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Sample records for superb quality output

  1. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theanponkrang, Somjai; Suginta, Wipa; Weingart, Helge; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert

    2015-01-01

    A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 μM and 2–100 μM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 μM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 μM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. PMID:25670899

  2. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theanponkrang S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Somjai Theanponkrang,1,2 Wipa Suginta,2,3 Helge Weingart,4 Mathias Winterhalter,4 Albert Schulte1,2 1School of Chemistry, 2Biochemistry–Electrochemistry Research Unit, Institute of Science, 3School of Biochemistry, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 4Life Sciences, School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX and ciprofloxacin (CFX, two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 µM and 2–100 µM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 µM (n=7 for NFX and 1.6±0.1 µM (n=7 for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. Keywords: antibiotics, electroanalysis, automation, microtiter plates, pharmaceutical screening, pharmacoanalytics

  3. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  4. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  5. The SUPERB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forti, F., E-mail: Francesco.Forti@pi.infn.it [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2011-04-21

    The SUPERB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, to be built near the INFN National Frascati Laboratory in Italy, has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents, allowing precision measurements in the flavour sector sensitive to New Physics. The conceptual design of the Silicon Vertex Tracker for the SUPERB Detector is presented, based on double-sided silicon strip detectors for the outer layers, with the addition of an innermost Layer 0 close to the interaction point, with low material budget and capable of sustaining a background rate of several MHz/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Impact of quality strategies on hospital outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suñol, R.; Vallejo, P.; Thompson, A.; Lombarts, M.J.M.H.; Shaw, C.D.; Klazinga, N.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This study was part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project on patients crossing borders, a study to investigate quality improvement strategies in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). Aim: To explore the association bet

  7. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and consumer

  8. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and consumer

  9. Is Super-$B$ Sufficiently Superb? -- On the Motivation for a Super-$B$ Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Ikaros I

    2004-01-01

    Despite the great success of the $\\Upsilon (4S)$ $B$ factories at KEK and SLAC and the guaranteed addition of high sensitivity measurements on beauty decays to be performed at the Tevatron and LHC, a strong case can be made for an $e^+e^-$ Super-$B$ factory yielding data samples of order $10^{10}$ $B \\bar B$ pairs as a necessity rather than luxury. It has to be justified through its ability to not only establish deviations from the Standard Model, but also diagnose and interpret those in terms of specific features of the New Dynamics. The role to be played by a Super-$B$ factory is thus analogous {\\em and even in parallel} to that of a linear collider. The latter's goal is to provide more detailed information on previously discovered New Physics involved in the electroweak phase transition. Likewise a Super-$B$ factory would provide precision probes for analyzing whether such New Dynamics has an impact on heavy flavour dynamics -- a need particularly manifest if the New Physics is housed under the `big tent' ...

  10. Vocal output predicts territory quality in a Neotropical songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Lilian Tonelli; Maia, Rafael; Dias, Alexandre; Podos, Jeffrey; Macedo, Regina H

    2014-11-01

    Females who choose highly ornamented mates may gain resources that improve offspring production and survival. Studies have focused on the relationship between male quality and the complexity of sexual ornaments; however, less is known of the communicative content of courtship displays, and whether they indicate the quality of resources males can provide to mates. Here, we used blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina) to test the relationship between male display attributes and territory quality, measured as food availability. Our main hypothesis was that territory quality would be better predicted by dynamic displays than by static ornaments. During four breeding seasons in central Brazil, we quantified display song attributes (output and consistency) and the timing of nuptial molt. We measured territorial seed density, body condition, and ectoparasite infestation. We found a positive relationship between song output and territory seed density, suggesting this attribute provides a reliable indicator of territory quality. However, the timing of molt was unrelated to territory quality. Additionally, no other male attribute was associated with seed density. The link between song output and territory quality might reflect variation in male condition in response to territorial resources, or extra time males on higher quality territories have to invest in territorial defense. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  11. The superB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.i [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents. Comparing to current B-Factories, the reduced center of mass boost of the SuperB machine requires improved vertex resolution to allow precision measurements sensitive to New Physics. We present the conceptual design of the silicon vertex tracker (SVT) for the SuperB detector with the present status of the R and D on the different options under study for its innermost Layer0.

  12. Super-B Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Donald, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /Pisa U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.

  13. SUPER-B LATTICE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati; Piminov, P.; Sinyatkin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Nosochkov, Y.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is designed for 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} luminosity and beam energies of 6.7 and 4.18 GeV for e{sup +} and e{sup -} respectively. The High and Low Energy Rings (HER and LER) have one Interaction Point (IP) with 66 mrad crossing angle. The 1258 m rings fit to the INFN-LNF site at Frascati. The ring emittance is minimized for the high luminosity. The Final Focus (FF) chromaticity correction is optimized for maximum transverse acceptance and energy bandwidth. Included Crab Waist sextupoles suppress betatron resonances induced in the collisions with a large Piwinski angle. The LER Spin Rotator sections provide longitudinally polarized electron beam at the IP. The lattice is flexible for tuning the machine parameters and compatible with reusing the PEP-II magnets, RF cavities and other components. Details of the lattice design are presented.

  14. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  15. Ways of improving environmental quality while quadrupling output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    This article reports on a symposium held in China which proposed strategic thinking on improving environmental quality in keeping with economic development. The gross industrial and agricultural output value in China is expected to quadruple by the year 2000. Although the water quality of the big rivers in China is still good, the medium and small streams in the cities have become polluted by industrial waste and domestic sewage. China devotes only 0.3% of her gross industrial and agricultural output value to environmental protection, while the Western countries allocate about 1% or even as much as 2-2.5% of their GNP for the environment. The conferees at the symposium agreed that environmental protection should work for economic development and for raising social and economic results. It is proposed that environmental protection should be carried out by enforcing discharge and drainage limits, and by encouraging enterprises to reduce the discharge of pollutants. In a survey of more than 100 enterprises engaged in papermaking, tanning, the manufacture of synthetic fatty acids, synthetic detergents and sugar, the departments of light industry found that 70-90% of the discharged pollutants are resources which can still be used. The question of focusing on planned environmental management is examined. Includes a table.

  16. SuperB Progress Reports - Physics

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, B.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; Shindou, T.; Ronga, F.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Rama, M.; Bossi, F.; Guido, E.; Patrignani, C.; Tosi, S.; Davies, C.; Lunghi, E.; Haisch, U.; Hurth, T.; Westhoff, S.; Crivellin, A.; Hofer, L.; Goto, T.; Brown, David Nathan; Branco, G.C.; Zupan, J.; Herrero, M.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Simi, G.; Tackmann, F.J.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Lindemann, D.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Duling, B.; Gemmler, K.; Gorbahn, M.; Jager, S.; Paradisi, P.; Straub, D.M.; Bigi, I.; Asner, D.M.; Fast, J.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Morandin, M.; Rotondo, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Arnaud, N.; Burmistrov, L.; Kou, E.; Perez, A.; Stocchi, A.; Viaud, B.; Domingo, F.; Piccinini, F.; Manoni, E.; Batignani, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Neri, N.; Walsh, J.; Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Walker, C.; Weiland, C.; Lenz, A.; Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Faccini, R.; Renga, F.; Polosa, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Virto, J.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Wilson, F.F.; Carpinelli, M.; Huber, T.; Mannel, T.; Graham, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Santoro, V.; Sekula, S.; Shougaev, K.; Soffer, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Gambino, P.; Mussa, R.; Nardecchia, M.; Stal, O.; Bernabeu, J.; Botella, F.; Jung, M.; Lopez March, N.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pich, A.; Lozano, M.A.Sanchis; Vidal, J.; Vives, O.; Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Flood, K.

    2010-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e+e- collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measure...

  17. SuperB Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, M; Kolodziej, J; Kucewicz, W; Sapor, M; Jeremie, A; Pous, E Grauges; Bruno, G E; De Robertis, G; Diacono, D; Donvito, G; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giordano, F; Loddo, F; Loparco, F; Maggi, G P; Manzari, V; Mazziotta, M N; Nappi, E; Palano, A; Santeramo, B; Sgura, I; Silvestris, L; Spinoso, V; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Zhuo, Z; Jenkovszky, L; Balbi, G; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Cafaro, V; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Di Sipio, R; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Gabrielli, A; Galli, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giorgi, F M; Grandi, C; Lax, I; Meo, S Lo; Marconi, U; Montanari, A; Pellegrini, G; Piccinini, M; Rovelli, T; Cesari, N Semprini; Torromeo, G; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Vagnoni, V M; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Caron, J -F; Hearty, C; Lu, P F -T; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y -C; Barnyakov, M Yu; Blinov, V E; Botov, A A; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Shtol, D A; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cardini, A; Carpinelli, M; Chao, D S -T; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hanson, J; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Zhu, R Y; Randazzo, N; Burelo, E De La Cruz; Zheng, Y; Campos, P; De Silva, M; Kathirgamaraju, A; Meadows, B; Pushpawela, B; Shi, Y; Sokoloff, M; Castro, G Lopez; Ciaschini, V; Franchini, P; Giacomini, F; Paolini, A; Polania, G A Calderon; Laczek, S; Romanowicz, P; Szybinski, B; Czuchry, M; Flis, L; Harezlak, D; Kocot, J; Radecki, M; Sterzel, M; Szepieniec, T; Szymocha, T; Wójcik, P; Andreotti, M; Baldini, W; Calabrese, R; Carassiti, V; Cibinetto, G; Ramusino, A Cotta; Evangelisti, F; Gianoli, A; Luppi, E; Malaguti, R; Manzali, M; Melchiorri, M; Munerato, M; Padoan, C; Santoro, V; Tomassetti, L; Beretta, M M; Biagini, M; Boscolo, M; Capitolo, E; de Sangro, R; Esposito, M; Felici, G; Finocchiaro, G; Gatta, M; Gatti, C; Guiducci, S; Lauciani, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Sanelli, C; Tomassini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Delepine, D; Santos, M A Reyes; Chrzaszcz, M; Grzymkowski, R; Knap, P; Kotula, J; Lesiak, T; Ludwin, J; Michalowski, J; Pawlik, B; Rachwal, B; Stodulski, M; Wiechczynski, J; Witek, M; Zawiejski, L; Zdybal, M; Aushev, V Y; Ustynov, A; Arnaud, N; Bambade, P; Beigbeder, C; Bogard, F; Borsato, M; Breton, D; Brossard, J; Burmistrov, L; Charlet, D; Chaumat, V; Dadoun, O; Berni, M El; Maalmi, J; Puill, V; Rimbault, C; Stocchi, A; Tocut, V; Variola, A; Wallon, S; Wormser, G; Grancagnolo, F; Ben-Haim, E; Sitt, S; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Deconto, J -M; Martinez, Y Gomez; Monseu, N; Muraz, J -F; Real, J -S; Vescovi, C; Cenci, R; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D; Twedt, E W; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Nderitu, S; Patel, P; Robertson, S H; Swersky, D; Warburton, A; Flores, E Cuautle; Sanchez, G Toledo; Biassoni, P; Bombelli, L; Citterio, M; Coelli, S; Fiorini, C; Liberali, V; Monti, M; Nasri, B; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Berra, A; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Lietti, D; Maino, M; Pessina, G; Prest, M; Martin, J -P; Simard, M; Starinski, N; Taras, P; Drutskoy, A; Makarychev, S; Nefediev, A V; Aloisio, A; Cavaliere, S; De Nardo, G; Della Pietra, M; Doria, A; Giordano, R; Ordine, A; Pardi, S; Russo, G; Sciacca, C; Bigi, I I; Jessop, C P; Wang, W; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Corvo, M; Crescente, A; Corso, F Dal; Dosselli, U; Fanin, C; Gianelle, A; Longo, S; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Morandin, M; Pengo, R; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Stroili, R; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Traversi, G; Zucca, S; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Cecchi, C; Germani, S; Lebeau, M; Lubrano, P; Manoni, E; Papi, A; Rossi, A; Scolieri, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Fella, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Lilli, L; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paladino, A; Pantaleo, F; Paoloni, E; Perez, A L Perez; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Beck, G; Berman, M; Bevan, A; Gannaway, F; Inguglia, G; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Bocci, V; Capodiferro, M; Chiodi, G; Dafinei, I; Drenska, N V; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Gargiulo, C; Gauzzi, P; Luci, C; Lunadei, R; Martellotti, G; Pellegrino, F; Pettinacci, V; Pinci, D; Recchia, L; Ruggeri, D; Zullo, A; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; De Santis, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Felice, V; Di Palma, F; Di Simone, A; Marcelli, L; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Sparvoli, R; Tammaro, S; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bussino, S; Ciuchini, M; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Ruggieri, F; Spiriti, E; Wilson, F; Monzon, I Leon; Millan-Almaraz, J R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Aston, D; Dey, B; Fisher, A; Jackson, P D; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; MacFarlane, D; McCulloch, M; Metcalfe, S; Novokhatski, A; Osier, S; Prepost, R; Ratcliff, B; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Va'vra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Altschul, B D; Purohit, M V; Baudot, J; Ripp-Baudot, I; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Bezshyyko, O; Dolinska, G; Soffer, A; Bianchi, F; De Mori, F; Filippi, A; Gamba, D; Marcello, S; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cristaudo, P; Lanceri, L; Liberti, B; Rashevskaya, I; Stella, C; Vallazza, E S; Vitale, L; Auriemma, G; Satriano, C; Vidal, F Martinez; de Cos, J Mazorra; Oyanguren, A; Valls, P Ruiz; Beaulieu, A; Dejong, S; Franta, J; Lewczuk, M J; Roney, M; Sobie, R

    2013-01-01

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic ...

  18. The Super-B Project Accelerator Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Alesini, D.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Brachmann, A.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /Orsay, LAL /Saclay /Pisa U. /CERN

    2011-08-17

    The SuperB project is an international effort aiming at building in Italy a very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}) asymmetric collider at the Y(4S) energy in the CM. The accelerator design has been extensively studied and changed during the past year. The present design, based on the new collision scheme, with large Piwinski angle and the use of 'crab waist' sextupoles already successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF Frascati, provides larger flexibility, better dynamic aperture and spin manipulation sections in the Low Energy Ring (LER) for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point (IP). The Interaction Region (IR) has been further optimized in terms of apertures and reduced backgrounds in the detector. The injector complex design has been also updated. A summary of the project status will be presented in this paper. The SuperB collider can reach a peak luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} with beam currents and bunch lengths similar to those of the past and present e{sup +}e{sup -} Factories, through the use of smaller emittances and new scheme of crossing angle collision. The beams are stored in two rings at 6.7 GeV (HER) and 4.2 GeV (LER). Unique features of the project are the polarization of the electron beam in the LER and the possibility to decrease the energies for running at the {tau}/charm threshold. The option to reuse the PEP-II B-Factory (SLAC) hardware will allow reducing costs. The SuperB facility will require a big complex of civil infrastructure. The main construction, which will house the final part of the LINAC, the injection lines, the damping rings, and the storage rings, will be mainly underground. Two sites have been considered: the campus of Tor Vergata University near Frascati, and the INFN Frascati Laboratory. No decision has been made yet. A footprint of the possible SuperB layout on the LNF area is shown in Fig. 1.

