查数据纳入到南极磷虾资源评估当中,一直未得到统一的结论,从而导致基于生态系统的南极磷虾渔业管理进展缓慢,本研究结果可为更好地开展南极磷虾资源评估和丰度估算提供思路.

  9. Anti-fatigue effects of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil%南极磷虾油对负重游泳小鼠的抗疲劳作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳; 刘潇阳; 周新; 周大勇; 辛丘岩

    2015-01-01

    为研究南极磷虾油对小鼠的抗疲劳作用,分别将高、中、低剂量全脂型虾油(WKO)和磷脂型虾油(PKO)每日1次灌入昆明种小鼠胃中,持续4周后,测定小鼠的负重游泳时间、肝糖原、肌糖原、血清乳酸.结果表明,中剂量WKO及PKO组小鼠的负重游泳时间均极显著长于空白对照组,低剂量PKO组小鼠的负重游泳时间显著长于空白对照组;3个剂量WKO组及高剂量PKO组的肝糖原水平极显著高于空白组;除低剂量PKO组外,其余虾油组小鼠的肌糖原水平极显著高于空白对照组小鼠,而血清乳酸水平均极显著低于空白对照组小鼠.

  10. Analysis of the Special Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treating Lumbar Disc Herniation According to Literature Published in the Past 10 Years%近10年文献中特殊中药治疗腰椎间盘突出症的用药规律探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李具宝; 熊启良; 亓峰; 余喆; 屈尚可; 张磊; 王琦; 包可; 李帆冰

    2013-01-01

    .Results:According the final 654 effective articles,the top 20 TCM are as follows:Peach Seed,Safflower,Frankincense,Myrrh,Corydalis Tuber,Common Monkshood Mother Root,Kusnezoff Monkshood Root,Long-Noded Pit Viper,Ground Beetle,Sanchi,Manchurian Wildginger,Prepared Common Monkshood Daughter Root,Nux Vomica,Fortune's Drynaria Rhizome,Dragon's Blood,Centipede,Bistortae,Black-Tail Snake,Tortoise Shell,and Eupolyphaga Seu Steleophaga.The above 20 kinds of medicine can be classified into medicines for promoting blood circulation to arrest pain,medicines for promoting blood circulation to restore menstrual flow,medicines for removing pathogenic wind-cold,medicines for promoting blood circulation to heal wound,medicines to disperse blood stasis and stop bleeding,medicines to divergence cold,medicines to remove cold and stop spasm,medicines for invigorating yin,medicines for dispelling internal cold,and medicines for removing blood stasis.Conclusion:Haemostasis play important role in the pathogenesis of LDH.There is im portant clinical significance to improve pathogenesis and elim inate pathological product by using medicines for promoting blood circulation to arrest pain,medicines for promotingblood circulation to restore menstrual flow,medicines for promoting blood circulation to heal wound,and medicines to disperse blood stasis and stop bleeding.In the treatment of LDH,when using medicines for removing pathogenic wind-cold,it is better for using some insect drugs at the same time to achieve the purpose of searching pathogenic wind,curing the joint and removing the wind and the damp.

  11. Concise total syntheses of (+/-)-strychnine and (+/-)-akuammicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasani, Gopal; Paul, Tapas; Dougherty, William; Kassel, Scott; Andrade, Rodrigo B

    2010-05-21

    Concise total syntheses of Strychnos alkaloids strychnine (1) and akuammicine (2) have been realized in 13 and 6 operations, respectively. Key steps include (1) the vinylogous Mannich reaction; (2) a novel, sequential one-pot spirocyclization/intramolecular aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction; and (3) a Heck cyclization. The synthesis of 1 proceeds via the Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (26).

  12. Total synthesis of (+/-)-strychnine via a [4 + 2]-cycloaddition/rearrangement cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjun; Boonsombat, Jutatip; Padwa, Albert

    2007-01-18

    A new strategy for the synthesis of the Strychnos alkaloid (+/-)-strychnine has been developed and is based on an intramolecular [4 + 2]-cycloaddition/rearrangement cascade of an indolyl-substituted amidofuran. The critical D-ring was assembled by an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed enolate-driven cross-coupling of an N-tethered vinyl iodide. [reaction: see text].

  13. Pandey et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(2):439 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Roots were washed and dried on blotting paper. ... from Gloriosa superba tuber was analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), as ..... fertilization alone did not influence the concentration of photosynthetic pigments.

  14. AMLR Acoustics Data 1996-2011 v1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calibrated, integrated, and averaged acoustics data, including estimates of krill (Euphausia superba) biomass density, collected around Elephant Island, the South...

  15. Integrated Krill Model WG-SAM-14/20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The integrated modeling framework for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been extended to include estimates of krill growth consistent with survey data and to...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 931 ... ... for Nigerian Grown Terminalia Superba (White Afara) Timber Specie, Abstract PDF ... with petroleum refinery waste effluents by biostimulation through ... Vol 36, No 1 (2017), ENHANCEMENT OF GAMBE CLAY USING ...

  17. Plausibility of the implausible: is it possible that ultra-high dilutions ‘without biological activity’ cause adverse effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    .7% of cases the potencies were described as below of the 12ª Centesimal, the point beyond which the likelihood of a single molecule being present in the remedy approaches zero”, the authors claim that “in the majority of cases, the possible mechanism of action involved allergic reactions or ingestion of toxic substances”. With this approach, the authors seek to dismiss the biological effects of ultra-high dilutions, because if they cause AEs would be confirming the plausibility of its possible therapeutic effects. However, toxicological tests are required to affirm that AEs are a consequence of toxic (allergic effects of the substances or of ‘imponderable’ effects of ultra-high dilutions. In view of the recent report cited in the review [12] in which a complex homeopathic medicine indicated for treating infant colic (Gali-col Baby, GCB caused apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs were described by the National Institutes of Health consensus group in 1986 as “an episode that is frightening to the observer and that is characterized by some combination of apnea (central or occasionally obstructive, color change (usually cyanotic or pallid but occasionally erythematous or plethoric, a marked change in muscle tone (usually marked limpness, choking or gagging” [13] in consequence of the ‘toxicity of active ingredients’ (Citrullus colocynthis, Matricaria chamomilla, Bryonia alba, Nux vomica, Veratrum album, Magnesia phosphorica and Cuprum metallicum at potencies between 4C and 5C, Oberbaum et al. [14] performed a toxicological study of these components showing that “doses ingested in the GCB series were 10-13 orders of magnitude smaller than those reported to cause toxic reactions in humans” and that “there was poor correlation between symptoms with GCB and toxic profiles of the components”. As alternative explanation, they suggest that “four components (Veratrum album, Cuprum metallicum, Bryonia alba and Matricaria chamomilla have an

  18. Polyphasic characterisation of three new Phyllosticta spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.Y.; Cai, L.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Phyllosticta, P. hostae on Hosta plantaginea (China), P. schimae on Schima superba (China), and P. ilicis-aquifolii on Ilex aquifolium (UK), are described and illustrated in this study. They are compared with morphologically similar and phylogenetically closely related species.

  19. Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Nyangito, M.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Kaufmann, Von R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used ex

  20. The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.; Nyangito, M.M.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Muiri, W.M.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Kaufman, Von R.; Verhagen, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maa

  1. Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Atkinson, A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (hereafter ‘krill’) occur in regions undergoing rapid environmental change, particularly loss of winter sea ice. During recent years, harvesting of krill has increased, possibly enhancing stress on krill and Antarctic ecosystems. Here we review the overall impact of

  2. Diet of two icefish species from the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island, Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephal;us aceratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Kock, K.H.; Wilhelms, S.; Jones, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The summer diet of two species of icefishes (Channichthyidae) from the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island, Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephalus aceratus, was investigated from 2001 to 2003. Champsocephalus gunnari fed almost exclusively on krill (Euphausia superba) in all years. The im

  3. [Application of thermal dissipation probe in the study of Bambusa chungii sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Mei, Ting-Ting; Ni, Guang-Yan; Yu, Meng-Hao; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Based on the validation of Granier's empirical formula for calculating tree stem sap flux density, a comparative study was conducted on the measurement of Bambusa chungi sap flow by using different lengths of thermal dissipation probe (TDP), aimed to approach the applicability of TDP in measuring the sap flow of B. chungii. The difference in the daily change of the sap flow between B. chungii and nearby growing Schima superb was also analyzed. Because of the thinner bamboo wall and the heterogeneous anatomy, the sap flux density of B. chungii measured by 10 mm long probe could be underestimated, but that measured by 8 and 5 mm long probes could be relatively accurate. The comparison of the sap flow between B. chungii and nearby growing S. superba revealed that both the mean sap flux density and its daily change pattern' s skewness of B. chungii were higher than those of S. superba, but the nighttime sap flow of B. chungii was less than that of S. superba, indicating that the water recharge of B. chungii during nighttime was less active than that of S. superba. It was suggested that using TDP to investigate the sap flow of bamboo would be feasible, but careful calibration would be required before the TDP was put into application on different bamboo species.

  4. Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Atkinson, A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (hereafter ‘krill’) occur in regions undergoing rapid environmental change, particularly loss of winter sea ice. During recent years, harvesting of krill has increased, possibly enhancing stress on krill and Antarctic ecosystems. Here we review the overall impact of

  5. Antihaemolytic and snake venom neutralizing effect of some Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chidambaram Kumarapppan; Albert Jaswanth; Karpagam Kumarasunderi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To validate traditional claims of usefulness of the Indian plants in management of poisonous snakebite and evaluate the antivenom properties displayed by the alcoholic extracts ofAndrographis paniculata (A. paniculata),Crateva magna (C. magna),Gloriosa superba (G. superba) andHydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica).Methods:These plants were collected, identified and the extracts were prepared by using conventional Soxhlet ethanol extraction technique. The venom neutralization activity was accessed in mice (20-25g) and number of mortalities was observed against clinically important snake (Naja nigricollis) venom. Present study also deals with in vitro membrane stabilizing activity of these plants against hyposaline induced human red blood corpuscles(HRBC).Results: Extracts ofH. javanica andG. superba gave80 % and90 %protection to mice treated with minimum lethal dose of venom (LD99). These two plants showed significant neutralization effect against the venoms of Naja nigricollis venom.H. javanica andG. superba(25-100 mg/mL) produced significant changes of membrane stabilization of human red blood cells(HRBC)exposed to hyposaline-induced haemolysis.Conclusions:We conclude that probably due to presence of various phytochemicals plays an important role in the anti-venom potential of these Indian medicinal plants against Naja nigricollis venom. The above observations confirmed thatA. paniculata, C. magna, G. superba andH. javanica plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could potentially be used as an adjuvants for antivenin therapy in case of snakebite envenomation, especially against the local effects of cobra venoms.

  6. Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  7. Adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activities of medicinal plant extracts againstAnopheles stephensiListon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbdulAbduzZahir; AbdulAbdulRahuman; AsokanBa=gavan; GandhiElango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and acetone leaves extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (A. malabarica), Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta), Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum), Ricinus communis (R. communis), Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum), Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens)and seeds ofGloriosa superba (G. superba) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods: The EI and adulticidal trials were carried out according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures with slight modifications. The extracts were diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide in order to prepare a serial dilution of test dosages (15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and1 000μg/mL). Five duplicate trials were carried out for every sample concentration, and for each trial a negative control was included and the mortality was determined after24 h of exposure.Results: The highestEI activity was found in ethyl acetate extracts ofA. malabarica, chloroform extracts ofO. basilicum, S.trilobatum, acetone of extract ofR. communis, T. procumbens, and seed extract ofG. superba withEI50 values143.12, 119.82, 157.87, 139.39, 111.19, and134.85 μg/mL, and the effective adulticidal activity was observed in chloroform, acetone extracts ofG. superba, T. procumbens, R. communis, S.trilobatum and ethyl acetate extract ofO. basilicum with LD50 values120.17, 108.77, 127.22, 163.11, 118.27, and93.02μg/mL, respectively. Chi-square value was significant atP<0.05 level.Conclusions: These results should encourage further efforts to investigate the compounds that might possess good EI and adulticidal properties when isolated in pure form.

  8. Germination des semences, développement et croissance de quelques essences locales en zone forestière

    OpenAIRE

    Mapongmetsem, RM.; Duguma, B.; Nkongmeneck, BA; Selegny, E

    1999-01-01

    Seed Germination, Growth and Development of some Local tree Species of the Forest Zone. Studies were conducted on eight indigenous multipurpose trees species : Alstonia boonei. De Wild, Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gearth., Cordia platythyrsa Bark., Milicia excelsa (Welw) ce Berg., Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw) Warb., Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax., Terminalia superba. Engl. et Diels et Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. The objective of the study was to evaluate germination capacity...

  9. Responses of photosynthetic parameters to drought in subtropical forest ecosystem of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Chi, Yonggang; Li, Qingkang; Huang, Kun; Yu, Quanzhou

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism underlying the effect of drought on the photosynthetic traits of leaves in forest ecosystems in subtropical regions is unclear. In this study, three limiting processes (stomatal, mesophyll and biochemical limitations) that control the photosynthetic capacity and three resource use efficiencies (intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and light use efficiency (LUE)), which were characterized as the interactions between photosynthesis and environmental resources, were estimated in two species (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) under drought conditions. A quantitative limitation analysis demonstrated that the drought-induced limitation of photosynthesis in Schima superba was primarily due to stomatal limitation, whereas for Pinus massoniana, both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations generally exhibited similar magnitudes. Although the mesophyll limitation represented only 1% of the total limitation in Schima superba, it accounted for 24% of the total limitations for Pinus massoniana. Furthermore, a positive relationship between the LUE and NUE and a marginally negative relationship or trade-off between the NUE and iWUE were observed in the control plots. However, drought disrupted the relationships between the resource use efficiencies. Our findings may have important implications for reducing the uncertainties in model simulations and advancing the understanding of the interactions between ecosystem functions and climate change.

  10. High-nitrogen and low-irradiance can restrict energy utilization in photosynthesis of successional tree species in low subtropical forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xi'An; SUN GuChou; ZHAO Ping; LIU XiaoJing

    2008-01-01

    Responses of photosynthesis and the partition of energy utilization to high-nitrogen importation and high-light intensity in leaves of three dominant tree species of subtropical forest, including sun plant or early-successional species Schima superba, mesophyte or intermediate-successional species Can-stanopsis hystrix, and shading-tolerant plant or late-successional species Cryptocarya concinna were studied by using the CO2 exchange system and chlorophyll fluorescence method. Our results showed that, regardless of plant species, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was higher in high-nitrogen supply and high irradiance (HNHL)plants than in low-nitrogen supply and high irradiance (LNHL) plants, implying that low-nitrogen importation would limit Pn of plants grown under high irradiance. However, high-nitrogen supply and low irradiance (HNLL) plants had a lower Pn. Insignificant change of quantum yield (Fv'/Fm') in opened PS II was found in leaves of HNHL, LNHL or HNLL plants of S. superba and C. hystrix, while a higher Fv'/Fm' occurred in HNHL plants of C. concinna in comparison with LNHL or HNLL plants. The HNHL plants of C. concinna also had a higher photochemical quantum yield (ARFm') than LNHL or HNLL plants, however no similar responses were found in plants of S. superba and C. hystrix (P0.05) and it was significantly higher than in HNLL plants (P<0.05). C. hystrixalso had a similar response in φPSII to nitrogen supply and irradiance. Regardless of species HNLL plants had a significant φPSII, and higher heat dissipation in light, and this effect was more severe in C. concinna than in S. superba or C. hystrix. The results may mean that high-nitrogen importation by nitrogen deposit and low irradiance caused by changing climate or air pollution would more severely restrict photo-synthetic processes in the late-successional species C. concinna than in the early-successional species S. superba and intermediate-successional species C. hystrix. The continuous high

  11. The variety identification of QUINA in Brazil based on a combined analysis of DNA barcoding-origin-morphology%基于 DNA 条形码-产地-形态分析联用的巴西马钱属植物药 QUINA 基原鉴定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧艺玫; 顾选; 余春霞; 肖瑶; 赵百孝; 刘春生; 马长华; 韩丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过 DNA 条形码—产地—形态分析联用的方法对巴西马钱属植物药 QUINA进行基原鉴定研究,为这种药材的开发利用提供依据。方法通过提取样品 DNA、PCR 扩增及双向测序,获得样品的内转录间隔区(internal transcribed spacer,ITS)序列,利用 NCBI 数据库中的 BLAST功能计算相似度,对其基原进行 DNA 条形码鉴定;根据其产地信息对 DNA 条形码鉴定结果进行筛选和分析;依据其形态特征验证鉴定结果。结果本次收集的植物类药材 QUINA 来源于马钱科马钱属植物 Strychnos pseudo quina A. St.-Hil.的根皮。结论 DNA 条形码—产地—形态三者联用的方法可弥补单一鉴定方法的不足,能够快速、准确的对未知样品进行基原鉴定。%Objective To study the variety identification of QUINA of Strychnos Linn. with the combined analysis of DNA barcoding-origin-morphology and provide an evidence for the exploitation of this kind of herbal in Brazil. Methods ITS sequences were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced. , BLAST( basic local alignment search tool) in NCBI database was used to calculate the similarity of sequences to identify the variety of samples; then the DNA barcoding identification results were screened and analyzed in reference to its origin information; finally, the morphological characteristics of samples was used to verify the accuracy of identification. Results QUINA collected from market in Brazil was the root bark of Strychnos pseudo quina A. St. -Hil. Conclusion The combined analysis of DNA barcoding-origin-morphology could make up for the deficit of onefold identification method. It contributes to identifying the variety of unidentified samples quickly and accurately.

  12. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  13. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  14. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL B. SOMANI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum, Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum, Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol. An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs used. Most effective an antibacterial activity were observed in Tulsi, Neem and Wheat. In all herbs maximum removal of E.coli was found at 30 minutes contact time onwards. The percentage removal of E.coli were found 82.05% , 71.79% , 64.1% , 41.03% & 28.20% by using Tulsi, Neem , Wheatgrass , Amla and Katakphala herbs extract respectively, at 30 minute optimum contact time. The optimum removal of E.coli was observed at 1% concentration of extract of different herbs used.

  15. Evolution of a short route to strychnine by using the samarium-diiodide-induced cascade cyclization as a key step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This comprehensive report accounts the development of a highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide-induced cascade reaction of substituted indolyl ketones. The complexity-generating transformation with SmI2 allows the diastereoselective generation of three stereogenic centers including one quaternary center in one step. The obtained tetra- or pentacyclic dihydroindole derivatives are structural motifs of many monoterpene indole alkaloids, and their subsequent transformations gave way to one of the shortest approaches towards strychnine (14 % overall yield in ten steps, or 10 % overall yield in eight steps). During the course of this report we discuss the influence of substituents on the cyclization step, plausible mechanistic scenarios for the SmI2 -induced cascade reaction, diastereoselective reductive amination, and regioselective dehydratization protocols towards the pentacyclic core structure of strychnos alkaloids. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98% than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed better inhibition (98% than the other seed extracts. Moringa oleifera is reflected as a good corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M HCl with 98% inhibition efficiency among the studied fruits extract. Bacopa monnieri showed its maximum inhibition performance to be 95% at 600 ppm among the investigated stem extracts. All the reported plant extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in acid media.

  18. Study on the Interaction between Strychnine and Bovine Serum Albumin by Capillary Electrophoretic Frontal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The protein binding constant, binding sites of the Strychnos alkaloid-strychnine and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined by capillary electrophoretic frontal analysis (CE-FA)for the first time. The experiment was carried out in a polyacrylamide-coated fused silica capillary (48.4 cm×50 μm i.d., 38.1 cm effective length) with 20 mmol/L citrate/MES buffer (pH 6.0, ionic strength 0.17). The applied voltage was 12 kV and detection wavelength was set at 257nm. The plateau height of the peak was employed to determine the unbound concentration of drug in BSA equilibrated sample solution based on the external drug standard in the absence of protein. The present method provides a convenient, accurate technique for the early stage of drug screening.

  19. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  20. High-nitrogen and low-irradiance can restrict energy utilization in photosynthesis of successional tree species in low subtropical forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Responses of photosynthesis and the partition of energy utilization to high-nitrogen importation and high-light intensity in leaves of three dominant tree species of subtropical forest,including sun plant or early-successional species Schima superba,mesophyte or intermediate-successional species Canstanopsis hystrix,and shading-tolerant plant or late-successional species Cryptocarya concinna were studied by using the CO2 exchange system and chlorophyll fluorescence method.Our results showed that,regardless of plant species,net photosynthetic rate(Pn)was higher in high-nitrogen supply and high irradiance(HNHL)plants than in low-nitrogen supply and high irradiance(LNHL)plants,implying that low-nitrogen importation would limit Pn of plants grown under high irradiance.However, high-nitrogen supply and low irradiance(HNLL)plants had a lower Pn.Insignificant change of quantum yield(Fv′/Fm′)in opened PS II was found in leaves of HNHL,LNHL or HNLL plants of S.superba and C. hystrix,while a higher Fv′/Fm′occurred in HNHL plants of C.concinna in comparison with LNHL or HNLL plants.The HNHL plants of C.concinna also had a higher photochemical quantum yield(△F/Fm′) than LNHL or HNLL plants,however no similar responses were found in plants of S.superba and C. hystrix(P<0.05).In the irradiance range of 0―2000μmol photon·m -2·s -1,the fraction of energy consumed by photochemistry(φ PSII )was 18.2%in LNHL plants of S.superba which was higher than that in HNHL plants(P>0.05)and it was significantly higher than in HNLL plants(P<0.05).C.hystrix also had a similar response inφ PSII to nitrogen supply and irradiance.Regardless of species HNLL plants had a significantφ PSII and higher heat dissipation in light,and this effect was more severe in C.concinna than in S.superba or C.hystrix.The results may mean that high-nitrogen importation by nitrogen deposit and low irradiance caused by changing climate or air pollution would more severely restrict photosynthetic

  1. [Characteristics of dominant tree species stem sap flow and their relationships with environmental factors in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Wei; Zhang, De-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Yi; Liu, Shi-Zhong; Otieno, Dennis; Li, Yue-Lin

    2012-05-01

    By the method of Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the stem sap flow density of four dominant tree species (Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis chinensis, Schima superba, and Machilus kwangtungensis) in a mixed conifer-broadleaf forest in Dinghushan Reserve of South China was continuously measured in the dry season (November) and wet season (July) in 2010, and the environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured synchronically, aimed to study the characteristics of the stem sap flow of the tree species in response to environmental factors. During the dry and wet seasons, the diurnal changes of the stem sap flow velocity of the tree species all presented a typical single-peak curve, with high values in the daytime and low values in the nighttime. The average and maximum sap flow velocities and the daily sap flow flux of broad-leaved trees (C. chinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis) were significantly higher than those of coniferous tree (P. massoniana), and the maximum sap flow velocity of P. massoniana, C. valueschinensis, S. superba, and M. kwangtungensis was 29.48, 38.54, 51.67 and 58.32 g H2O x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. A time lag was observed between the sap flow velocity and the diurnal variations of PAR, vapor pressure deficiency, and air temperature, and there existed significant positive correlations between the sap flow velocity and the three environmental factors. The PAR in wet season and the air temperature in dry season were the leading factors affecting the stem sap flow velocity of the dominant tree species.

  2. The Beagle Channel Dispute between Argentina and Chile: An Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    Superba, are crustaceans with a maximum length of 6 cm. They are found in swarms in the upper 200 meters of water and are a high source of protein...Sudan 160 I0 .1,* Rhodc-ia 92 6Nigeria 91 6 North Africa I 158 8 Libya 694 60 Algeria 223 19 Morocco 213 18 Tunisia 29 3 South America I 069 8 Brazil...Italy 16. Algeria 882 2.2 USSR 17. Taiwan 737 1.9 USA 18. Kuwait 664 1.7 USSR 19. Argentina 642 1.6 FR Germany 20. Brazil 641 1.6 United Kingdom 21

  3. Estudio integrado del ecosistema en el estrecho de Bransfield y alrededores de la Isla Elefante, verano austral 2013: presentación

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Carlos Martín; Espino, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    En el ANTAR XXI se ejecutó un programa científico que fue realizado a bordo del BIC Humboldt del 22 de enero al 28 de febrero durante el verano austral 2013. Este programa tuvo por finalidad describir el ecosistema antártico como una función de las interrelaciones entre el krill antártico (Euphasia superba), sus depredadores y las condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas del medio marino. Pero además, cabe destacar, la implementación en el programa de la primera investigación peruana de ...

  4. Coenotypes in Submerged Paleoforests in the Qianhu Bay,Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paleoforest remains studied are distributed within a range of 18000 m2 in the intertidal zone of the Qianhu Bay, Fujian Province. Eighty-nine ancient tree stumps can be clearly recognized in the paleoforest remains. Microscopic studies of 10 relatively low-carbonized stump samples definitely showed four species: Glyptostrobus pensili (Staunt) Kouch, Schima superba Gardn., Cinnamomum Schaeffer, and Litsea Lam. The 14C dating of some samples yielded the ages of 42560±350 to >43000 a B.P., corresponding to the late Late Pleistocene.

  5. Study on Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest from Pinus massoniana Forest.%马尾松林恢复为常绿阔叶林的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希华; 宋永昌; 王良衍

    2001-01-01

    High coverage of Pinus massoniana forest on low mountains in Eastern China at present was studied in this paper. This forest is threatened by plant diseases, especially pines wilt, and needs to be restored urgently. Species of later successional stage or climax communities were retained or introduced to the forest through reconstruction according to vegetation ecology theory, so as to restore it quickly to zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. It formed an evergreen broad-leaved sub-tree layer of 2~3m high dominated by Schima superba from a shrub layer of 57m high after 3 years of reconstruction. The questions of restoration were discussed in this paper.

  6. Climate variability and spatiotemporal dynamics of five Southern Ocean krill species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Valerie J.; Santora, Jarrod A.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the ecological response of marine organisms to future climate change will benefit from quantifying spatiotemporal aspects of their distribution and abundance as well as the influence of ocean-atmospheric climate modes on their population cycles. Our study provides a synthesis of 18 years of data (1992-2009) for 5 krill (euphausiid) species monitored near the North Antarctic Peninsula (NAP) during austral summer. Distribution and abundance data are presented for postlarval stages of Euphausia crystallorophias, E. frigida, E. superba, E. triacantha and Thysanoessa macrura and larval E. superba and T. macrura. Intraseasonal, interannual and longer-term distribution and abundance patterns are quantified relative to climate modes driving ecosystem variability off the Antarctic Peninsula: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Southern Annual Mode (SAM) and associated zonal and meridional winds. Interannual abundance variations of all 5 species are significantly correlated with seasonally averaged ENSO indices and, with the exception of E. triacantha, elevated population sizes are associated with the higher productivity La Niña phase. Time-lagged responses of each species to ENSO indices approximate their generation times and suggest evolution of their life histories and reproductive efforts in accordance with the ENSO cycle. Postlarval E. crystallorophias and E. frigida and larval T. macrura demonstrate significant abundance increases after 1998 associated with a shift from an El Niño dominated period to predominantly La Niña and "Nino-neutral" conditions. Seasonal changes in species distributions and co-occurrence indicate portions of the southernmost E. frigida, E. triacantha and T. macrura populations move poleward with E. superba during late-summer, suggesting that environmental conditions associated with sea ice development (e.g., food, retention) may be more favorable than within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during low productivity seasons

  7. A new genus of Psychodinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from phytotelmata in a Honduran cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Freddy; Cordeiro, Danilo; Jocque, Merlijn

    2014-07-28

    Larvae of a new species of Psychodinae, Moruseodina cusucoensis gen. et sp. nov., were collected during a biodiversity survey of aquatic invertebrates in plant held water bodies (phytotelmata) in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. The fourth instar larva, pupa and adult male are described based on reared material. The new species was difficult to place in an existing genus, thus a new genus name is proposed. Based on similarities in morphological characteristics, ecology and distribution, the species Moruseodina superba comb. nov. and Moruseodina conspicua comb. nov. are transferred from Telmatoscopus Eaton, 1904 to the new genus. 