  19. The Super-B project accelerator status

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Preger, M; Raimondi, P; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachmann, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; DeLira, A; Donald, M; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Li, N; MacFarlane, D; Nosochkov, Y; Novokhatski, A; Pivi, M.; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Wienands, U; Weisend, J; Wittmer, W; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; DeConto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Bonis, J.; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Chance, A; Napoly, O; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bettoni, S

    2010-01-01

    The SuperB project is an international effort aiming at building in Italy a very high luminosity e+e- (1036 cm-2 sec-1) asymmetric collider at the Y(4S) energy in the cm. The accelerator design has been extensively studied and changed during the past year. The present design, based on the new collision scheme, with large Piwinski angle and the use of “crab waist” sextupoles already successfully tested at the DANE -Factory at LNF Frascati, provides larger flexibility, better dynamic aperture and spin manipulation sections in the Low Energy Ring (LER) for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point (IP). The Interaction Region (IR) has been further optimized in terms of apertures and reduced backgrounds in the detector. The injector complex design has been also updated. A summary of the project status will be presented in this paper

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINATION OF VOLUMETRIC OUTPUT OF LUMBER FROM LOGS, CONTAINING SEVERAL QUALITY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikryukova E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present a method of cutting logs, containing several quality areas. For this method, a mathematical model was developed to determine the volumetric output of lumber, which allows to determine the geometric dimensions of the lumber cut from the different quality areas separated concentric circles, depending on size and quality characteristics of logs

  1. r-index: Quantifying the quality of an individual′s scientific research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. C. Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are quite many methods to asses the output of a research scientist, primarily by the number of papers he (she publishes, where they are published and the number of times a particular paper is cited by other journals. But none of the methods give a possibility to identify the quality of the paper published. I present here r- index or method that can provide an insight into the quality of the research output, at the same time balancing the role of impact factors in which that research output is published.

  2. Floral emasculation reveals pollen quality limitation of seed output in Bulbine bulbosa (Asphodelaceae)1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughton, Glenda; Ramsey, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Pollen commonly limits seed output in natural plant populations, but the relative contributions of pollen quantity and quality to pollen limitation remain largely unexplored. Estimates of these contributions are needed to promote better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of pollen limitation. We assessed pollen limitation and distinguished how pollen quantity and quality contributed to seed output in the predominantly outcrossing herb Bulbine bulbosa. We compared seed output of emasculated and cross-pollinated plants that could not self-pollinate with that of intact plants. Seed output was similar in emasculated and cross-pollinated plants, but it was about 50% less in intact plants. These findings indicate that the quantity of cross-pollen deposited by pollinators did not limit seed output. However, pollinators also deposited self-pollen, which reduced seed output because selfing disabled ovules, rendering them unavailable for cross-fertilization. We conclude that pollen quality rather than quantity can limit seed output under natural conditions, which supports recent proposals for greater consideration of pollen quality in the study of pollen limitation.

  3. SuperB Progress Report for Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Buonomo, B.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Rotundo, U.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Brachman, A.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /IRFU, SPP, Saclay /DESY /Cockroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /U. Liverpool /CERN

    2012-02-14

    This report details the progress made in by the SuperB Project in the area of the Collider since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008. With this document we propose a new electron positron colliding beam accelerator to be built in Italy to study flavor physics in the B-meson system at an energy of 10 GeV in the center-of-mass. This facility is called a high luminosity B-factory with a project name 'SuperB'. This project builds on a long history of successful e+e- colliders built around the world, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The key advances in the design of this accelerator come from recent successes at the DAFNE collider at INFN in Frascati, Italy, at PEP-II at SLAC in California, USA, and at KEKB at KEK in Tsukuba Japan, and from new concepts in beam manipulation at the interaction region (IP) called 'crab waist'. This new collider comprises of two colliding beam rings, one at 4.2 GeV and one at 6.7 GeV, a common interaction region, a new injection system at full beam energies, and one of the two beams longitudinally polarized at the IP. Most of the new accelerator techniques needed for this collider have been achieved at other recently completed accelerators including the new PETRA-3 light source at DESY in Hamburg (Germany) and the upgraded DAFNE collider at the INFN laboratory at Frascati (Italy), or during design studies of CLIC or the International Linear Collider (ILC). The project is to be designed and constructed by a worldwide collaboration of accelerator and engineering staff along with ties to industry. To save significant construction costs, many components from the PEP-II collider at SLAC will be recycled and used in this new accelerator. The interaction region will be designed in collaboration with the particle physics detector to guarantee successful mutual use. The accelerator collaboration will consist of several groups at present

  4. Analysing Quality of English-Hindi Machine Translation Engine outputs using Baysian Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Gupta; Nisheeth Joshi; Iti Mathur

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem for estimating the quality of machine translation outputs which are independent of human intervention and are generally addressed using machine learning techniques.There are various measures through which a machine learns translations quality. Automatic Evaluation metrics produce good co-relation at corpus level but cannot produce the same results at the same segment or sentence level. In this paper 16 features are extracted from the input sentence...

  5. The Impact of SuperB on Flavor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, B.; Blanke, M.; Stocchi, A.; Drutskoy, A.; Cervelli, A.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Perez, A.; Walsh, J.; Hurth, T.; Bevan, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Ciuchini, M.; Tarantino, C.

    2012-02-16

    This report provides a succinct summary of the physics programme of SuperB, and describes that potential in the context of experiments making measurements in flavour physics over the next 10 to 20 years. Detailed comparisons are made with Belle II and LHCb, the other B physics experiments that will run in this decade. SuperB will play a crucial role in defining the landscape of flavour physics over the next 20 years. SuperB is an approved high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider intended to search for indirect and some direct signs of new physics (NP) at low energy, while at the same time, enabling precision tests of the Standard Model (SM). This experiment will be built at a new laboratory on the Tor Vergata campus near Rome, Italy named after Nicola Cabibbo. The project has been described in a Conceptual Design Report, and more recently by a set of three white papers on the accelerator, detector, and physics programme. The main focus of the physics programme rests in the study of so-called Golden Modes, these are decay channels that provide access to measurements of theoretically clean observables that can provide both stringent constraints on models of NP, and precision tests of the SM. A number of ancillary measurements that remain important include those with observables that may not be theoretically clean, and those that can be used to provide stringent constraints on the SM but are not sensitive to NP. The remainder of this section introduces SuperB before discussing the golden modes for SuperB, precision CKM measurement modes, and an outline of the rest of this report.

  6. Quantifying Image Quality Improvement Using Elevated Acoustic Output in B-Mode Harmonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Trahey, Gregg E; Haystead, Clare M; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2017-10-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging has been widely used in abdominal imaging because of its significant reduction in acoustic noise compared with fundamental imaging. However, tissue harmonic imaging can be limited by both signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth during clinical imaging, resulting in decreased diagnostic utility. A logical approach would be to increase the source pressure, but the in situ pressures used in diagnostic ultrasound are subject to a de facto upper limit based on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline for the mechanical index (tissues without gas bodies, but would only be justified if there were a concurrent improvement in image quality and diagnostic utility. This work evaluates image quality differences between normal and elevated acoustic output hepatic harmonic imaging using a transmit frequency of 1.8 MHz. The results indicate that harmonic imaging using elevated acoustic output leads to modest improvements (3%-7%) in contrast-to-noise ratio of hypo-echoic hepatic vessels and increases in imaging penetration depth on the order of 4 mm per mechanical index increase of 0.1 for a given focal depth. Difficult-to-image patients who suffer from poor ultrasound image quality exhibited larger improvements than easy-to-image study participants. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel bibliometric scores for evaluating research quality and output: a correlation study with established indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Scudeller, Luigia; Abele, Paola; Topuz, Funda; Curti, Moreno

    2016-12-23

    Novel bibliometric indexes (commonly known as altmetrics) are gaining interest within the scientific community and might represent an important alternative measure of research quality and output. We evaluate how these new metrics correlate with established bibliometric indexes such as the impact factor (IF), currently used as a measure of scientific production as well as a criterion for scientific research funding, and how they might be helpful in assessing the impact of research. We calculated altmetrics scores for all the articles published at our institution during a single year and examined the correlation between altmetrics scores and IFs as a measure of research quality and impact in all departments. For all articles from the various departments published in a single year, the altmetrics score and the sum of all IFs showed a strong and significant correlation (Spearman's rho 0.88). The correlation was significant also when the major components of altmetrics, including Facebook, Twitter and Mendeley, were analyzed. The implementation of altmetrics has been found to be easy and effective at both the researcher and librarian levels. The novel bibliographic index altmetrics is consistent and reliable and can complement or be considered a valid alternative to standard bibliometric indexes to benchmark output and quality of research for academic and funding purposes.

  8. Evaluation of Quality of Output Product in the Technology Group for Pyrolisis of Organic Waste Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav HONUS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ecological removal of organic polymer materials and wastes polluting the environment is very much alive and it is clear that it will take on ever greater importance. a promising and innovative technology for environmentally friendly disposal of waste organic matter is pyrolysis. This method of thermal processing of waste for its degradation as well as a source of valuable energy products using the new system Pyromatic. This paper presents its technical description and evaluation of the quality of output product from the pyrolysis of tires, plastics and coal.

  9. The SuperB Accelerator: Overview and Lattice Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.; Heifets, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.T.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; /Pisa U.; Koop, I.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /Daresbury /LBL, Berkeley /CERN /Orsay, LAL /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-22

    SuperB aims at the construction of a very high luminosity (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} Flavour Factory, with possible location at the campus of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. In this paper the basic principles of the design and details on the lattice are given. SuperB is a new machine that can exploit novel very promising design approaches: (1) large Piwinski angle scheme will allow for peak luminosity of the order of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, well beyond the current state-of-the-art, without a significant increase in beam currents or shorter bunch lengths; (2) 'crab waist' sextupoles will be used for suppression of dangerous resonances; (3) the low beam currents design presents reduced detector and background problems, and affordable operating costs; (4) a polarized electron beam can produce polarized {tau} leptons, opening an entirely new realm of exploration in lepton flavor physics. SuperB studies are already proving useful to the accelerator and particle physics communities. The principle of operation is being tested at DAFNE. The baseline lattice, based on the reuse of all PEP-II hardware, fits in the Tor Vergata University campus site, near Frascati. A CDR is being reviewed by an International Review Committee, chaired by J. Dainton (UK). A Technical Design Report will be prepared to be ready by beginning of 2010.

  10. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view. Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  11. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@unu.edu [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, Jaco [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Stevels, Ab [Design for Sustainability Lab, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628CE Delft (Netherlands); Baldé, Cornelis Peter [Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Hermann-Ehler-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Statistics Netherlands, Henri Faasdreef 312, 2492 JP Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  12. FastSim: A Fast Simulation for the SuperB Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, R.; Arnaud, N.; Brown, D. N.; Burmistrov, L.; Carlson, J.; Cheng, C.-h.; Di Simone, A.; Gaponenko, I.; Manoni, E.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Roberts, D.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Sokoloff, M.; Suzuki, A.; Walsh, J.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a parameterized (fast) simulation for detector optimization and physics reach studies of the proposed SuperB Flavor Factory in Italy. Detector components are modeled as thin sections of planes, cylinders, disks or cones. Particle-material interactions are modeled using simplified cross-sections and formulas. Active detectors are modeled using parameterized response functions. Geometry and response parameters are configured using xml files with a custom-designed schema. Reconstruction algorithms adapted from BaBar are used to build tracks and clusters. Multiple sources of background signals can be merged with primary signals. Pattern recognition errors are modeled statistically by randomly misassigning nearby tracking hits. Standard BaBar analysis tuples are used as an event output. Hadronic B meson pair events can be simulated at roughly 10Hz.

  13. Scanner-based image quality measurement system for automated analysis of EP output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipman, Yair; Mehta, Prashant; Johnson, Kate

    2003-12-01

    Inspection of electrophotographic print cartridge quality and compatibility requires analysis of hundreds of pages on a wide population of printers and copiers. Although print quality inspection is often achieved through the use of anchor prints and densitometry, more comprehensive analysis and quantitative data is desired for performance tracking, benchmarking and failure mode analysis. Image quality measurement systems range in price and performance, image capture paths and levels of automation. In order to address the requirements of a specific application, careful consideration was made to print volume, budgetary limits, and the scope of the desired image quality measurements. A flatbed scanner-based image quality measurement system was selected to support high throughput, maximal automation, and sufficient flexibility for both measurement methods and image sampling rates. Using an automatic document feeder (ADF) for sample management, a half ream of prints can be measured automatically without operator intervention. The system includes optical character recognition (OCR) for automatic determination of target type for measurement suite selection. This capability also enables measurement of mixed stacks of targets since each sample is identified prior to measurement. In addition, OCR is used to read toner ID, machine ID, print count, and other pertinent information regarding the printing conditions and environment. This data is saved to a data file along with the measurement results for complete test documentation. Measurement methods were developed to replace current methods of visual inspection and densitometry. The features that were being analyzed visually could be addressed via standard measurement algorithms. Measurement of density proved to be less simple since the scanner is not a densitometer and anything short of an excellent estimation would be meaningless. In order to address the measurement of density, a transfer curve was built to translate the

  14. Beam quality of InGaAs ridge lasers at high output power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, G; Harder, C

    1995-09-20

    The nonlinear behavior of the light-current characteristic of single quantum well, graded-index-separateheterostructure ridge laser diodes emitting at 980 nm is investigated. We have measured the beam-quality factor |M|(2) as a function of the output power, under continuous-wave and transient conditions.The time constant associated with beam degradation under the transient condition suggests that the temperature profile in the cavity plays a significant role in the lateral guiding of the lasing modes. The two-dimensional heat equation is solved for the device, and the time-resolved thermally induced refractive-index profile is computed. There is excellent agreement between the time required to reach a steady index profile and that required to degrade the beam. The small beam astigmatism (typically 2 µm) measured under CW operating conditions in the linear regime indicates that the mode is essentially index guided, which permits simple quantitative modeling of the waveguide.

  15. Qualitative: Open Source Python Tool for Quality Estimation over Multiple Machine Translation Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Avramidis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “Qualitative” is a python toolkit for ranking and selection of sentence-level output by different MT systems using Quality Estimation. The toolkit implements a basic pipeline for annotating the given sentences with black-box features. Consequently, it applies a machine learning mechanism in order to rank data based on models pre-trained on human preferences. The preprocessing pipeline includes support for language models, PCFG parsing, language checking tools and various other pre-processors and feature generators. The code follows the principles of object-oriented programming to allow modularity and extensibility. The tool can operate by processing both batch-files and single sentences. An XML-RPC interface is provided for hooking up with web-services and a graphical animated web-based interface demonstrates its potential on-line use.

  16. The SuperB factory, physics potential and project status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiechczynski Jaroslaw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The SuperB project is an international enterprise aiming at the construction of the high-luminosity asymmetric beam energy electron-positron accelerator, which would be located in the area of Rome. It would exploit several novel features allowing to achieve an unprecedented luminosities and to collect almost a hundred times more data than the current generation of ”B factories”. As for the leptonic colliders, it will maintain a clean, low-background experimental environment that is crucial for numerous measurements on the field of high energy physics

  17. New Low Emittance Lattice for the Super-B Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Bettoni, S.; /CERN; Paoloni, E.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-21

    New low emittance lattices have been designed for the asymmetric SuperB accelerator, aiming at a luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Main optics features are two alternating arc cells with different horizontal phase advance, decreasing beam emittance and allowing at the same time for easy chromaticity correction in the arcs. Emittance can be further reduced by a factor of two for luminosity upgrade. Spin rotation schemes for the e{sup -} beam have been studied to provide longitudinal polarization at the IP, and implementation into the lattice is in progress.

  18. Quality of life research: types of publication output over time for cancer patients, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L J; Sanson-Fisher, R; Aranda, S; D'Este, C; Sharkey, K; Schofield, P

    2010-09-01

    To examine the type of published research regarding quality of life for cancer patients over two 24-month periods: 1995-1996 and 2005-2006. A computer-based literature search was conducted using Medline. Two random samples of 120 publications identified in 1995-1996 and in 2005-2006 were coded as data-based research, reviews or programme descriptions. Data-based publications were further coded as measurement, descriptive or intervention research. Intervention publications were coded as psychosocial- or biomedical-based. Psychosocial intervention papers were coded using Cochrane Review criteria. In 1995-1996, 419 publications were identified and 1271 publications in 2005-2006. The majority of publications were data-based. The proportion of types of publications (data-based, reviews or programme description/case report categories) did not change significantly over time. Descriptive research dominated data-based publication outputs in 1995-1996 and 2005-2006. The current approach to quality of life research for cancer patients may be less than optimal for providing successful development of knowledge, improving healthcare delivery and lessening the burden of suffering.

  19. A LYSO Calorimeter for the SuperB Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, Claudia; Germani, Stefano; Manoni, Elisa; Rossi, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Marco [Universita di Perugia e INFN Sezione di Perugia Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Recchia, Luigi [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' e INFN Sezione di Roma1 P.zzle Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lubrano, Pasquale; Lebeau, Michel; Papi, Andrea, E-mail: claudia.cecchi@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    The SuperB project is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerator of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} luminosity, capable of collecting a data sample of 50-75 ab{sup -1} in five years of running. The SuperB electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC), that will be described in this paper, provides energy and direction measurement of photons and electrons, and is used for identification of electrons versus other charged particles. In particular we will present its design, geometry study and related simulations, as well as R and D on LYSO crystals, a project for the mechanical structure and development on readout and electronics. A matrix of 6 crystals has been tested this year June 2010 at the Beam Test Facility of Frascati (BTF) at energies between 200 MeV and 500 MeV, and a beam test with the complete prototype of 25 crystals is foreseen at CERN in October 2010 to cover the energy range between 500 MeV and 7 GeV.

  20. Crystal Quality and Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Concave Patterned Sapphire Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YewChung Sermon; Isabel, A Panimaya Selvi; Zheng, Jian-Hsuan; Lin, Bo-Wen; Li, Jhen-Hong; Lin, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-22

    The crystal quality and light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on concave patterned sapphire substrate (CPSS) were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality of GaN-based LEDs grown on CPSS improved with the decrease of the pattern space (percentage of c-plane). However, when the pattern space decreased to 0.41 μm (S0.41-GaN), the GaN crystallinity dropped. On the other hand, the light output power of GaN-based LEDs was increased with the decrease of the pattern space due to the change of the light extraction efficiency.

  1. COMPENSATION OF DETECTOR SOLENOID IN SUPER-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Bertsche, Kirk; Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The SUPER-B detector solenoid has a strong 1.5 T field in the Interaction Region (IR) area, and its tails extend over the range of several meters. The main effect of the solenoid field is coupling of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion which must be corrected in order to preserve the small design beam size at the Interaction Point. The additional effects are orbit and dispersion caused by the angle between the solenoid and beam trajectories. The proposed correction system provides local compensation of the solenoid effects independently for each side of the IR. It includes 'bucking' solenoids to remove the solenoid field tails and a set of skew quadrupoles, dipole correctors and anti-solenoids to cancel linear perturbations to the optics. Details of the correction system are presented.

  2. SEARCH FOR NEW PHYSICS AT A SUPER-B FACTORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWDER,T.E.; SONI,A.

    2004-01-05

    The importance of a Super-B Factory in the search for New Physics, in particular, due to CP-od phase(s) from physics beyond the Standard Model is surveyed. The first point to emphasize is that we know now how to directly measure all three angles of the unitarity triangle very cleanly, i. e. without theoretical assumptions with irreducible theory error {le} 1%; however this requires much more luminosity than is currently available at B-factories. Direct searches via penguin-dominated hadronic modes as well as radiative, pair-leptonic and semi-leptonic decays are also discussed. Null tests of the SM are stressed as these will play a crucial role especially if the effects of BSM phase(s) on B-physics are small.

  3. Low Frequency Shadowing of the Parkes Superb Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Kaplan, D. L.; Williams, A.; Wayth, R.

    2017-01-01

    The field of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) is rapidly gaining momentum. Since their discovery in the Parkes high time resolution survey (Thornton et al. 2013), the number of reported FRB detections has more than tripled, and measurements have been made of their scattering, scintillation, polarisation and Faraday rotation properties, all of which helped to establish their astrophysical nature. Obser- vational evidence continues to mount in support of their extragalactic origin, and the world-wide competitive race is ramping up as a suite of new and existing instruments are gearing up to find them in large numbers. The SUPERB survey at Parkes has been conceived to realise the important goal of understanding the origin and progenitors of FRBs. An integral part of this survey is co-ordinated multi-wavelength follow-ups and shadowing. Our MWA-based shadowing efforts last year resulted in the first simultaneous multi-frequency observation of an FRB (albeit a non-detection at the MWA), and hence the first broadband limit on the spectral index, as reported in our Nature publication (Keane at al. 2016). After an year-long hiatus the SUPERB survey is scheduled to resume in December 2016. We propose to resume our MWA-based efforts by undertaking effective low-frequency shadowing that is uniquely possible with the MWA. Simultaneous detection of even a single a self-same FRB would bring in a huge science payoff and will yield the first unambiguous constraints on the spectral and scattering properties of FRBs, besides the prospects of sub-arc minute localisation that will be possible with the long baseline array of Phase 2 MWA. We propose to make use of unallocated blocks of time within the schedule, available outside the approved programs and the planned commissioning activities relating to Phase 2. This proposal will thus make excellent use of idle time for an exciting and very important science goal in the nascent field of FRB science.

  4. SuperB: a Linear High-Luminosity B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, J.; Bettarini, S.; Biagini, M.; Bonneaud, G.; Cai, Y.; Calderini, G.; Ciuchini, M.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Forti, F.; Gershon, T.J.; Giorgi, M.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Lusiani, A.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Neri, N.; Novokhatski, A.; Pierini, M.; Piredda, G.; /Caltech /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale

    2006-02-08

    This paper is based on the outcome of the activity that has taken place during the recent workshop on ''SuperB in Italy'' held in Frascati on November 11-12, 2005. The workshop was opened by a theoretical introduction of Marco Ciuchini and was structured in two working groups. One focused on the machine and the other on the detector and experimental issues.. The present status on CP is mainly based on the results achieved by BABAR and Belle. Establishment of the indirect CP violation in B sector in 2001 and of the direct CP violation in 2004 thanks to the success of PEP-II and KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B Factories operating at the center of mass energy corresponding to the mass of the {Upsilon}(4S ). With the two B Factories taking data, the Unitarity Triangle is now beginning to be over constrained by improving the measurements of the sides and now also of the angles {alpha}, and {gamma}. We are also in presence of the very intriguing results about the measurements of sin2{beta} in the time dependent analysis of decay channels via penguin loops, where b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} s{bar d}d. {tau} physics, in particular LFV search, as well as charm and ISR physics are important parts of the scientific program of a SuperB Factory. The physics case together with possible scenarios for the high luminosity SuperB Factory based on the concepts of the Linear Collider and the related experimental issues are discussed.

  5. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was 20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  6. Application of model output statistics to the GEM-AQ high resolution air quality forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the presented work was to analyse the impact of data stratification on the efficiency of the Model Output Statistics (MOS) methodology as applied to a high-resolution deterministic air quality forecast carried out with the GEM-AQ model. The following parameters forecasted by the GEM-AQ model were selected as predictors for the MOS equation: pollutant concentration, air temperature in the lowest model layer, wind speed in the lowest model layer, temperature inversion and the precipitation rate. A representative 2-year series were used to construct regression functions. Data series were divided into two subsets. Approximately 75% of the data (first 3 weeks of each month) were used to estimate the regression function parameters. Remaining 25% (last week of each month) were used to test the method (control period). The subsequent 12 months were used for method verification (verification period). A linear model fitted the function based on forecasted parameters to the observations. We have assumed four different temperature-based data stratification methods (for each method, separate equations were constructed). For PM10 and PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 the best correction results were obtained with the application of temperature thresholds in the cold season and seasonal distribution combined with temperature thresholds in the warm season. For the PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 the best results were obtained using a combination of two stratification methods separately for cold and warm seasons. For CO, the systematic bias of the forecasted concentrations was partly corrected. For ozone more sophisticated methods of data stratification did not bring a significant improvement.

  7. The SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker and 3D vertical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the SuperB high luminosity collider was approved and funded by the Italian government in 2011. The performance specifications set by the target luminosity of this machine (> 10^36 cm^-2 s^-1) ask for the development of a Silicon Vertex Tracker with high resolution, high tolerance to radiation and excellent capability of handling high data rates. This paper reviews the R&D activity that is being carried out for the SuperB SVT. Special emphasis is given to the option of exploiting 3D vertical integration to build advanced pixel sensors and readout electronics that are able to comply with SuperB vertexing requirements.

  8. Status of the Super-B factory Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.; Bertsche, K.; Chao, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Vobly, P.; Okunev, I.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /CERN /Orsay, LAL /LPSC, Grenoble /Saclay

    2012-05-18

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the Y(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low {beta}{sub y} without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point. Optimized for best colliding-beam performance, the facility may also provide high-brightness photon beams for synchrotron radiation applications.

  9. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  10. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  11. Options to Improve the Quality of Wind Generation Output Forecasting with the Use of Available Information as Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Magulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of wind generation, besides its positive aspects related to the use of renewable energy, is a challenge from the point of view of power systems’ operational security and economy. The uncertain and variable nature of wind generation sources entails the need for the for the TSO to provide adequate reserves of power, necessary to maintain the grid’s stable operation, and the actors involved in the trading of energy from these sources incur additional of balancing unplanned output deviations. The paper presents the results of analyses concerning the options to forecast a selected wind farm’s output exercised by means of different methods of prediction, using a different range of measurement and forecasting data available on the farm and its surroundings. The analyses focused on the evaluation of forecast errors, and selection of input data for forecasting models and assessment of their impact on prediction quality improvement.

  12. Gait Variability Related to Muscle Quality and Muscle Power Output in Frail Nonagenarian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinikorena, Ion; Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Gómez, Marisol; Lecumberri, Pablo; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L; Millor, Nora; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-02-01

    Frailty has become the center of attention of basic, clinical, and demographic research because of its incidence level and the gravity of adverse outcomes with age. Moreover, with advanced age, motor variability increases, particularly in gait. Muscle quality and muscle power seem to be closely associated with performance on functional tests in frail populations. Insight into the relationships among muscle power, muscle quality, and functional capacity could improve the quality of life in this population. In this study, the relationship between the quality of the muscle mass and muscle strength with gait performance in a frail population was examined. Twenty-two institutionalized frail elderly individuals (93.1 ± 3.6) participated in this study. Muscle quality was measured by segmenting areas of high- and low-density fibers as observed in computed tomography images. The assessed functional outcomes were leg strength and power, velocity of gait, and kinematic gait parameters obtained from a tri-axial inertial sensor. Our results showed that a greater number of high-density fibers, specifically those of the quadriceps femoris muscle, were associated with better gait performance in terms of step time variability, regularity, and symmetry. Additionally, gait variability was associated with muscle power. In contrast, no significant relationship was observed between gait velocity and either muscle quality or muscle power. Gait pattern disorders could be explained by a deterioration of the lower limb muscles. It is known that an impaired gait is an important predictor of falls in older populations; thus, the loss of muscle quality and power could underlie the impairments in motor control and balance that lead to falls and adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The front-end chip of the SuperB SVT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, F., E-mail: giorgi@bo.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia (Italy); Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bevan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Wilson, F. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Beck, G.; Morris, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-08-01

    The asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup −} collider SuperB is designed to deliver a high luminosity, greater than 10{sup 36}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1}, with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. The innermost detector is the Silicon Vertex Tracker which is made of 5 layers of double sided silicon strip sensors plus a layer 0, that can be equipped with short striplets detectors in a first phase of the experiment. In order to achieve an overall track reconstruction efficiency above 98% it is crucial to optimize both analog and digital readout circuits. The readout architecture being developed for the front-end chips will be able to cope with the very high rates expected in the first layer. The digital readout will be optimized to be fully efficient for hit rates up to 2 MHz/strip, including large margins on the maximum expected background rates, but can potentially accommodate higher rates with a proper tuning of the buffer depth. The readout is based on a triggered architecture where each of the 128 strip channel is provided with a dedicated digital buffer. Each buffer collects the digitized charge information by means of a 4-bit TOT, storing it in conjunction with the related time stamp. The depth of buffers was dimensioned considering the expected trigger latency and hit rate including suitable safety margins. Every buffer is connected to a highly parallelized circuit handling the trigger logic, rejecting expired data in the buffers and channeling the parallel stream of triggered hits to the common output of the chip. The presented architecture has been modeled by HDL language and investigated with a Monte Carlo hit generator emulating the analog front-end behavior. The simulations showed that even applying the highest stressing conditions, about 2 MHz per strip, the efficiency of the digital readout remained above 99.8%.