  8. Photosynthesis acclimation, leaf nitrogen concentration, and growth of four tree species over 3 years in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen treatment in subtropical China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Duan, Honglang; Li, Yuelin; Zhang, Deqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Xu, Zhihong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane (Australia). Centre for Forestry and Horticultural Research

    2011-10-15

    Up to date, most studies about the plant photosynthetic acclimation responses to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration have been performed in temperate areas, which are often N limited under natural conditions and with low ambient N deposition. It is unclear whether photosynthetic downregulation is alleviated with increased N availability, for example, from increased N deposition due to fossil fuel combustion in the tropics and subtropics. Awareness of plant photosynthetic responses to elevated CO{sub 2} concentration will contribute to the better understanding and prediction of future forest productivity under global change. Four tree species, Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Ormosia pinnata (Lour.) Merr, Castanopsis hystrix AC. DC., and Acmena acuminatissima (Blume) Merr. et Perry were exposed to a factorial combination of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentration at ca. 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}) and N deposition (ambient and ambient + 100 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in open-top chambers in southern China for 3 years since March 2005. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rate, leaf N concentration, and tree growth of all species were measured. The CO{sub 2} treatments did not affect light-saturated net photosynthetic rate of all species grown with the high N treatment. However, S. superba grown with the low N treatment (ambient) had 23% and 47% greater net photosynthesis in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for December 2006 and November 2007 (20 and 31 months after the treatments were applied), respectively, and A. acuminatissima grown with the low N treatment had 173%, 26%, and 121% greater net photosynthesis in trees grown in the ambient CO{sub 2} concentration than those in the elevated CO{sub 2} concentration for July 2006 (16 months after the treatments), December 2006 (20 months), and November 2007 (31 months), respectively, whereas

  9. 不同模式杉阔混交对林木生长的影响%Effects of Different Modes of Chinese Fir-and-Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest on Tree Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌华

    2014-01-01

    通过对几种杉阔混交模式的试验研究,结果表明:杉木+枫香和杉木+木荷2种混交林与杉木纯林比较,在树高生长方面有极显著差异,其中以杉木+枫香混交模式生长最好,为8.47m,杉木+木荷模式次之,为7.93 m。杉阔混交对促进杉木林的健康生长有着非常大的作用。%Several modes for Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest were studied .Result shows that :two kinds of mixed forest (Cunninghamia lanceolata+ Liquidambar formosana & Cunninghamia lanceolata + Schima super-ba) were compared to pure forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata;there are significant differences in height growth ,a-mong which the growth of mixed mode (C .lanceolata + L .formosana) is the optimal ,being 8 .47 m ,followed by C .lanceolata+ S .superba ,being 7 .93 m .Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest has a significant role to promote healthy growth for C .lanceolata .

  10. Krill distribution in relation to environmental parameters in mesoscale structures in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Canduci, Giovanni; Costantini, Ilaria; Biagiotti, Ilaria; Giuliani, Giordano; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    Krill, a key pelagic resource of the Antarctic food web, provides an important link between primary and secondary plankton production and top predators. Since krill abundance is a crucial factor in Antarctic ecosystem functioning, its monitoring supplies vital data. Acoustic surveys are an effective approach to estimating krill abundance. An acoustic survey was conducted in the western Ross Sea in January 2014-10 years after a similar survey by our team - to estimate krill abundance and biomass and monitor oceanographic conditions. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) was detected in the northern part of the western Ross Sea and dense swarms of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) were found in its central coastal area. Data analysis revealed an inverse correlation between E. superba density and salinity in the water column, whereas a positive correlation was found between E. crystallorophias abundance and fluorescence; the latter relationship was confirmed in thematic maps of E. crystallorophias spatial distribution and fluorescence. Comparison of 2004 and 2014 biomass data showed a much greater abundance of both species in the more recent survey.

  11. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  12. The zooplankton food web under East Antarctic pack ice - A stable isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongnan; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kawaguchi, So; Virtue, Patti

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how sea ice serves zooplankton species during the food-limited season is crucial information to evaluate the potential responses of pelagic food webs to changes in sea-ice conditions in the Southern Ocean. Stable isotope analyses (13C/12C and 15N/14N) were used to compare the dietary preferences and trophic relationships of major zooplankton species under pack ice during two winter-spring transitions (2007 and 2012). During sampling, furcilia of Euphausia superba demonstrated dietary plasticity between years, herbivory when feeding on sea-ice biota, and with a more heterotrophic diet when feeding from both the sea ice and the water column. Carbon isotope signatures suggested that the pteropod Limacina helicina, small copepods Oithona spp., ostracods and amphipods relied heavily on sea-ice biota. Post larval E. superba and omnivorous krill Thysanoessa macrura consumed both water column and ice biota, but further investigations are needed to estimate the contribution from each source. Large copepods and chaetognaths overwintered on a water column-based diet. Our study suggests that warm and permeable sea ice is more likely to provide food for zooplankton species under the ice than the colder ice.

  13. The dating of dipterocarp tree rings: establishing a record of carbon cycling and climatic change in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I.; Froyd, C. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Newbery, D. M.; Woodborne, S.; Ong, R. C.

    2004-10-01

    In a first step to obtain a proxy record of past climatic events (including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) in the normally aseasonal tropical environment of Sabah, a radial segment from a recently fallen dipterocarp (Shorea superba) was radiocarbon dated and subjected to carbon isotope analysis. The high-precision radiocarbon results fell into the ambiguous modern plateau where several calibrated dates can exist for each sample. Dating was achieved by wiggle matching using a Bayesian approach to calibration. Using the defined growth characteristics of Shorea superba, probability density distributions were calculated and improbable dates rejected. It was found that the tree most likely started growing around AD 1660-1685. A total of 173 apparent growth increments were measured and, therefore, it could be determined that the tree formed one ring approximately every two years. Stable carbon isotope values were obtained from resin-extracted wholewood from each ring. Carbon cycling is evident in the juvenile effect, resulting from the assimilation of respired carbon dioxide and lower light levels below the canopy, and in the anthropogenic effect caused by increased industrial activity in the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This study demonstrates that palaeoenvironmental information can be obtained from trees growing in aseasonal environments, where climatic conditions prevent the formation of well-defined annual rings. Copyright

  14. LC-MS/MS determination and comparative pharmacokinetics of strychnine, brucine and their metabolites in rat plasma after intragastric administration of each monomer and the total alkaloids from Semen Strychni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aihua; Su, Xiaochun; She, Dan; Qiu, Kuncheng; He, Qianmei; Liu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of strychnine, brucine, strychnine N-oxide and brucine N-oxide in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated via simple protein precipitation with methanol and ephedrine hydrochloride was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1×150mm, 3.5μm) by gradient elution with methanol and 10mM ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid). The quantification of the analytes was performed by mass spectrometry with TurboIonSpray ionization (ESI) inlet in the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.510∼306.3ngmL(-1) for strychnine, brucine and 0.102∼306.0ngmL(-1) for strychnine N-oxide and brucine N-oxide, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.9%, and the accuracy ranged from 89.4 to 113% at three QC levels for the 4 analytes. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of strychnine, brucine, strychnine N-oxide and brucine N-oxide in rat plasma after oral administration of each monomer and the total alkaloids from Semen Strychni. After single oral administration of the total alkaloids from Semen Strychni at 4 dose levels, Cmax, AUC0-t of strychnine and brucine increased and were proportional to the oral doses. In comparative pharmacokinetics studies, no significant difference was found between each monomer and the total strychnos alkaloids on the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC. Mean Cmax and AUC of strychnine and brucine were slight increased in the monomer groups in comparison to the total strychnos alkaloids groups, which suggested that some other alkaloids in the Semen Strychni may decrease the absorption of strychnine and brucine in body. Copyright

  15. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  16. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  17. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  18. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  19. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  20. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  1. On-line two-step stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for the preconcentration of strychnine and brucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiumin; Zhang, Shuaihua; Wang, Juntao; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-03-03

    An on-line sample preconcentration method by two-step stacking i.e., sweeping and micelle to solvent stacking, in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been developed for the determination of strychnine and brucine in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. After experimental optimizations, the best separation was achieved by using 75 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) with 30% methanol (v/v). Compared with normal CZE injection, 51- and 38-fold improvement in concentration sensitivity was achieved for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-5.0 μg mL(-1) for both strychnine and brucine, with the correlation coefficients of 0.9998 and 0.9997, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N=3) for both alkaloids were 0.01 μg mL(-1). The inter-day (n=8) and intra-day (n=5) reproducibilities expressed as the relative standard deviations for corrected peak area were less than 9.5%. The method was applied to determine strychnine and brucine in two Chinese herbal medicines, with recoveries ranging from 94.2% to 105.4%. The results indicated that the method is simple, rapid, reliable, and can be applied to determine strychnos alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the interaction of antiplasmodial strychnine derivatives with the glycine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Geneviève; Nguyen, Laurent; Angenot, Luc; Frédérich, Michel; Moonen, Gustave; Tits, Monique; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-13

    Strychnos icaja Baill. (Loganiaceae) is a liana found in Central Africa known to be an arrow and ordeal poison but also used by traditional medicine to treat malaria. Recently, many dimeric or trimeric indolomonoterpenic alkaloids with antiplasmodial properties have been isolated from its rootbark. Since these alkaloids are derivatives of strychnine, it was important, in view of their potential use as antimalarial drugs, to assess their possible convulsant strychnine-like properties. In that regard, their interaction with the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor was investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on glycine-gated currents in mouse spinal cord neurons in culture and by [(3)H]strychnine competition assays on membranes from adult rat spinal cord. These experiments were carried out on sungucine (leading compound of the chemical class) and on the antiplasmodial strychnogucine B (dimeric) and strychnohexamine (trimeric). In comparison with strychnine, all compounds interact with a very poor efficacy and only at concentrations >1 microM with both [(3)H]strychnine binding and glycine-gated currents. Furthermore, the effects of strychnine and protostrychnine, a monomeric alkaloid (without antiplasmodial activity) also isolated from S. icaja and differing from strychnine only by a cycle opening, were compared in the same way. The weak interaction of protostrychnine confirms the importance of the G cycle ring structure in strychnine for its binding to the glycine receptor and its antagonist properties.

  3. The Double-Bond Configuration of Corynanthean Alkaloids and Its Impact on Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Ruben; Gaich, Tanja

    2016-04-11

    Experimental evidence is provided for the coherence of the double-bond geometry and the occurrence of "secondary cyclizations" in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Biosynthetically, akuammiline, C-mavacurine, and Strychnos alkaloids are proposed to be derived from the corynanthean alkaloid geissoschizine, a key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of these monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. This process occurs by so-called "secondary cyclizations" from geissoschizine or its derivatives. Although corynanthean alkaloids like geissoschizine incorporate E or Z double bonds located at C19-C20, the alkaloids downstream in the biosynthesis exclusively exhibit the E double bond. This study shows that secondary cyclizations preferentially occur with the E isomer of geissoschizine or its derivatives. This is attributed to the flexibility of the quinolizidine system of the corynanthean alkaloids, which can adopt a cis or trans conformation. For the secondary cyclization to take place, the cis-quinolizidine conformation is required. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the E double bond of geissoschizine induces the cis conformation, whereas the Z double bond induces the trans conformation, which prohibits secondary cyclization of the Z compounds.

  4. Anti-hemorrhagic Activity of Four Brazilian Vegetable Species Against Bothrops jararaca Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemorrhagic effects of Mouriri pusa Gardn. (Melastomataceae, Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae, Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae and Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (Loganiaceae against Bothrops jararaca venom. The methanolic extracts from M. pusa (leaves, B. crassa (leaves and D. elliptica (leaves showed total neutralization capacity against local hemorrhages. The amenthoflavone and quercetin fractions from B. crassa and the flavonoids fractions (quercetin and myricetin from M. pusa and D. elliptica also showed total neutralization capacity. We conclude that flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin and amenthoflavone play an important role in the anti-hemorrhagic potential of these Brazilian vegetables species against B. jararaca venom.

  5. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Chinsembu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  6. Food-related behaviors during drought: a study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, C T; Grivetti, L E

    2000-03-01

    Two rural settled Fulani villages in northeast Nigeria were surveyed for dietary practices and use of edible wild plants (n = 100 adult subjects). Dietary patterns and medical data were obtained for children under 5, pregnant and lactating women and the elderly. A diversified diet was maintained at both geographical locations through hunting, gathering, agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, food exchanges and cash purchases. Edible wild plants associated with children included fruits of baure (Ficus sycomorus), faru (Lannea schiniperi), giginya (Gardenia aqualla), kokiya (Strychnos spinosa) and nunu (Parinari curatellitolia). Leaves of shiwaka (Veronia colorate) were consumed by lactating women to stimulate breastmilk production. Generally, fruits of baure (Ficus sycomorus) were eaten to counter stomach pain; fruits of kisni (Bridelia ferruginea) were eaten to treat diarrhea; and bark of kuka (Adansonia digitata) was consumed for weight gain. Food storage was more important during wet seasons than dry because of local and regional flooding. Adult Fulani men rode to distant markets on bicycles, while women walked to market and in some instances expended 3200 kcal/day engaging in this activity.

  7. Effect of Exotic Toxin on the Nutrition of Woodland Soil%外源毒素对林地土壤养分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙池; 廖利平; 汪思龙; 黄志群

    2002-01-01

    The effect of vanillin and P-hydroxybenzoic acid on Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland soil and Schima superba woodland soil was studied in pot culture experiment.The results showed that contents of nitrogen,potassium and organic matter were lower than the control and their change scope were 21.8%,2.8% and 8.2% respectively.The content of available phosphorus were higher and the change scope was 23.7%.In addition,both changes became more significant with increase of phenolic concentration.These results showed that allelochemicals released by plant may affect content of nutrition in soil,and give rise to nutrition deficiency,and then affect Chinese fir growth.

  8. [Litterfalls of major forest stands at Baiyunshan scenic spot of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shucai; Su, Zhiyao; Gu, Yankun; Xie, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yuexiu

    2003-01-01

    The productions, seasonal dynamics, macronutrient contents and decomposition rates of the litterfalls of four typical stands, e.g., Pinus massoniana plantation, secondary evergreen broadleaved forest, Acacia mangium plantation and Schima superba-Acacia mangium plantation at the scenic Baiyunshan of Guangzhou were studied. The litterfall productions of four stands in 1998 were 8.34, 6.77, 6.31 and 11.54 t.hm-2, respectively. The seasonal dynamics of litterfall amounts demonstrated the single-peak model with the peak period in June and July. The total amounts of macronutrients returned to the forest land by means of litters in the four stands in 1998 were 26.30, 69.81, 54.9 and 152.24 kg.hm-2, respectively. The annual decomposition rates of the litterfalls were 24.4%, 53.4%, 52.4% and 57.4%.

  9. [Nutrient content in litterfall and its translocation in plantation forests in south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Lin, Y; Peng, S

    2000-06-01

    The amounts of litterfall, nutrient content in it and leaves of five plantation forests in south China were determined. The order of litterfall biomass was in sequence of Acacia mangium (11.1 t.hm-2) > Pinus elliotii (7.3 t.hm-2) > Schima superba (6.5 t.hm-2) > Acacia auriculaiformis (4.8 t.hm-2) > Eucalyptus citriodora (2.6 t.hm-2). A. mangium returned soil much more nutrient to soil through litterfall than other forests did. N, P and K were largely translocated from senescing leaves for all the five forests, and especially for A. mangium. Nutrient translocated varied greatly with seasons. The translocation of other elements was not definite.

  10. 鼎湖山马尾松林凋落物分解对凋落物输入变化的响应%Response of litter decomposition to changes of litter input in a pine forest of Dinghushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马川; 董少锋; 莫江明

    2012-01-01

    Responses of litter decomposition and its nutrient release to changes of litter input were studied in a pine forest of Dinghushan to investigate the effect of human impact (litter harvesting) on nutrient cycling in the plantations of southern China. Three types of litter (Schima superba, Castanopsis chinensis and Pinus massoniana) were selected and three treatments of litter input were employed to evaluate decomposition. The treatments were litter addition(L+), control(L) and litter removal(L-), with 25 replicates per each treatment. Results showed that after 18 months of treatments, litter decomposition rate and its nutrient release differed with litter type, decomposition stages and treatments. The average remaining rates were 0.46 ?.01,0.42 ?.01,0.40 ?0.02, respectively for Schima superba, Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis. The average remaining rate oiSchima superba was significantly higher compared to those of Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis chinensis. The difference of litter decomposition rates between treatments was statistically significant. The average remaining rates in the L-, L, L+ plots were 0.51 ?0.08, 0.53 ?0.09 and 0.55 ?0.08, respectively. Litter addition significantly increased C release from decomposing litter, while litter remove inhibited significantly the release of N and P from decomposing litter. Our results suggest that litter harvesting not only directly removes nutrients from harvested litter mass but also inhibits litter decomposition rate and nutrient release from decomposing litter.%为了了解我国南方森林常见的人为干扰(凋落物收取)活动对生态系统养分循环的影响,研究了鼎湖山马尾松林3种主要树种凋落物分解及其养分释放对凋落物输入量变化的响应.这3种树种分别为马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、荷木(Schima superba)和锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis).凋落物输入量变化分别为凋落物去除(L-)、加倍(L+)和对照(L)3种处理,每种处理25

  11. 中亚热带主要树种凋落叶在杉木人工林中分解及氮磷释放过程%Decomposition and nitrogen-and phosphorus release of leaf litters from main tree species in a mid-subtropical forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲米财; 王清奎; 高洪; 于小军

    2013-01-01

    By using the standard litter-bag method,an experiment was conducted to study the decomposition rate and the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release processes of leaf litters derived from Pinus massoniana,Alnus cremastogyne,Schima superba,and Cycloblanopsis glauca in a 21-year Cunninghamia lanceolata forest.By the end of the experiment (13 months incubation),C.glauca litter had the highest decomposition rate,with 33.5% of mass loss,followed by A.cremastogyne and S.superba,and P.massoniana had the lowest decomposition rate,with 29.9% of mass loss.The time for 50% and 95% of the mass loss of the litters from the four tree species ranged from 21 to 26 months and from 94 to 112 months,respectively.During the decomposition,the N concentration in A.cremastogyne litter decreased,whereas that in the other tree species litters increased.The P concentration in the litters decreased rapidly at the first three months of decomposition,and then varied insignificantly.During litter decomposition,the ratio of carbon (C) to N decreased,while the ratio of C to P increased.C.glauca,A.cremastogyne,and S.superba litters had net N release,but P.massoniana litter had N sequestration.In terms of P,the litters from the four tree species had net release during decaying.Among the four tree species,A.cremastogyne was more appropriate to be mixed planted with C.lanceolata.%采用分解网袋法研究了马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)、木荷(Schima superba)、青冈(Cycloblanopsis glauca)等树种凋落叶在21年生杉木人工林内的分解速率和养分释放过程.经过13个月的分解实验,4种供试凋落叶以青冈分解最快,质量失重率为33.5%,其次为桤木和木荷,马尾松分解最慢,其质量失重率仅为29.9%.4种凋落叶分解50%和95%所需要的时间分别为21~26个月和94 ~112个月.在凋落叶分解过程中,除桤木凋落叶中氮含量下降外,其他3种凋落叶的氮含量均增加,但凋落叶的C/N均

  12. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  13. Detection of tropomyosin and determination of proteins in crustacean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Birthe; Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-J; Olsen, Ragnar L

    2013-11-01

    Tropomyosin is known to be the main allergen in crustaceans and the objective of this study was to investigate if this protein could be detected in commercial crustacean oils from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus. We also examined the possibility of determining the protein content in the oils by direct amino acid analysis. Western blotting showed that a commercial antibody against shrimp tropomyosin cross-reacted with a protein of similar size in Antarctic krill and C. finmarchicus. The protein tentatively identified as tropomyosin, was also detected in krill oil products, but not in oils from C. finmarchicus. The acetone-heptane method used for extracting proteins in the oils is however not optimal. Other extraction methods should therefore be considered when investigating the presence of allergenic proteins in oils. Direct amino acid analysis on oils should be further explored as a method for determining the total amount of proteins present.

  14. Effect of light intensity on partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration in four subtropical forest plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林植芳; 彭长连; 孙梓建; 林桂珠

    2000-01-01

    Photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the partitioning of noncyclic photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration (Jo) in seedlings of four subtropical woody plants growing at three light intensities were studied in the summer time by measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange. Except Schima superba, an upper canopy tree species, the tree species Castanopsis fissa and two understory shrubs Psychotria rubra, Ardisia quinquegona had the highest Pn at 36% of sunlight intensity. The total photosynthetic electron transport rate (JF) and the ratio of Jo/JF were elevated in leaves under full sunlight. Jo/JF ratio reached 0.5-0.6 and coincided with the increasing of oxygenation rate of Rubisco (Vo), the activity of glycolate oxidase and photorespiration rate at full sunlight. It is suggested that an increasing partitioning proportion of photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration might be one of the protective regulation mechanisms in forest plant under strong summer light and high tempe

  15. Effect of light intensity on partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration in four subtropical forest plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the partitioning of noncyclic photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration (Jo) in seedlings of four subtropical woody plants growing at three light intensities were studied in the summer time by measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 exchange. Except Schima superba, an upper canopy tree species, the tree species Castanopsis fissa and two understory shrubs Psychotria rubra, Ardisia quinquegona had the highest Pn at 36% of sunlight intensity. The total photosynthetic electron transport rate (JF) and the ratio of Jo/JF were elevated in leaves under full sunlight. Jo/JF ratio reached 0.5-0.6 and coincided with the increasing of oxygenation rate of Rubisco (Vo), the activity of glycolate oxidase and photorespiration rate at full sunlight. It is suggested that an increasing partitioning proportion of photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration might be one of the protective regulation mechanisms in forest plant under strong summer light and high temperature conditions.

  16. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  17. Germination des semences, développement et croissance de quelques essences locales en zone forestière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapongmetsem, RM.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed Germination, Growth and Development of some Local tree Species of the Forest Zone. Studies were conducted on eight indigenous multipurpose trees species : Alstonia boonei. De Wild, Ceiba pentandra (L. Gearth., Cordia platythyrsa Bark., Milicia excelsa (Welw ce Berg., Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw Warb., Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill. Pierre ex Pax., Terminalia superba. Engl. et Diels et Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. The objective of the study was to evaluate germination capacity, development and growth rate of the seedlings of the above mentionned species. The results showed that manual of seeds was clearly superior to the use of the other methods. For the initial growth, Ceiba pentandra and Ricinodendron heudelotii had the fastest growth. AH the species developped tap root system.

  18. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-22

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  19. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies.

  20. Future marine zooplankton research - a perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathmann, U.; Bundy, M.H.; Clarke, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Second Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC2) 3 issues were added to those developed 11 yr ago during the First Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC1). First, we focused on hot spots, i.e., locations where zooplankton occur in higher than regular abundance and/or operate at higher rates, We.......g., Oithona spp,, Calanus spp., Oikopleura spp., Euphausia superba) to determine what governs their abundance and its variability. Third, zooplankton clearly influence biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, but our knowledge of the underlying processes remains fragmentary. Therefore a thorough assessment...... of variables that still need to be quantified is required to obtain an understanding of zooplankton contributions to biogeochemical cycling. Combining studies on the 7 issues from MZC1 with the 3 from MZC2 should eventually lead to a comprehensive understanding of (1) the mechanisms governing the abundance...

  1. 干旱胁迫对6个树种叶片光合特性的影响%Effect of drought stress on photosynthetic characteristic of six tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮雯奕; 田云录; 张纪林; 李淑琴

    2012-01-01

    Six tree species(Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. Et Wils, Photinia × fraseri ' Red Robin' , Schima superba, Zellcova schneideriana, Salix × jiangsuensis cv. ' J172' , Primus cerasifera ' Hollywood' ) were conducted to compare the difference of photosynthetic characteristic and drought resistance. Results showed that there were great differences of photo-synthetic characteristics of these six tree species during 10 d drought stress period. Photosynthesis of Primus cerasifera ' Hollywood' and Salix jiangsuensis cv. ' J172' were much more sensitive to drought stress, of which there were significant decline of photosynthesis after 10 d drought stress due to stomatal limitation. In Zelkova schneideriana, stomatal limitation appeared after 4 d drought stress, however, the photosynthesis level return to normal level in the 10th day. In contrast, there was no stomatal limitation in Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. Et Wils, Photinia. Fraseri ' Red Robin' and Schima superba during drought stress period. According to the Ci and Ca ratio of six tree species of normal irrigation during the 10 d period, the drought resistant ability arranged in descending order was Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. Et Wils, Schima superba, Zelkova schneideriana, Photinia fraseri 'Red Robin' , Salix jiangsuensis cv. 'J172' , Prunus cerasifera 'Hollywood'.%以鄂西红豆(Ormosia hosiei Hemsl.et Wils)、红叶石楠‘红罗宾’(Photinia×fraseri‘Red Robin’)、木荷(Schima superba)、榉树(Zelkova schneideriana)、苏柳172(Salix×jiangsuensis cv.‘J172’)、紫叶李‘好莱坞’(Prunus cerasifera‘ Hollywood’)6个树种为研究对象进行干旱胁迫盆栽试验,比较各树种光合特性对干旱胁迫的响应差异.结果表明,干旱胁迫10 d内6树种光合特性对干旱的响应差异明显,紫叶李‘好莱坞’和苏柳172对干旱胁迫较为敏感,干旱胁迫10 d后光合水平显著下降,气孔限制为主要因素.榉树在处理第4天光合的下降由气孔限制引起,但第10天测定

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Gloriosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S Y; Hegde, B A

    2001-09-01

    Friable callus was initiated from shoot apices of Gloriosa superba L. on basal MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (4mg L(-1)) + Kn(5 mg L(-1)) + CH(10 mg L(-1)) + CW(20%). Subculture of callus on the same medium after 4-5 weeks showed induction of large number of somatic embryos, which was confirmed with histological studies. Development of embryoids in plantlet took place when the embryogenic callus was transferred to basal MS medium supplemented with BAP (5 mg L(-1)), CH(50 mg L(-1)) +CW(20%). Roots were developed by subculturing them on to the medium containing Kn or BAP (5 mg L(-1)) and IBA (4 mg L(-1)). Plantlets were successfully transferred to pots containing mixture of soil, sand and farmyard manure (2:1:1).

  3. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  4. Antarctic krill 454 pyrosequencing reveals chaperone and stress transcriptome.

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    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assembly of the 454 transcriptome of E. superba resulted in 22,177 contigs with an average size of 492bp (ranging between 137 and 8515bp. In depth analysis of the data revealed an extensive catalogue of the cellular chaperone systems and the major antioxidant proteins. Full length sequences were characterised for the chaperones HSP70, HSP90 and the super-oxide dismutase antioxidants, with the discovery of potentially novel duplications of these genes. The sequence data contained 41,470 microsatellites and 17,776 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELS, providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. CONCLUSIONS: This paper details the first 454 generated data for a pelagic Antarctic species or any pelagic crustacean globally. The classical "stress proteins", such as HSP70, HSP90, ferritin and GST were all highly expressed. These genes were shown to be over expressed in the transcriptomes of Antarctic notothenioid fish and hypothesized as adaptations to living in the cold, with the associated problems of decreased protein folding efficiency and increased vulnerability to damage by reactive oxygen species. Hence, these data will provide a major resource for future physiological work on krill, but in particular a suite of "stress" genes for studies understanding

  5. Divergent ecological histories of two sister Antarctic krill species led to contrasted patterns of genetic diversity in their heat-shock protein (hsp70) arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papot, Claire; Cascella, Kévin; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Jollivet, Didier

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic and the Antarctic Peninsula are currently experiencing some of the most rapid rates of ocean warming on the planet. This raises the question of how the initial adaptation to extreme cold temperatures was put in place and whether or not directional selection has led to the loss of genetic variation at key adaptive systems, and thus polar species' (re)adaptability to higher temperatures. In the Southern Ocean, krill represents the most abundant fauna and is a critical member at the base of the Antarctic food web. To better understand the role of selection in shaping current patterns of polymorphisms, we examined genetic diversity of the cox-1 and hsp70 genes by comparing two closely related species of Euphausiid that differ in ecology. Results on mtcox-1 agreed with previous studies, indicating high and similar effective population sizes. However, a coalescent-based approach on hsp70 genes highlighted the role of positive selection and past demographic changes in their recent evolution. Firstly, some form of balancing selection was acting on the inducible isoform C, which reflected the maintenance of an ancestral adaptive polymorphism in both species. Secondly, E. crystallorophias seems to have lost most of its hsp70 diversity because of a population crash and/or directional selection to cold. Nonsynonymous diversities were always greater in E. superba, suggesting that it might have evolved under more heterogeneous conditions. This can be linked to species' ecology with E. superba living in more variable pelagic conditions, while E. crystallorophias is strictly associated with continental shelves and sea ice.

  6. Different Patterns of Changes in the Dry Season Diameter at Breast Height of Dominant and Evergreen Tree Species in a Mature Subtropical Forest in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Yan; Guo-Yi Zhou; De-Qiang Zhang; Xu-Li Tang; Xu Wang

    2006-01-01

    Information on changes in diameter at breast height (DBH) is important for net primary production (NPP)estimates, timing of forest inventory, and forest management. In the present study, patterns of DBH change were measured under field conditions during the dry season for three dominant and native tree species in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. For each tree species,different patterns of DBH change were observed. In the case of the fast-growing tree species Castanopsis chinensis Hance, large diurnal fluctuations occur, with a peak DBH in the early morning (around 05:00 h) that decreases to a minimum by about 14:00 h. Both Schima superba Gardn. et Chemp and Cryptocarya chinensis (Hance) Hemsl. exhibited less diurnal swelling and shrinkage. Diurnal fluctuations for these species were observed on a few occasions over the period of observation. Graphical comparisons and statistical analysis of changes in DBH with meteorological variables indicate that for different trees, the different changes in DBH observed responded to different meteorological variables. Large stem changes were found to occur for Ca. chinensis trees that were associated with variations in solar radiation. However, both S. superba and Cr. chinensis were found to be less sensitive to solar radiation. Changes in the DBH of these two species were found to be controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil moisture. During the later dry season, with a lower soil temperature and soil moisture, all three tree species stopped growing and only negligible shrinkage, expansion, or fluctuation occurred, suggesting that the optimum time to measure tree growth in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is the later dry season.

  7. 浙江凤阳山天然混交林林分空间结构分析%Stand spatial structure of a natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 张金池; 田月亮; 叶立新; 刘胜龙

    2012-01-01

    To provide a theoretical basis and provide technical support for structural adjustments in a natural mixed forest, stand spatial structure of a mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains National Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was determined using three structural parameters; uniform angle index, mingling, and neighborhood comparison. Four typical plots of 20 m X 20 m were surveyed for tree diameter at breast height above 5 cm. Results showed that dominant tree populations of Schima superba, Berrya ammonilla, Fagus lu-cida, and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis exhibited diverse and dominant species characteristics. The largest number of dominant species S. superba in the comparison of the space is in the moderation status. 77% Sycop-sis sinensis is completely oppressed and 8% is in the most dominant state, which shows that Sycopsis sinensis differentiates seriously. The average mingling of 5. superba is 0.48 exhibiting aggregation of a single species. Because of less amount of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata, the average mingling is only 0.17 indicating Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata distribution appeared as gobbets. Whereas the average mingling of other tree species is above 0.5. In addition to S. superba and Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata, the oth- er species seldom cluster together and have greater degree of isolation, which indicates the stand has the less moderate mixed degree. Distribution patterns for forests gradually move toward a random distribution in climax community succession, so natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountain develop into evergreen broad-leaved forest. [Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]%以浙江凤阳山天然混交林为研究对象,对其角尺度、混交度和大小比数3个林分空间结构参数进行测定分析,以期为该区域阔叶混交林林分结构的优化调整提供理论依据和技术支持.在凤阳山国家级自然保护区内,设置20 m×20 m的4个固定样地,采用全面调查法,调查

  8. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  9. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas popularmente utilizadas como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias pela comunidade de Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento-MT, Brasil Ethnobotanical survey of plants popularly used as anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory in Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyres Zínia Taveira de Jesus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo proceder o levantamento etnobotânico das espécies vegetais utilizadas popularmente no Distrito de Pirizal - MT, no pantanal mato-grossense, como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias. A entrevista aberta foi realizada através da aplicação de um roteiro base a 38 informantes adultos, na faixa etária de 25 a 75 anos. Indagou-se o nome popular das plantas, partes utilizadas, preparados e vias de administração, e realizou-se a revisão bibliográfica das plantas mais citadas no estudo, utilizando-se as bases de dados convencionais. Foram citadas 49 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 32 famílias, destacando-se a família Fabaceae. As plantas mais citadas simultaneamente como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias foram Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (9,2%, Hyptis crenata Pohl (8,8%, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit (6,7%, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C.Rich Vahl (5,8%, Waltheria indica L. (5%, Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (4,2% e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke (3,3%. A parte da planta mais citada foi a folha (57,1%, a via de administração mais utilizada no tratamento das úlceras gástricas foi a oral (100%, com preferência para os chás (75%, enquanto nas inflamações foram os banhos tópicos (60%.. A revisão bibliográfica apontou a necessidade de aprofundar os estudos químico-farmacológicos para Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke e Hyptis crenata Pohl.An ethnobotanical survey was conduced to study the vegetal species from Pantanal, in the district of Pirizal-MT, popularly used as anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer. Ethnobotanical data were collected through open interviews and ethnopharmacology questionnaire with 38 local informers, in the age group of 25 to 75 years old. The local name, the part normally used, the mode of preparation and the administration route were asked to them. A bibliographic review of the plants most cited in the study was carried out using the conventional databases. A total of 49 species

  10. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in South African subtropical humid forest and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.

  11. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  12. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  13. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  14. Juruena local healers and the plants and verbal blessings they use for healing in Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Márcia Regina Antunes Maciel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Quack benediction has been used in Europe since the middle ages to treat lots of illness. In Brazil the bezendores appeared during the XVII century and interpretation of their knowledge, traditional use and management of plant resources are commonly addressed in ethnobotanical studies. Braziliam bezendores prescribe plants that can be used as medicine or as an amulet for personal protection. This use of plant material are present in the national popular culture. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Juruena, in Mato Grosso state, and it aimed to understand the importance of benzedeiras, to identify the plants used by them and how they are prescribed and manipulated. To reach the objectives we used techniques of participant-observation, semi-structured interviews and intentional samples. Additionally botanical material were collected and is deposited in the UFMT Herbarium. Four benzedeiras were interviewed between Septembrer/2002 and November of 2003 and they revealed an expressive botanical knowledge relating to quack benediction. They can benzer, prepare and prescribe teas, bottle preparative, medicinal baths and unguents. The illness cited by the benzedeiras was grouped as physical (for example, toothache, bellyache, and spiritual. A total of 87 ethno-species was mentioned arranged in 31 botanical families and between them it is important to pointing out erva-de-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Miq., quina-do-mato (Strychnos sp., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., guiné (Petiveria alliacea L., comigo-ninguém-pode (Dieffenbachia picta L.. The popular medicine practiced by bezendeiras meets the necessities of people that is looking for the cure for its own problems. Values and cultural heritage are inserted in the "benzimento" and this culture is alive at Juruena.

  15. 磷虾类线粒体基因组的特征和基因排列比较%Comparison of the characteristics and gene order in mitochondrial genomes of krills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申欣; 王海青; 王敏晓; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    利用长PCR扩增获得太平洋磷虾的线粒体DNA,结合鸟枪法和引物步移法测定太平洋磷虾的线粒体基因组.结果表明,太平洋磷虾线粒体基因组全长为16 898 bp,在最大非编码区中存在一个串联重复区域(4.7×154 bp).在15个主编码基因中,变异位点数最多的是nad5基因(319~321个),其次为nad4基因(284~285个)和cox1基因(232~233个).因此,nad5基因和nad4基因可以作为候选的分子标记,用于分析磷虾类不同的物种和群体之间的生物多样性.对比泛甲壳动物的原始排列,太平洋磷虾和南极磷虾线粒体基因组共享3个转运RNA基因(tRNALeu(CUN)、tRNALeu(UUR)和tRNATrp)的易位.与太平洋磷虾线粒体基因组相比,南极磷虾线粒体基因组存在1个转运RNA基因(tRNAAAsn)的重复和1个转运RNA基因(tRNAlle)的易位.太平洋磷虾和南极磷虾之间的基因排列并不完全一致,说明在磷虾类内部线粒体基因组的基因排列顺序并不保守.%The mitochondrial genomic DNA of Euphausia pacifica was obtained by long PCR amplification,and was then sequenced using shotgun and primer-walking strategies.The mitochondrial genome of E.pacifica is 16,898 bp in length.The largest non-coding region in E.pacifica mitochondrial genome contains one section with tandem repeats (4.7×154 bp).Nad5 gene has the largest number of different loci (319-321),followed by nad4 (284 ~ 285) and coxl (232~233) gene.Therefore,nad5 and nad\\ genes can be used as alternative molecular markers to analyze genetic diversity among krills species and populations.Translocation of three tRNAs (tRNALeu(CUN),tRNALeu(UUR) and tRNATrp) is shared by E.pacifica and E.superba mitochondrial genomes when compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern.The duplication of tRNAAsn and translocation of tRNA"' were found in the mitochondrial genome of E.superba when compared with the E.pacifica mitochondrial genome.Gene orders are not identical between E.pacifica and E.superba

  16. Floristic Diversity and Dominant Species of Secondary Forest on Fenghuangshan, Chaozhou, Guangdong%广东潮州凤凰山次生林物种多样性及群落优势种的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟小山; 徐瑞晶; 黄川腾; 莫惠芝; 曾宪锋; 庄雪影

    2011-01-01

    应用样方调查法,研究分析了广东潮安凤凰山省级自然保护区内2片保护状态较好的次生林群落的植物组成和物种多样性特点.在两个面积为1200 m2的调查样方内,共记录了112种维管植物,隶属于48科77属.次生林优势科为茜草科、山茶科和樟科.乔木层优势种为阿丁枫(Altingia chinensis)、尖叶假蚊母树(Distyliopsis dunnii)、木荷(Schima superba)、硬斗石栎(Lithocarpus hancei)和鼠刺(Itea chinensis)等,灌木层优势种为苗仔竹(Schizostachyum dumetorum)、尖叶假蚊母树(Distyliopsis dunnii)和木荷等,草本层优势种为芒萁(Dicranopteris pedata)、黑莎草(Gahnia tristis)和芒草(Miscanthus sinensis)等.不同的样方,其林木密度和胸高断面积也不同,以样方Ⅱ的群落结构更为成熟,林木平均株高和平均胸径较大.样方Ⅰ乔木层和草本层物种丰富度、多样性和均匀度较高,后者的灌木层物种丰富度和多样性较高.两个林分的草本层植物均较贫乏.与大面积的人工林相比,凤凰山次生林的植物资源较丰富,建议加强对这些次生林的保护,促进区域性生态资源的恢复和发展.%The composition and floristic diversity of the vascular plants in well-protected secondary forest on Fenghuangshan were investigated by plot method. A total of 112 vascular plants were recorded in 2 plots of 1 200 m2, which belong to 48 families and 77 genera. The dominant families are Rubiaceae, Theaceae and Laura-ceae. The dominant species of tree layer are Altingia chinensis, Distyliopsis dunnii, Schima superba, Lithocarpus hancei, and ltea chinensis. The dominant species of shrub layer are Schizostachywn dumetorum, Distyliopsis dunnii, and Schima superba. The dominant species of herb layer are Dkranopteris pedata, Gahnia tristis, and Miscanthus sinensis. The tree densities and basal areas varied with the plots. The stand Ⅱ is more mature with higher tree height and diameter at the breast height. The

  17. Early spawning of Antarctic krill in the Scotia Sea is fuelled by “superfluous” feeding on non-ice associated phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Atkinson, Angus; Venables, Hugh J.; Pond, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The spawning success of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) is generally assumed to depend on substantial winter sea ice extent, as ice biota can serve as a food source during winter/spring and the seasonal ice melt conditions the upper water column for extensive phytoplankton blooms. However, direct observations during spring are rare. Here we studied krill body condition and maturity stage in relation to feeding (i.e. stomach fullness, diet, absorption of individual fatty acids and defecation rate) across the Scotia Sea in November 2006. The phytoplankton concentrations were low at the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the southern Scotia Sea (Stn. 1, 2, and 3), high in open waters of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) in the central Scotia Sea (Stn. 5), and moderate further north (Stn. 6 and 7). Krill had low lipid reserves (˜6.5% of dry mass, DM), low mass:length ratios (˜1.7 mg DM mm -1), and small digestive glands (˜7% of total DM) near the ice edge. The stomachs contained lithogenic particles, diatom debris, and bacterial fatty acids, but low proportions of diatom-indicating fatty acids, which suggest that these krill were feeding on detritus rather than on fresh ice algae. In the SACCF, krill had higher lipid reserves (˜10% of DM), high mass:length ratios (˜2.2 mg DM mm -1), and large digestive glands (˜16% of total DM). Stomach content and tissue composition indicate feeding on diatoms. In the north, moderate food concentrations co-occurred with low lipid reserves in krill, and moderate mass:length ratios and digestive gland sizes. Only in the phytoplankton bloom in the SACCF had the mating season already started and some females were about to spawn. Based on the way krill processed their food at the different stations, we indicate two mechanisms that can lead to fast regeneration of body reserves and oocyte maturation in E. superba. One is "superfluous" feeding at high food concentrations, which maximises the overall nutrient gain

  18. Bromeliaceae from Pico Piraí, Guaratuba Municipality (Parana, Brazil Bromeliaceae Juss. do Pico Piraí, município de Guaratuba (Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Morokawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a Bromeliaceae Juss. floristic survey in the Piraí Mountain, Araraquara complex(Guaratuba Municipality, Paraná State are presented. Twenty six species included in nine genera and three subfamilies were registered. Bromelioideae presented the highest genera diversity and Tillandsioideae showed the highest species diversity, including twelve species belonging to the genus Vriesea (46%. It was the first register of Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vrieseaflava And.Costa, H. Luther & Wand., Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm. at the Guaratuba Municipality. Dyckia leptostachya Baker was collected for the first time at the coastal zone of Paraná State, being this record done after 40 years since its last register in the State. For each species, information on phenology, geographic distribution and vulnerability level are included. Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Bromeliaceae Juss. no Pico Piraí, Complexo do Araraquara (Guaratuba, Paraná. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 26 espécies pertencentes a nove gêneros e três subfamílias. Bromelioideae englobou a maior diversidade de gêneros e Tillandsioideae registrou-se a maior diversidade de espécies, sendo 12 delas incluídas no gênero Vriesea (46%. As seguintes espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez no município de Guaratuba: Nidularium procerum Lindm., Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl., Vriesea altodaserrae L. B. Sm., Vriesea erythrodactylon (E. Morren E. Morren ex Mez, Vriesea flava And. Costa, H. Luther & Wand.,Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Vriesea hoehneana L. B. Sm., Vriesea inflata (Wawra Wawra e Wittrockia superba Lindm.. Dyckia leptostachya Baker foi registrada pela primeira vez na zona litorânea paranaense e após 40 anos do último

  19. Phenolic Acids Detection in Soil of Pinus massoniana Forest and Its Effect on Shrub and Grass Germination%马尾松林土壤酚酸类物质检测及其对灌草萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奕如; 丁健桦; 张桃林; 王兴祥

    2013-01-01

    The compositions of phenolic acids in soil of waste grassland,Pinus massoniana forest and Schima superba forest were determined by extraction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS),and the effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth were also studied.The results indicated that rosin compounds was not observed in the soil of waste grassland and Schima superba forest,while the concentration of rosin compounds in soil of Pinus massoniana forest generally reached to 10-100 mg/kg.The germination energy was not significantly different between the control and the concentration of rosin compounds in the soils below 12 mg/kg treatments.When the concentration of rosin compounds in soils was over 25 mg/kg,the germination energy of Lolium perenne,Bothriochloa ischaemum,Festuca elata and Leucaena leucocephala significantly decreased.The germination rate ofLeucaena leucocephala was significantly lower than control at high concentration of rosin.%利用电喷雾萃取电离质谱(EESI-MS)测定荒草地、马尾松和木荷纯林地土壤酚酸类物质组成,模拟研究了其对几种灌草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,荒草地、木荷林土壤没有检测到松香类物质,而马尾松林土壤松香类物质浓度一般为10~ 100 mg/kg.当土壤松香类物质浓度<12 mg/kg时,灌草发芽势与对照接近;松香浓度≥25 mg/kg时,黑麦草、白羊草、高羊茅和银合欢灌草发芽势显著低于对照.高浓度松香处理下,银合欢发芽率显著低于对照.

  20. 次生马尾松、金钱松混交林的针阔异龄混交林改造成效研究%Transformation of Secondary Mixed Forest of Pinus massoniana-Pseudolarix amabilis to Conifer-broadleaf Unevenaged Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良衍; 杨晓东; 曹立光

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of secondary mixed forest of Pinus massoniana-Pseudolarix amabilis was conducted with three zonal dominant broadleaved tree species.The results demonstrated that transformed forest structure changed from single-layer to multi-storied 10 years later.The proportion of neutral or shade-tolerant plants increased,zonal broadleaved species turned to be dominant in the forest,and the importance values of Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis myrsinifolia arrived 59.9% and 19.8%,and the annual growing stock was 3.73m3/ha,increased by 50% than before.Investigation of typhoon damage on transformed forest indicated lower damage index than on pure Chamaecyparis obtusa forest.%采用生态学地域潜在植被原理,选择木荷(Schima superba)、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis myrsinifolia)和红楠(Machilus thunbergii)3种地带性阔叶优势树种对次生马尾松、金钱松混交林进行针阔异龄混交林改造,分析改造后的林分结构和林分生长量的变化规律及其影响,同时分析台风对杉木机械受损的影响.结果表明:改造10 a后,试验林的林分结构由单层变为复层林;林内植物由阳性向耐阴或中性转变,地带性常绿阔叶优势树种地 位明显;更新的木荷、小叶青冈重要值分别达到59.9%和19.8%,林分平均蓄积年生长量达3.73 m3/hm2,比改造前提高50%.经台风风害林木机械受损调查表明,改造后的针阔异龄混交林林木受损指数远优于日本扁柏纯林.

  1. Specialist Individuals, Generalist Populations, and Gentoo Penguin Foraging Ecology Across the Scotia Arc During a Time of Rapid Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R.; Polito, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), have increased in the Scotia arc in the last four decades, while sister species such as Chinstrap (P. antarctics) and Adélie penguins (P. adeliae) have experienced substantial declines in numbers. Previous dietary analyses suggest Gentoo penguins have a generalist foraging niche, which may help buffer them from recent climate-driven declines in key prey species, such as Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Ecological theory indicates that generalist populations fall under two different categories: Type A generalist populations exhibit large variation within individuals, and little variation between individuals, where Type B generalist populations are comprised of individual specialists, with large variation between individuals. It is important to identify which type of generalist population Gentoo penguins fall under, as these strategies impart differing ecological and evolutionary ramifications under times of environmental change. We conducted stable isotope analysis using tail feathers from Gentoo penguins at four breeding sites across the Scotia arc, including the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, the South Shetland Islands, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula, to assess individual variation in winter diets and determine the type of generalist strategies that Gentoo penguins utilize. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of individual specialization within the four geographically distinct breeding colonies, suggesting that individual resilience to further shifts in food availability may vary within Gentoo penguin populations.

  2. Risk maps for Antarctic krill under projected Southern Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Ishida, A.; King, R.; Raymond, B.; Waller, N.; Constable, A.; Nicol, S.; Wakita, M.; Ishimatsu, A.

    2013-09-01

    Marine ecosystems of the Southern Ocean are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; hereafter krill) is the key pelagic species of the region and its largest fishery resource. There is therefore concern about the combined effects of climate change, ocean acidification and an expanding fishery on krill and ultimately, their dependent predators--whales, seals and penguins. However, little is known about the sensitivity of krill to ocean acidification. Juvenile and adult krill are already exposed to variable seawater carbonate chemistry because they occupy a range of habitats and migrate both vertically and horizontally on a daily and seasonal basis. Moreover, krill eggs sink from the surface to hatch at 700-1,000m (ref. ), where the carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in sea water is already greater than it is in the atmosphere. Krill eggs sink passively and so cannot avoid these conditions. Here we describe the sensitivity of krill egg hatch rates to increased CO2, and present a circumpolar risk map of krill hatching success under projected pCO2 levels. We find that important krill habitats of the Weddell Sea and the Haakon VII Sea to the east are likely to become high-risk areas for krill recruitment within a century. Furthermore, unless CO2 emissions are mitigated, the Southern Ocean krill population could collapse by 2300 with dire consequences for the entire ecosystem.

  3. Thin Layer Sensory Cues Affect Antarctic Krill Swimming Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, A. C.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    A Bickley jet (laminar, planar free jet) is employed in a recirculating flume system to replicate thin shear and phytoplankton layers for krill behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical and free shear layers, respectively, ensuring a close match to in situ hydrodynamic and biochemical conditions. Path kinematics from digitized trajectories of free-swimming Euphausia superba examine the effects of hydrodynamic sensory cues (deformation rate) and bloom level phytoplankton patches (~1000 cells/mL, Tetraselamis spp.) on krill behavior (body orientation, swimming modes and kinematics, path fracticality). Krill morphology is finely tuned for receiving and deciphering both hydrodynamic and chemical information that is vital for basic life processes such as schooling behaviors, predator/prey, and mate interactions. Changes in individual krill behavior in response to ecologically-relevant sensory cues have the potential to produce population-scale phenomena with significant ecological implications. Krill are a vital trophic link between primary producers (phytoplankton) and larger animals (seabirds, whales, fish, penguins, seals) as well as the subjects of a valuable commercial fishery in the Southern Ocean; thus quantifying krill behavioral responses to relevant sensory cues is an important step towards accurately modeling Antarctic ecosystems.

  4. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, C A; Thiebot, J B; Pinaud, D; Cherel, Y; Trathan, P N

    2009-08-23

    Although penguins are key marine predators from the Southern Ocean, their migratory behaviour during the inter-nesting period remains widely unknown. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the winter foraging movements and feeding habits of a penguin species by using geolocation sensors fitted on penguins with a new attachment method. We focused on the macaroni penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus at Kerguelen, the single largest consumer of marine prey among all seabirds. Overall, macaroni penguins performed very long winter trips, remaining at sea during approximately six months within the limits of the Southern Ocean. They departed from Kerguelen in an eastward direction and distributed widely, over more than 3.10(6) km(2). The penguins spent most of their time in a previously unrecognized foraging area, i.e. a narrow latitudinal band (47-49 degrees S) within the central Indian Ocean (70-110 degrees E), corresponding oceanographically to the Polar Frontal Zone. There, their blood isotopic niche indicated that macaroni penguins preyed mainly upon crustaceans, but not on Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, which does not occur at these northern latitudes. Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining.

  5. Spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life stages in a subtropical forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wei, Shi-Guang; Huang, Zhong-Liang; Ye, Wan-Hui; Cao, Hong-Lin

    2008-09-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence. Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L(12)(t) functions, we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Based on diameter at breast height (DBH), four life stages were distinguished. Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution. Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve. L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales. From the analysis of L(12)(t) function, the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages. Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages. Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales. Considering these results, we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration. There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals. Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species. Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages, therefore, intra- and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  6. Antarctic krill swarm characteristics in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Krafft, BA

    2012-09-28

    Knowledge about swarm dynamics and underlying causes is essential to understand the ecology and distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. We collected acoustic data and key environmental data continuously across extensive gradients in the little-studied Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. A total of 4791 krill swarms with swarm descriptors including swarm height and length, packing density, swimming depth and inter-swarm distance were extracted. Through multivariate statistics, swarms were categorized into 4 groups. Group 2 swarms were largest (median length 108 m and thickness 18 m), whereas swarms in both Groups 1 and 4 were on average small, but differed markedly in depth distribution (median: 52 m for Group 1 vs. 133 m for Group 4). There was a strong spatial autocorrelation in the occurrence of swarms, and an autologistic regression model found no prediction of swarm occurrence from environmental variables for any of the Groups 1, 2 or 4. Probability of occurrence of Group 3 swarms, however, increased with increasing depth and temperature. Group 3 was the most distinctive swarm group with an order of magnitude higher packing density (median: 226 ind. m−3) than swarms from any of the other groups and about twice the distance to nearest neighbor swarm (median: 493 m). The majority of the krill were present in Group 3 swarms, and the absence of association with hydrographic or topographic concentrating mechanisms strongly suggests that these swarms aggregate through their own locomotion, possibly associated with migration.

  7. Identification of tropomyosins as major allergens in antarctic krill and mantis shrimp and their amino acid sequence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kanna; Suma, Yota; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Tropomyosin represents a major allergen of decapod crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs, and its highly conserved amino acid sequence (>90% identity) is a molecular basis of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity among decapods. At present, however, little information is available about allergens in edible crustaceans other than decapods. In this study, the major allergen in two species of edible crustaceans, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria that are taxonomically distinct from decapods, was demonstrated to be tropomyosin by IgE-immunoblotting using patient sera. The cross-reactivity of the tropomyosins from both species with decapod tropomyosins was also confirmed by inhibition IgE immunoblotting. Sequences of the tropomyosins from both species were determined by complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning. The mantis shrimp tropomyosin has high sequence identity (>90% identity) with decapod tropomyosins, especially with fast-type tropomyosins. On the other hand, the Antarctic krill tropomyosin is characterized by diverse alterations in region 13-42, the amino acid sequence of which is highly conserved for decapod tropomyosins, and hence, it shares somewhat lower sequence identity (82.4-89.8% identity) with decapod tropomyosins than the mantis shrimp tropomyosin. Quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that Antarctic krill contains tropomyosin at almost the same level as decapods, suggesting that its allergenicity is equivalent to decapods. However, mantis shrimp was assumed to be substantially not allergenic because of the extremely low content of tropomyosin.

  8. Review: Colchicine, current advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ade R, Rai MK. 2010. Colchicine, current advances and future prospects. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 90-96. Colchicine is a toxic natural compound and secondary metabolite commonly produced by plants like Colchicum autumnale and Gloriosa superba. It is originally used to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds its uses for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It is also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Initially oral colchicine has not been approved as a drug by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. But now FDA approved colchicine as a drug for some disorders. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. In neurons, axoplasmic transport is disrupted by colchicine. Due to all the pharmacological application of colchicine, there is urgent need to enhance the properties and increase the production of colchicine with the help of in vitro technologies. The present review is mainly focused on the chemistry of colchicine, its medicinal uses and toxicity.