  14. Process and output: relation between transactivity, temporal synchronicity, and quality of group work during CSCL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; van Leeuwen, A.; Buis, S.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Do the simultaneous alignment of student activities (temporal synchronicity) and students successively building on each other's reasoning (transactivity) predict the quality of collaborative learning products ? A mixed method approach was used to study 74 first year university students who were rand

  15. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  16. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management.Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality.Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register.Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement.Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  17. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  18. Trends in the types and quality of childhood immunisations research output from Africa 1970-2010: mapping the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machingaidze, Shingai; Hussey, Gregory D; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2014-02-04

    Over the past four decades, extraordinary progress has been made in establishing and improving childhood immunization programmes around Africa. In order to ensure effective and sustainable positive growth of these childhood immunisations programmes, the development, adaptation and implementation of all interventions (programme activities, new vaccines, new strategies and policies) should be informed by the best available local evidence. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature on childhood immunization research published in English from 1970 to 2010 was conducted in PubMed and Africa-Wide databases. All study types were eligible for inclusion. A standard form was used to extract information from all studies identified as relevant and entered into a Microsoft Access database for analysis. Our initial search yielded 5436 articles from the two databases, from which 848 full text articles were identified as relevant. Among studies classified as clinical research (417), 40% were clinical trials, 24% were burden of disease/epidemiology and 36% were other clinical studies. Among studies classified as operational research (431), 77% related to programme management, 18% were policy related and 5% were related to vaccine financing. Studies were conducted in 48 African countries with six countries (South Africa, The Gambia, Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau and Kenya) accounting for 56% of the total research output. Studies were published in 152 different journals with impact factors ranging from 0.192 to 53.29; with a median impact factor of 3.572. A similar proportion of clinical versus operational research output was found. However, an uneven distribution across Africa was observed with only six countries accounting for over half of the research output. The research conducted was of moderate to high quality, with 62% being published in journals with 2010 impact factors greater than two. Urgent attention should be given to the development of research capacity in low

  19. Preparatory education for cancer patients undergoing surgery: A systematic review of volume and quality of research output over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Amy; Forshaw, Kristy; Bryant, Jamie; Carey, Mariko; Boyes, Allison; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2015-05-23

    To determine the volume and scope of research output examining preparation of patients for people undergoing cancer-related surgical treatment, and the impact of pre-operative education on patient outcomes and health care utilisation. Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO databases were systematically searched. Eligible papers were coded as data-based or non-data-based. Data-based papers were further classified as descriptive, measurement or intervention studies. Methodological quality and effectiveness of intervention studies were assessed using Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria. We identified 121 eligible papers. The number of publications significantly increased over time. Most were data-based (n=99) and descriptive (n=83). Fourteen intervention studies met EPOC design criteria. Face-to-face interventions reported benefits for anxiety (5/7), satisfaction (1/1), knowledge (3/3) and health care costs (1/1). Audio-visual and multi-media interventions improved satisfaction (1/1) and knowledge (2/3), but not anxiety (0/3). Written interventions were mixed. Descriptive studies dominate the literature examining preoperative education in oncology populations, with few rigorous intervention studies. Pre-operative education can improve satisfaction, knowledge and reduce anxiety. Further work should be directed at multi-modal interventions, and those that include the caregiver, given their role in assisting patients to prepare and recover from surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SuperB Bunch-By-Bunch Feedback R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, A.; Beretta, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC; Migliorati, M.; /Rome U.

    2011-08-12

    The SuperB project has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The SuperB design is based on collisions with extremely low vertical emittance beams and high beam currents. A source of emittance growth comes from the bunch by bunch feedback systems producing high power correction signals to damp the beams. To limit any undesirable effect, a large R&D program is in progress, partially funded by the INFN Fifth National Scientific Committee through the SFEED (SuperB Feedback) project approved within the 2010 budget. The SuperB project [1] has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the last and current years, the machine layout has been deeply modified, in particular the main rings are now shorter and an option with high currents has been foreseen. In the fig.1 the new SuperB layout is shown. From bunch-by-bunch feedback point of view, the simultaneous presence in the machine parameters, of very low emittance, of the order of 5-10 pm in the vertical plane, and very high currents, at level of 4 Ampere for the Low Energy Ring, asks for designing very carefully the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The parameter list is presented in Fig. 2. The bunch-by-bunch feedback design must take care of the risky and exciting challenges proposed in the SuperB specifications, but it should consider also some other important aspects: flexibility in terms of being able to cope to unexpected beam behaviours [2], [3] legacy of previous version experience [4], [5] and internal powerful diagnostics [6] as in the systems previously used in PEP-II and DAFNE [7].

  1. Beam-size effect and particle losses at SuperB factory developed in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotkin, G L; Serbo, V G [Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogova st., 2 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: serbo@math.nsc.ru

    2009-06-15

    In the colliders, the macroscopically large impact parameters give a substantial contribution to the standard cross section of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma} process. These impact parameters may be much larger than the transverse sizes of the colliding bunches. It means that the standard cross section of this process has to be substantially modified. In the present paper such a beam-size effect is calculated for bremsstrahlung at SuperB factory developed in Italy. We find out that this effect reduces beam losses due to bremsstrahlung by about 40%. We perform a critical comparison of our result with that presented in the Conceptual Design Report of the Italian SuperB factory.

  2. Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, M A

    2010-11-01

    We previously showed that residual treatment of dental chair unit (DCU) supply water using the electrochemically-activated solution Trustwater Ecasol™ (2.5 ppm) provided an effective long-term solution to the problem of dental unit waterline (DUWL) biofilm resulting in DUWL output water quality consistently superior to potable water.

  3. Thin pixel development for the SuperB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.it [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); and others

    2011-09-11

    The high luminosity SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, to be built near the INFN National Frascati Laboratory in Italy, has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. An improved vertex resolution is required for precise time-dependent measurements and the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be equipped with an innermost layer of small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15{mu}m in both coordinates, low material budget (<1% X0), and able to withstand a background rate of several tens of MHz/cm{sup 2}. The ambitious goal of designing a thin pixel device with these stringent requirements is being pursued with specific R and D programs on different technologies: hybrid pixels, CMOS MAPS and pixel sensors developed with vertical integration technology. The latest results on the various pixel options for the SuperB SVT will be presented.

  4. A Faculty Development Program can result in an improvement of the quality and output in medical education, basic sciences and clinical research and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2009-07-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International.The traditional teacher- and discipline-centred curriculum was displaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum, which has been named Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem-Oriented Learning (DIPOL). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany.The students play a very important strategic role in all processes. They are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. The Faculty Development program, including a reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification, resulted in an improvement of the quality and output of medical education and was accompanied in an improvement of the quality and output of basic sciences and clinical research and interdisciplinary patient care.

  5. Beam-size effect and particle losses at Super$B$ factory developed in Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L

    2009-01-01

    In the colliders, the macroscopically large impact parameters give a substantial contribution to the standard cross section of the $e^+ e^- \\to e^+ e^- \\gamma$ process. These impact parameters may be much larger than the transverse sizes of the colliding bunches. It means that the standard cross section of this process has to be substantially modified. In the present paper such a beam-size effect is calculated for bremsstrahlung at Super$B$ factory developed in Italy. We find out that this effect reduces beam losses due to bremsstrahlung by about 40%.

  6. SuperB: An opportunity to study baryons with beauty and bottom super-nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciello, A., E-mail: Alessandro.Feliciello@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    SuperB is an INFN flagship project for a new high-luminosity heavy-flavor factory. Along with its companion detector, it is dedicated to the search for CP violation effects in the B meson sector with the aim of looking for direct and indirect signals of new physics, beyond the Standard Model. However it could offer as well the opportunity for a systematic, high-statistics study of b baryon properties and for a search for bottom super-nuclei, that is bound nuclear systems with an explicit content of beauty.

  7. Space-time data fusion under error in computer model output: an application to modeling air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Veronica J; Gelfand, Alan E; Holland, David M

    2012-09-01

    We provide methods that can be used to obtain more accurate environmental exposure assessment. In particular, we propose two modeling approaches to combine monitoring data at point level with numerical model output at grid cell level, yielding improved prediction of ambient exposure at point level. Extending our earlier downscaler model (Berrocal, V. J., Gelfand, A. E., and Holland, D. M. (2010b). A spatio-temporal downscaler for outputs from numerical models. Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics 15, 176-197), these new models are intended to address two potential concerns with the model output. One recognizes that there may be useful information in the outputs for grid cells that are neighbors of the one in which the location lies. The second acknowledges potential spatial misalignment between a station and its putatively associated grid cell. The first model is a Gaussian Markov random field smoothed downscaler that relates monitoring station data and computer model output via the introduction of a latent Gaussian Markov random field linked to both sources of data. The second model is a smoothed downscaler with spatially varying random weights defined through a latent Gaussian process and an exponential kernel function, that yields, at each site, a new variable on which the monitoring station data is regressed with a spatial linear model. We applied both methods to daily ozone concentration data for the Eastern US during the summer months of June, July and August 2001, obtaining, respectively, a 5% and a 15% predictive gain in overall predictive mean square error over our earlier downscaler model (Berrocal et al., 2010b). Perhaps more importantly, the predictive gain is greater at hold-out sites that are far from monitoring sites.

  8. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  9. SUrgical versus PERcutaneous Bypass: SUPERB-trial; Heparin-bonded endoluminal versus surgical femoro-popliteal bypass: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis de Vries Bas M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endovascular treatment options for the superficial femoral artery are evolving rapidly. For long lesions, the venous femoropopliteal bypass considered to be superior above the prosthetic bypass. An endoluminal bypass, however, may provide equal patency rates compared to the prosthetic above knee bypass. The introduction of heparin-bonded endografts may further improve patency rates. The SUrgical versus PERcutaneous Bypass (SuperB study is designed to assess whether a heparin-bonded endoluminal bypass provides equal patency rates compared to the venous bypass and to prove that it is associated with improved quality of life, related to a decreased complication rate, or not. Methods/design Two-hundred-twenty-two patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, category 3-6 according to Rutherford, will be randomized in two treatment arms; 1. the surgical femoro-popliteal bypass, venous whenever possible, and 2. the heparin-bonded endoluminal bypass. The power analysis was based on a non-inferiority principle, with an effect size of 90% and 10% margins (alpha 5%, power 80%. Patients will be recruited from 5 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. The primary endpoint is primary patency and quality of life evaluated by the RAND-36 questionnaire and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire. Secondary endpoints include secondary patency, freedom-from-TLR and complications. Discussion The SuperB trial is a multicentre randomized controlled trial designed to show non-inferiority in patency rates of the heparin-bonded endograft compared to the surgical bypass for treatment of long SFA lesions, and to prove a better quality of life using the heparin bonded-endograft compared to surgically treatment, related to a reduction in complications. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials: NCT01220245

  10. TEMPORAL SIGNATURES OF AIR QUALITY OBSERVATIONS AND MODEL OUTPUTS: DO TIME SERIES DECOMPOSITION METHODS CAPTURE RELEVANT TIME SCALES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time series decomposition methods were applied to meteorological and air quality data and their numerical model estimates. Decomposition techniques express a time series as the sum of a small number of independent modes which hypothetically represent identifiable forcings, thereb...

  11. Embryonic learning of vocal passwords in superb fairy-wrens reveals intruder cuckoo nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli-Négrel, Diane; Hauber, Mark E; Robertson, Jeremy; Sulloway, Frank J; Hoi, Herbert; Griggio, Matteo; Kleindorfer, Sonia

    2012-11-20

    How do parents recognize their offspring when the cost of making a recognition error is high? Avian brood parasite-host systems have been used to address this question because of the high cost of parasitism to host fitness. We discovered that superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females call to their eggs, and upon hatching, nestlings produce begging calls with key elements from their mother's "incubation call." Cross-fostering experiments showed highest similarity between foster mother and nestling calls, intermediate similarity with genetic mothers, and least similarity with parasitic Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis) nestlings. Playback experiments showed that adults respond to the begging calls of offspring hatched in their own nest and respond less to calls of other wren or cuckoo nestlings. We conclude that wrens use a parent-specific password learned embryonically to shape call similarity with their own young and thereby detect foreign cuckoo nestlings.

  12. B+ --> tau nu and B --> K(*) nu nubar at BaBar and SuperB

    CERN Document Server

    Lindemann, Dana M

    2012-01-01

    We present the recent BaBar searches for the leptonic decay B+ --> tau+ nu and for the rare decay B --> K(*) nu nubar, using a data sample of about 470 x 10^6 BB pairs. Both searches use a technique in which one B meson is hadronically reconstructed before searching for evidence of the signal decay in the rest of the event. BaBar measures B(B+ --> tau+ nu) = (1.83 ^{+0.53}_{-0.49} +/- 0.24) x 10^{-4}, and preliminary upper limits at 90% confidence level of B(B --> K nu nubar) K* nu nubar) l+ nu and B --> K(*) nu nubar due to the higher luminosity of next generation B Factories like SuperB.

  13. A New Interaction Region Design for the Super-B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC; Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Bettoni, Simona; /CERN; Paoloni, Eugenio; /INFN, Pisa; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Vobly, Pavel; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-07-06

    A final focus magnet design that uses super-ferric magnets is introduced for the SuperB interaction region. The baseline design has air-core super-conducting quadrupoles. This idea instead uses super-conducting wire in an iron yoke. The iron is in the shape of a Panofsky quadrupole and this allows two quadrupoles to be side-by-side with no intervening iron as long as the gradients of the two quads are equal. This feature allows us to move in as close as possible to the collision point and minimize the beta functions in the interaction region. The superferric design has advantages as well as drawbacks and we will discuss these in the paper.

  14. A New Interaction Region Design for the Super-B Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Michael; Bettoni, Simona; Paoloni, Eugenio; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Vobly, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    A final focus magnet design that uses super-ferric magnets is introduced for the SuperB interaction region. The baseline design has air-core super-conducting quadrupoles. This idea instead uses super-conducting wire in an iron yoke. The iron is in the shape of a Panofsky quadrupole and this allows two quadrupoles to be sideby- side with no intervening iron as long as the gradients of the two quads are equal. This feature allows us to move in as close as possible to the collision point and minimize the beta functions in the interaction region. The superferric design has advantages as well as drawbacks and we will discuss these in the pape

  15. The LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections The Organization of a Logistically Complex Worksite Requiring Strict Quality Standards and High Output

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.

  16. Signal Intensity of Superb Microvascular Imaging Correlates with the Severity of Acute Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Tomizawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the severity of acute cholecystitis is critical for the management of this condition. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI enables the assessment of slow blood flow of small vessels without any contrast medium. An 84-year-old man visited our hospital with right upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography showed a slight thickening of the gallbladder. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were elevated. He was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and treated conservatively with antibiotics. Two days later, his condition worsened and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD was performed. The patient recovered and was discharged, and his drainage was withdrawn 7 days later. On admission, color-coded SMI (cSMI showed pulsatory signals on the slightly thickened gallbladder wall. On the day of PTGBD, the intensity of the signal on cSMI had increased. Once the patient was cured, no further signal was observed on the gallbladder wall with either cSMI or mSMI. In conclusion, the strong pulsatory signal correlated with the severity of acute cholecystitis observed with cSMI and mSMI. Illustrating the signal intensity is useful for the evaluation of the severity of acute cholecystitis.

  17. The Diagnostic Value of Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) in Detecting Blood Flow Signals of Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Li, Gang; Li, Jing; Ren, Wei-dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The correlation between color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) for detecting blood flow in breast lesions was investigated, as was the diagnostic value of SMI in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. These lesions were evaluated using both CDFI and SMI according to Adler's method. Pathologic examination showed 57 malignant lesions and 66 benign lesions. The number of blood vessels in a single mass was detected by 2 techniques (SMI and CDFI), and the difference between the 2 values (SMI-CDFI) was calculated. The optimal threshold for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the diagnostic performances of SMI, CDFI, and SMI-CDFI were calculated. For the total lesions and malignant lesions alone, the difference between SMI and CDFI for detecting blood flow was significant (P < 0.01), but the difference was not significant for benign lesions (P = 0.15). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64–0.82) for CDFI; 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.89) for SMI; and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.95) for SMI-CDFI. Furthermore, the modality of “SMI-CDFI” showed the best diagnostic performance. SMI provides further microvessel information in breast lesions. The diagnostic modality of “SMI-CDFI” can improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the differentiation between benign and malignant masses. PMID:26356718

  18. Signal Intensity of Superb Microvascular Imaging Correlates with the Severity of Acute Cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the severity of acute cholecystitis is critical for the management of this condition. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) enables the assessment of slow blood flow of small vessels without any contrast medium. An 84-year-old man visited our hospital with right upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography showed a slight thickening of the gallbladder. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were elevated. He was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and treated conservatively with antibiotics. Two days later, his condition worsened and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed. The patient recovered and was discharged, and his drainage was withdrawn 7 days later. On admission, color-coded SMI (cSMI) showed pulsatory signals on the slightly thickened gallbladder wall. On the day of PTGBD, the intensity of the signal on cSMI had increased. Once the patient was cured, no further signal was observed on the gallbladder wall with either cSMI or mSMI. In conclusion, the strong pulsatory signal correlated with the severity of acute cholecystitis observed with cSMI and mSMI. Illustrating the signal intensity is useful for the evaluation of the severity of acute cholecystitis. PMID:27721732

  19. Advances in the Design of the SuperB Final Doublet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoloni, E.; Carmignani, N.; Pilo, F.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa; Bettoni, S.; /CERN; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; /INFN, Genoa; Bosi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    SuperB is an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) peak with a design peak luminosity of 10{sup 36} Hz/cm{sup 2} to be built in Italy in the very near future. The design luminosity is almost a factor hundred higher than that of the present generation comparable facilities. To get the design luminosity a novel collision scheme, the so called 'large Piwinski angle with crab waist', has been designed. The scheme requires a short focus final doublet to reduce the vertical beta function down to {beta}*{sub y} = 0.2mm at the interaction point (IP). The final doublet will be composed by a set of permanent and superconducting (SC) quadrupoles. The SC quadrupole doublets QD0/QF1 will be placed as close to the IP as possible. This layout is critical because the space available for the doublets is very small. An advanced design of the quadrupole has been developed, based on the so-called helical coil concept. The paper discusses the design concept, the construction and the results of test of a model of the superconducting quadrupole based on NbTi technology. Future developments are also presented.

  20. Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Bettoni, S.; /CERN; Paoloni, E.; Marchiori, G.; /Pisa U.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-10-24

    Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.

  1. Recent SuperB Design Choices Improve Next-Generation e e___ B-Factory Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmer, W.; Bertsche, K.; Chao, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Bogomyagkov, A.V.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Vobly, P.; Okunev, I.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; /Frascati /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Saclay

    2011-08-19

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low {beta}*{sub y} without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point. Optimized for best colliding-beam performance, the facility may also provide high-brightness photon beams for synchrotron radiation applications.

  2. SuperB: Next-Generation e+e− B-factory Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Novokhatski, A; Chao, A; Nosochkov, Y; Seeman, J T; Sullivan, M K; Wienands, J T; Wittmer, W; Baylac, M A; Bourrion, O; Monseu, N; Vescovi, C; Bettoni, S; Biagini, M E; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bogomyagkov, A V; Nikitin, S A; Piminov, P A; Shatilov, D N; Sinyatkin, S V; Vobly, P; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; A. Chancé; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Musenich, R; Liuzzo, S M; Paoloni, E; Okunev, I N; Poirier, F; Rimbault, C; Variola, A

    2011-01-01

    The SuperB international team continues to optimize the design of an electron-positron collider, which will allow the enhanced study of the origins of flavor physics. The project combines the best features of a linear collider (high single-collision luminosity) and a storage-ring collider (high repetition rate), bringing together all accelerator physics aspects to make a very high luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. This asymmetric-energy collider with a polarized electron beam will produce hundreds of millions of B-mesons at the Y(4S) resonance. The present design is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large Piwinski angle to allow very low ßy* without the need for ultra short bunches. Use of crab-waist sextupoles will enhance the luminosity, suppressing dangerous resonances and allowing for a higher beam-beam parameter. The project has flexible beam parameters, improved dynamic aperture, and spin-rotators in the Low Energy Ring for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interactio...

  3. Font hinting techniques and the importance of applying these techniques for high-quality display of fonts on the output device screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjanin Bojan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of contemporary and rapid way of life and with advancing digital technology, the display of electroniccontent on different types of portable devices becomes a part of everyday life. Whether it is on the screen of a TabletPC, mobile phone or e-book reader, the font needs to be designed in such a way that the displayed message isreceived and understood as easy and efficiently as possible.When it comes to digital font, intended for display on screen, it is necessary to take into account the properties ofthe output device and font size to be used. Since the text is intended for display on small screens (especially in caseof portable devices, the used font should be adapted to such conditions, namely, it should be designed so as to bereadable and legible even at small sizes and at different resolutions of the device.The integral part of contemporary outline fonts are additional instructions on how rasterizer is to render letters atlower resolutions and lower font sizes. These instructions are known as hints, or hint mechanisms, and the processof defining these instructions is called hinting.The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for understanding the issues of the display of small sizes fontson screen. The paper will also elaborate the hinting techniques with emphasis on TrueType hint mechanisms that aremost suitable for high-quality display on the output device screen, as well as some methods of automatic hinting.Theoretical basis introduced here, represent foundation on which further exploration will lay on. It is important forbroadening the knowledge in the field of rasterization and automatic hinting but also for finding new solutions forthe simpler and better hinting.

  4. 添加碳源提高卤虫生物量和改善水质%Improving Artemia Biomass Output and Water Quality Through Carbon Supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋丽英; 王娇; 高美荣; 曾衍

    2015-01-01

    在零换水养殖系统中,研究不同碳源及碳氮比(C/N)对高盐水体中卤虫生物量产出、营养质量和水质的影响.实验一在正常(NF,100%)、较低(LF,60%)和极低(VLF,30%)3个杜氏盐藻(Dunaliella salina)投喂水平下,分别添加蔗糖和淀粉两种碳源,C/N为20.实验二杜氏盐藻投喂水平为 LF,分别添加蔗糖和淀粉两种碳源,C/N 分别为20和40.单位养殖水体积1,000,mL,初始卤虫密度1.5,mL-1,养殖盐度50,温度24~25,℃,养殖周期14,d.结果表明,在相同单胞藻投喂水平下,添加碳源显著提高卤虫生物量(P<0.05);水体中总氨氮(TAN)、2NO−、3NO−和总氮(TN)水平大幅度减少,pH 有所降低,黏度保持稳定;脂肪酸 C16:1n7含量有所增加,而 C20﹕5n3含量有所降低.碳源对卤虫生物量的促进作用与卤水中生物絮团的形成密切相关,这一点可由相同单胞藻投喂水平下,添加碳源显著提高卤虫生物量和降低水中氮浓度等得到证明.比较蔗糖与淀粉两种碳源,分子结构简单的蔗糖作用效果较好.提高C/N对卤虫生物量的影响不显著.%Effects of carbon sources and C/N ratio on the output and nutritional quality of Artemia biomass and water qual-ity were studied in zero-water exchange culture system. In Experiment I,microalgae Dunaliella salina were fed to Artemia at 100% normal feeding(NF),60% low feeding(LF)and 30% very low feeding(VLF)of the feeding levels,respectively. Su-crose and starch were supplemented in the culture area at a C/N ratio of 20. In Experiment Ⅱ,sucrose and starch were sup-plemented at a C/N ratio of 20,and 40,respectively,and D. salina was fed at low feeding level(LF). Artemia were cultured in 1 L brine water with an initial density of 1.5 mL-1 for 14 days;the salinity was 50 and temperature 24-25,℃. The results showed that the supplementation of sucrose and starch in culture medium significantly enhanced

  5. Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus sons and daughters acquire song elements of mothers and social fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is regarded as a classic example of a sexually-selected trait and has been primarily studied in systems with male song. Complex solo female song is emerging from the shadows of overlooked phenomena. In males, rearing conditions affect male song complexity, and males with complex songs are often more successful at mate attraction and territorial defense. Little is known about the ontogeny or function of complex female song. Here we examine song elements in fledgling superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus in relation to the song elements of adult tutors. Male and female superb fairy-wrens produce solo song year-round to defend a territory. We ask if sons and daughters acquire song elements from sex-specific vocal tutors. We found that sons and daughters produced the song elements of their mothers and social fathers, and that sons and daughters had comparable song element repertoires at age 7-10 weeks. We conclude that sons and daughters increase their song element repertoire when vocally imitating elements from several vocal tutors, and that both sexes acquire elements from male and female vocal tutors in this system.

  6. Description of two new Isospora species causing visceral coccidiosis in captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus (Aves: Sturnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian A; Stasiak, Iga; Delnatte, Pauline; El-Sherry, Shiem; Smith, Dale A; Barta, John R

    2014-09-01

    Isospora greineri sp. n. and Isospora superbusi sp. n. are described from captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, from the Toronto Zoo succumbing to visceral coccidiosis. Sequence data from nuclear 18S recombinant DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) loci from sporulated oocysts and infected tissues (liver, lung, or spleen) demonstrated two distinct Isospora sp. genotypes that varied in their relative abundance. In the tissues of one affected bird, as well as its associated fecal sample, two distinct COI sequences (1.7% divergence) and two distinct 18S rDNA sequences (0.6% divergence) were found at almost the same abundance; in other specimens, one of the 18S and one of the COI sequences were less abundant than the other. In the tissues of some birds, only a single COI and single 18S sequence were present. In all cases, the same pair of 18S rDNA and COI sequences fluctuated in abundance in parallel, indicating that there were two distinct species present rather than one species with more than one COI or 18S locus. The oocysts of these new species cannot be differentiated morphologically. Sporulated oocysts of both were spherical to subspherical measuring 17.7 ± 0.22 μm by 17.1 ± 0.20 μm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.03 ± 0.004. Sporocysts were ovoid measuring 13.5 ± 0.17 μm by 9.3 ± 0.15 μm with a mean L/W ratio of 1.4 ± 0.02. Sporocysts had a small Stieda body with indistinct sub-Stieda body; each sporocyst had a compact residuum. Two morphologically similar but genetically divergent Isospora species were shown to cause simultaneous enteric and extraintestinal infections in captive superb glossy starlings.

  7. Bottom-up Design of Three-Dimensional Carbon-Honeycomb with Superb Specific Strength and High Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhenqian; Gu, Xiaokun; Wei, Yujie; Yang, Ronggui; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2017-01-11

    Low-dimensional carbon allotropes, from fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, to graphene, have been broadly explored due to their outstanding and special properties. However, there exist significant challenges in retaining such properties of basic building blocks when scaling them up to three-dimensional materials and structures for many technological applications. Here we show theoretically the atomistic structure of a stable three-dimensional carbon honeycomb (C-honeycomb) structure with superb mechanical and thermal properties. A combination of sp(2) bonding in the wall and sp(3) bonding in the triple junction of C-honeycomb is the key to retain the stability of C-honeycomb. The specific strength could be the best in structural carbon materials, and this strength remains at a high level but tunable with different cell sizes. C-honeycomb is also found to have a very high thermal conductivity, for example, >100 W/mK along the axis of the hexagonal cell with a density only ∼0.4 g/cm(3). Because of the low density and high thermal conductivity, the specific thermal conductivity of C-honeycombs is larger than most engineering materials, including metals and high thermal conductivity semiconductors, as well as lightweight CNT arrays and graphene-based nanocomposites. Such high specific strength, high thermal conductivity, and anomalous Poisson's effect in C-honeycomb render it appealing for the use in various engineering practices.

  8. Latest results of the R and D on CMOS MAPS for the Layer0 of the SuperB SVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestri, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Batignani, G. [Università degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Beck, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Bernardelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Berra, A. [Università dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bettarini, S. [Università degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bevan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli Studi di Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Casarosa, G., E-mail: giulia.casarosa@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Ceccanti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Cenci, R. [University of Maryland (United States); Citterio, M.; Coelli, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Università degli Studi di Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Fabbri, L. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    Physics and high background conditions set very challenging requirements on readout speed, material budget and resolution for the innermost layer of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker operated at the full luminosity. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are very appealing in this application since the thin sensitive region allows grinding the substrate to tens of microns. Deep N-Well MAPS, developed in the ST 130 nm CMOS technology, achieved in-pixel sparsification and fast time stamping. Further improvements are being explored with an intense R and D program, including both vertical integration and 2D MAPS with the INMAPS quadruple well. We present the results of the characterization with IR laser, radioactive sources and beam of several chips produced with the 3D (Chartered/Tezzaron) process. We have also studied prototypes exploiting the features of the quadruple well and the high resistivity epitaxial layer of the INMAPS 180 nm process. Promising results from an irradiation campaign with neutrons on small matrices and other test-structures, as well as the response of the sensors to high energy charged tracks are presented.