  9. Studies on Leaf Venation in Selected Taxa of the Genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badron, Ummu Hani; Talip, Noraini; Mohamad, Abdul Latiff; Affenddi, Affina Eliya Aznal; Juhari, Amirul Aiman Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    A study on the variation of leaf venation patterns was conducted on 21 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed the existence of eight leaf venation patterns based on veinlets, the ultimate marginal and areolar venation. The majority of species, such as F. annulata, F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea var. angustifolia, F. deltoidea var. kunstleri, F. depressa, F. elastica, F. hispida, F. microcarpa, F. religiosa, F. tinctoria, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa, show tri-veinlets. The others exhibit the following: bi-veinlets in F. aurata and F. heteropleura; uni-veinlets in F. lepicarpa, F. schwarzii and F. superba; and simple veinlets in F. aurantiacea and F. fulva. F. sagittata presents no veinlets for areolar venation. The presence of tracheid or swollen veins at the centre of the lamina and the presence of cystolith cells and trichomes are common anatomical characteristics that could assist in group classification of the studied species. Variations in leaf venation patterns are not only valuable in identifying a taxon group, but can also be used to differentiate between species in the genus Ficus.

  10. Mineral elements of subtropical tree seedlings in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in plants have been strongly affected by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N deposition due to human activities. However, such understanding is largely limited to N and phosphorus in grassland. Using open-top chambers, we examined the concentrations of potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, aluminum (Al, copper (Cu and manganese (Mn in the leaves and roots of the seedlings of five subtropical tree species in response to elevated CO2 (ca. 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1 and N addition (100 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 from 2005 to 2009. These mineral elements in the roots responded more strongly to elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the leaves. Elevated CO2 did not consistently decrease the concentrations of plant mineral elements, with increases in K, Al, Cu and Mn in some tree species. N addition decreased K and had no influence on Cu in the five tree species. Given the shifts in plant mineral elements, Schima superba and Castanopsis hystrix were less responsive to elevated CO2 and N addition alone, respectively. Our results indicate that plant stoichiometry would be altered by increasing CO2 and N deposition, and K would likely become a limiting nutrient under increasing N deposition in subtropics.

  11. A Study on Combination of Multi-plant-extract with Activity Resisting Magnaporthe oryzae%抗稻瘟病菌活性多植物提取物组方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光华; 严伟; 符金华; 陈明辉; 叶亚建

    2012-01-01

      To strengthen the activity resisting the rice blast of natural products from plants and lessen their use doses, inhibition of the mycelium growth and pore Germination were determined and a prescription pharmacodynamic model was adopted for the combination of fractions from the multi-plant-extract with the activity. Results showed the ethanol extracts of Schima superba leaves, Sapindus mukorossi mesocarp, Magnolia grandiflora leaves, Camellia oleifera leaves, Castanopsis sclerophylla leaves, and Cedrus deodara leaves were of strong activities resisting Magnaporthe oryza. 50% effective concentration (EC 50) / minimum inhibitting concentration (MIC) of inhibitting mycelium growth were 0.08/0.60, 0.08/0.80, 0.17/1.00, 0.22/0.60, 0.35/1.50, and 0.16/1.00 ㎎/mL respectively. MIC of the inhibiting spore germination were 1.6, 1.7, 2.9, 3.1, 2.9, and 4.6㎎/mL respectively. Antifungal effects of 70% ethanol extract combination showed there were strong synergic effects of the combination between Sapindus mukorossi and Magnolia grandiflora, antagonistic effects of the combination between Schima superba and Cedrus deodara, but the maximum inhibiting effect of higher doses combination was among Schima superba, Sapindus mukorossi and Magnolia grandiflora on Mycelial growth inhibition. Any combination of two plant materials could strengthen the inhibition effects on the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae, and the multiple combination of Schima superba, Sapindus mukorossi, Magnolia grandiflora, Camellia oleifera, Castanopsis sclerophylla could get the best effects. The prescription pharmacodynamic model selected was of good correlation between measured values and forecast values, with strong predictable features, which was suitable for screening the multi-component groups in the development of botanical fungicides.%  为了强化植物天然产物抗稻瘟活性和减少使用剂量,进行了菌丝生长和孢子萌发抑制活性测定、配伍药效模型多植

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a cheap Sphaeranthus indicus extract: Impact on plant cells and the aquatic crustacean Artemia nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Gopinath, Kasi; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Lokesh, Ravi; Arumugam, Ayyakannu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    The impact of green-fabricated gold nanoparticles on plant cells and non-target aquatic species is scarcely studied. In this research, we reported an environment friendly technique for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using the Sphaeranthus indicus leaf extract. The formation of the metal NPs was characterized by UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and TEM analyses. The UV-Visible spectra of Au NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance peak at 531nm. FT-IR analysis indicated functional bio-molecules associated with Au NPs formation. The crystalline nature of Au nanoparticles was confirmed by their XRD diffraction pattern. TEM revealed the spherical shape with a mean particle size of 25nm. Au NPs was tested at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10% doses in mitotic cell division assays, pollen germination experiments, and in vivo toxicity trials against the aquatic crustacean Artemia nauplii. Au NPs did not show any toxic effects on plant cells and aquatic invertebrates. Notably, Au NPs promoted mitotic cell division in Allium cepa root tip cells and germination of Gloriosa superba pollen grains. Au NPs showed no mortality on A. nauplii, all the tested animals showed 100% survivability. Therefore, these Au NPs have potential applications in the development of pollen germination media and plant tissue culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal Variation of δ13C of Four Tree Species: A Biological Integrator of Environmental Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao LI; Jun XIA; Le XIANG; Tao LIANG; Qi-Jing LIU

    2005-01-01

    Foliar δ13C values, an indicator of long-term intercellular carbon dioxide concentration and, thus,of long-term water use efficiency (WUE) in plants, were measured for Pinus massoniana Lamb., P. elliottii Engelm., Cunninghamia laceolata (Lamb.) Hook., and Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. in a restored forest ecosystem in the Jiazhu River Basin. Seasonal variation and the relationship between the foliar δ13Cvalues of the four species and environmental factors (monthly total precipitation, monthly average air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and monthly total solar radiation and evaporation)were investigated. The monthly δ13C values and WUE of the four species increased with increasing precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, and evaporation, whereas δ13C values of the four species decreased with increasing relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. Despite significant differences in δ13C seasonal means for the four species, our results demonstrate a significant convergence in the responses of δ13C values and WUE to seasonal variations in environmental factors among the species investigated and that the δ13C signature for each species gives a strong indication of environmental variables.

  14. Mechanical krill models for studying coordinated swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alice; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The global biomass of Homo sapiens is about a third of the biomass of Euphausia superba, commonly known as the Antarctic krill. Krill participate in organized social behavior. Propulsive jets generated by individual krill in a school have been suggested to be important in providing hydrodynamic sensory cues. The importance of body positions and body angles on the wakes generated is challenging to study in free swimming krill. Our solution to study the flow fields of multiple krill was to develop mechanical krill robots. We designed krillbots using mostly 3D printed parts that are actuated by stepper motors. The krillbot limb lengths, angles, inter-limb spacing and pleopod stroke frequency were dynamically scaled using published data on free-swimming krill kinematics. The vertical and horizontal spacing between krillbots, as well as the body angle, are adjustable. In this study, we conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements with two tethered krillbots in a flow tank with no background flow. One krillbot was placed above and behind the other. Both krillbots were at a zero-degree body angle. Wake-body interactions visualized from PIV data will be presented.

  15. A revision of the genus Thouarella Gray, 1870 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae), including an illustrated dichotomous key, a new species description, and comments on Plumarella Gray, 1870 and Dasystenella, Versluys, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Cairns, S D; Agnew, D J; Rogers, A D

    2013-01-14

    A comprehensive revision of the genus Thouarella is presented. Thirty-five holotypes of the 38 nominal Thouarella species, two varieties, and one form were examined. The number of original Thouarella species has been reduced to 25, mostly through synonymy or new genus combinations. In the process several new species have also been identified, one of which is described here as Thouarella parachilensis nov. sp. The genus is split into two groups based on polyp arrangement: Group 1 with isolated polyps and Group 2 with polyps in pairs or whorls. An illustrated dichotomous key and detailed character table of the 25 Thouarella species are presented alongside an up-to-date account of all species described in the 19th and 20th centuries and summaries of the few described from 2000 onwards. We propose that Thouarella longispinosa is synonymous with Dasystenella acanthina, T. versluysi with T. brucei, and, T. tenuisquamis, T. flabellata, and T. carinata are synonymous with T. laxa. Lastly, we propose that T. bayeri and T. undulata be placed in Plumarella and support recent suggestions that T. alternata, T. recta, T. superba, and T. diadema are also Plumarella.

  16. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  17. Chitinozoan biostratigraphy of the Přídolí Series of the East Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiu Nestor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The succession of chitinozoans in the East Baltic Přídolí Series was studied in the Ohesaare, Ventspils D-3, Pavilosta and Dubovskoye (Northern-Gusevskaya 2 drill cores. Some differences in biozonal characteristics were observed between the shallower and deeper facies sections. The lower Přídoli Eisenackitina kerria–Ancyrochitina tomentosa regional Biozone is described from the Ohesaare (Estonia and Ventspils and Pavilosta (Latvia cores and the Fungochitina kosovensis global Biozone from the Dubovskoye (Kaliningrad district core. The middle Přídolí Salopochitina filifera regional Biozone is represented in all studied sections. The upper Přídolí Anthochitina superba global Biozone is described from the Ventspils core, correlating with the range interval of Margachitina sp. in the Dubovskoye core. In the uppermost Přídolí the Ancyrochitina lemniscata regional Biozone is distinguished for the first time in the Ventspils and Dubovskoye cores. All biozones were correlated with regional strati­graphical units, as well as with conodont and vertebrate biozones in the Ventspils core.

  18. POPULATION BIOLOGY OF ANTARCTIC KRILL EUPHAUSIA SUPERB.I - AGE, GROWTH AND MORTALITY%南极磷虾种群生物学研究进展Ⅰ-年龄、生长与死亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平

    2011-01-01

    南极磷虾通常是指南极大磷虾(Euphausia superbaDana,1852),它隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、磷虾目(Euphausiacea)、磷虾科(Euphausiidae)、磷虾属(Euphausia),个体最大体长可达65 mm,体重2 9,渔业捕捞的主要磷虾群体为体长介于40-65 mm的较大成体.南极磷虾是南极海域磷虾类中数量最多,个体最大的种类,是渔业的捕捞对象,最大密度分布在大西洋区,特别是维德尔海、南奥克尼群岛北部的斯科舍海和南设得兰群岛周围以及南桑维奇群岛西部水域[1].

  19. 5种木制玩具原料林树种在云和的早期生长表现%Early Growth of 5 Tree Species for Wooden Toy in Yunhe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建灵; 吴涛; 卢刚; 王永标

    2010-01-01

    自2005年开始在云和镇开展枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、木荷(Schima superba)、南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、江南桤木(Alnus trabeculosa)、马褂木(Liriodendron chinense)5种木制玩具原料树种造林试验,结果表明:5种速生阔叶树种造林当年的成活率均在95%以上,最高的为枫香,达98.5%,5年后各树种的保存率均超过92%,最高的枫香为97.2%;5个树种的5年生树高总生长量最大的为江南桤木,达7.6 m,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木;5年生胸径生长量也是江南桤木最大达6.7 cm,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木.

  20. Long-Term Relationships between the Marine Environment, Krill and Salps in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Il Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variations (1975–2002 in climatology of marine environmental parameters, Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the pelagic tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, were compared within the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean. Sea water temperature in the top 400 m increased at a rate of 0.020–0.030°C ⋅ yr−1, which was accompanied by the dissolved oxygen decline. Top 100 m water layer became fresher with lower concentrations of phosphates and nitrates, while at subsurface layers (200–400 m both salinity and nutrients showed small increasing trend. Unlike phosphates and nitrates, silicate concentrations decreased in the entire water column. Shorter-term water temperature dynamics closely correlated with the El Nino events expressed as the Southern Oscillation Index which in turn was linked to the propagation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW. The variations of sea-ice extent matched well the changes in both air and water temperatures. In general, abundance of krill and salps showed opposite to each other trends. Due to large area considered in this study, no significant relationships between abiotic factors and both krill and salps were found. However, our analysis demonstrated that krill abundance was greater in years with lower sea water temperature, greater sea-ice extent and higher nutrient concentration, while salps showed the opposite pattern.

  1. Leaf anatomical structure for 15 tree species' seedlings in Zhejiang Province%浙江省15个树种苗期叶片解剖结构特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 邹伶俐; 吴刚; 阴卓越; 吕钺香

    2013-01-01

    植物叶片结构与其耐阴性具有密切关系.为揭示浙江西部常见树种叶片对光环境的适应性,采用常规石蜡切片制片法,比较观察了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,短尾柯Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,浙江楠Phoebe chekiangensis,乌冈栎Quercus phillyraeoides,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,马尾松Pinus massoniana,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,红叶石楠Photinia × fraseri,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa和红花檀木Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum等15个树种叶片的解剖结构特征.结果表明:①水杉和红豆杉上、下表皮均为1层,栅栏组织和海绵组织均不发达.马尾松叶片为2针1束,横截面为半圆形.②9个阔叶树种栅栏和海绵组织平均厚度最厚;木荷、乌桕和竹柏栅栏组织为1层,短尾柯、杜英、石栎和浙江楠为2层,苦槠和乌冈栎栅栏组织最发达,为3层;海绵组织均排列疏松.③灌木树种栅栏组织、海绵组织厚度排序均为红叶石楠>美丽胡枝子>红花檀木.④对15个树种叶片解剖结构特征进行聚类分析,认为竹柏为耐荫树种;马尾松为强阳性树种;乌桕、红叶石楠、苦槠、乌冈栎归类为阳性树种;短尾柯、美丽胡枝子、浙江楠、杜英、木荷、水杉、红豆杉、石栎和红花栏木归为中性树种.研究结果可为调控现有马尾松单优群落的结构组成,恢复亚热带低山丘陵区地带性森林植被提供理论依据.%To reveal leaf adaptability to the light environment for tree species common to the Western Zhejiang,characteristics of the leaf anatomical structure in 15 tree species'seedlings:Castanopsis sclerophylla,Schima superba,Elaeocarpus decipiens,Sapium sebiferum,Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,Lithocarpus glaber,Phoebe chekiangensis,Quercus phillyraeoides,Podocarpus nagi,Pinus massoniana,Metasequoia glyptostroboides

  2. Intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior among Adélie penguins (Pygocelis adeliae) breeding at Cape Hallett, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyver, P.O.B.; MacLeod, C.J.; Ballard, G.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Wilson, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior of chick-rearing Adélie penguins, Pygoscelis adeliae, during two consecutive summers at Cape Hallett, northwestern Ross Sea. Although foraging behavior of this species has been extensively studied throughout the broad continental shelf region of the Ross Sea, this is the first study to report foraging behaviors and habitat affiliations among birds occupying continental slope waters. Continental slope habitat supports the greatest abundances of this species throughout its range, but we lack information about how intra-specific competition for prey might affect foraging and at-sea distribution and how these attributes compare with previous Ross Sea studies. Foraging trips increased in both distance and duration as breeding advanced from guard to crèche stage, but foraging dive depth, dive rates, and vertical dive distances travelled per hour decreased. Consistent with previous studies within slope habitats elsewhere in Antarctic waters, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) dominated chick meal composition, but fish increased four-fold from guard to crèche stages. Foraging-, focal-, and core areas all doubled during the crèche stage as individuals shifted distribution in a southeasterly direction away from the coast while simultaneously becoming more widely dispersed (i.e., less spatial overlap among individuals). Intra-specific competition for prey among Adélie penguins appears to influence foraging behavior of this species, even in food webs dominated by Antarctic krill.

  3. Phytodiversity and conservation of Nithypooja Kona Sacred Grove of Nallamala Hill Range, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKM Basha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are climax forests and are the only representatives of natural or near-natural vegetation. These are dedicated to deities or ancestral spirits worshipped by local tribes along with surrounding plants and trees. These are ecosystems by themselves and perform all the ecological functions. Phytodiversity constitute a large segment of the flora which provides raw materials for use by numerous Pharmaceutical industries. The present study will be useful for researchers in the field of Ethan botany, Ethnomedicine, Taxonomy, and Pharmacology for further studies. Nithyapoojakona Sacred grove is one of the important sacred groves in Kadapa district. The present paper deals with the phyto-diversity of the above grove used by local tribes. This paper deals with the 181 species of probable medicinal potential belonging to 138 genera and 71 families. Significant flora are Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Drosera burmaptonni, Orabanche cernua, Neptunia oleracea, Hugonia mystax, Caralluma adsendens , Gloriosa superba, Limnophila spp, Centella sasiatica etc. Word famous Red sanders population of the study area is being destroyed unethically and it is to be protected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12648 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 271-288

  4. Changes in Photosystem Ⅱ Activity and Leaf Reflectance Features of Several Subtropical Woody Plants Under Simulated SO2 Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Ling-Ling Zhang; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of simulated SO2 treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. After leaf sections had been immersed in 0, 20, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaHSO3 for 20 h, total chlorophyll (Chl) content, Chl a/b, maximal photochemical efficiency, and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem Ⅱ of all five woody plants were reduced to different degrees, whereas lutein content (Chl base) was increased. Two protective mechanisms, namely the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxidation) and an anti-oxidant system (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity), showed differences in the degree of modulation under simulated SO2 treatment. Compared with control (distilled water treatment), the revised normalized difference vegetation index, a leaf reflectance index, was lowered with increasing concentrations of NaHSO3. Cryptocarya concinna, a dominant species in the late succession stage of subtropical forests in South China, exhibited less sensitivity to NaHSO3. Conversely, Pinus massoniana, the pioneer heliophyte species, was most susceptible to NaHSO3 treatment. It is suggested that SO2 pollution may accelerate the succession of subtropical forest.

  5. Regulation of Light Energy Utilization and Distribution of Photosynthesis in Five Subtropical Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2007-01-01

    The adaptations and responses of photosynthesis to long- and short-term growth light gradient treatments were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ.,Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. With diurnal changes in sunlight and air temperature, the de-epoxidation state and lutein content in the five woody plants under three light intensifies first increased and then decreased during the day. However,maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm; where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS) Ⅱ (ΦPSII) of the species examined changed in the opposite manner, with those in plants grown under 100% natural light changing the most. After long-term treatment (21 months), anti-oxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·)-scavenging capacity) and utilization of excitation energy showed differences in modulation by different light intensities. It was shown that A.acuminatissima and C. concinna, as dominant species in the late succession stage of a subtropical forest in Dinghu mountain, South China, were better able to adapt to different light environments. However, P. massoniana, the pioneer species of this forest, exhibited less adaptation to Iow light intensity and was definitely eliminated by the forest successlon process.

  6. Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, A.

    2017-04-24

    Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion at which recycled nutrients are restored. To estimate how the recycled nutrients released by zooplankton populations, dominated by krill (Euphausia superba), amphipods or copepods, affect the phytoplankton uptake and communities, we performed four incubation experiments: two close to the Antarctic Peninsula and two at the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results showed a stimulating effect of the addition of metabolites on ammonia removal rates and on the net growth of phytoplankton communities, with different responses amongst the different phytoplankton groups. According to our results, phytoplankton net growth and community composition may be altered if this relevant source of nutrients is lost due to projected changes in the abundance or distribution of these zooplankton populations.

  7. Interannual variations in euphausiid life stage distribution in the Dumont d’Urville Sea from 2004 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Carole; Labat, Jean-Philippe; Smith, Martina; Koubbi, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Euphausiid larvae were caught by oblique tows of a double-framed bongo net at 118 stations along the coast of Terre Adélie during every summer from 2004-2008. Larvae of Euphausia crystallorophias Holt and Tattersall and Thysanoessa macrura G.O. Sars were observed in the study area every year in contrast to larvae of Euphausia superba which were absent during the entire period of sampling. Highest abundances of both species were observed during the summer of 2005 and the lowest in the summer of 2004. Larvae of E. crystallorophias dominated every year and comprised more than 80% of the total abundance of euphausiid larvae. Within species, the calyptopis stages especially calyptopis 1 of E. crystallorophias dominated compared to furcilia stages of T. macrura which were less abundant. For both species, spatio-temporal variations in abundances of developmental stages were significantly correlated to density and salinity of the deep water layer. In the case of calyptopis 3 of E. crystallorophias, spatio-temporal variations were correlated with the number of days between the end of the sea ice retreat and the sampling day and for T. macrura inversely correlated to temperature of surface water layer. These variations are discussed and related to the timing of sea ice retreat, the sea ice concentration as well as metabolic conditions of adults of both species during their spawning period.

  8. Caracterización bromatológica de especies y subproductos vegetales en el trópico húmedo de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissa Enith Mosquera Perea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el potencial nutritivo para especies pecuarias de recursos locales existentes en el municipio de Quibdó, departamento del Chocó (Colombia, teniendo en cuenta la composición bromatológica y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS en hojas de árbol del pan (Arthocarpus altilis Z., pacó (Gustavia superba Kunth. y achín (Colocasia esculenta Linn, cáscaras del fruto de chontaduro (Bractris gasipaess Kunth. y de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.. El análisis bromatológico incluyó materia seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, ceniza (Cen, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, lignina detergente ácida (LDA y energía bruta (EB. Las hojas de achín y de árbol del pan presentaron los contenidos más altos de PB (27.78 y 19.38% y de EB (3911 y 3981 cal/g, respectivamente. Los valores de DIVMS más altos se presentaron en cáscaras de chontaduro (78.9% y hojas de achín (68.6%. En general, los recursos en estudio presentan valor nutritivo similar al de forrajes cultivados, por tanto, son una alternativa posible para la sustitución parcial de materias primas costosas en dietas para animales de granja.

  9. The oceanography and ecology of the Ross Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walker O; Ainley, David G; Arrigo, Kevin R; Dinniman, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L(-1). Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  10. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njoroge Grace N

    2010-08-01

    Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae, Populus ilicifolia (Engl. Rouleau (Salicaceae, Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer Dammer (Polygonaceae. Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes.

  11. QIU Chang-lin Treatment Experience of Motor Neuron Disease%裘昌林治疗运动神经元病的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 王珏

    2011-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a group of slowly progressive degenerative diseases which has affected the spinal cord, the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons of brain, it belongs to "Wei syndrome" and "Yin -Fei syndrome" of tradition Chinese medicine. QIU Chang-lin Chief Physician considers the most of disease was of deficiency,manifested as yin deficiency of liver and kidney, yang deficiency of spleen and kidney, qi and blood deficiency, involving the liver, spleen, kidney, Collateral Disease is the main mechanism of this disease hard to be cured. The treatment principle should follow the "treating deficiency with tonification, with the syndrome selection prescription, Yin deficiency of liver - kidney is the main syndrome of the disease, the preferred Dihuangyinzi Modified; hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency, selection Huqian Pill; Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney, selection you gui pill; Qi deficiency and Blood Stasis used Buyanghuanwu decoction. QIU teacher have often used of insect drugs based on syndrome differentiation, and developed Sunburn Strychnos Capsules in the 70's, the clinical effect is significant, matching the Scorpion can eliminate a large number symptoms after taking semen strychni.%运动神经元病是指只累及脊髓和脑部的上、下运动神神经元的一组缓慢进行性变性疾病,属于中医"痿证"、"疳痱证"范畴.裘昌林主任认为本病以虚为主,表现为肝肾阴虚,脾肾阳虚,精血亏耗,气血亏虚,涉及到肝、脾、肾三脏,络病是本病缠绵难愈的主要机制.其治疗应遵循"虚者补之"的原则,随证选方,肝肾阴虚型是本病的主要证型,首选地黄饮子加减;阴虚火旺型选用虎潜丸加减;脾肾阳虚型选用右归丸加减;气虚血瘀型选用补阳还五汤加减.裘老在辨证论治的基础上加用虫类药,且在70年代研制出炙马钱子胶囊,疗效显著,全蝎配对使用,可消除马钱子大量服用后引起的相关症状.

  12. Um olhar sobre as benzedeiras de Juruena (Mato Grosso, Brasil e as plantas usadas para benzer e curar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Antunes Maciel

    Full Text Available O 'benzimento' é forma antiga no tratamento de várias doenças, utilizada na Europa desde a Idade Média. No Brasil, os benzedores surgiram a partir do século XVII. Interpretações dos conhecimentos, uso tradicional dos recursos vegetais e manejo realizado por benzedores, raizeiros e parteiras são fonte de pesquisa nos estudos etnobotânicos. Benzedores indicam plantas para efeito de cura ou como amuletos protetores, com a presença destas formas de uso da flora na cultura popular. Este estudo foi realizado em Juruena, Mato Grosso, com aplicação de técnicas de observação participante, entrevistas semi-estruturadas (questões abertas/fechadas gravadas e amostras intencionais e a realizção de coleta de material botânico, depositado no Herbário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT. Teve o objetivo de compreender a importância das benzedeiras, identificar etnobotanicamente as plantas utilizadas, formas de prescrição e manipulação. Foram entrevistadas quatro benzedeiras no período de setembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, as quais demonstraram um conhecimento etnobotânico expressivo. Estas benzem, preparam e receitam chás, garrafadas, banhos e ungüentos. As enfermidades tratadas foram agrupadas em duas categorias: doenças físicas (dorde-dente, dor-de-barriga, verminoses, cobreiro, arca-caída, rendidura, erisipela etc e doenças espirituais (quebranto, mau-olhado, pessoas carregadas, encosto. Foram relatadas 87 etnoespécies, distribuídas em 31 famílias botânicas, dentre as quais se salientam erva-de-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus MIq., quina-do-mato (Strychnos sp St.Hil., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., guiné (Petiveria alliacea L. e comigo-ninguém-pode (Dieffenbachia picta L. A medicina popular praticada pelas benzedeiras vem ao encontro dos anseios das pessoas que buscam alívio para seus males, com valores e heran

  13. 南极Gerlache海峡海鸟的取食集群及食性%Feeding aggregation and diets of seabirds at Gerlache Strait, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco FAVERO; Néstor Bubén CORIA

    2007-01-01

    Foraging associations between flying seabirds and penguins were studied from December 1997 to February 1998 at Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula. Observations were complemented with dietary information on the main species observed in aggregations. An average of 35.6±37.0 flying birds per aggregation was observed, almost all of them associated to chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica groups. The most common species were kelp gulls Larus dominicanus, South Polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki, pintado petrels Daption capensis and southern giant petrels Macronectes giganteus. The number of associations observed per sampling unit decreased as the season progressed, in some species accordingly with particular stage of their phenology. Antarctic krill Euphausia superba was particularly important in the diet of most abundant flying bird species in assemblages. The overlap index for krill sizes consumed give highest values in the comparisons between kelp gulls and chinstrap penguins. The foraging behaviour of flying birds suggested that prey was available near the surface for short time periods, likely facilitated by movements of krill avoiding penguin predation[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):425-430,2007].%1997年12月至1998年2月,我们对南极半岛席尔瓦角善于飞翔海鸟与企鹅的取食关联性进行了研究,同时调查了取食集团中主要鸟种的食性.发现每个取食集团中有35.6-37.0只善于飞翔的海鸟,其中几乎都有纹颊企鹅群 (Pygoscelis antarctica),黑背鸥(Larus dominicanus)、灰贼鸥(Catharacta maccormicki)、花斑鹱(Daption capensis)和巨鹱(Macronectes giganteus)是各集团中最常见的鸟类.各取样单元内有相关性的种数随季节变化而减少,一些种类的减少与特定的物候期有关.南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)是绝大部分飞翔海鸟的主要食物,研究发现黑背鸥与纹颊企鹅所捕食的南极磷虾的大小最为接近.飞翔海鸟的觅食行为表明:在海面上短时停

  14. 珠海市典型区域生态景观林树种资源构建研究%Status Research of Afforestation Species of Ecological Landscape Forest in Zhuhai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐洪辉; 赵庆; 魏丹; 陈家平; 周咏文; 林溪

    2014-01-01

    以广东省珠海市2005-2009年间营建的生态景观林为研究对象,采用文献与理论、调查与评价的研究方法,对该地区的植物区系、植物资源进行初步研究,结果如下:(1)调查的24个典型样地以及沿途路线中,共有39种乔木,分属于19科31属;(2)有24种观赏性比较突出的植物:南洋楹、樟树、黎蒴、红锥、青冈、铁冬青、海南红豆、杨梅、红花荷、醉香含笑、大头茶、木荷、灰木莲、蓝花楹、海南蒲桃、银桦、山杜英、尖叶杜英、南酸枣、乌桕、山乌桕、木蜡树、枫香、楝叶吴茱萸;(3)将选取的24个样地利用SPSS 软件进行组间平均距离连接法聚类,划分为6个群系:米老排群系、樟树群系、金合欢属群系、木荷群系、山杜英+马占相思群系、大头茶群系。%based on themethod of investigation and evaluation, the plant resources and flora of ecological landscape forest planted between 2005 and 2009 in Zhuhai were studied.The results were as following: (1) there were a total of 39 species of trees, belonging to 19 families and 31 genus, in 24 typical plots as well as the route;(2) there were24 kinds of plants with high or namental value, including Albizia falcataria, Cinnamomum camphora, Castanopsis fissa, Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Ilex rotunda, Ormosia pinnata, Myrica rubra, Rhodoleia championii, Michelia macclurei, Gordonia axillaris, Schima superba, Manglietia glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Syzygium hainanense, Grevillea robusta, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Elaeocarpus apiculatus, Choerospondias axillaris, Sapium sebiferum, Sapium discolor, Toxicodendron succedaneum, Liquidambar for mosana and Cassia siamea; (3) using SPSS software for connecting the average distance between groups clustering, the selected 24 plots could be divided into six flora: Mytilaria laosensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Acacia, Schima superba, Elaeocarpus sylvestris+ Acacia mangium

  15. 沿海基岩质海岸防护林不同林分类型土壤有机碳库研究%Study on Soil Organic Carbon Pool under Different Rocky Coastal Protective Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高智慧; 张金池; 张晓勉; 张勇; 岳春雷; 陈贤田; 林荫; 王泳; 郭晓平; 王珺

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were implemented on content of soil organic carbon under 7 types of coastal protective forest in Zhejiang province. The result demonstrated that the content of total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, water-soluble organic carbon and mineralized carbon increased with the elevation gradient and decreased with the soil depth. Correlation analysis indicated that it had evident relationship among soil labile organic carbon pools under different forests. Integrated evaluation on organic carbon pools under 7 types of coastal protective forest resulted that these pools could be divided into 4 groups. They are:mixed forest of Wikstroemia monnula and Loropetalum chinense;pure Liquidambar formosana forest, mixed forest of Pinus elliottii and Schima superba, mixed forest of L. formosana and P. elliottii; pure Investigations were implemented on content of soil organic carbon under 7 types of coastal protective forest in Zhejiang province. The result demonstrated that the content of total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, readily oxidizable carbon, water-soluble organic carbon and mineralized carbon increased with the elevation gradient and decreased with the soil depth. Correlation analysis indicated that it had evident relationship among soil labile organic carbon pools under different forests. Integrated evaluation on organic carbon pools under 7 types of coastal protective forest resulted that these pools could be divided into 4 groups. They are:mixed forest of Wikstroemia monnula and Loropetalum chinense;pure Liquidambar formosana forest, mixed forest of Pinus elliottii and Schima superba, mixed forest of L. formosana and P. elliottii; pure Platycarya strobilacea and P. elliottii plantation; non-wood land.%对浙江省沿海基岩质海岸防护林7种不同林分类型土壤有机碳库进行测定。结果表明:7种林分类型土壤总有机碳含量、土壤微生物量碳含量、水溶性有机碳含量、

  16. 浙江省常见15个树种的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics for fifteen potted seedlings common to Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 温国胜; 张俊; 邹伶俐; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    为比较不同树种对光的适应能力和耐荫性,探讨树种在植被恢复过程中的配置依据,利用Licor-6400便携式光合仪,于2010年秋季测定了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens等15个浙江常见树种的光响应过程和光合日进程,并计算上述树种的光能利用率.研究结果表明:①所测15个树种的净光合速率日变化均呈单峰型,无“光合午休”现象.②东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa分别是阔叶、针叶和灌木树种中光能利用率峰值较高的树种.③光饱和点苦槠最高,浙江楠Phoebe chekiongensis最低;光补偿点马尾松Pinusmassoniana最高,红豆杉最低.④对光补偿点和光饱和点进行聚类分析,认为马尾松,乌冈Quercus phillyraeoides,属于强阳性树种;苦槠,美丽胡枝子,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboide,东南石栎归属于阳性树种;红花(槛)木Loropetalum chinense,红叶石楠Photinia×fraseri,杜英,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,木荷,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,红豆杉和浙江楠归类为耐荫树种,对弱光的利用能力较强.图5表1参16%To compare the light adaptation anil shade tolerance of 15 different tree species, and to provide development bases for tree species in the vegetative recovery process, diurnal changes of photosynthesis and light response characteristics for Castanopsis sclerophyila, Schima superba, Elaeocarpus decipiens, Sapium sebiferum, Lithocarpus harlandii, Lithocarpus glaber, Phoebe chekiangensis, Quercus phillyraeoides, Podocarpus nagi, Pinus massoniana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides , Taxus chinensis, Photinia x fraseri, Les-pedeza formosa, and Loropetaium chinense var. rubrum were measured by Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system in the autumn of 2010, Then, light use efficiency of the 15 potted seedlings was determined. Results showed that: 1) the diurnal process of the net

  17. Evolutionary history of the GABA transporter (GAT group revealed by marine invertebrate GAT-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Kinjo

    Full Text Available The GABA transporter (GAT group is one of the major subgroups in the solute career 6 (SLC6 family of transmembrane proteins. The GAT group, which has been well studied in mammals, has 6 known members, i.e., a taurine transporter (TAUT, four GABA transporters (GAT-1, -2, -3, - 4, and a creatine transporter (CT1, which have important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the GAT group has not been extensively investigated in invertebrates; only TAUT has been reported in marine invertebrates such as bivalves and krills, and GAT-1 has been reported in several insect species and nematodes. Thus, it is unknown how transporters in the GAT group arose during the course of animal evolution. In this study, we cloned GAT-1 cDNAs from the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, whose TAUT cDNA has already been cloned. To understand the evolutionary history of the GAT group, we conducted phylogenetic and synteny analyses on the GAT group transporters of vertebrates and invertebrates. Our findings suggest that transporters of the GAT group evolved through the following processes. First, GAT-1 and CT1 arose by tandem duplication of an ancestral transporter gene before the divergence of Deuterostomia and Protostomia; next, the TAUT gene arose and GAT-3 was formed by the tandem duplication of the TAUT gene; and finally, GAT-2 and GAT-4 evolved from a GAT-3 gene by chromosomal duplication in the ancestral vertebrates. Based on synteny and phylogenetic evidence, the present naming of the GAT group members does not accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships.

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Antarctic Krill Recruitment along the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, J. S.; Steinberg, D. K.; Thanassekos, S.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is impacting pelagic food web structure. Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, are a critical food-web link between primary producers and higher trophic levels such as penguins, seals, and whales. Climate-induced changes in krill recruitment are thus an important consideration when evaluating future WAP ecosystem trends. We examined long-term (1993 to 2015) and spatial (north/south) changes in summer krill recruitment. Krill were collected within the epipelagic zone during the Palmer Antarctica Long-Term Ecological Research (PAL LTER) cruises within a 700 x 260 km sampling grid along the WAP. Krill from each tow were enumerated and their lengths were measured. A simple recruitment index based on the proportion of krill smaller than 40 mm (F40) was used in our analyses. There was a significant 5-6-year cyclical trend in F40. In the last 5 years, the southern population has begun to deviate from this cycle. To investigate potential environmental factors leading to this pattern in recruitment success, F40 was regressed with environmental factors and climatological indices for both the whole PAL LTER grid and north/south sub-regions. Over the whole grid, F40 was positively correlated with chlorophyll a and primary production, both with a 1-year lag. Spatially, these trends were strongest for chlorophyll in the north, and primary production in the south. Krill recruitment in the south was also correlated to climatological indices such as the Multivariate El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). These correlations could be used to forecast future krill population changes.

  19. Factors that affect the nearshore aggregations of Antarctic krill in a biological hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kim S.; Cimino, Megan; Fraser, William; Kohut, Josh; Oliver, Matthew J.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna; Schofield, Oscar M. E.; Statscewich, Hank; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Winsor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is a highly abundant and ecologically important zooplankton species in the Southern Ocean. Regions of elevated Antarctic krill biomass exist around Antarctica, often as a result of the concentrating effect of bathymetry and ocean currents. Such areas are considered biological hotspots and are key foraging grounds for numerous top predators in the region. A hotspot of Antarctic krill biomass exists off the southern extent of Anvers Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula, and supports a population of Adélie penguins that feed almost exclusively on it, as well as numerous other top predators. We investigated the spatio-temporal variability in Antarctic krill biomass and aggregation structure over four consecutive summer seasons, identifying environmental factors that were responsible. We identified three distinct krill aggregation types (Large-dense, Small-close and Small-sparse), and found that the relative proportion of each type to total aggregation numbers varied significantly between survey days. Large-dense aggregations occurred more frequently when westerly winds predominated and when the local mixed tide was in the diurnal regime. Small-close aggregations were also more frequent during diurnal tides and were negatively correlated with phytoplankton biomass. Small-sparse aggregations, on the other hand, were more prevalent when the mixed tide was in the semi-diurnal phase. We suggest that, under certain conditions (i.e. diurnal tides and westerly winds), the biological hotspot in the nearshore waters off Palmer Station, Anvers Island, functions as a zone of accumulation, concentrating krill biomass. Our findings provide important information on the dynamics of Antarctic krill at the local scale.

  20. Recent trends in the intrinsic water-use efficiency of ringless rainforest trees in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Walsh, R P D; Robertson, I; Bidin, K; Ong, R C; Reynolds, G; McCarroll, D; Gagen, M; Young, G H F

    2011-11-27

    Stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) series were developed from analysis of sequential radial wood increments from AD 1850 to AD 2009 for four mature primary rainforest trees from the Danum and Imbak areas of Sabah, Malaysia. The aseasonal equatorial climate meant that conventional dendrochronology was not possible as the tree species investigated do not exhibit clear annual rings or dateable growth bands. Chronology was established using radiocarbon dating to model age-growth relationships and date the carbon isotopic series from which the intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE) was calculated. The two Eusideroxylon zwageri trees from Imbak yielded ages of their pith/central wood (±1 sigma) of 670 ± 40 and 759 ± 40 years old; the less dense Shorea johorensis and Shorea superba trees at Danum yielded ages of 240 ± 40 and 330 ± 40 years, respectively. All trees studied exhibit an increase in the IWUE since AD 1960. This reflects, in part, a response of the forest to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike studies of some northern European trees, no clear plateau in this response was observed. A change in the IWUE implies an associated modification of the local carbon and/or hydrological cycles. To resolve these uncertainties, a shift in emphasis away from high-resolution studies towards long, well-replicated time series is proposed to develop the environmental data essential for model evaluation. Identification of old (greater than 700 years) ringless trees demonstrates their potential in assessing the impacts of climatic and atmospheric change. It also shows the scientific and applied value of a conservation policy that ensures the survival of primary forest containing particularly old trees (as in Imbak Canyon and Danum).

  1. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL MODELLING APPROACHES, SAMPLING STRATEGIES AND 3S TECHNOLOGY WITHIN AN ECOLGOCIAL FRAMWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively describe ecological patterns in nature over broader spatial scales and build a modeling ecological framework has become an important issue in ecological research. We test four modeling methods (MAXENT, DOMAIN, GLM and ANN to predict the potential habitat of Schima superba (Chinese guger tree, CGT with different spatial scale in the Huisun study area in Taiwan. Then we created three sampling design (from small to large scales for model development and validation by different combinations of CGT samples from aforementioned three sites (Tong-Feng watershed, Yo-Shan Mountain, and Kuan-Dau watershed. These models combine points of known occurrence and topographic variables to infer CGT potential spatial distribution. Our assessment revealed that the method performance from highest to lowest was: MAXENT, DOMAIN, GLM and ANN on small spatial scale. The MAXENT and DOMAIN two models were the most capable for predicting the tree's potential habitat. However, the outcome clearly indicated that the models merely based on topographic variables performed poorly on large spatial extrapolation from Tong-Feng to Kuan-Dau because the humidity and sun illumination of the two watersheds are affected by their microterrains and are quite different from each other. Thus, the models developed from topographic variables can only be applied within a limited geographical extent without a significant error. Future studies will attempt to use variables involving spectral information associated with species extracted from high spatial, spectral resolution remotely sensed data, especially hyperspectral image data, for building a model so that it can be applied on a large spatial scale.

  2. Spatial Patterns and Interspecific Associations of Three Canopy Species at Different Life Stages in a Subtropical Forest,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Shi-Guang Wei; Zhong-Liang Huang; Wan-Hui Ye; Hong-Lin Cao

    2008-01-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence.Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L12(t) functions,we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve.Based on diameter at breast height (DBH),four life stages were distinguished.Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution.Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve.L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales.From the analysis of L12(t) function,the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages.Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages.Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales.Considering these results,we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration.There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals.Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species.Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages,therefore,intra-and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  3. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Ken P; Seakamela, S Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A; Kirkman, Stephen P; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S; Kotze, Pieter G H; McCue, Steven A; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding events

  4. Notes on the family Brassicaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A GERMAN; Wen-Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A critical revision of the collections of Brassicaceae in some Chinese (PE, XJA, XJBI, XJFA, XJNM, XJU) and foreign (LE, P) herbaria is made. One genus, Neurotropis (DC.) E K. Mey., and 11 species, Alyssum szarabiacum Nyar., Barbarea stricta Andrz., Erysimum czernjajevii N. Busch, Erysimum kotuchovii D. German, Erysimum mongolicum D. German, Lepidium karelinianum A1-Shehbaz, Matthiola superba Conti, Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. & Mey.) E K. Mey., Ptilotrichum dahuricum Peschkova, Sisymbrium subspinescens Bunge, and Smelowskia micrantha (Botsch. & Vved.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, are reported from China for the first time. Six species, Aphragmus involucratus (Bunge) O. E. Schulz, Dontostemonperennis C. A. Mey., Goldbachia torulosa DC., Lepidium amplexicaule Willd., Neotorularia brevipes (Kar. & Kir.) Hedge & J. Leonard, and Parrya stenocarpa Kar. & Kir., are confirmed to occurr in China. Five species, Dontostemon integrifolius (L.) C. A. Mey., Draba zangbeiensis L. L. Lou, Lepidium alashanicum H. L. Yang, Sinapis arvensis L., and Strigosella brevipes (Btmge) Botsch., are reported as novelties for some provinces in China, and Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Borsch. occurs in Xinjiang, China. However, the occurrence of one genus, Pseudoarabidopsis Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, and four species, Draba huetii Boiss., Eutrema halophilum (C. A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, Galitzkya spathulata (Steph. ex Willd.) V. Bocz., and Pseudoarabidopsis toxophylla (Bieb.) Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, could not be confirmed in China. The occurrence of six species, Aphragmus bouffordii Al-Shehbaz, Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., Lepidium latifolium L., Ptilotrichum canescens (DC.) C. A. Mey., Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Botsch., and Strigosella scorpioides (Bunge) Botsch., is not confirmed in certain provinces of China. All names follow the latest taxonomic treatment for relevant groups; detailed morphological descriptions of the newly recorded taxa are provided; and distinguishing

  5. The structure of cystoliths in selected taxa of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummu-Hani, B.; Noraini, T.

    2013-11-01

    A study was undertaken on mature leaves of 15 taxa of the genus Ficus in Peninsular Malaysia. The main objectives of this study are to determine the morphology and distribution of cystoliths in the epidermal layers of the leaf lamina in selected taxa of Ficus. The morphology of cystoliths is classified based on its size, shape, colour, and the presence of stalk cystolith. There are seven types of cystolith morphology observed in this study. Most of the cystoliths are either solitary, elongated, narrow or broad, and pointed or blunt at one or both ends. However, double- and rarely triple-cystoliths are also present in some species. The size of the cystoliths varies even within the same species. Based on the position of cystoliths, all the 15 taxa studied can be generally classified into three groups: Group 1 - with cystoliths adjacent to the adaxial epidermis layer (F. annulata, F. benghalensis and F. superba), Group 2 - with cystoliths adjacent to the abaxial epidermis layer (F. aurantiacea, F. lepicarpa, F. hispida, F. obscura var. borneensis, F. religiosa, F. schwarzii, F. ucinata and F. vasculosa), and Group 3 - with cystoliths present in both adaxial and abaxial epidermis layers (F. benjamina, F. depressa, F. microcarpa and F. tinctoria). Based on the occurrence of cystoliths, the types of lithocysts were related to the number of epidermal layers, i.e. hair-like lithocysts in uniseriate epidermis is present in all species studied. However, the characteristics of the cystoliths may not suitably be used as a taxonomic marker but it can be useful as additional character for group identification in Ficusper.

  6. Phosphorus uptake in four tree species under nitrogen addition in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juxiu; Li, Yiyong; Xu, Yue; Liu, Shuange; Huang, Wenjuan; Fang, Xiong; Yin, Guangcai

    2017-07-10

    Atmospheric N deposition is a serious problem in subtropical China where N is present in large amounts but P is deficient. Several studies hypothesized that N2 fixers can overcome phosphorus limitation by trading fixed N2 for soil phosphorus. In order to know whether N2 fixers could invest fixed N2 in extracellular phosphatase production and could stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to acquire soil P in N-rich subtropical China, an open-air greenhouse experiment was carried out. Two N2 fixers (Acacia mangium and Ormosia pinnata) and two non-N2 fixers (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) were exposed to three levels of N addition: 5.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1) (ambient N), 15.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1) (middle N), and 20.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1) (high N). We found that the capacity of plants to acquire soil P in N-rich subtropical China is species specific. The higher P uptake rates were found for N2 fixers than non-N2 fixers under N addition, which were related to the greater soil APA and higher AMF (p < 0.01) in the soil of N2 fixers. However, with time, high N addition decreased more significant quantities of soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the soil of N2 fixers than that of non-N2 fixers (p < 0.05). We conclude that N2 fixers have higher P uptake capacity than non-N2 fixers under ambient N deposition in subtropical China. However, continuing N deposition in the future might affect P uptake ability of N2 fixers as high N addition would decrease soil microbial PLFAs of N2 fixers.

  7. Marine and terrestrial factors affecting Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae chick growth and recruitment off the western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine A.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual-based bioenergetics model that simulates the growth of an Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaechick from hatching to fledging was used to assess marine and terrestrial factors that affect chick growth and fledging mass off the western Antarctic Peninsula. Simulations considered the effects on Adélie penguin fledging mass of (1) modification of chick diet through the addition of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum to an all-Antarctic krillEuphausia superba diet, (2) reduction of provisioning rate which may occur as a result of an environmental stress such as reduced prey availability, and (3) increased thermoregulatory costs due to wetting of chicks which may result from increased precipitation or snow-melt in colonies. Addition of 17% Antarctic silverfish of Age-Class 3 yr (AC3) to a penguin chick diet composed of Antarctic krill increased chick fledging mass by 5%. Environmental stress that results in >4% reduction in provisioning rate or wetting of just 10% of the chick’s surface area decreased fledging mass enough to reduce the chick’s probability of successful recruitment. The negative effects of reduced provisioning and wetting on chick growth can be compensated for by inclusion of Antarctic silverfish of AC3 and older in the chick diet. Results provide insight into climate-driven processes that influence chick growth and highlight a need for field research designed to investigate factors that determine the availability of AC3 and older Antarctic silverfish to foraging Adélie penguins and the influence of snowfall on chick wetting, thermoregulation and adult provisioning rate.

  8. Development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen forest in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Xia, Lingdan; Li, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China. We measured the main developmental parameters of three typical defoliating insects (i.e., Ourapteryx ebuleata szechuana, Biston marginata, and Euproctis angulata) and their preferences for five host plants at temperatures from 16°C to 31°C at 3°C intervals in the Tiantong National Forest Research station in eastern China. The results showed the following. 1) An appropriate rise in temperature increases the survival rate with an increase in the number of offspring. The developmental durations for these three insects were shortened, and pupal weight increased with an increase in temperature. 2) A shift in the preference for host plants for these three insects was observedat elevated temperatures. They all preferred to feed on Schima superba and Castanopsis sclerophylla at elevated temperatures, showing an opposite response to the other three plants. The daily leaf consumption of the three insects was positively correlated with their feeding preference, with more leaves being consumed from the plants they preferred. 3) For O. ebuleata szechuana larvae, daily leaf consumption initially increased and then decreased with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Biston marginata and Euproctis angulata larvae consumed more leaves at elevated temperatures. The feeding preferences of O. ebuleata szechuana and Biston marginata were more sensitive to changing temperatures than that of Euproctis angulata laevae. We concluded that increased numbers of offspring and generations, pupal weights, and a shift in preference to two plants for these three defoliating insects might lead to severe damage to these two plants which would enhance the fragmentation and decrease the stability of the forest communities under changing temperatures. Meanwhile, the variations in the responses of

  9. Ecological niche modeling of sympatric krill predators around Marguerite Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Fraser, William R.; Burns, Jennifer; Halpin, Patrick N.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Adélie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae), carabeater seals ( Lobodon carcinophagus), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and minke whales ( Balaenoptera bonaernsis) are found in the waters surrounding the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Each species relies primarily on Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and has physiological constraints and foraging behaviors that dictate their ecological niches. Understanding the degree of ecological overlap between sympatric krill predators is critical to understanding and predicting the impacts on climate-driven changes to the Antarctic marine ecosystem. To explore ecological relationships amongst sympatric krill predators, we developed ecological niche models using a maximum entropy modeling approach (Maxent) that allows the integration of data collected by a variety of means (e.g. satellite-based locations and visual observations). We created spatially explicit probability distributions for the four krill predators in fall 2001 and 2002 in conjunction with a suite of environmental variables. We find areas within Marguerite Bay with high krill predator occurrence rates or biological hot spots. We find the modeled ecological niches for Adélie penguins and crabeater seals may be affected by their physiological needs to haul-out on substrate. Thus, their distributions may be less dictated by proximity to prey and more so by physical features that over time provide adequate access to prey. Humpback and minke whales, being fully marine and having greater energetic demands, occupy ecological niches more directly proximate to prey. We also find evidence to suggest that the amount of overlap between modeled niches is relatively low, even for species with similar energetic requirements. In a rapidly changing and variable environment, our modeling work shows little indication that krill predators maintain similar ecological niches across years around Marguerite Bay. Given the amount of variability in the marine environment around the

  10. Super-aggregations of krill and humpback whales in Wilhelmina Bay, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Douglas P; Friedlaender, Ari S; Halpin, Patrick N; Hazen, Elliott L; Johnston, David W; Read, Andrew J; Espinasse, Boris; Zhou, Meng; Zhu, Yiwu

    2011-04-27

    Ecological relationships of krill and whales have not been explored in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), and have only rarely been studied elsewhere in the Southern Ocean. In the austral autumn we observed an extremely high density (5.1 whales per km(2)) of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding on a super-aggregation of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in Wilhelmina Bay. The krill biomass was approximately 2 million tons, distributed over an area of 100 km(2) at densities of up to 2000 individuals m(-3); reports of such 'super-aggregations' of krill have been absent in the scientific literature for >20 years. Retentive circulation patterns in the Bay entrained phytoplankton and meso-zooplankton that were grazed by the krill. Tagged whales rested during daylight hours and fed intensively throughout the night as krill migrated toward the surface. We infer that the previously unstudied WAP embayments are important foraging areas for whales during autumn and, furthermore, that meso-scale variation in the distribution of whales and their prey are important features of this system. Recent decreases in the abundance of Antarctic krill around the WAP have been linked to reductions in sea ice, mediated by rapid climate change in this area. At the same time, baleen whale populations in the Southern Ocean, which feed primarily on krill, are recovering from past exploitation. Consideration of these features and the effects of climate change on krill dynamics are critical to managing both krill harvests and the recovery of baleen whales in the Southern Ocean.

  11. Effect of animal-borne camera and flash on the diving behaviour of the female Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Hooker, Sascha K.

    2008-09-01

    Studies have documented effects of drag created by data-logging units attached to seals, but the effect of visual stimuli from such units has not been investigated. We evaluated potential effects of camera attachment including near-infrared flash operation by comparing the diving behaviour of 15 female Antarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella) with cameras and 10 seals without cameras. Irrespective of the presence of the camera or flash, all seals exhibited an expected diel dive pattern with shallower, shorter dives, less time at the bottom of a dive, and slower ascent and descent rates at night following krill vertical migration. We also observed a previously unreported foraging trip dive pattern with faster ascents and descents near the end of trips. With cameras present, dive duration and bottom time increased and ascents were slower. During flash operation, dive duration increased and bottom time remained constant throughout the day contrary to the expected diel trend. Also during flash operation, bottom time was shorter at the beginning of a foraging trip and dives were deeper, with longer duration and bottom time later in the trip. We were unable to conclude whether the flash emission spectrum overlapped with the visual sensitivity of seals and Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) since visual sensitivity data for seals and krill at longer wavelengths were not available. It is possible that the flash was bright enough for the seals or krill to detect; however, although there was a change in diving behaviour observed during flash operation this behaviour was within the range of values normally observed for these seals and should not cause ethical concern.

  12. Humpback whale “super-groups” – A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seakamela, S. Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A.; Kirkman, Stephen P.; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E.; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S.; Kotze, Pieter G. H.; McCue, Steven A.; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O. Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent “fishy” smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding

  13. Super-aggregations of krill and humpback whales in Wilhelmina Bay, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Nowacek

    Full Text Available Ecological relationships of krill and whales have not been explored in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP, and have only rarely been studied elsewhere in the Southern Ocean. In the austral autumn we observed an extremely high density (5.1 whales per km(2 of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae feeding on a super-aggregation of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba in Wilhelmina Bay. The krill biomass was approximately 2 million tons, distributed over an area of 100 km(2 at densities of up to 2000 individuals m(-3; reports of such 'super-aggregations' of krill have been absent in the scientific literature for >20 years. Retentive circulation patterns in the Bay entrained phytoplankton and meso-zooplankton that were grazed by the krill. Tagged whales rested during daylight hours and fed intensively throughout the night as krill migrated toward the surface. We infer that the previously unstudied WAP embayments are important foraging areas for whales during autumn and, furthermore, that meso-scale variation in the distribution of whales and their prey are important features of this system. Recent decreases in the abundance of Antarctic krill around the WAP have been linked to reductions in sea ice, mediated by rapid climate change in this area. At the same time, baleen whale populations in the Southern Ocean, which feed primarily on krill, are recovering from past exploitation. Consideration of these features and the effects of climate change on krill dynamics are critical to managing both krill harvests and the recovery of baleen whales in the Southern Ocean.