  9. CARE-HHH-APD Workshop on Interaction Regions for the LHC Upgrade, DAFNE, and SuperB

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; IR'07; IR 2007

    2008-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the CARE-HHH-APD Mini-Workshop “IR’07,” which was held in Frascati, Italy, from 7 to 9 November 2007. The central theme of the IR’07 Mini-Workshop was the upgrade of the LHC interaction region (IR). A second topic was the experience with the upgraded DAFNE IR as well as the ongoing plans and studies for SuperB, plus possible applications of crab-waist collisions for the LHC upgrade. Discussions during the workshop addressed the performance and limitations of the IR-upgrade optics performance, the optimization of new LHC triplet magnets, the US-LARP magnet strategy (response to Lucio Rossi’s “challenge”), heat deposition, earlyseparation dipoles, detector-integrated quadrupoles, strategy for crab cavities, beam–beam wire compensators, and crab-waist collisions. At IR’07 all auxiliary systems, e.g. wires and crab cavities, received a strong boost. Energy deposition was shown to add an important criterion to the optics requirements—in a first attempt a ...

  10. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  11. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  12. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  13. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  14. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  15. A new era for the music industry: How new technologies and the internet affect the way music is valued and have an impact on output quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patokos Tassos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its early days, the Internet has been used by the music industry as a powerful marketing tool to promote artists and their products. Nevertheless, technology developments of the past ten years, and especially the ever-growing phenomenon of file sharing, have created the general impression that the Internet is responsible for a crisis within the industry, on the grounds that music piracy has become more serious than it has ever been. The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of new technologies and the Internet on the three main actors of the music industry: consumers, artists and record companies. It is claimed that the Internet has changed the way music is valued, and also, that it may have a direct effect on the quality of the music produced, as perceived by both artists and consumers alike.

  16. Verificação do fator de calibração e indicador da qualidade do feixe de aceleradores lineares Verification of dose output and beam quality indicator in linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Silva

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Um programa de garantia da qualidade é um pré-requisito obrigatório para a exatidão necessária em radioterapia. Este trabalho relata parte dos testes de rotina mensal do controle da qualidade dos aceleradores lineares do Instituto Nacional do Câncer, relativos à calibração dos feixes de fótons e elétrons, no período de dois anos. Os resultados foram comparados com as recomendações do protocolo AAPM TG-40. Na análise do fator de calibração para o feixe de fótons foi encontrado um desvio máximo de 12%; para o feixe de elétrons o maior desvio encontrado foi 10%. A flutuação observada no indicador da qualidade do feixe para os feixes de elétrons foi maior que para os feixes de fótons. Os resultados confirmam a importância de um programa de garantia da qualidade em um serviço de radioterapia, permitindo correções rápidas da dose administrada ao paciente.A quality assurance program is a mandatory prerequisite for obtaining the high level of accuracy required for radiotherapy. This paper reports the results of part of the routine quality control tests for linear accelerators at the National Cancer Institute, Brazil, performed monthly over a period of two years. These tests included dose output and beam quality indicator. The results were compared with the guidelines of the AAPM TG-40 protocol. The results for the photon beams have shown dose output variations of up to 12%; for electron beams, the largest deviation found was 10%. The fluctuations observed in the beam quality indicator for the electron beams were greater than for the photon beams. These results strongly emphasize the importance of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy services in order to allow prompt corrections of the dose delivered to the patient.

  17. Effects of dietary exposure to herbicide and of the nutritive quality of contaminated food on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa da Silva, M; Abrantes, N; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Duarte, A C; Freitas, A C; Gomes, A M; Carvalho, A P; Marques, J C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2016-10-01

    Risk assessment of pesticides has been based on direct toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Indirect effects data are taken into account but with limitations, as it is frequently difficult to predict their real impacts in the ecosystems. In this context the main aim of this work was to assess how the exposure to the herbicide pendimethalin (Prowl(®)), under environmentally relevant concentrations, may compromise the nutritional composition of food for a relevant group of primary consumers of freshwater food webs-the daphnids, thus affecting their reproduction performance and subsequently the long-term sustainability of active populations of this grazer. Therefore, Daphnia magna individuals were chronically exposed in a clean medium to a control diet (NCF - i.e., non-contaminated green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata) and to a contaminated diet (CF - i.e., the same monoalgal culture grown in a medium enriched with pendimethalin in a concentration equivalent to the EC20 for growth inhibition of algae), during which reproductive endpoints were assessed. The algae were analysed for protein, carbohydrate and fatty acid content. The chemical composition of R. subcapitata in the CF revealed a slight decrease on total fatty acid levels, with a particular decrease of essential ω9 monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, the protein content was high in the CF. D. magna exposed to CF experienced a 16% reduction in reproduction, measured as the total number of offspring produced per female. Additionally, an internal pendimethalin body burden of 4.226μgg(-1) was accumulated by daphnids fed with CF. Hence, although it is difficult to discriminate the contribution of the pesticide (as a toxic agent transferred through the food web) from that of the food with a poor quality-compromised by the same pesticide, there are no doubts that, under environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides, both pathways may compromise the populations of freshwater grazers in the long term

  18. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  19. Fluctuations in population composition dampen the impact of phenotypic plasticity on trait dynamics in superb fairy-wrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Osmond, Helen L; Cockburn, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    1. In structured populations, phenotypic change can result from changes throughout an individual's lifetime (phenotypic plasticity, age-related changes), selection and changes in population composition (environment- or density-driven fluctuations in age-structure). 2. The contribution of population dynamics to phenotypic change has often been ignored. However, for understanding trait dynamics, it is important to identify both the individual- and population-level mechanisms responsible for trait change, because they potentially reinforce or counteract each other. 3. We use 22 years of field data to investigate the dynamics of a sexually selected phenological trait, the timing of nuptial moult in superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus. 4. We show that trait expression is both climate- and age-dependent, but that phenotypic plasticity in response to climate variability also varies with age. Old males can acquire nuptial plumage very early after high rainfall, but 1- to 2-year-olds cannot. However, males of all ages that defer moult to later in the year acquire nuptial plumage earlier when conditions are warmer. 5. The underlying mechanism appears to be that old males may risk moulting in the most challenging period of the year: in autumn, when drought restricts food abundance and during the cold winter. By contrast, young males always moult during the spring transition to benign - warmer and generally wetter - conditions. Temperature changes dominate this transition that heralds the breeding season, thereby causing both young and late-moulting older birds to be temperature sensitive. 6. Climate and age also affect trait dynamics via a population dynamical pathway. The same high rainfall that triggers early moulting in old males concurrently increases offspring recruitment and thereby reduces the average age of males in the population. Consequently, effects of rainfall on trait dynamics through phenotypic plasticity of old males are dampened by synchronous rejuvenation of

  20. Scaling of global input-output networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  1. A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.

  2. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  3. A new nonlinear output tracking controller via output-feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun ZHANG; Yungang LIU; Yuqin DING

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the output tracking control is investigated for a class of nonlinear systems when only output is available for feedback. Based on the multivariable analog of circle criterion, an observer is first introduced. Then, the observer-based output tracking controller is constructively designed by using the integral backstepping approach together with completing square. It is shown that, under relatively mild conditions, all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded.Meanwhile the system output asymptotically tracks the desired output. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  4. Jules Verne, Le Superbe Orénoque et la géophagie. L'intertextualité au service de l'exotisme géographique.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    L'exégèse de l'œuvre de Jules Verne ouvre parfois la voie à des interprétations très inattendues. Tel est ainsi l'exemple de la géophagie que l'auteur évoque dans quelques-uns de ses romans, et plus particulièrement dans Le Superbe Orénoque (1898). Si pour certains auteurs Jules Verne fait directement écho ici à ses propres ennuis gastriques, nous voudrions cependant rappeler les sources qu'il a utilisées pour écrire son roman. Sans renier pour autant l'interprétation qui est proposée par ces...

  5. Analysis on Effects of Spraying Rare Ethers in Tea Garden on Tea Output and Quality%稀土对茶园增产及品质影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东风; 邵学广; 王常红; 方能虎; 赵贵文

    2000-01-01

    Tea output and quality could be enhanced by spraying rare earths (R.E.)in teagarden,WhiCh physiological and biochemical character were analysed by conventional analyticalmethods,trace bioassay technology and enzymatic activity assay in this paper. Results showed that spraying R.E. could enhance the content of chlorophyll in leaves of tea shoot evidently,which was very benefit to photosynthesis.Spraying R.E.could raise enzymatic aetivities of GDH、POD and CAT etc.and increase the content of soluble extraction from the tea in hotwater.The tea quality from tea plants sprayed R.E.were better than those of control.The cellmembrance stability could be heightened by spraying R.E.,therefore the resisdbity of tea plantwas improved.The hormone contents of IAA、GA etc.in tea shoots were increased evidently,which is one of reasons WhyR.E.had the dffects increasing tea yield and quality.%本文通过常规分析方法、生物痕量分析技术及酶活性检测等手段对茶园喷施稀土后的一些生理生化指标进行了分析。结果表明,喷施稀土可明显提高叶绿素的含量,有利于光合作用;增强了谷氨酸脱氢酶(GDH)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)及肽酶(PTD)等酶活性;提高了茶叶水浸出物含量,品质得分高于对照;有利于细胞膜的稳定,增强了茶树的抗性;另外,喷施稀土后茶梢中IAA、GA等含量明显提高,这也是稀土对茶叶产量及品质影响的原因之一。

  6. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  7. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  8. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  9. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  10. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  11. Inverter communications using output signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  12. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Multi-output differential technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidare, Srinivas R.

    1997-01-01

    A differential is a very old and proven mechanical device that allows a single input to be split into two outputs having equal torque irrespective of the output speeds. A standard differential is capable of providing only two outputs from a single input. A recently patented multi-output differential technology known as `Plural-Output Differential' allows a single input to be split into many outputs. This new technology is the outcome of a systematic study of complex gear trains (Bidare 1992). The unique feature of a differential (equal torque at different speeds) can be applied to simplify the construction and operation of many complex mechanical devices that require equal torque's or forces at multiple outputs. It is now possible to design a mechanical hand with three or more fingers with equal torque. Since these finger are powered via a differential they are `mechanically intelligent'. A prototype device is operational and has been used to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the design. In this paper we shall review two devices that utilize the new technology resulting in increased performance, robustness with reduced complexity and cost.

  14. The Diagnostic Value of Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) in Detecting Blood Flow Signals of Breast Lesions: A Preliminary Study Comparing SMI to Color Doppler Flow Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Li, Gang; Li, Jing; Ren, Wei-dong

    2015-09-01

    The correlation between color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) for detecting blood flow in breast lesions was investigated, as was the diagnostic value of SMI in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions.These lesions were evaluated using both CDFI and SMI according to Adler's method. Pathologic examination showed 57 malignant lesions and 66 benign lesions. The number of blood vessels in a single mass was detected by 2 techniques (SMI and CDFI), and the difference between the 2 values (SMI-CDFI) was calculated. The optimal threshold for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the diagnostic performances of SMI, CDFI, and SMI-CDFI were calculated.For the total lesions and malignant lesions alone, the difference between SMI and CDFI for detecting blood flow was significant (P < 0.01), but the difference was not significant for benign lesions (P = 0.15). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.82) for CDFI; 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) for SMI; and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95) for SMI-CDFI. Furthermore, the modality of "SMI-CDFI" showed the best diagnostic performance.SMI provides further microvessel information in breast lesions. The diagnostic modality of "SMI-CDFI" can improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the differentiation between benign and malignant masses.

  15. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  16. Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.

    2016-07-01

    There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)

  17. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  18. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  19. World Input-Output Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  20. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  1. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  2. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  3. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    ) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  4. Superb nanocrystalline alloys for plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With high rigidity and antiwear performance,nanocrystalline metals and their alloys can find wide applications in surface protection.However, the existence of grain boundaries often leads to erosive micro-batteries which accelerate the process of corrosion.Therefore, it has already become a key issue for surface engineering researchers to find nano materials with higher lubricating, anticorrosion and antiwear capacities.

  5. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  6. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  7. 基于素质、行为与产出的企业经营者业绩评价研究%Research on Outstanding Achievement Evaluation for Management Personnel Based on Quality, Behavior and Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨生斌; 孔莹

    2013-01-01

    针对企业经营者经营业绩评价中存在的问题,提出从经营者素质、行为与产出三个方面设计经营者业绩评价指标,构建经营者经营业绩评价体系.%According to the problems existing in the process of enterprise management personnel performing the outstanding achievement evaluation, this paper designs outstanding achievement evaluation index for enterprise management personnel from three aspects of management personnel quality, behavior and performance. Thus we can build an outstanding achievement evaluation system for enterprise management personnel.

  8. Random output and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2003-11-01

    Many countries are under pressure to reform health care financing and delivery. Hospital care is one part of the health system that is under scrutiny. Private management initiatives are a possible way to increase efficiency in health care delivery. This motivates the interest in developing methodologies to assess hospital performance, recognizing hospitals as a different sort of firm. We present a simple way to describe hospital production: hospital output as a change in the distribution of survival probabilities. This output definition allows us to separate hospital production from patients' characteristics. The notion of "better performance" has a precise meaning: (first-order) stochastic dominance of a distribution of survival probabilities over another distribution. As an illustration, we compare, for an important DRG, private and public management and find that private management performs better, mainly in the range of high-survival probabilities. The measured performance difference cannot be attributed to input prices or to economies of scale and/or scope. It reflects pure technological and organisational differences.

  9. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  10. Output regulation problem for discrete-time linear time-delay systems by output feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamin YAN; Jie HUANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the output regulation problem of discrete linear time-delay systems by output feedback control. We have established some results parallel to those for the output regulation problem of continuous linear time-delay systems.

  11. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of courts to generate political change has long been debated in national, comparative, and international politics. In the examination of the interaction between judicial and legislative politics, scholars have disagreed on the degree of judicial power and the ability of politics...... to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  12. Nutritional and fluid requirements: high-output stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Sophie

    Based on the current available evidence, this article explores the nutritional management of those with a high-output stoma. The main alterations required to the intake of patients with a high-output stoma include the use of an oral rehydration solution to ensure optimum absorption of fluid and sodium, and a high-calorie, high-protein diet, with the aim of optimizing nutritional status. Diet advice should be delivered by a dietitian with experience in managing these complex patients. Monitoring of electrolytes and micronutrients is essential, and long-term follow up from a multidisciplinary nutrition support team is invaluable in coordinating this. Patients with high-output stomas can enjoy good quality of life and long-term health if their condition is managed effectively by a well-organized multidisciplinary team.