  14. Investigating the effect of recruitment variability on length-based recruitment indices for antarctic krill using an individual-based population dynamics model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Thanassekos

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; herein krill is monitored as part of an on-going fisheries observer program that collects length-frequency data. A krill feedback management programme is currently being developed, and as part of this development, the utility of data-derived indices describing population level processes is being assessed. To date, however, little work has been carried out on the selection of optimum recruitment indices and it has not been possible to assess the performance of length-based recruitment indices across a range of recruitment variability. Neither has there been an assessment of uncertainty in the relationship between an index and the actual level of recruitment. Thus, until now, it has not been possible to take into account recruitment index uncertainty in krill stock management or when investigating relationships between recruitment and environmental drivers. Using length-frequency samples from a simulated population - where recruitment is known - the performance of six potential length-based recruitment indices is assessed, by exploring the index-to-recruitment relationship under increasing levels of recruitment variability (from ±10% to ±100% around a mean annual recruitment. The annual minimum of the proportion of individuals smaller than 40 mm (F40 min, % was selected because it had the most robust index-to-recruitment relationship across differing levels of recruitment variability. The relationship was curvilinear and best described by a power law. Model uncertainty was described using the 95% prediction intervals, which were used to calculate coverage probabilities and assess model performance. Despite being the optimum recruitment index, the performance of F40 min degraded under high (>50% recruitment variability. Due to the persistence of cohorts in the population over several years, the inclusion of F40 min values from preceding years in the relationship used to estimate recruitment in a given year

  15. Investigating the effect of recruitment variability on length-based recruitment indices for antarctic krill using an individual-based population dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanassekos, Stéphane; Cox, Martin J; Reid, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba; herein krill) is monitored as part of an on-going fisheries observer program that collects length-frequency data. A krill feedback management programme is currently being developed, and as part of this development, the utility of data-derived indices describing population level processes is being assessed. To date, however, little work has been carried out on the selection of optimum recruitment indices and it has not been possible to assess the performance of length-based recruitment indices across a range of recruitment variability. Neither has there been an assessment of uncertainty in the relationship between an index and the actual level of recruitment. Thus, until now, it has not been possible to take into account recruitment index uncertainty in krill stock management or when investigating relationships between recruitment and environmental drivers. Using length-frequency samples from a simulated population - where recruitment is known - the performance of six potential length-based recruitment indices is assessed, by exploring the index-to-recruitment relationship under increasing levels of recruitment variability (from ±10% to ±100% around a mean annual recruitment). The annual minimum of the proportion of individuals smaller than 40 mm (F40 min, %) was selected because it had the most robust index-to-recruitment relationship across differing levels of recruitment variability. The relationship was curvilinear and best described by a power law. Model uncertainty was described using the 95% prediction intervals, which were used to calculate coverage probabilities and assess model performance. Despite being the optimum recruitment index, the performance of F40 min degraded under high (>50%) recruitment variability. Due to the persistence of cohorts in the population over several years, the inclusion of F40 min values from preceding years in the relationship used to estimate recruitment in a given year improved its

  16. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebes, Philipp; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Kühn, Peter; Li, Ying; Seitz, Steffen; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree's leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species.

  17. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Goebes

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree's leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA, leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD, crown base height (CBH, tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species.

  18. Changes in the distribution of South Korean forest vegetation simulated using thermal gradient indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI; Sungho; LEE; Woo-Kyun; SON; Yowhan; YOO; Seongjin; LIM; Jong-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    To predict changes in South Korean vegetation distribution,the Warmth Index(WI) and the Minimum Temperature of the Coldest Month Index(MTCI) were used.Historical climate data of the past 30 years,from 1971 to 2000,was obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration.The Fifth-Generation National Center for Atmospheric Research(NCAR) /Penn State Mesoscale Model(MM5) was used as a source for future climatic data under the A1B scenario from the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC).To simulate future vegetation distribution due to climate change,the optimal habitat ranges of Korean tree species were delimited by the thermal gradient indices,such as WI and MTCI.To categorize the Thermal Analogy Groups(TAGs) for the tree species,the WI and MTCI were orthogonally plotted on a two-dimensional grid map.The TAGs were then designated by the analogue composition of tree species belonging to the optimal WI and MTCI ranges.As a result of the clustering process,22 TAGs were generated to explain the forest vegetation distribution in Korea.The primary change in distribution for these TAGs will likely be in the shrinkage of areas for the TAGs related to Pinus densiflora and P.koraiensis,and in the expansion of the other TAG areas,mainly occupied by evergreen broad-leaved trees,such as Camellia japonica,Cyclobalanopsis glauca,and Schima superba.Using the TAGs to explain the effects of climate change on vegetation distribution on a more regional scale resulted in greater detail than previously used global or continental scale vegetation models.

  19. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  20. Spatially explicit estimates of prey consumption reveal a new krill predator in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Andrea; Lea, Mary-Anne; van den Hoff, John; Field, Iain C; Virtue, Patti; Sokolov, Sergei; Pinkerton, Matt H; Hindell, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Development in foraging behaviour and dietary intake of many vertebrates are age-structured. Differences in feeding ecology may correlate with ontogenetic shifts in dispersal patterns, and therefore affect foraging habitat and resource utilization. Such life-history traits have important implications in interpreting tropho-dynamic linkages. Stable isotope ratios in the whiskers of sub-yearling southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina; n = 12) were used, in conjunction with satellite telemetry and environmental data, to examine their foraging habitat and diet during their first foraging migration. The trophic position of seals from Macquarie Island (54°30'S, 158°57'E) was estimated using stable carbon (δ(1) (3)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) ratios along the length of the whisker, which provided a temporal record of prey intake. Satellite-relayed data loggers provided details on seal movement patterns, which were related to isotopic concentrations along the whisker. Animals fed in waters south of the Polar Front (>60°S) or within Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) Statistical Subareas 88.1 and 88.2, as indicated by both their depleted δ(1) (3)C (consumption of euphausiids and most probably, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which constitute an abundant, easily accessible source of prey in water masses used by this age class of seals. Isotopic assessment and concurrent tracking of seals are successfully used here to identify ontogenetic shifts in broad-scale foraging habitat use and diet preferences in a highly migratory predator.

  1. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in seafood by ion chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tingting; Ji, Hongwei; Li, Huixin; Cui, He; Song, Tian; Duan, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Qianlin; Cai, Feng; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Ion chromatography-ultra violet-hydride generation-Atomic Florescence Spectrometry was applied to detect 5 arsenic species in seafoods. The arsenic species studied include arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenate (As(V)), which were extracted from samples using 2% formic acid. Gradient elution using 33 mmol L-1 CH3COONH4 and 15 mmol L-1 Na2CO3 with 10 mL CH3CH2OH at pH 8.4 allowed the chromatographic separation of all the species on a Hamilton PRP-X100 anion-exchange column in less than 8 min. In this study, an ultrasound extraction method was used to extract arsenic species from seafood. The extraction efficiency was good and the recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 72.6%-109%; the precision between sample replicates was higher than 3.6% for all determinations. The detection limits were 3.543 μg L-1 for AsB, 0.426 μg L-1 for As(III), 0.216 μg L-1 for DMA, 0.211 μg L-1 for MMA, and 0.709 μg L-1 for As(V), and the linear coefficients were greater than 0.999. We also developed an application of this method for the determination of arsenic species in bonito, Euphausia superba, and Enteromorpha with satisfactory results. Therefore, it was confirmed that this method was appropriate for the detection of arsenic species in seafood.

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  3. A estrutura do sub-bosque de povoamentos homogêneos de Mimosa scabrella bentham, em área minerada, em Poços de Caldas, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and structural survey of the natural regeneration of shrubby and arboreal species of the understory of an established homogeneous plantation of Mimosa scabrella Bentham was corried out viewing, the reclamation of a mined area, in Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Nineteen plots of 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m were used and the shrubby and arboreal individuals measuring equal or above 30 cm were sampled and 1,946 individuals belonging to 63 botanic families were found. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm, in each of the 19 plots, and the contents of sand, silt,clay, organic matters, pH nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were analysed. The influence of the soil variables upon the density of the sampled species was analysed using the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A significative correlation was verified among these variables at a level of 5% of probability using the Monte Carlo test. The species Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba and Casearia sylvestris presented a close to indifferent behaviour in relation to the soil variables studied, and these species largely surpassed the other species in relation to the floristic and the strutured parameters. This behaviour reinforces the indication of the species, made by NAPPO (1999, as having a potential for use in mixed and enrichment plantation in condition similar to those of the studied area. The identification and mensuration of the enviromental variables and of the history of the area are important pieces for the understanding of the process of population dynamics, and particularly, for degraded area getting to the reclamation phase.

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY OF PURE STAND OF Mimosa scabrella Bentham IN MINED AREA, IN POÇOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and structural survey of the natural regeneration of shrubby and arboreal species of the understory of an established homogeneous plantation of Mimosa scabrella Bentham was corried out  viewing, the  reclamation  of  a  mined  area,  in  Poços de  Caldas, Minas  Gerais State, Brazil. Nineteen  plots of 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m were used and the shrubby and arboreal individuals measuring equal or above 30 cm were sampled and 1,946 individuals belonging to 63 botanic families were found. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm, in each of the 19 plots, and the contents of sand, silt,clay, organic matters, pH nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were analysed. The influence of the soil variables upon the density of the sampled species was analysed using the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A significative correlation was verified among these variables at a level of 5% of probability using the Monte Carlo test. The species Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba and Casearia sylvestris presented a close to indifferent behaviour in relation to the soil variables studied, and these species largely surpassed the other species in relation to the floristic and the strutured parameters. This behaviour reinforces the indication of the species, made by NAPPO (1999, as having a potential for use in mixed and enrichment plantation in condition similar to those of the studied area. The identification and mensuration of the enviromental variables and of the history of the area are important pieces for the understanding of the process of population dynamics, and particularly, for degraded area getting to the reclamation phase.

  5. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Potential Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Forest Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Xue-Jun; ZHOU Guo-Yi; HUANG Zhong-Liang; LIU Ju-Xiu; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a serious environmental problem worldwide. In this study, a pot experiment using forest soils planted with the seedlings of four woody species was performed with weekly treatments of pH 4.40, 4.00, 3.52, and 3.05 simulated acid rain (SAR) for 42 months compared to a control of pH 5.00 lake water. The cumulative amounts of C and N mineralization in the five treated soils were determined after incubation at 25 ℃ for 65 d to examine the effects of SAR treatments.For all five treatments, cumulative CO2-C production ranged from 20.24 to 27.81 mg kg-1 dry soil, net production of available N from 17.37 to 48.95 mg kg-1 dry soil, and net production of NO-3-N from 9.09 to 46.23 mg kg-1 dry soil. SAR treatments generally enhanced the emission of CO2-C from the soils; however, SAR with pH 3.05 inhibited the emission.SAR treatments decreased the net production of available N and NO3-N. The cumulative CH4 and N2O productions from the soils increased with increasing amount of simulated acid rain. The cumulative CO2-C production and the net production of available N of the soil under Acmena acuminatissima were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than those under Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna. The mineralization of soil organic C was related to the contents of soil organic C and N, but was not related to soil pH. However, the overall effect of acid rain on the storage of soil organic matter and the cycling of important nutrients depended on the amount of acid deposition and the types of forests.

  6. 增补UV-B辐射下南亚热带森林建群树种叶片对UV-B辐射的防护%UV-B Screening in Leaves of Constructive Tree Species of Low Subtropical Forest under Supplementary UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 孙谷畴; 曾小平

    2008-01-01

    研究了我国南亚热带森林5种建群树种UV-B辐射诱导的UV-B吸收物质(在280~320 nm波长下测定)的积累及抗UV-B辐射的可能性保护机制.增补UV-B辐射下,马尾松(Pinus massoniana)针叶的甲醇可溶性提取物和细胞壁的碱提取酚类的含量明显高于正常水平的光辐射下.红椎(Castanopsis hystrix)和厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)叶片的这些化学物质也升高,意味着增补UV-B辐射刺激UV-B辐射吸收物质的生成,形成抗UV-B辐射的功能性保护结构.然而,自然光下已含有大量细胞壁碱提取酚类的荷木(Schima superba)和藜蒴(Castanopsis fissa),这些化合物在增补UV-B辐射下则见下降,很有可能表皮层细胞壁碱提取酚类被转移到含有较低甲醇可溶性色素的液胞可溶性化合物里,这一现象意示着可能涉及叶肉组织光合机构的保护策略.增补UV-B下,马尾松针叶的叶绿素a和b含量不受影响,而其他4种阔叶树叶片则下降10.7% 到16.8%不等.胡萝卜素对增补UV-B辐射的响应变化不一,红椎和荷木的胡萝卜素水平下降,而马尾松、厚壳桂和藜蒴的胡萝卜素则上升,后者也许与功能性增加激发能耗散有关.结果显示,自然条件下不同树种展示出不同的驯化策略以形成抗UV-B辐射增加的防护机制.表4参29%The accumulation of UV-B absorbing materials (measured at the wavelength band of 280~320 nm) induced by UV-B radiation and possible involvement of a protective screening against UV-B radiation were investigated in five constructive species of low subtropical forest in South China. The methanol soluble extracts and alkali-extractable cell wall-bound phendics were significantly higher in needles of Pinus massoniana under supplementary UV-B radiation than under normal level of sunlight. These compounds were also enhanced in leaves of Castanopsis hystrix and Cryptocarya chinensis, implying that the supplementary UV-B radiation stimulated the synthesis

  7. 模拟大气氮沉降对不同树种土壤微生物生物量的影响%Effects of Simulated Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Biomass of Different Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萍萍; 郑丽丽; 黄幸然; 吴旺旺; 卓振华; 易志刚

    2015-01-01

    energy flow in ecosystem. Nitrogen deposition can influence the growth and proliferation of microorganisms, which can change the community structure and function, and then affect the material circulation and energy flow of soil ecosystem. Nitrogen deposition was simulated in laboratory, and the effects of nitrogen deposition on the soil microbes were examined with phospholipid fatty acids technique with different tree species, namely Schima superba, Ormosia pinnata, Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium. The results showed that bacteria, over 40%of soil microbial biomass, was the main component of soil microbial biomass at current nitrogen deposition. Both sampling times (P<0.01) and tree species (P<0.05) had significant effects on the total soil microbial biomass and bacteria biomass. Soil microbial biomass (the total soil microorganisms, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) in October were higher than those in April for the same tree species, with the highest for Acacia mangium (total soil microbial biomass was 76.78 nmol·g-1, bacteria biomass was 33.94 nmol·g-1, fungi biomass was 6.91 nmol·g-1, actinomycetes biomass was 8.38 nmol·g-1) and the lowest for Schima superba (total soil microbial biomass was 57.89 nmol·g-1, bacteria biomass was 24.79 nmol·g-1, fungi biomass was 4.16 nmol·g-1, actinomycetes biomass was 5.57 nmol·g-1) in April, and the highest for Ormosia pinnata (total soil microbial biomass was 92.67 nmol·g-1, bacteria biomass was 38.85 nmol·g-1, fungi biomass was 8.09 nmol·g-1, actinomycetes biomass was 9.27 nmol·g-1) and the lowest for Schima superba (total soil microbial biomass was 71.10 nmol·g-1, bacteria biomass was 30.79 nmol·g-1, fungi biomass was 4.90 nmol·g-1, actinomycetes biomass was 7.04 nmol·g-1) in October. Actinomycete was effected significantly by the interaction of tree species and sampling times (P<0.05). The result also indicated that the total microbial biomass had significantly positive correlation with ammonium nitrogen (P

  8. Effect of fertilizer and water content on N2O emission from three plantation soils in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-an; ZOU Bi; XIA Han-ping; DING Yong-zhen; TAN Wan-neng; MA Zhen-rong

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fertilizers and water content on N2O emission were studied using the three most typical plantation soils. Soil incubations were performed and fertilization and water content treatments were designed. At 25 % of saturated water content(SWC), N2O emissions from the soil treated with urea, KNO3, (NH4)2 SO4 and KH2 PO4 were compared at application rates of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 500kg/hm2 . At 80% of SWC, similar experiments were carried out but at only one application rate(500 kg/hm2 ). N2O emissions at various water contents(20%, 35%, 50%, 65%, 80% and 100% of SWC) were studied. At low water content(25% of SWC), neither nitrogen However, at high water content(80 % SWC), the fertilizers resulted in much greater N2O emission irregardless of soil tested. The highest low level but steadily increased to a very high level for the soil treated with KNO3. High NO3- content was a basis of high level of N2O emission. N2O emission rates from soils peaked shortly after flooding, rapidly dropping to a very low level in soil from non-legume plantations, but lasting for a relatively long period in soil from legume plantations. When soil water content increased equaling to or higher than 65%, the accumulated N2O emission over a period of 13 d ranged from 20.21-29.78 mg/m2 for S. superba, 30.57-70.12 mg/m2 for P. elliottii and 300.89-430.51 mg/m2 for A. mangium. The critical water content was 50% of SWC, above which a high level of N2O emission could be expected, and below which very little N2O emissions were detected. The results suggest that, at low water content( <50% of SWC), the fertilization practice is safe with regard to N2O emissions, but at high water content( > 50% of SWC), nitrogen fertilizer in the form of nitrate could yield a 100-fold increase in N2O emissions. Legume plantations like A. mangium should be avoided in low lands which could easily suffer from flooding or poor drainage.

  9. Metabolism of Antarctic micronektonic crustacea across a summer ice-edge bloom: respiration, composition, and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph; Kawall, Helena; Geiger, Stephen P.; Torres, Joseph J.

    2004-08-01

    The Antarctic marginal ice zone is an important oceanic front separating the pack-ice and open-water environments. During summer, the retreating pack ice creates a meltwater lens in the euphotic zone, allowing primary producers and microheterotrophs to flourish in a discrete bloom just seaward of the retreating ice edge that lasts about 60 days. The purpose of the present study was to see if the ice-edge bloom had a discernible effect on the metabolism and physiological condition of Antarctic micronekton similar to that observed in zooplankton species. We also wished to assess the importance of the summer season to species' life cycles. Two major data sets were collected on 25 species in the following taxonomic groups: amphipods, cephalopods, decapods, euphausiids, isopods, mysids, ostracods, and polychaetes. The first data set described the metabolic rates of individuals in areas of the marginal ice zone with widely different levels of chlorophyll biomass to investigate the effect of the ice-edge bloom on metabolism. Additionally, summer metabolic rates were compared with data from other seasons. The second data set detailed the levels of protein, water, ash, RNA and DNA, and the activities of metabolic enzymes (citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) to examine the efficacy of biochemical indices as predictive tools for metabolism. Results suggested that the mobility of the micronektonic species eliminated most direct effects of the bloom on metabolism. Individuals captured in very different productivity regimes showed few significant differences in the metabolic indicators listed above. Isolated cases of changes in body composition and enzyme activity, however, implied that longer-term effects of the bloom may be exhibited. Seasonal increases in metabolism from winter to summer were observed in the euphausiids Euphausia superba, E. triacantha, and Thysanoessa macrura and the amphipod Vibilia stebbingi. It was concluded that the seasonal shifts were indicative

  10. UV-B辐射对亚热带森林凋落叶分解的影响%Effects of UV-B Radiation on Leaf Litter Decomposition in Humid Subtropical Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋新章; 张慧玲; 江洪; 余树全

    2012-01-01

    The leaf litter decomposition of six representative tree species, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana, Schima superba, Cinnamomum camphora, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis eyeri, in subtropical region was investigated with litterbag method under ambient and reduced ultraviolet-B ( UV-B ) radiation (22. 1 % below ambient) treatments. The results showed that there were differences in litter mass remaining rates of each species under two UV-B radiation treatments, except for a few decay stages during decomposition, and the difference became more obvious with decay time. The reduced UV-B significantly decreased the litter decomposition rates of six species by an extent from 33.3% for C. Camphora to 69.6% for C. Lanceolata (P < 0.01). Both UV-B radiation treatment and litter type significantly affected litter decomposition rate ( P < 0. 001 ) , with a stronger effect of UV-B radiation than litter type. There were significantly negative correlations between decomposition rate and C = N ratio of leaf litter under both ambient and reduced UV-B radiation treatments (P <0. 05).%采用分解袋法研究自然和UV-B辐射滤减2种环境下6种亚热带代表性树种(杉木、马尾松、木荷、香樟、青冈和甜槠)凋落叶的分解情况.结果表明:除个别分解阶段外,各树种凋落叶在2种UV-B辐射环境下的干质量剩余率均存在显著差异,且随着分解时间延长,差异逐渐加大;与对照相比,UV-B辐射滤减显著降低了6个树种凋落叶的分解速率(P<0.01),降幅为33.3%~69.6%,对香樟凋落叶分解的影响最小,对杉木凋落叶分解的影响最大;UV-B辐射处理和凋落物类型对凋落叶的分解速率均有极显著影响(P<0.001),以UV-B辐射的影响更强烈;自然和UV-B辐射滤减环境下凋落叶的分解速率均与C∶N呈显著负相关(P<0.05).

  11. Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX, SO2 and O3 by mature urban plantations based on sap flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanting; Zhao, Ping; Niu, Junfeng; Sun, Zhenwei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX (NO, NO2), SO2 and O3 by three mature urban plantations (of Schima superba, Eucalyptus citriodora and Acacia auriculaeformis) were studied using the sap flow-based approach under free atmospheric conditions. The annual mean concentration for NO, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 18.2, 58.1, 12.8 and 42.4 μg m-3, respectively. The atmospheric concentration exhibited a spring or winter maximum for NO, NO2 and SO2, whereas the concentration maximum for O3 occurred in the autumn. Despite the daytime mean canopy stomatal conductance (GC) being positively related with the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and negatively with the vapour pressure deficit (VPD), the maximal daytime mean GC did not appear when the PAR was at its highest level or the VPD was at its lowest level because a positive correlation was noted between the daytime mean PAR and VPD (P < 0.001) under field conditions. The GC value was regulated by the cooperation of the PAR and VPD. When analysing the respective effect of the PAR or VPD on GC separately, a positive logarithmical correlation was noted between the daytime mean GC and PAR as the following equation:Gc = a × lnPAR - b (P < 0.01), and the daytime mean GC was negatively logarithmically correlated with the VPD: Gc =Gsref - m × lnVPD (P < 0.001). The daytime mean GC declined with decreases in the soil water content (SWC) under similar meteorological condition. Differences in the seasonal pattern of the canopy stomatal conductance and atmospheric concentrations led to a differentiated peak flux. The flux for NO, NO2 and SO2 exhibited a spring maximum, whereas the flux maximum for O3 appeared in the autumn or summer. The annual cumulative stomatal flux for NO, NO2, O3 and SO2 was 100.19 ± 3.76, 510.68 ± 24.78, 748.59 ± 52.81 and 151.98 ± 9.33 mg m-2 a-1, respectively. When we focus on the foliar uptake of trace gases, the effect of these gases on the vegetation in turn should be considered, particularly for regions

  12. 开化王山采种基地森林群落数量分类与多样性研究%Community Type, Size Distribution and Species Diversity Analysis of Kaihua Wangshan Seed Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琪; 方腾; 汪良义; 程清明; 陈声文; 唐群儿; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    在浙江开化王山阔叶林采种基地群落学调查基础上,根据每个样地内重要值大于1.0的102种木本植物的具体数据,对3 1个样地群落类型进行聚类分析,并对各样地木本植物的物种多样性和物种丰富度指数进行分析.结果表明:(1)王山采种基地木本植物群落类型主要可分为甜槠林、拟赤杨林、短尾柯林、乌楣栲林、木荷林、马银花林、红楠林、钩栲林、杉木林9个类型,总体以常绿落叶林为主,也有少量常绿落叶阔叶混交林和人工杉木林.(2)物种多样性指数(Shannon-Weiner指数)和物种丰富度整体表现出相似趋势,即乔木层>灌木层;不同群落类型中乔灌两层的多样性指数有一定差异.%Cluster method is used to classify 31 plots via analyzing the importance value of 102 tree species, while biodiversity analysis are also used to clarify the development status of these forest plots. The results showed that (1) Communities of Wangshan forest can be classified into nine groups, the most dominant species are Castanopsis eyrei, Alniphyllum fortunei, lithocarpus harlandii, Castanopsis jucunda, Schima superba, Rhododendron ovatum, Machilus thunbergii, Castanopsis tibetana and Cunninghamia lanceolate respectively, most of them are belonged to evergreen broad-leafed forest, some of them are mixed evergreen & deciduous forest or man-made forest. (2) Species diversity and species richness indexes are larger in tree layer than that in ground layer and varied between different forest community types. This study will give advanced understanding in the status of Wangshan forest and provide some reference on forest management.

  13. 南极磷虾资源利用现状与中国的开发策略分析%Development strategy on Antartic krill resource utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪忠; 徐兆礼; 黄洪亮

    2009-01-01

    由于南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)资源丰富,可捕量是世界现有渔业产量的1倍以上,因而参与南极磷虾资源开发是中国远洋渔业可持续发展的重要途径.由于南极磷虾资源开发面临困难较多,如远离港口、远离补给、远离市场、航行距离长等,加之捕捞技术和加工技术仍存在问题,与其他渔业相比,具有较大的成本压力.尽管如此,由于南极磷虾属于寒带海洋生物,具有其特殊的营养学特征,形成高附加值产品的潜力较大,因此在进行南极磷虾开发的准备过程中,应以最终产品的设计为导向,如提高产品的附加值,发展产品综合开发能力等以化解高成本的压力;从相关加工设备、加工工艺的研究和捕捞技术改进为出发点,重视项目的经济技术和盈利前景分析.由于南极磷虾的商业开发是高风险、高投入的项目,因此在没有把握获得商业利润以前,应以技术准备为主,不宜盲目投入大量资金直接进行商业化开发.建议以此作为制订中国南极磷虾资源开发策略的主要考虑因素.

  14. A ESTRUTURA DO SUB-BOSQUE DE POVOAMENTOS HOMOGÊNEOS DE Mimosa scabrella Bentham, EM ÁREA MINERADA, EM POÇOS DE CALDAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inventário florístico-estrutural da regeneração natural de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas do sub-bosque de um plantio homogêneo de Mimosa scabrella Bentham implantado, visando à reabilitação de área minerada, em Poços de Caldas. Foram utilizadas dezenove parcelas de 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m e amostrados os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com altura igual ou superior a 30cm, tendo sido encontrados 1.946 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 famílias botânicas. Amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0 cm a 20 cm, em cada uma das dezenove parcelas e analisados os teores de areia, silte, argila, matéria orgânica, pH, nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio. Foi analisada a influência de variáveis edáficas sobre a densidade das espécies amostradas, utilizando Análise de Correspondência Canônica ("Canonical Correspondence Analysis" - CCA. Foi verificada correlação significativa entre elas a 5% de probabilidade pelo teste de Monte-Carlo. As espécies Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba e Casearia sylvestris apresentaram comportamento próximo ao indiferente em relação às variáveis edáficas estudadas, sendo que estas se destacam de forma superior em relação às demais espécies quanto aos parâmetros florístico-estruturais. Esse comportamento reforça a indicação de tais espécies, feita por NAPPO (1999, como de potencial para uso em plantios mistos e de enriquecimento em condições similares às da área estudada. A identificação e mensuração de outras variáveis ambientais e do histórico da área são peças importantes para o entendimento dos processos de dinâmica de povoamentos e, em particular, para áreas degradadas em fase de reabilitação.

  15. Diversity of Soil Fungi in Black Soft Planted with Corn in Jilin Province%吉林黑土区玉米田土壤真菌的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑霞; 周平; 赵兰坡; 史铭儡; 李玉; 秦治家

    2008-01-01

    在2003年4月--2004年10月,在吉林黑土区采集玉米田土壤,采用稀释平板法、土粒淋洗法和土壤平板法,选用马丁氏、查氏和PDA 3种不同培养基进行真菌的分离和培养,共分离出131个土壤真菌菌株,在查氏培养基上经形态鉴定确定25属、55种、4变种,其中吉林省新记录种14个,即点枝顶孢(Acremonium strictum W.Gams)、华丽节丛孢(Arthrobotrys superba Corda.)、扁豆枝孢(Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.)Link var.lablab Sacc.)、肉色曲霉(Aspergillus carrnus(v.Tiegh.)Thom.)、蜂蜜曲霉(Aspergillus melleus Yukawa.)、桔黑青霉(Penicillium cit-reonigrum Dierckx.)、桔青霉(Penicillium citrinum Thorn.)、项青霉(Penicil lium corylophilum Dierckx.)、微紫青霉(Penicillium janthinellum Biourge.)、托姆青霉(Penicillium thomii Maire.)、瓦克青霉(Penicillium waksmanii Zal.)、马昆德拟青霉(Paecilomyces marquandii(Mass.)Hughes.)、节状镰孢(Fusarium merismoides Corda.)和棕黑腐质霉(Humicola fuscoatra Traaen.).结果表明,青霉属(Penicillium)和曲霉属(Aspergillus)为吉林黑土区玉米田土壤真菌的优势种群;土壤真菌区系与土壤剖面层次、施肥方式和种植作物种类有关;正常施肥土壤中真菌种类多于不施肥土壤及休闲土壤,耕层土壤真菌种类多于犁底层土壤.

  16. Development rates and habitat shifts in the Antarctic neritic euphausiid Euphausia crystallorophias, 1986 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Edward; Townsend, Annie W.

    Dynamics of distribution and growth were studied in the coastal Antarctic euphausiid Euphausia crystallorophias in the western Bransfield Strait region during the 1986-1987 summer. The life phases showed differences in distribution. After the start of reproduction, which was well underway in December across shelf and open waters of the straits, the January distribution of larvae expanded with concentrations near the Peninsula, along the main Bransfield Current, and, to a lesser extent, around the South Shetlands. In February the distribution retracted toward the Peninsula as abundance diminished greatly. By March, larvae were found only north of the South Shetlands and in Gerlache Strait area where highest numbers had been observed through the season. Juveniles, believed to be 1 year old, and subadults, 2 years old, appeared to be randomly dispersed across the region at all times. Our few specimens of the adult class were from within or near embayments. Most December larvae were nauplii, metanauplii and Calyptosis 1. In January, older calyptopis stages were dominant. Latest observed eggs and nauplii were in January inside the Deception Island caldera. During February to March, development progressed from the calyptosis phase to the furcilia phase, and mean abundance of larvae declined from the >100 m -2 level of January to <10 m -2. Most late March larvae were furcilia stages 2 and 3, averaging one stage less than the more rapidly growing E. superba which had begun reproduction about a month later than E. crystallorophias. The Year-1 cohort was recognized in December as 12-16 mm juveniles, dispersed across the strait at mean abundances like those of the Year-0 larval class in March. The juveniles were about 15-21 mm by February, and there was no apparent growth through March. Subadults and adults were sparse in these open waters. Based on earlier year-round data an older E. crystallorophias from Poland's research station at Admiralty Bay, there seem to be two post

  17. Physiological responses of four broadleaved seedlings to drought stress simulated by PEG%4种阔叶幼苗对PEG模拟干旱的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧芳; 薛立; 任向荣; 傅静丹; 郑卫国; 史小玲

    2011-01-01

    研究了PEG模拟干旱胁迫环境下的火力楠(Michelia macclurel)、尾叶桉(Eucalyptus urophylla)、枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、荷木(Schima superba)幼苗的生理变化.结果表明,干旱胁迫下,4种幼苗叶片的相对含水量小于对照,其中,尾叶桉和枫香下降明显;不同干旱胁迫条件下,4种树种幼苗叶片的相对电导率均显著大于对照,其中尾叶桉和枫香上升幅度大;干旱胁迫下的火力楠和荷木幼苗叶片的脯氨酸含量呈现波动,尾叶桉和枫香幼苗则显著大于对照;不同干旱胁迫时间下的幼苗叶片的叶绿素含量小幅波动;4个树种幼苗的过氧岐化酶(SOD)活性随胁迫时间增加而呈现先升后降的趋势,其中火力楠和荷木的幼苗的SOD活性持续维持在较高水平;荷木叶片的丙二醛(MDA)含量先升后降,最后和对照水平相近,其余幼苗的MDA含量均大于对照;干旱胁迫下4种幼苗叶片的可溶性糖含量增加幅度较大.主成分分析表明,4种幼苗的抗旱能力排序为荷木>火力楠>尾叶桉>枫香.

  18. Spatially explicit estimates of prey consumption reveal a new krill predator in the Southern Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Walters

    Full Text Available Development in foraging behaviour and dietary intake of many vertebrates are age-structured. Differences in feeding ecology may correlate with ontogenetic shifts in dispersal patterns, and therefore affect foraging habitat and resource utilization. Such life-history traits have important implications in interpreting tropho-dynamic linkages. Stable isotope ratios in the whiskers of sub-yearling southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina; n = 12 were used, in conjunction with satellite telemetry and environmental data, to examine their foraging habitat and diet during their first foraging migration. The trophic position of seals from Macquarie Island (54°30'S, 158°57'E was estimated using stable carbon (δ(1 (3C and nitrogen (δ(15N ratios along the length of the whisker, which provided a temporal record of prey intake. Satellite-relayed data loggers provided details on seal movement patterns, which were related to isotopic concentrations along the whisker. Animals fed in waters south of the Polar Front (>60°S or within Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR Statistical Subareas 88.1 and 88.2, as indicated by both their depleted δ(1 (3C (<-20‰ values, and tracking data. They predominantly exploited varying proportions of mesopelagic fish and squid, and crustaceans, such as euphausiids, which have not been reported as a prey item for this species. Comparison of isotopic data between sub-yearlings, and 1, 2 and 3 yr olds indicated that sub-yearlings, limited by their size, dive capabilities and prey capture skills to feeding higher in the water column, fed at a lower trophic level than older seals. This is consistent with the consumption of euphausiids and most probably, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba, which constitute an abundant, easily accessible source of prey in water masses used by this age class of seals. Isotopic assessment and concurrent tracking of seals are successfully used here to

  19. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition in Polyspora axillaris Community in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen%深圳马峦山大头茶(Polyspora axillaris)群落种内与种间竞争研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦新; 廖国新; 徐晓晖

    2013-01-01

    The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in Polyspora axillaris in Maluan Mountain of Shenzhen City were quantitatively analyzed using Hegyi single tree competition index model. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was decreased gradually with the increase of forest tree diameter class, and the interspecific competition in P. axillaris was more intensive than that in associated tree species. The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity in P. axillaris was: P. axillaris > Toxicodendron verniciflua >Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongtfolia >Schima superba >Microcos paniculata >Sapium sebiferum>Litsea cubeba>Sapium discolor. There was significantly negative correlation between the competition intensity and the individual size of objective tree, and the relationship of the competition intensity between the competitive tree and the objective tree and the individual size of objective tree obeyed power function rule. When the diameter at breast height of P. axillaris reached 15 cm, the competition intensity inconspicuously changed into stable situation.%采用Hegyi的单木竞争指数模型对马峦山的大头茶群落种内、种间的竞争强度进行定量分析.结果表明,大头茶种内竞争强度随着植株径级的增大而具减小趋势,种内竞争显著大于种间竞争,对象木种内、种间竞争强度的顺序为:大头茶>漆树>豺皮樟>荷木>布渣叶>乌桕>山苍子>山乌桕.竞争木对对象木的竞争强度与对象木的个体大小服从幂函数关系,竞争强度和对象木个体的大小呈极显著的负相关关系,当大头茶胸径达到15 cm后,竞争强度趋于稳定.

  20. Diet and trophic niche of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, M H; Forman, J; Bury, S J; Brown, J; Horn, P; O'Driscoll, R L

    2013-01-01

    The diet of Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum was evaluated by examining stomach contents of specimens collected in the Ross Sea (71°-77° S; 165°-180° E) in January to March 2008. Pleuragramma antarcticum (50-236 mm standard length, L(S)) and prey items were analysed for stable-isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen. According to index of relative importance (I(RI) ), which incorporates frequency of occurrence, mass and number of prey items, the most important prey items were copepods (81%I(RI) over all specimens), predominantly Metridia gerlachei and Paraeuchaeta sp., with krill and fishes having low I(RI) (2·2 and 5·6%I(RI) overall). According to mass of prey (M) in stomachs, however, fishes (P. antarcticum and myctophids) and krill dominated overall diet (48 and 22%M, respectively), with copepods being a relatively minor constituent of overall diet by mass (9·9%M). Piscivory by P. antarcticum occurred mainly in the extreme south-west of the region and near the continental slope. Krill identified to species level in P. antarcticum stomachs were predominantly Euphausia superba (14·1%M) with some Euphausia crystallophorias (4·8%M). Both DistLM modelling (PRIMER-permanova+) on stomach contents (by I(RI)) and stepwise generalized linear modelling on stable isotopes showed that L(S) and location were significant predictors of P. antarcticum diet. Postlarval P. antarcticum (50-89 mm L(S)) consumed exclusively copepods. Juvenile P. antarcticum (90-151 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly krill and copepods by mass (46 and 30%M, respectively). Small adult P. antarcticum (152-178 mm L(S)) consumed krill, fishes and copepods (37, 36 and 15%M, respectively). Large adult P. antarcticum (179-236 mm L(S)) consumed predominantly fishes and krill (55 and 17%M, respectively), especially in the north (near the Ross Sea slope) and in the SW Ross Sea. Amphipods were occasionally important prey items for P. antarcticum (western Ross Sea, 39%M). General

  1. 适度高温胁迫对亚热带森林3种建群树种幼树光合作用的影响%Effects of moderate high-temperature stress on photosynthesis in saplings of the three dominant tree species of subtropical forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙谷畴; 曾小平; 刘晓静; 赵平

    2007-01-01

    利用Licor-6400光合作用测定系统和叶室荧光仪(Licor-6400LCF)测定适度高温(42℃)胁迫下阳生树种荷木(Schima superba)、耐荫树种黄果厚壳桂(Cryptocarya concinna)和中生性树种红锥(Castanopsis hystrix)在全日光和遮阴(20%全日光)生长下的叶片光合速率和叶绿素a荧光.适度高温胁迫引起全日光和遮阴叶片PSⅡ原初最大光化量子产率(Fv/Fm)降低,反映适度高温胁迫引起PSⅡ功能的部分抑制.其中适度高温对阴生树种黄果厚壳桂和遮阴下生长叶片的PSⅡ抑制较阳生树种荷木在全日光下生长的叶片大.除在全日光下生长的黄果壳桂外,适度高温胁迫能增高全目光或遮阴下生长的荷木和红锥叶片的光合速率.同时亦表现较高的耐高光强抑制的能力.适度高温胁迫降低全日光下生长荷木和红锥叶片的PSⅡ量子产率(ΦPSⅡ),但对具有低ΦPSⅡ的阴生树种黄果厚壳桂或在遮阴下生长的阳生树种荷木或中生性树种红锥叶片则影响较小.适度高温胁迫引起生长在全日光下的阳生树种荷木或中生性树种红锥叶片的CO2同化量子需要量降低,但甚少影响阴生树种黄果厚壳桂或遮阴下生长叶片CO2同化量子需要量.适度高温对亚热带森林建群种幼树光合作用的影响依赖于植物种类和叶类型(阳生和阴生叶).

  2. 浙江省常见15个树种的光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 温国胜; 张俊; 邹伶俐; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    为比较不同树种对光的适应能力和耐荫性,探讨树种在植被恢复过程中的配置依据,利用Licor-6400便携式光合仪,于2010年秋季测定了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens等15个浙江常见树种的光响应过程和光合日进程,并计算上述树种的光能利用率。研究结果表明:①所测15个树种的净光合速率日变化均呈单峰型,无"光合午休"现象。②东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa分别是阔叶、针叶和灌木树种中光能利用率峰值较高的树种。③光饱和点苦槠最高,浙江楠Phoebe chekiangensis最低;光补偿点马尾松Pinus massoniana最高,红豆杉最低。④对光补偿点和光饱和点进行聚类分析,认为马尾松,乌冈Quercus phillyraeoides,属于强阳性树种;苦槠,美丽胡枝子,水杉Metasequoiaglyptostroboide,东南石栎归属于阳性树种;红花木Loropetalum chinense,红叶石楠Photinia×fraseri,杜英,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,木荷,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,红豆杉和浙江楠归类为耐荫树种,对弱光的利用能力较强。

  3. Pre-Fukushima levels of artificial radionuclides activities in maritime samples from King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobiech-Matura, K. [European Commision DG-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, Geel (Belgium); Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, W.E. Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, Krakow (Poland); Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzycka 10/12, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Different maritime samples were collected at King George Island during Polish scientific expeditions in years 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. They originated mainly from Admiralty Bay region. Activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238,239+240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am were measured using γ-, β- and α-spectrometry. Our measurements allow estimating the state of radioactive pollution of Antarctic environment directly before the Fukushima accident. Examined samples included different elements of Antarctic marine environment: macro-algae (e.g. Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Ascoseira mirabilis), fishes(e.g. Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus), birds (e.g. Pygoscelis adeliae, P. papua), and crustaceans (e.g. Euphausia superba, Waldeckia obesa). Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs vary from <0.3 to 21.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg d.w. In comparison with results obtained for samples of animals and macro-algae previously [1,2] our results are similar or lower. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu range from <0.2 to 455 ± 56 mBq/kg d.w. and comparing to previous results [1,2] they were similar or lower. For maritime animals from Terra Nova Bay [3] results are also similar or lower than obtained in present project. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}Pu in samples varied from <0.2 to 79 ± 22 mBq/kg d.w. In comparison to results presented in [1,2,3] our values are similar or higher. Activity concentrations obtained for {sup 90}Sr varied from <1.5 to 73 ± 24 Bq/kg d.w. and are similar or lower then values given in [2,3]. Activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am varied from <9.4 to 29.8 ± 9.3 mBq/kg d.w. and they are similar or higher than values obtained in [3] and similar to that from [1]. Obtained results show that levels of radioactive contamination were very low and in many cases lower than the detection limit. Planned further investigation will allow estimating the environmental condition after the Fukushima accident. (authors)

  4. Characteristics of fresh leaf litter-derived dissolved organic matter and its capacity to enhance the apparent water solubility of phenanthrene%森林新近凋落叶溶出DOM的性质及其对菲增溶作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秋霜; 杨秀虹; 方志文; 王诗忠; 赵云; 仇荣亮

    2014-01-01

    凋落叶作为森林凋落物的主要组成部分,其溶出的大量有机质也是森林土壤可溶性有机质(DOM)的主要来源之一。研究森林凋落叶溶出DOM对PAHs增溶作用的影响有利于合理预测及评价森林土壤中PAHs的环境行为和生态风险。本研究采集了南亚热带常绿阔叶人工林的4种常见树种--尾叶桉(Eucalyptus urophylla)、木荷(Schima superba)、大叶相思(Acacia auriculiformis)和湿地松(Pinus elliottii)的新近凋落叶为试验材料,研究其DOM含量、组成与性质,对比分析了不同凋落叶DOM对菲的増溶作用及其与DOM性质的相关关系。结果表明,4种凋落叶的可溶性有机碳(DOC)质量分数在C 11.61~36.25 mg·g-1之间,其中尾叶桉的含量最大,湿地松最小。尾叶桉和木荷DOM的主要组分是可溶性糖(SS)和可溶性酚(SP),两者总C量占DOC的比例超过47%,而大叶相思和湿地松中SS和SP两者总量所占比例均低于30%。另外,4种凋落叶DOM的质量分数(以C计)与其电导率的线性关系图中有明显转折点,说明它们均具有表面活性剂的性质。凋落叶DOM在临界胶束浓度(CMC)之上对菲具有不同程度的増溶作用,其与菲的结合系数(logKDOC)的大小顺序为尾叶桉(3.05 L·kg-1)>木荷(3.02 L·kg-1)>大叶相思(2.79 L·kg-1)>湿地松(2.54 L·kg-1),这表明尾叶桉和木荷DOM的增溶作用明显高于大叶相思和湿地松DOM。经分析表明,logKDOC与各DOM在254、280 nm处的特征紫外吸光度值(SUV-A254、SUV-A280)及其SS、SP的相对含量均呈显著正相关(pS. superba (3.02 L·kg-1)>A. auriculiformis (2.79 L·kg-1)>P. Elliottii (2.54 L·kg-1), indicative of a stronger solubilization of phenanthrene by the water extracted DOM from E. urophylla and S. superba than A. auriculiformis and P. elliottii. Significant positive correlations (p<0.01) were found between values of

  5. Afforestation Effect of Three Species of Seedlings Growing with Light Media in Net Container%3种造林树种轻基质网袋容器苗造林效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冬明; 林磊; 严春风; 吴颖; 曹立光; 刘青华; 周志春

    2012-01-01

    A comparative trial of afforestation of annual and biennial container seedlings growing with light media and bare root seedlings in three different site types was conducted to study the differences in survival rate, preservation rate and seedling growth of three important afforestation species, Schima superba, Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Pinus elliottii. Result showed that the afforestation effect could be significantly improved by using the seedlings growing with light media in net container. The survival rate and preservation rate of different species of container seedlings were 27.6% -1421.8% higher than those of bare root seedlings in different types of sites (cutting blank, land under the canopy and biological fire belt). Seedling height, stem diameter at ground level, length of current-year tip and accumulated amount of dry matter of container seedlings of different species were 22.0% -86. 7% higher than those of bare root seedlings. The survival rates of the annual container seedlings of three species planted in February, May and September ranged from 93. 8% to 98.0% , 90.7% to 96.3% and 84.5% to 89.4% , respectively, all of which meet the demand for qualification rate of afforestation and ensured the possibility of afforestation all the year round. However, the survival rates of the annual bare root seedlings planted in May and September only reached 26%-53% and 10.4%-34.4% , respectively, which were much lower than the qualification rate of afforestation. The afforestation costs of the annual and biennial container seedlings of different species were 10.3%-18.4% and7.1%-14.4% lower than those of the bare root seedlings, respectively. It is concluded that afforestation with seedlings growing with light media in net container should be broadly popularized, for it has many advantages such as high survival rate, growth dominance and low cost.%选用木荷(Schima superba)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)和湿地松(Pinus elliottii)3种主要造林树种,在采

  6. Dinâmica da estrutura fitossociológica da regeneração natural em sub-bosque de Mimosa scabrella Bentham em área minerada, em Poços de Caldas, MG Phytosociology structure dynamics of natural regeneration in understory of Mimosa scabrella Bentham in mined area, Poços de Caldas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Como estratégia de reabilitação de área minerada foram realizados, no ano agrícola 1982/1983, hidrossemeadura de gramíneas e leguminosa e o plantio puro de Mimosa scabrella Bentham em Poços de Caldas, MG. Em 1997 foi implantado um conjunto de 19 parcelas permanentes de 50 m² nessa área, para caracterização inicial do processo de regeneração natural. Em 2000, foi realizado o segundo inventário nas parcelas, para caracterização do processo de dinâmica da regeneração natural, que é o objeto deste trabalho. O processo de dinâmica da regeneração natural foi caracterizado mediante análises quantitativas e qualitativas da composição florística e da estrutura horizontal e vertical. O povoamento florestal do Retiro-Branco está sobre intensa atividade de estruturação, caracterizando o estágio inicial do processo de sucessão. O declínio do povoamento puro de Mimosa escabrella está modificando a ordem anteriormente estabelecida para o processo de sucessão da área, provocando a diversificação de condições de sítio e, assim, selecionando a ocupação deste em função dos grupos ecológicos, sendo as espécies pioneiras as mais favorecidas. As espécies secundárias são as de maior dominância nas maiores classes de altura e de diâmetro, sendo as principais responsáveis pela edificação do estrato superior, em especial a espécie Miconia sellowiana. As espécies que apresentaram melhor desempenho na colonização e estruturação da regeneração natural do Retiro-Branco, nos dois inventários, foram Miconia sellowiana, Psychotria sessilis, Leandra melastomoides, Clethra scabra, Myrsine umbellata, Miconia pepericarpa, Tibouchina candolleana, Cordia superba, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Casearia sylvestris, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia rostrata e Schinus terebinthifolius, sendo indicadas como espécies para uso nos programas de reabilitação de áreas mineradas em condições semelhantes sobre a

  7. 浙江主要生态经济造林树种轻基质育苗的容器筛选%Seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冬明; 林磊; 严春风; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    选用木荷Schima superba,湿地松Pinus elliottii,苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,青冈Cyclobalanopsis goauca,杨梅Myrica rubra,樟树Cinnamomun camphora,无患子Sapindus mukorossi和红叶石楠Photinia serrulata等浙江省主要生态经济造林树种,开展容器类型和规格对其l~2年生容器苗生长影响的系统研究.结果表明,不同树种容器苗对不同容器类型和规格的生长反应差异很大.对于1年生容器苗培育,以无纺布网袋容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现最优,在林木穴盘、塑料薄膜容器和软质塑料杯等3种育苗容器中各树种容器苗生长均属正常,而硬质锥形塑料管和纸杯容器其容器苗生长表现较差;对于2年生容器大苗培育,以可拆式塑料容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现皆显著优于其他类型容器,以无纺布网袋容器为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长均较好,以软质塑料杯和纸杯容器为育苗容器的容器苗生长较差.相关分析发现,各树种1年生容器苗的苗高、地径、干物质积累量和根体积等生长性状与育苗容器直径和高度相关性不显著,而各树种2年生容器苗的主要生长性状与容器规格皆呈显著的正相关,意味着为培育2年生的容器大苗,选择规格较大的容器是关键的技术措施之一.表4参17%To aid in seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species (Schima superba, Pinus elliottii, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Myrica rubra,Cinnamomum camphora, Sapindus mukorossi, and Photinia serrulata) in Zhejiang Province, effect of container types (non-woven fabric containers, tree plugs, plastic film containers, soft plastic cups, hard conical plastic tubes, paper cup containers and demountable plastic containers) and sizes (container diameter and height) on the annual and biennial seedling growth of the afforestation species mentioned above were determined

  8. 广州长岗山森林土壤线虫群落的功能结构特征%Functional structure of soil nematode community in Changgangshan Nature Reserve ofGuangzhou,southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟富春; 肖以华; 岑亚美; 梁卓华; 唐祥佑; 秦文权

    2016-01-01

    为进一步认识植被类型通过影响土壤生物进而影响整个土壤生态系统过程,对城市森林不同林分类型下的土壤线虫群落功能结构特征进行了研究.2010年1—12月,对广州市长岗山自然保护区4种典型林分(木荷、青皮、尾叶桉和粉单竹)的凋落物层、0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层的土壤线虫群落进行逐月调查,采用Baermann漏斗法分离线虫;土壤含水量采用烘干法进行测定;应用营养类群组成、c-p类群结构及营养结构特征指数等特征值分析城市林地土壤线虫群落功能结构及其特征.4种林分样地共分离得到32 879头土壤线虫,隶属于2纲8目39科93属,土壤线虫的平均个体密度为669头/100 g干土;土壤线虫空间分布的表聚性明显.不同林分类型的土壤线虫群落营养类群组成及分布特征存在一定差异,植物寄生性线虫和食真菌性线虫是调查区域的主要营养类群.c-p类群组成结构特征结果表明:土壤线虫cp2类群为优势类群,所有类群的生活策略以r-对策为主;cp1和cp2类群在木荷林与青皮林中个体密度较高,木荷林与青皮林的线虫食物资源在4种林分中相对丰富;竹林中cp1和cp2类群的个体密度最低,但cp3~cp5类群个体密度最高.竹林PPI值最高,其受扰动的影响程度大于其他林型;通过竹林土壤线虫的MI值、PPI/MI值及cp3~cp5类群个体密度值的分析结果表明,竹林的稳定性相比其他林型高.4种林型的F/B及NCR值无显著差异,土壤有机质分解均主要依靠真菌分解途径.%To understand the functional structure of soil nematode community in urban forests of southern China,soil nematodes in four representative forest types (Schima superba,Eucalyptus urophylla,Bambusa chungii and Vatica astrotricha) located in Changgangshan Nature Reserve of Guangzhou,southern China were sampled monthly from January to December 2010.Soil nematode communities in litterfall,0 -10 cm and 10-20 cm

  9. 南方稀土采矿恢复地土壤稀土元素含量及植物吸收特征%Concentrations of soil rare earth elements and their accumulation characteristics in plants in recovered mining wastelands in Fujian Province, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小飞; 陈志彪; 陈志强

    2013-01-01

    REEs concentrations in shoot and root,the plants could be classified into two types.Dicranopteris pedata was accumulator plant,whereas Eucalyptus spp.,Paspalum wettsteinii,Schima superba,and Camellia sasanqua were root-compartment plants.

  10. 香港大榄郊野公园的植物组成与植被数量分类%Floristic Composition and Quantitative Classification in Tai Lam Country Park,Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绮微; 李海生; 陈桂珠; 叶创兴; 黄颂诗; 黄超弘

    2008-01-01

    通过对香港大榄郊野公园森林群落的样地调查,利用组平均法和除趋势对应分析两种方法,对样方进行聚类与排序分析.把35个样地划分为11个植被类型,森林群落可划分为台湾相思(Acacia confusa Merr.)林、红胶木(Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson ex J. T. Waterh.)林、木荷(Schima superba Gardner ex Champ.)林、柠檬桉(Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.)林、湿地松+鸭脚木(Pinus elliottii Engelm.+ Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) Harms.)林、土沉香(Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)林、毛叶桉(Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell.)林; 灌木群落分为山油柑+越南叶下珠(Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq.+ Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng.)矮树灌丛、豺皮樟+桃金娘(Litsea rotoundifolia (Nees) Hemsl. var. oblongifolia (Nees) C. K. Allen+Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.)矮树灌丛、大头茶(Gordonia axillaris (Roxb. ex Ker Gawl.) D. Dietr.)矮树灌丛、桃金娘+芒萁(Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Alton) Hassk.+Dicranopteris dichotoma (Thunb.) Bernh.)灌草丛.DCA排序结果反映海拔高度与各个森林群落的分布格局和物种组成关系不大,而环境湿度是影响森林群落物种组成的主要因素.多样性分析结果显示,台湾相思林和土沉香林多样性指数最高,说明台湾相思林逐渐向次生林演变,除了红胶木林和少数郁闭度低的台湾相思林中有强阳生性树种外,大部分人工林下植物以阳生性稍耐阴的树种为主.调查结果显示,大榄郊野公园植物生长条件东部优于西部,西部的物种丰富度和多样性指数较低,主要以人工林和灌丛为主,加上山火频繁发生,导致长期处于先锋阶段.