  13. Dark output characteristic of γ-ray irradiated CMOS digital imagesensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The quality of dark output images from the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) black and white (B&W) digital image sensors captured before and after γ-ray irradiation was studied. The characteristic parameters of the dark output images captured at different radiation dose, e.g. average brightness and its non-uniformity of dark output images, were analyzed by our test software. The primary explanation for the change of the parameters with the radiation dose was given.

  14. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  15. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  16. Relationship between Multi-Output Partially Bent Functions and Multi-Output Bent Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yaqun; JU Guizhi; WANG Jue

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition of multi-output partially Bent functions is presented and some properties are discussed. Then the relationship between multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions is given in Theorem 4, which includes Walsh spectrum expression and function expression. This shows that multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions can define each other in principle. So we obtain the general method to construct multi-output partially Bent functions from multi-output Bent functions.

  17. Variance estimation of modal parameters from output-only and input/output subspace-based system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Philippe; Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    An important step in the operational modal analysis of a structure is to infer on its dynamic behavior through its modal parameters. They can be estimated by various modal identification algorithms that fit a theoretical model to measured data. When output-only data is available, i.e. measured responses of the structure, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes can be identified assuming that ambient sources like wind or traffic excite the system sufficiently. When also input data is available, i.e. signals used to excite the structure, input/output identification algorithms are used. The use of input information usually provides better modal estimates in a desired frequency range. While the identification of the modal mass is not considered in this paper, we focus on the estimation of the frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, relevant for example for modal analysis during in-flight monitoring of aircrafts. When identifying the modal parameters from noisy measurement data, the information on their uncertainty is most relevant. In this paper, new variance computation schemes for modal parameters are developed for four subspace algorithms, including output-only and input/output methods, as well as data-driven and covariance-driven methods. For the input/output methods, the known inputs are considered as realizations of a stochastic process. Based on Monte Carlo validations, the quality of identification, accuracy of variance estimations and sensor noise robustness are discussed. Finally these algorithms are applied on real measured data obtained during vibrations tests of an aircraft.

  18. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  19. Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981), which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990), which provide the solution of the output regulation problem ...

  20. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability function as a possibly uncomputable expression in an intermediate language. This program is then analyzed, transformed, and approximated. The result is a closed form expression that computes an over...

  1. The Global NR Output Kept Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wen

    2011-01-01

    In early November, Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries in- dicated that from 2005 to 2011, the pro- ducing area and output of the global NR both kept rising. As predicted, the pro- ducing area will be 72 million hectares, the output will be 10.02 million tons and the average output will be 1,392 kg/hectare by the end of2011.

  2. Sinopec H1 Oil Output Climbs Slightly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec Corp., China's largest oil refiner, announced in late-July that its crude oil output rose 4.33 percent to 163 million barrels year-on-year in the first half. Domestic crude oil output was up 1. 16 percent to 152 million barrels during the period, while overseas output jtmlped 82.46 percent to 11,13 million barrels, according to an unaudited repo,t released by tile company.

  3. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations.

  4. Practice Output in College Language Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩

    2010-01-01

    <正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.

  5. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  6. The Role of Output in Grammar Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹莉; 段薇; 谢璐

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers tend to emphasize a lot on the importance of grammar learning because knowledge of gram⁃mar is the base of the competence of communication. This thesis just focuses on how output affects students ’grammar learning by analyzing the role of output in learning of English and the strategies of English learning.

  7. Multi-output programmable quantum processor

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yafei; Feng, Jian; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    By combining telecloning and programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys.Rev.Lett. 79 :321(1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately-transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.

  8. THE NONSTATIONARITY OF GERMAN AGGREGATE OUTPUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZELHORST, D; DEHAAN, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the stationarity of German per capita output for the period 1870-1989 is examined, using both a parametric and a non-parametric approach. The standard unit root tests and the scaled variogram suggest that German output is not stationary. Following the approach suggested by Perron (1989

  9. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  10. Analysis of the Input and Output Language Theory and College English Teaching%Analysis of the Input and Output Language Theory and College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒敏

    2011-01-01

    There has been much debate on the topic of language input and language output in College English teaching in China. This paper based on the Krashen's Input Hypothesis and Swain's Output Hypothesis to discuss the problems that existed in the college language teaching. It also put forward some suggestions learned from the two theories to improve the college language teaching quality and make students achieve the balance of language competence.

  11. Output beam analysis of high power COIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deli Yu(于德利); Fengting Sang(桑凤亭); Yuqi Jin(金玉奇); Yizhu Sun(孙以珠)

    2003-01-01

    As the output power of a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) increases, the output laser beam instabilityappears as the far-field beam spot drift and deformation for the large Fresnel number unstable resonator.In order to interpret this phenomenon, an output beam mode simulation code was developed with the fastFourier transform method. The calculation results show that the presence of the nonuniform gain in COILproduces a skewed output intensity distribution, which causes the mirror tilt and bulge due to the thermalexpansion. With the output power of COIL increases, the mirror surfaces, especially the back surface ofthe scraper mirror, absorb more and more heat, which causes the drift and deformation of far field beamspot seriously. The initial misalignment direction is an important factor for the far field beam spot driftingand deformation.

  12. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  13. Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981, which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990, which provide the solution of the output regulation problem for nonlinear control systems involving neutrally stable exosystem dynamics. Numerical results are shown to verify the results.

  14. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  15. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2010-08-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes.

  16. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  17. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    monetary policy can be used to stimulate agricultural output even if only in the .... require higher lags than could be accommodated given the number of our data .... Time Series with a Unit Root”, Journal of the American Statistical Association,.

  18. OFFSHORE OIL OUTPUT MORE THAN SCHEDULED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China Offshore Oil Nan Hai East Corp (CONHE) is one of four subsidiaries of the China National Offshore Oil Corp.The first-quarter output was an encouraging 220 000 tons more than the planned goal for that period.

  19. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  20. Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolin; Shu, Ting; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Jianhua; Jin, Zhenxing; Yin, Yi; Wu, Dapeng; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Heming; Yang, Jie

    2010-12-01

    The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.

  1. Output Measures and Library Space Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushington, Nolan

    1987-01-01

    Draws some initial connections between library performance measures and library space planning and collection management. Output measure surveys are suggested for establishing hierarchies of use and appropriate design of environments for housing the collection. Four references are listed. (MES)

  2. Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiao-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become prosperous if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, and fr...

  3. APPROXIMATE OUTPUT REGULATION FOR AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yali DONG; Daizhan CHENG; Huashu QIN

    2003-01-01

    Output regulation for affine nonlinear systems driven by an exogenous signal is investigated in this paper. In the absence of the standard exosystem hypothesis, we assume availability of the instantaneous values of the exogenous signal and its first time-derivative for use in the control law.For affine nonlinear systems, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the solvability of approximate output regulation problem are obtained. The precise form of the control law is presented under some suitable assumptions.

  4. Design study of the KAGRA output mode cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Ayaka; Bond, Charlotte; Somiya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Most second-generation gravitational-wave detectors employ an optical resonator called an output mode cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light from the signal and the reference light, before it reaches the detection photodiode located at the asymmetric port of the large-scale interferometer. The optical parameters of the OMC should be carefully chosen to satisfy the requirements to filter out unwanted light whilst transmitting the gravitational-wave signal. We use the simulation program FINESSE and realistic mirror phase maps that have the same surface quality as the KAGRA test masses to find out a proper design of the KAGRA OMC.

  5. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  6. Response requirements as constraints on output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M D; Buchman, I B

    1979-07-01

    Two experiments studied how added response requirements affected fixed-interval schedule performance. Experiment 1 involved tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules, and Experiment 2 studied conjunctive fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules. In both, pigeons' output, defined as overall response rate or as responses during the interval, first increased and then decreased as the ratio was raised. With small ratio requirements, the frequency of reinforcement in time either did not change or decreased slightly. With progressively larger ratios, reinforcement frequency decreased consistently. Alternative explanations were discussed. The first, a reinforcement theory account, was that response strength is an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency, and the bitonic output function represents interacting effects. Increases in the response requirement accompanied by small changes in reinforcement frequency enhance output, but further increases result in large enough decrements in reinforcement frequency so that output is lowered. The second explanation does not view reinforcement as a basic process but, instead, derives from concepts of economics and conservation. Organisms allocate their behavior among alternatives so as to maximize value, where value is a function of the responses that can occur in a given situation under the set of restrictions imposed by particular schedules. One form of this theory explicitly predicts that output is a bitonic function of ratio requirements in simple ratio schedules. However, it was not clear that this model could explain the present effects involving joint ratio and interval schedule restrictions.

  7. Output Synchronization of Nonidentical Linear Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanqing; Su, Hongye; Shi, Peng; Lu, Renquan; Wu, Zheng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of output synchronization is investigated for the heterogeneous network with an uncertain leader. It is assumed that parameter perturbations influence the nonidentical linear agents, whose outputs are controlled to track the output of an uncertain leader. Based on the hierarchical structure of the communication graph, a novel control scheme is proposed to guarantee the output synchronization. As there exist parameter uncertainties in the models of the agents, the internal model principle is used to gain robustness versus plant parameter uncertainties. Furthermore, as the precise model of the leader is also not available, the adaptive control principle is adopted to tune the parameters in the local controllers. The developed new technique is able to simultaneously handle uncertainties in the follower parameters as well as the leader parameters. The agents in the upper layers will be treated as the exosystems of the agents in the lower layers. The local controllers are constructed in a sequential order. It is shown that the output synchronization can be achieved globally asymptotically and locally exponentially. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the theoretic results obtained.

  8. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daming; Qiu, Limin; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE. (author)

  9. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Daming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Qiu Limin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: limin.qiu@zju.edu.cn; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE.

  10. Determining the Frequency for Load-Independent Output Current in Three-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhao Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for load-independent output voltage or current in two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT systems have been studied. However, analysis of load-independent output current in three-coil WPT system is still lacking in previous studies. This paper investigates the output current characteristics of a three-coil WPT system against load variations, and determines the operating frequency to achieve a constant output current. First, a three-coil WPT system is modeled by circuit theory, and the analytical expression of the root-mean-square of the output current is derived. By substituting the coupling coefficients, the quality factor, and the resonant frequency of each coil, we propose a method of calculating the frequency for load-independent output current in a three-coil WPT system, which indicates that there are two frequencies that can achieve load-independent output current. Experiments are conducted to validate these analytical results.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of the Single Phase Voltage Source UPS Inverter With Fourth Order Output Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Faiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A UPS inverter operates in wide load impedance ranges from resistive to capacitive or inductive load. At the same time, fast transient load response, good load regulation and good switching frequency suppression is required. The variation of the load impedance changes the filter transfer characteristic and thus the output voltage value. In this paper, an analysis and simulation of the single phase voltage source uninterruptible power supply (UPS with fourth order filter (multiple-filter in output inverter, based on the state space averaging and small signal linearization technique, is proposed. The simulation results show the high quality sinusoidal output voltage at different loads, with THD less than %5.

  12. An Analysis of Output on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾娅妮

    2014-01-01

    Output Hypothesis was proposed by Swain in 1985, her Output Hypothesis is regarded as the most important and in-fluential one. However, few studies research and analyze the effect of output on vocabulary acquisition. The findings of this study suggest the importance of output in vocabulary acquisition. Furthermore, in the interactive mode output can help learners acquire vocabulary.

  13. William Harvey, Peter Lauremberg and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, G

    1992-11-01

    In 1636, the Rostock professor of medicine and the art of poetry, Peter Lauremberg (1585-1639), was one of the earliest to mention circulation which had been discovered by William Harvey and documented in his anatomical manual. In 1628 William Harvey proved the existence of the blood circulation by calculating the "cardiac output in a half an hour (semihora)". The answer to the question why Harvey chose half an hour as the time range can be found in the way of measuring time usual at that period. The sandglasses were turned half-hourly in maritime navigation and the wheel-clocks on shore had only the hour-hand. Improved chronometry was one of the prerequisites for measuring cardiac output. The minute-hand became usual after 1700 and the second-hand later on. Taking into consideration the alterations of cardiac output made the latter one of the most important circulation parameters in diagnostics, prognostication and therapeutics.

  14. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  15. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  16. Effect of water intake on sweat output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Mani

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drinking volumes of water in excess of normal requirement at a given time on sweat output was studied under two conditions of body activity namely marching and standing, and two conditions of exposure namely sun and shade. It was found that (1drinking large volumes of water causes a significant and appreciable increase in sweat output, of the order of 0.8 gm/kg/hr; and (2 this increase is very nearly the same under all the conditions studied. It is suggested that changes in tonicity of the plasma may be the main cause for this phenomenon. It is also pointed out that this increased sweat output is not a loss to the body.

  17. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  18. Output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Tesfa, S

    2007-01-01

    We study the squeezing as well as the statistical properties of the output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. It is found that the degree of squeezing of the output radiation is less than the corresponding cavity radiation. However, for output radiation the correlation of the quadrature operators evaluated at different times also exhibits squeezing, which is the reason for quenching of the overall noise in one of the quadrature components of the squeezing spectrum even when the oscillator is coupled to a vacuum reservoir. Moreover, coupling the oscillator to the squeezed vacuum reservoir enhances the squeezing exponentially and it also increases the mean photon number.

  19. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress......The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three...

  20. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  1. Input/Output Subroutine Library Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

  2. An improved design of virtual output impedance loop for droop-controlled parallel three-phase Voltage Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The virtual output impedance loop is known as an effective way to enhance the load sharing stability and quality of droop-controlled parallel inverters. This paper proposes an improved design of virtual output impedance loop for parallel three-phase voltage source inverters. In the approach, a vi...

  3. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function und

  4. On optimal output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah; Shi, Guoyong

    2003-01-01

    The classical output regulation problem formulation for linear systems has a number of shortcomings; among them a primary one is that it does not take into account the transient response. Although this problem has been studied since the 1970s, a complete picture has not emerged yet. We formulate and

  5. On output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2001-01-01

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order � to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, � to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals wheneve

  6. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  7. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    empirical link between e ective tax rates and output volatility, with some evidence of a cointegrating relationship. In accordance with theory, taxes on labor income and corporate income empirically are found to be negatively related to volatility of macro aggregates whereas the capital tax ratio has...

  8. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  9. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  10. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  11. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  12. Capital Power:From Input to Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong; Alice

    2009-01-01

    @@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".