  11. Effects of snow damage on the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of constructive species in evergreen broadleaved forest in Gutianshan National Natural Reserve,East China%雪灾对古田山常绿阔叶林建群种养分含量及归还量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏丽蓉; 刘会; 李铭红; 张磊; 于明坚

    2013-01-01

    在古田山国家级自然保护区24 hm2长期监测样地设置凋落物收集框,对常绿阔叶林的养分归还量进行动态监测.2008年初南方发生特大雪灾,为研究雪灾对建群种甜槠和木荷凋落叶中主要养分含量、归还量的影响提供了契机.结果表明:(1)虽然建群种凋落叶中碳含量受雪灾影响不显著,但雪灾导致其凋落量明显下降,因此碳的归还量在灾后明显减少.(2)建群种凋落叶氮含量在雪灾前后有显著差异,表现为灾前<灾后;但因受凋落量的影响,其归还量仍表现为灾前>灾后.(3)建群种凋落叶磷含量在雪灾前后存在极显著差异(P<0.01),表现为灾前<灾后,导致其归还量也表现为灾前<灾后.%A 24-hm2 plot was installed in the Gutianshan National Natural Reserve, East China to dynamically monitor the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of evergreen broad-leaved forest. In 2008, a serious snow damage event happened in southern China, which gave us an opportunity to study the effects of snow damage on the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of two constructive species (Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba) in the evergreen broadleaved forest. No obvious difference was observed in the leaf litter' s C content of the constructive species before and after the snow damage, but the leaf litter' s production after the snow damage showed an obvious decrease, and thus, the leaf litter' s C return amount after the snow damage also showed an obvious decrease. As compared with that before the snow damage, the leaf litter' s N content of the constructive species after the snow damage was significantly larger, but the litter' s N return amount was smaller, due to the decrease of the litter' s production after the snow damage. Same as the leaf litter' s N content, the leaf litter' s P content of the constructive species after the snow damage was significantly larger than that before the snow damage ( P< 0

  12. 挤压对南极磷虾渣中脂质留存的影响%Effect of Extrusion on the Lipids Retained in the Solid of Antarctic Krill Extrudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志东; 陈雪忠; 陈勇; 曲映红; 欧阳杰; 刘勤; 马庆保; 黄洪亮

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia Superba) is paid more attention for its large biomass, better nutritional and functional properties in recent years. Study demonstrated that Antarctic krill lipid differs from other dietary sources of omega-3 in that it contains a relatively high amount of omega-3 fatty acids linked with phospholipids. In order to exploring the feasibility of twin-screw extrusion used in unit processing of Antarctic krill, a compara-tive study was conducted in this paper on changes of the content and composition of lipids in Antarctic krill (heat treated and unheat treated) before and after extrusion. Experimental results showed that change of the lipid content in the extruded Antarctic krill 1.74%without heat treatment was less than the change of lipid con-tent in the extruded Antarctic krill 4.16%with heat treatment. The total content of saturated fatty acid decreased. The total content of monosaturated fatty acid was relatively stable. The total content of polysaturated fatty acid decreased. The omega-6 polysaturated fatty acid increased. In conclusion, twin-screw extrusion had a great in-fluence on the lipid content and composition in the solid of extruded Antarctic krill, had a greater influence on that of heat treated Antarctic krill extruded, especially.%南极磷虾因其巨大的生物资源量,良好的营养和功能特性受到广泛关注。比较未经热处理南极磷虾和经热处理南极磷虾采用双螺杆挤压前后脂质含量和组成的变化,探索双螺杆挤压技术应用于南极磷虾单元加工的可行性。研究发现,两种处理方法的南极磷虾经过双螺杆挤压处理后,其饱和脂肪酸总含量减少,单不饱和脂肪酸总含量相对稳定,ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸总含量减少,ω-6多不饱和脂肪酸总含量增加。未经热处理的南极磷虾挤压前后脂质含量的变化1.74%小于经过热处理的南极磷虾挤压前后的脂质含量4.16%。试验结果表明,双螺

  13. 福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉的种内与种间竞争%Intra and interspecific competition in Tsuga chinensis var.tchekiangensis in a natural forest in Guangze, Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金旺

    2011-01-01

    Hegyi's single-tree competition index was selected from several competition indices and to be used for the intra-and interspecific competition intensities of Tsuga chinensis var. Tchekiangensis trees in a natural forest in Cuzngze, Fujian, China. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity of T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was 52.03, and was higher than any other interspecific competition intensities, but lower than the sum of all the interspecific competition intensities (164.08). The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was: T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis > Schima superba > Rhododendron simiarum > Castanopsis eyrei > Sorbus dunnii > Cyclobalanopsis gracilis > Rhododendron latoucheae > Cleyera pachyphylla > Pinus taiwanensis > Lithocarpus iteaphyl-lus > Toxicodendron succedaneum > Acanthopanax evodiaefolius > Ternstroemia kwangtungensis > Cryptomeria fortwiei > Uquid-ambar formosana > Ilex ficoidea > Sorbus folgneri > Pieris polka > Dendropanax dentiger > Ilex purpurea > Halesia macgregorii. The competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis were decreased with the increase in diameter at breast height ( DBH) of objective trees. When DBH of objective trees reached 30 cm, the competition intensities changed little. The relationships between competition intensities and DBH of objective trees were closely followed the power function.%通过各种竞争指数的比较,提出采用Hegyi单木竞争指数模型研究福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉在生长发育过程中受到的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明,南方铁杉受到的种内竞争指数为52.03,高于任一其他树种的竞争指数,但低于种间竞争指数总和(164.08).南方铁杉受到的种间和种内竞争大小顺序为:南方铁杉>木荷>猴头杜鹃>甜槠>棕脉花楸>小叶青冈>鹿角杜鹃>厚叶红淡比>黄山松>鼠刺叶石栎>

  14. 废菌棒复合基质对3种阔叶树容器苗生长的影响%Effect of Compound Substrates on Growth of Three Species of Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣松; 胡根长; 叶庭旺; 吕赟薇; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    Experiment were conducted on the effect of different substrates on growth and survival rate of container seedlings of Ormosia hosiei, Schima superba and Pistacia chinensis. Substrates had different ratio of waste compost from mushroom cultivation, hull chaff. The result showed that different tree species expressed significant differences on growth and survival rate. The growth and survival rate of container seedlings were better when the amount of compost less than 20% and that of hull chaff less than 40%, similar to the control, the common treatment in the production (60% peat+ 40% hull chaff). The best formula was 20% compost from black fungus cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff; then the ones of 20% compost from mushroom cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff and that of 40% compost from black fungus cultivation + 30% peat + 30% hull chaff, The seedling height, ground diameter and survi .a) ate of the tested container seedlings were significantly decreased with the increase of compost and decrease of hull chaff. The effect of compost from black fungus cultivation on the container seedling was better than that from mushroom cultivation, which could be explained by the small particles of the latter one with easy water uptake, poor water and air permeability.%利用经发酵消毒后的黑木耳和香菇菌棒废弃物,设计与泥炭、谷壳的不同配比基质处理,研究其对红豆树、木荷和黄连木3种容器苗生长和芽苗移栽成活率的影响.结果表明:不同树种对废菌棒复合基质的生长反应显著,其芽苗移栽成活差异也很大;当废菌棒量不超过20%、谷壳不低于40%时其容器苗生长量和芽苗移栽成活率较好,接近于生产上常用的60%泥炭+40%谷壳的对照配比基质处理,其中20%废黑木耳菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳为最佳的基质配方,20%废香菇菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳和40%废黑木耳菌棒+30%泥炭+30%谷壳次之;随着配比基质中废菌

  15. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书

    2014-01-01

    2008年雨雪冰冻灾害后,在崇义县选取了4块亚热带常绿阔叶林作为固定样地,分别记为P1,P2,P3和P4,连续5年监测了雨雪冰冻灾害对其植物多样性的影响。结果表明:雨雪冰冻灾害后的5年内,样地内的马尾松、拟赤杨和桤木消失了,增加了杜英;每块样地重要值排第一的树种在雨雪冰冻灾害后,其重要值都减小了,这些树种主要有槠树、栲树和木荷。雨雪冰冻灾害后,乔木层植物丰富度指数P 1和P3样地增大, P4样地减小, P2样地变化较小;植物多样性指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地变化较小,P4样地减小;植物均匀度指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地基本未变,P4样地变化较小。林下植物种类数增加了黄瑞木、猕猴桃、白背叶等植物,而黄杨、野甘菊、苦竹等植物消失了,铁芒萁和茅草数量增加较多。从2011年开始,林内郁闭度恢复到了灾害前水平。%After freezing rain and snow disaster in 2008,four fixed sample plots (P1、P2、P3 and P4) were selected to measure the effects on the plant diversity of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved for-est in Chongyi County from 2008 to 2012.The result showed that Pinus massoniana,Alniphyllum fortunei and Alnus cremastogyne disappeared,and Elaeocarpus decipiens appeared.The important value of tree species which ranked the first before freezing rain and snow disaster was reduced.These tree species in-cluded Oachestnut,castanopsis fargesii,and Schima superba.The important value of Choerospondias axil-laris increased within five years after the freezing rain and snow disaster.P1 and P2 increased,P4 re-duced,P3 changed little for the Margalef index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 changed lit-tle,P4 reduced for the Shannon-wiener index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 basically un-changed,P4 reduced for the Pielou index of the arbor layer.The species kinds and the species number increased

  16. 江西官山2种苔藓植物叶片氮磷化学计量学特征%The leaf nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry of two bryophyte species in Guanshan Mountain, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕; 欧阳明; 黄兰; 徐佳文; 林国江; 杨清培

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) stoichiometry is crucial to plant growth, development and adaptive capacity. Bryophytes belong to ancient plant groups, can adapt to the change of the natural environment for a long time. However, The leaf N and P stoichiometry and adaptation mechanism for bryophytes are still unclear. In this study, two typical bryophytes (Marchantia polymorpha, Hypnum plumaeforme) and two kinds of angiosperms (Rubus buergeri, Schima superba) which as a control were selected in Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi province, then comparatively analyzed the leaf N and P content, leaf N:P and coefficients of variation and so on. Results showed that: (1) Bryophytes leaf P average content was 2.58 mg/g, significantly higher than that was 1.97 mg/g in two angiosperms, while leaf N:P average was 5.99, obviously lower than 8.35 of angiosperms. (2) The variation range was great of leaf N, P and N:P in bryophytes, whose variation coefficients were 18.94%, 22.05%and 18.52%, respectively were higher than 13.16%, 10.69%, and 13.00% of angiosperms. Above results indicated that bryophytes owned high P content, low N:P and had strong plasticity, we suggest that the ecological adaptation and environmental transformation function of bryophyte should be continue to study in depth.%氮(N)、磷(P)化学计量学特征对植物的生长发育及适应能力至关重要,苔藓植物属古老的植物类群,能够长期适应自然环境的变化,但其氮磷化学计量学特征及适应机制尚不清楚. 本文在江西省官山国家级自然保护区选择2种典型苔藓植物地钱(Marchantia polymorpha) 和大灰藓(Hypnum plumaeforme), 并以2种被子植物寒莓(Rubus buergeri)和木荷(Schima superb)为对照,比较分析了叶片的N、P含量、N:P和变异系数等指标. 结果表明:(1)与2种被子植物相比,苔藓植物P含量较高,N:P较低,其叶片P含量平均值为2.58 mg/g显著高于被子植物的1.97 mg/g,而其

  17. Impact of the invasion of pinewood nematode and the following different removal disturbance intensities on the plant diversity of Masson pine community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO Youqing; SONG Jiying; YAN Xiaosu; JIANG Ping; WANG Yijiao

    2007-01-01

    Reported in this paper are our findings of the study on changes in species diversity of different Masson pine communities after the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus(Steiner and Buhren)Nickle and subsequent and different removal disturbance management approaches.Based on the results,the species diversity indices for the arbor layers of the different communities can be arranged in the following order(from high to low):1)broad-leaved stand after the removal of all infected pine trees in the pure pine stand in Fuyang;2)lightly infected Masson pine and Schima superba mixed stand in Fuyang;3)uninfected stand mixture of Masson pine and Castanopsis fargesii as a control;4)lightly infested pure Masson pine stand in Fuyang;5)Quercus variables stand formed following the selective removal of infected pine trees from a mixed Masson pine and Q.variables stand in Zhoushan Islands;6)pure young Masson pine stand formed following the removal of all infected pine trees from a pure Masson pine stand;7)pure Liquidambarformosana stand after the removal of infected pine trees from a pure pine stand in Zhoushan Islands;8)a mixed stand consisting of Pinus thunbergii and the Masson pine in Zhoushan Island;and 9)moderately infected Masson pine stand in Zhoushan Islands.All the three diversity indices(R0=richness,H'=Shan-non-Wiener index,and E=evenness)for the shrub layer did not show any significant differences among the various communities except for the pure pine stand in ZhoushanIsland,which had the lowest diversity.The three indices for the herb layer of the pure young Masson pine,Q.variables stand,and L.formosana stand were higher than that of other stands.The integrated analysis showed that the Masson pine forest in different geographical situations and extent of damage had distinct disparity,just as in different disturbance degrees and restoring manners.We created the"index of disturbing intensity of stump and fallen woods"(IDISFW)to represent thedegree of disturbance of tree

  18. The Allocation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Absorbed Light Energy in Leaves of Four Woody Plants Acclimated to Different Light Intensities%4种木本植物叶片的光合电子传递和吸收光能分配特性对光强的适应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林植芳; 彭长连; 孙梓健; 林桂珠; 温达志

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of acclimation in photochemistry, thermal energy dissipation and electron transport to three light intensities in leaves of forest plants were studied by using the combination of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The saplings of tree species Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa and understory shrub species Psychotria rubra, Ardisia quinquegona were grown for 8 months under 100%, 36% or 16% of full sunlight. The estimated rates of photochemical reactions, thermal energy dissipation, and percentages of absorbed light dissipating as thermal energy increased with increasing growth light intensity in all four plants (Figs. 2,3), whereas the allocated fraction of absorbed light to photochemistry decreased (Table 2). Photosynthetic electron transport rate (JF) was the highest under 100% sunlight, accompanied by a high partitioning ratio to photorespiration (Jo/JF) (Fig.1, Table 1). The changes in values of these parameters of electron transport and energy were similar between tree species and shrub species under deep shade of 16% sunlight, but were different under 100% sunlight (Tables 1,2). All these parameters were higher in tree species than in shrub species, except that a higher fraction of absorbed light was dissipated as thermal energy in shrub species under high light condition. The results indicated that both tree and shrub species from a natural forest could acclimate to high light intensity by increasing the fractions of thermal energy dissipation and electron transport flow through photorespiration.%以气体交换和叶绿素荧光测定相结合的方法研究了亚热带自然林乔木荷树、黧蒴和林下灌木九节、罗伞幼苗的光合电子传递及激发能利用的分配对生长光强的适应特性。4种植物生长于100%、36%和16%的自然光下8个月,叶片的光化学速率和热能耗散速率随光强增大而提高,热能耗散占总的光能吸收的比例也因光强不同而改变,16%

  19. Characteristics of soil fauna community in forest floor at different climate zone, China%我国重要森林群落凋落物层土壤动物群落生态特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英华; 孙家宝; 张夫道

    2009-01-01

    2001年9月~2002年9月,采用凋落袋分解法对我国不同气候带的8种重要森林群落,即黑龙江帽儿山的红松林(Pinus koraiensis)与针阔混交林(落叶松(Larix gmelinii)、白桦(Betula Platyphylla))、北京九龙山辽东栎林(Quercus liaotungensis)与针阔混交林(辽东栎、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)),江西大岗山杉木林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)与针阔混交林(杉木、鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense))林以及广东鼎湖山常绿阔叶林(荷木(Schima superba)-厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis))与针阔混交林(马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、荷木)凋落物层土壤动物群落进行研究.全年74次共采集森林凋落层土壤动物个体29123只,其中大型土壤动物4492只、中小型土壤动物24631只,隶属4门14纲30目,蜱螨类、弹尾类为凋落层的优势群落.非参数Kruskal-Wallis 方差分析表明,8种森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落组成差异性显著 (x2(7)=18.867, P<0.01),且帽儿山、九龙山与鼎湖山之间以及大岗山与鼎湖山阔叶林之间凋落层土壤动物群落组成存在显著性差异(P<0.001).研究时段内,大型土壤动物月均数量和类群数量随着纬度升高而呈现明显的递减趋势;中小型土壤动物月均数量随纬度升高而基本呈升高的趋势.凋落层土壤动物月均数量、多样性、均匀性均差别显著(X2(66)=37.95、X2(66) = 26.38、X2(66) = 328.97, P<0.001).多样性分析显示,鼎湖山凋落层土壤动物分布最丰富、分布最均匀;大岗山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最高,帽儿山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最低.灰色综合关联度分析表明,年均温度对土壤动物影响最大,有机质(表土)次之,土壤pH次于前两者,年均相对湿度影响最小,环境因子对主要土壤动物群落产生不同的影响.

  20. Comparative analysis on the performance of Japan and South Korea Antarctic krill mid-water trawls with small mesh sizes%日韩小网目南极磷虾拖网性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏翔; 许柳雄; 孟涛; 黄洪亮; 张勋; 周爱忠; 李灵智; 徐国栋

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausua superba) is one of the largest single biological resources on the earth, its large biomass and potential to support a large fishery has received increasing attentions of many countries. China began to be involved in the Antarctic krill fishery in 2009 when two large scale factory trawlers from Chinese fishing enter-prisers went down to the Southern Ocean for exploratory fishing. At the beginning, large mesh size trawl net redesigned based on Chilean Jack Mackerel trawl was used, and the fishing efficiency was not satisfactory due to poor match be-tween the net and the trawl doors, consequently the catch was much lower than those of Norway, Korea and Japan fish-ing fleets. In 2010, Chinese fishing vessel introduced 192.60 m×110.50 m krill trawl, a small mesh size specialized krill trawl from Korea, and fishing operation indicated that catch was also not satisfactory because of the limitation of the opening of net mouth. This was changed in 2012 when Liaoning Province Dalian Ocean Fishery Group of Corporations introduced the specialized krill trawler “Fu Rong Hai” from Japan and used the Japanese krill trawl (185.40 m×128.50 m small mesh size krill trawl) on board the fishing vessel, and the catch increased greatly. This study analyzes the per-formance of the two krill trawl nets described above, i.e., Korean krill trawl (referred to as Net B) and the Japanese krill trawl (referred to as Net A) by carrying out model experiment based on the Tauti’s law. Large scale ratio λ of the model net was chosen as 14 and 16, respectively, for Nets A and B. The average small scale ratio of the model net was 3; the ratio of towing speed between the full scale and the model net was 3. Model experiments were conducted in the towing tank of the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute. The towing speeds of the model net ranged from 0.345 m/s to 0.685 m/s with the interval 0.085m/s (equivalent to 2.0–4.0 kn with the interval of 0.5 kn for the

  1. 模拟氮沉降对森林土壤化学性质的影响%Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林; 曾晓舵; 冯乙晴; 莫江明

    2013-01-01

    下,与对照相比,这3种林型的土壤交换性Na+含量分别下降了40.0%、68.4%、50.0%,差异达显著性水平(p<0.05)。氮沉降对人工幼林土壤盐基离子含量无明显的影响。由此可得出结论:在近2年至4年的时间内,氮沉降的增加能引起鼎湖山3种林型土壤尤其是阔叶林土壤加速酸化,引起交换性Na+明显淋失,以及马尾松林土壤水解性氮含量明显下降;但氮沉降的增加对木荷人工幼林土壤化学性质暂无明显的影响。后者可能与该林型模拟氮沉降时间较短、林龄较轻而处于快速生长期等因素有关。%The effects of the increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest soils have become one of the major issues in ecological research recently. The authors used the method of simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in situ, set up three levels of nitrogen deposition:N0 (CK, N:0 g·m-2·a-1), N5(N:5 g·m-2·a-1), and N10(N:10 g·m-2·a-1)for a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (called“broad-leaved forest”for short in the following), a Pinus massoniana forest, and a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (called “mixed forest” for short in the following) in Dinghushan Mountain, and for a young Schima superba plantation in Zengcheng, Guangdong province, China, collected the soil samples of 0~20 cm soil layer after simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition for 42 months (broad-leaved forest), 31 months (Pinus massoniana forest), 50 months (mixed forest), and 20 months (the young plantation), and analysed the soil properties, to discuss the effects of different nitrogen deposition levels on the soil properties of different forest types. The results showed that, (1) the simulated nitrogen deposition appeared the similar tendency towards the effects on soil pH values of the broad-leaved forest, Pinus massoniana forest, and mixed forest in Dinghushan Mountain, forcing the pH values to drop. Among them, when the nitrogen deposition was at N10 level

  2. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  3. Leaf Litter Decomposition of Main Subtropical Plants with Different Origin Time in the South Subtropical Asia%不同起源时间的亚热带主要树种凋落物在南亚热带的分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小丽; 窦荣鹏; 江洪; 余树全; 马元丹

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Study the leaf litter decomposition of main plants with different origin time in the south subtropical Chinese. [ Method ] Leaf litter decomposition of 9 species with different origin time was studied in the Dinghushan region, using iitterbag method, the time was 840 days, to study the variation of litter dry weight remaining and carbon dynamics in evolutionary process. [ Result ] The range of the annual litter decomposition coefficient(k) was 0.14 to 0. 71. The 95% decomposition time ranged from 4. 22 to 21.40 a, and the 50% decomposition time ranged from 0. 98 to 4. 95 a. The difference of litter decomposition rate with monocotyledon, gymnosperm, pteridophyte was significant( P C. glauca > S. superba > P. massoniana > C. lanceolata > M, glyptostroboides > C. revoluta > A. spinulosa > D. dichotoma. The mean litter decomposition rate of the 4 taxa was monocotyledon > dicotyledon > gymnosperm > pteridophyte. The carbon loss of the 4 taxa was dicotyledon > monocotyledon > gymnosperm > pteridophyte.%[目的]研究不同起源时间的亚热带主要树种凋落物的分解过程.[方法]选择9种起源时间不同的植物的凋落物,采用分解袋法,在南亚热带的鼎湖山地区进行分解实验,实验时间为840d,研究进化过程中凋落物的干重剩余率和碳素动态变化规律.[结果]凋落物分解系数k值的范围在0.14~0.71间.凋落物分解95%所需时间集中在4.22~21.40 a,50%分解时间集中在0.98 ~4.95a.单子叶植物、裸子植物和蕨类植物两两之间分解速率均具有显著差异(P<0.05),但双子叶植物与单子叶植物和裸子植物分解速率之间显著性差异不明显,仅与蕨类植物的分解速率具有显著差异(P<0.05).凋落物总碳量的总体变化趋势表现为下降,在分解过程中均出现2次不同程度的升高过程,出现时间集中在分解的第240天和660天,此时正值冬季,凋落物分解较慢,碳元素出现积累.双子叶植物、裸子植

  4. Species Diversity of Plant Communities Around Core Area of Yuanyang Terrace%元阳梯田核心区周边森林群落植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国庆; 祖艳群; 郭凤根; 湛方栋; 李元

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the species structure and diversity of vegetation communities around core area of Yuanyang terrace, reveal the characteristics of the forest community's structure and diversity, provide the basis for protection and rational use of plant communities around core area of Yuanyang terrace, the relationships between species diversities in different plant communities in Yuanyang County were studied with richness index, Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson index, evenness index and ecological dominance. The results showed that: (1) some 91 species were in herb layer, 67 species in shrub layer and 42 species in tree layer. The highest species diversity index, which was Shannon-Wiener index 0.82, Simpson index 0.98 and evenness index 0.18, was observed in herb layer. The lowest species diversity parameters, which was Shannon-Weiner index 0.32, Simpson index 0.87 and evenness index 0.08, was observed in shrub layer. (2) In 14 plant communities, the highest species diversity parameters, which was Shannon-Wiener index 1.38, Simpson index 0.92 and evenness index 0.36, was observed in Neolitzea chuii Men.-Schima superba Gardn et Champ community. The lowest species diversity parameters, which was Shannon-Weiner index 0.42, Simpson index 0.37 and evenness index 0.16, was observed in Pinus yunnanensis Franch. Community. The order of speciesdiversity parameters was broad-leaved forest community>tea garden community>grassland community> coniferous forest community. (3) Plant diversity index first increased and then decreased with elevation gradient. The maximum plant diversity index appeared approximately in elevation 1850 m. It was suggested that plant diversity index could be predicted by the mid-domain effect (MDE).%为了了解元阳梯田核心区周边植被群落物种、结构特征及多样性,揭示元阳梯田核心区周边森林群落结构及多样性特征,为元阳梯田核心区周边森林群落进行合理保护和利用提供依据,笔者通过样

  5. Kinetic energy of throughfall in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    conditions. Most of the energy is supposed to be absorbed by shrubs, herbs and the litter layer. For some species in the shrub and herb layer throughfall drops are crucial for seed dispersal (Nakanishi 2002). A higher kinetic energy of throughfall should be advantageous for seed dispersal and probably support biodiversity. Further, it is shown that the variability of kinetic energy in forests varies among the age of the forest stand which can be related to the forest structure. In our case there is a high variability in young forests ( 80 years) also have a high variability in kinetic energy. There, external influences like snow and wind break result in a fragmentary tree layer which allows less erosive rainfall to reach the forest floor. Medium aged forests are more homogenous regarding canopy closure or tree heights. Generally, the variability of kinetic energy in forests is increasing with the amount of rainfall. Moreover, it is shown that the kinetic energy of throughfall is species specific. For the investigated tree species the values range between 24.41 J m-2 mm-1 (Daphniphyllum oldhamii) and 33.24 J m-2 mm-1 (Schima superba) while the concurrent rainfall in the open field has an average kinetic energy of 6.75 J m-2 mm-1. Leaf size and canopy architecture are supposed to be two of the controlling variables for specific species. These results give implications for afforestation measures and are important input variables for modeling of erosion processes. Chapman, G., 1948. Size of raindrops and their striking force at the soil surface in a Red Pine plantation. Transactions - American Geophysical Union, 29: 664-670. Ellison, W.D., 1947. Soil Erosion Studies - Part II. Agricultural Engineering, 28: 197-201. Geißler, C., Kühn, P., Böhnke, M., Bruelheide, H., Shi, X., Scholten, T., under review: Measuring splash erosion potential under vegetation using sand-filled splash cups. Hall, R.L., Calder, I.R., 1993. Drop size modification by forest canopies: measurements using

  6. Structural characteristics and species diversity of the endangered plant A rdisia violacea%珍稀濒危植物堇叶紫金牛生存群落结构特征及物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 夏国华; 闫道良; 谢文远; 严彩霞; 吴家森; 李根有

    2012-01-01

    以浙江省建德市绿荷塘森林公园堇叶紫金牛Ardisia violacea生存群落为对象,应用标准样地法和每木调查法调查了群落种类和结构特征,并用群落学方法计算了群落内乔木层各树种的重要值,采用Shannon-Weiner指数、Simpson指数、Pielou均匀度指数分别研究了群落内3个样地中乔木层、灌木层、草本层的物种多样性,并根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将主要乔木层树种的种群结构分为3种类型.结果表明:该群落资源丰富,共有维管束植物116种(含变种),隶属于47科79属.从生活型上区分来看,堇叶紫金牛生存群落中共出现木本植物83种,其中针叶树2种,常绿阔叶树48种,落叶阔叶树33种,群落以小高位芽植物和矮高位芽植物的种类较多.根据分布生境、群落结构和种类组成,可以将堇叶紫金牛生存群落分为3个类型:甜槠Castanopsis eyrei-栲树Castanopsis fargesii林,杉阔混交林和杉木Cunninghamia lanceolata人工林.在垂直结构方面,大体包括乔木层、灌木层、草本层,此外还有一些层间植物,而且种类较为丰富,并且3种类型群落的高度结构大致相同.在3个样地中灌木层中的物种丰富度指数均为最大.杉阔混交林中草本层的Shannon-Weiner指数最大,而甜槠-栲树林和杉木人工林中灌木层Shannon-Weiner指数最大.Simpson指数在甜槠-栲树林和杉木人工林中乔木层最大,而在杉阔混交林中灌木层最大.主要乔木层种群结构为单峰型的枫香Liquidambar formosana,拟赤杨Alniphyllum fortunei,马尾松Pinus massoniana为阳性乔木树种,无正常更新能力,在演替后期比较稳定的群落中,将最终衰退消失;间歇型的青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauca,木荷Schima superba,乌药Lindera aggregata等为不连续生长型,更新具有波动性和机会性,介于顶极群落先锋种和优势种之间;逆J-字型的杉木、甜槠、栲树、山矾Symplocos caudata等常绿阔叶乔

  7. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3