  13. Analysis of variance for model output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.J.W.

    1999-01-01

    A scalar model output Y is assumed to depend deterministically on a set of stochastically independent input vectors of different dimensions. The composition of the variance of Y is considered; variance components of particular relevance for uncertainty analysis are identified. Several analysis of va

  14. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  15. Turbo decoding using two soft output values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 潘申富; 梁庆林

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that turbo decoding always begins from the first component decoder and supposes that the apriori information is "0" at the first iterative decoding. To alternatively start decoding at two component decoders, we can gain two soft output values for the received observation of an input bit. It is obvious that two soft output values comprise more sufficient extrinsic information than only one output value obtained in the conventional scheme since different start points of decoding result in different combinations of the a priori information and the input codewords with different symbol orders due to the permutation of an interleaver. Summarizing two soft output values for erery bit before making hard decisions, we can correct more errors due to their complement. Consequently, turbo codes can achieve better error correcting performance than before in this way. Simulation results show that the performance of turbo codes using the novel proposed decoding scheme can get a growing improvement with the increment of SNR in general compared to the conventional scheme. When the bit error probability is 10-5, the proposed scheme can achieve 0.5 dB asymptotic coding gain or so under the given simulation conditions.

  16. Input-output, expandable-parity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, J. F., III

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

  17. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  18. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  19. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Forest...

  20. Smoothing the output from a DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.

  1. Minimum output entropy of Gaussian channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, S; Maccone, L; Pirandola, S; Garcia-Patron, R

    2009-01-01

    We show that the minimum output entropy for all single-mode Gaussian channels is additive and is attained for Gaussian inputs. This allows the derivation of the channel capacity for a number of Gaussian channels, including that of the channel with linear loss, thermal noise, and linear amplification.

  2. Adaptive Output Tracking of Driven Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Diao

    2008-01-01

    of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In addition, good approximation of the unknown nonlinearities is also achieved by incorporating a persistent exciting signal in the parameter update law. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to a cardiac conduction system modelled by two coupled driven oscillators.

  3. 超微血管成像与乳腺肿瘤微血管密度的相关性研究%Correlation analysis between superb microvascular imaging and pathological microvessel density in breast tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕; 李晶; 任卫东; 邓力军

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference in the ability of blood lfow detection between superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) among benign and malignant breast tumors. The correlation between the two imaging techniques and microvessel density (MVD) were also evaluated.Methods:A total of 79 women patients with 88 lesions (48 benign, 40 malignant) were included. CDFI and SMI were used to detect blood lfows of breast masses according to Adler’s grading criteria, respectively. hTe Kappa analysis was used to assess the consistency. hTe anti-CD34 immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of microvessels in the tumor, and the correlation coeffcient of Spearman was used to analyze the correlation between the expression of MVD and the Adler classiifcation of the SMI and CDFI, respectively.Results:hTe consistency of SMI and CDFI for all tumors is unfavorable (κ=0.67), poor for malignant tumor (κ=0.39), favorable for benign tumor (κ=0.79). Compared with CDFI, SMI and MVD have a signiifcant positive correlation (r=0.82,P<0.01). Conclusion:The detection ability of SMI on microvessels of the breast malignant tumor is better than CDFI, which is signiifcantly related to MVD. SMI can be used as a non-invasive method to evaluate the microvessel of breast malignant tumor before surgery.%目的:探讨超微血管成像(superb microvascular imaging,SMI)与彩色多普勒血流显像(color Doppler flow imaging,CDFI)检出乳腺良恶性肿物的血流情况的差异,并分析二者与肿物病理微血管密度(microvessel density,MVD)的相关性。方法:对79名女性乳腺肿物患者共88个病灶(良性48个、恶性40个)进行SMI及CDFI检测,参照Adler分级标准,应用上述两种成像技术分别观察同一病灶的血流情况,Kappa分析以评估其一致性。对术后病理标本进行CD34免疫组织化学染色,检测肿瘤MVD表达,Spearman相关系数,分别分析MVD表达与两

  4. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  5. Cooperative linear output regulation for networked systems by dynamic measurement output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobao; Feng, Gang; Wang, Juan; Luo, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative linear output regulation problem of a class of heterogeneous networked systems with a common reference input but with different disturbances for individual nodes. A novel distributed control law is presented based on dynamic measurement output feedback. It is shown that the overall networked closed-loop control system is asymptotically stable and the output regulation errors asymptotically approach zero as time goes to infinity under a sufficient and necessary condition. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

  6. Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseindoost Gh. MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests. Findings There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05. The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05. Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05. Conclusion The mean level of HPC

  7. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allows for a particular analysis. An empirical analysis is performed with regard to the behaviour of the output gap for different countries over time. The results obtained allow for relevant comparisons and highlight the usefulness of this indicator as a tool in the study of business cycles.

  8. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D;

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exercise...... at a workload of 50 W (EX). The agreements between the techniques, two by two, were expressed as the bias calculated as the averaged differences between the techniques. Precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the bias. The overall agreement (bias +/- precision) between TD, DOP and CR respectively...... and CR, respectively, and TD were 2.5 +/- 2.2 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 l/min. The overall agreement between DOP and CR was 0.1 +/- 1.6 l/min. In conclusion, TD overestimated cardiac output compared to the other techniques and the poor agreement has to be taken into consideration especially in measures of low...

  9. Videodensitometric Methods for Cardiac Output Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mischi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac output is often measured by indicator dilution techniques, usually based on dye or cold saline injections. Developments of more stable ultrasound contrast agents (UCA are leading to new noninvasive indicator dilution methods. However, several problems concerning the interpretation of dilution curves as detected by ultrasound transducers have arisen. This paper presents a method for blood flow measurements based on UCA dilution. Dilution curves are determined by real-time densitometric analysis of the video output of an ultrasound scanner and are automatically fitted by the Local Density Random Walk model. A new fitting algorithm based on multiple linear regression is developed. Calibration, that is, the relation between videodensity and UCA concentration, is modelled by in vitro experimentation. The flow measurement system is validated by in vitro perfusion of SonoVue contrast agent. The results show an accurate dilution curve fit and flow estimation with determination coefficient larger than 0.95 and 0.99, respectively.

  10. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    CERN Document Server

    Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  11. RMB Appreciation, Output Growth, and Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YONGWEI; CHEN; DONG; LI

    2013-01-01

    Following Dibooglu and Kutan(2005),we construct a structural VAR model to investigate the impact of RMB(the Chinese currency)appreciation on growth and inflation in China.The empirical results show that RMB appreciation has negative effects on output growth and inflation while neither effect is statistically significant.However,exchange rate shocks are important in the fluctuations of output growth and inflation.We also simulate the scenario of a sharp currency appreciation compared to the gradual approach adopted by the Chinese government.In the counterfactual analysis we find that a sharp appreciation would lead to more violent shocks in economic growth and inflation compared to the gradual approach.

  12. Comparative and Empirical Study on Vegetable Input-Output Efficiency of Suburban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; LI; Jianmin; SHI

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of comparative analysis on the vegetable input-output efficiency of suburban and rural areas in 2011- 2012,this paper made co-integration test,impulse response and variance decomposition for the vegetable input-output relationship of suburban areas in 1998-2012. Comparative analysis indicated that the vegetable input-output benefit of suburban area declines,while that of rural area rises; empirical analysis indicated that there is a long-term stable relationship between labor cost of vegetable planting and vegetable income and between material cost of vegetable planting and vegetable income,but the vegetable income itself has certain lag effect,followed by material cost,and the labor cost has minimum influence. Finally,it came up with recommendations for improving suburban vegetable input-output relationship,including improving vegetable input security mechanism,improving farmers’ quality and innovation ability,and increasing technological input.

  13. Analysis of directional emission in square resonator lasers with an output waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Yongzhen Huang

    2007-01-01

    Square microcavity laser with an output waveguide is proposed and analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For a square resonator with refractive index of 3.2, side length of 4 μm, and output waveguide of 0.4-μm width, we have got the quality factors (Q factors) of 6.7 × 102 and 7.3 × 103 for the fundamental and first-order transverse magnetic (TM) mode near the wavelength of 1.5 μm, respectively. The simulated intensity distribution for the first-order TM mode shows that the coupling efficiency in the waveguide reaches 53%. The numerical simulation shows that the first-order transverse modes have fairly high Q factor and high coupling efficiency to the output waveguide. Therefore the square resonator with an output waveguide is a promising candidate to realize single-mode directional emission microcavity lasers.

  14. Rapid Output Growth of Special Acrylic Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lianzhi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Acrylic esters are usually classified into general-purpose varieties and special varieties. The production and application of general-purpose varieties is already quite matured in the world and their output growth tends to be flat. Owing to the development of coatings, electronics, automobiles,textiles, printing and construction sectors, especially the application of radiation curing technology in various sectors, special acrylic esters have developed rapidly.

  15. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    function as a possibly uncomputable expression in an intermediate language. This program is then analyzed, transformed, and approximated. The result is a closed form expression that computes an over approximation of the output probability distribution for the program. We focus on programs where...... the possible input follows a known probability distribution. Tests in programs are not assumed to satisfy the Markov property of having fixed branching probabilities independently of previous history....

  16. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, J.; Lettl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system...

  17. Structured output tracking guided by keypoint matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Current keypoint-based trackers are widely used in object tracking system because of their robust capability against scale, rotation and so on. However, when these methods are applied in tracking 3D target in a forward-looking image sequences, the tracked point usually shifts away from the correct position as time increases. In this paper, to overcome the tracked point drifting, structured output tracking is used to track the target point with its surrounding information based on Haar-like features. First, around the tracked point in the last frame, a local patch is cropped to extract Haar-like features. Second, using a structured output SVM framework, a prediction function is learned in a larger radius to directly estimate the patch transformation between frames. Finally, during tracking the prediction function is applied to search the best location in a new frame. In order to achieve the robust tracking in real time, keypoint matching is adopted to coarsely locate the searched field in the whole image before using the structured output tracking. Experimentally, we show that our algorithm is able to outperform state-of-the-art keypoint-based trackers.

  18. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  19. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  20. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Smallwood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  1. SU-E-T-136: Assessment of Seasonal Linear Accelerator Output Variations and Associated Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolac, S; Letourneau, D [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Application of process control theory in quality assurance programs promises to allow earlier identification of problems and potentially better quality in delivery than traditional paradigms based primarily on tolerances and action levels. The purpose of this project was to characterize underlying seasonal variations in linear accelerator output that can be used to improve performance or trigger preemptive maintenance. Methods: Review of runtime plots of daily (6 MV) output data acquired using in house ion chamber based devices over three years and for fifteen linear accelerators of varying make and model were evaluated. Shifts in output due to known interventions with the machines were subtracted from the data to model an uncorrected scenario for each linear accelerator. Observable linear trends were also removed from the data prior to evaluation of periodic variations. Results: Runtime plots of output revealed sinusoidal, seasonal variations that were consistent across all units, irrespective of manufacturer, model or age of machine. The average amplitude of the variation was on the order of 1%. Peak and minimum variations were found to correspond to early April and September, respectively. Approximately 48% of output adjustments made over the period examined were potentially avoidable if baseline levels had corresponded to the mean output, rather than to points near a peak or valley. Linear trends were observed for three of the fifteen units, with annual increases in output ranging from 2–3%. Conclusion: Characterization of cyclical seasonal trends allows for better separation of potentially innate accelerator behaviour from other behaviours (e.g. linear trends) that may be better described as true out of control states (i.e. non-stochastic deviations from otherwise expected behavior) and could indicate service requirements. Results also pointed to an optimal setpoint for accelerators such that output of machines is maintained within set tolerances

  2. Photoacoustic microscopy: superdepth, superresolution, and superb contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Song, Liang; Wang, Lihing V

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention in the 17th century, optical microscopy has revolutionized biomedical studies by scrutinizing the biological realm on cellular levels, taking advantage of its excellent light-focusing capability. However, most biological tissues scatter light highly. As light travels in tissue, cumulative scattering events cause the photons to lose their original propagation direction and, thus, their ability to be focused, which has largely limited the penetration depth of optical microscopy. Conventional planar optical microscopy can provide penetration of only ~100 ?m before photons begin to be scattered. The penetration of modern optical microcopy, such as confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy, is still limited to approximately the optical diffusion limit (~1 mm in the skin as approximated by one optical transport mean free path), where scattered photons retain a strong memory of the original propagation direction. So far, it still remains a challenge for pure optical methods to achieve high-resolution in vivo imaging beyond the diffusion limit (i.e., superdepth imaging).

  3. The Importance of Output in SLA and Its Pedagogical Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2014-01-01

    Input and output in second language acquisition are closely related. Input is the essential preparation for output, while output is the purpose of input, and in turn promotes input. They complement each other and help to improve students ’linguis⁃tic competence. Comprehensible input and output are equally important in language learning. Therefore, it is unwise to ignore the roles of output in pedagogical situation.

  4. Design Multipurpose Circuits with Minimum Garbage Outputs Using CMVMIN Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA suggest an emerging computing paradigm for nanotechnology. The QCA offers novel approach in electronics for information processing and communication. QCA have recently become the focus of interest in the field of low power nanocomputing and nanotechnology. The fundamental logic elements of this technology are the majority voter (MV and the inverter (INV. This paper presents a novel design with less garbage output and minimum quantum cost in nanotechnology. In the paper we show how to create multipurpose reversible gates. By development of suitable gates in logic circuits as an example, we can combine MFA and HS in one design using CMVMIN gate. We offer CMVMIN gate implementations to be used in multipurpose circuit. We can produce concurrent half adder/subtractor and one bit comparator in one design using reversible logic gates and CMVMIN gates. Also, a 2×4 decoder from recent architecture has been shown independently. We investigate the result of the proposed design using truth table. A significant improvement in quality of the calculated parameters and variety of required outputs has been achieved.

  5. Tools for Evaluating Research Output: Are Citation-based Rankings of Economics Journals Stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Matthias; Kocher, Martin G.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the assignment of economics journals to different quartiles of citation-based rankings, a measure of journal quality that has implications for evaluating research output and academic promotions. Found that about 60% of journals remain in the same quartile, and about 95% remain the same or move up within 5- to 10-year intervals, suggesting…

  6. Comparing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Evaluation of MT Output in a Dialogue System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Luz, S.; Schneider, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an exploratory study to assess machine translation output for application in a dialogue system using an intrinsic and an extrinsic evaluation method. For the intrinsic evaluation we developed an annotation scheme to determine the quality of the translated utterances in isolation. For the

  7. FRUPAT: A Tool to Quantify Inputs and Outputs of Patagonian Fruit Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Keulen, van H.; Peri, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    A software called FRUPAT was developed for calculating input and output coefficients (Technical Coefficients) of fruit production systems in South Patagonia. FRUPAT combined locations (Río Chubut valley; Sarmiento valley; Los Antiguos valley; Río Chico valley), edaphic environment (good quality soil

  8. Design study of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    CERN Document Server

    Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Most second-generation gravitational-wave detectors employ an optical resonator called an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light from the signal and the reference light, before it reaches the detection photodiode located at the asymmetric port of the large-scale interferometer. The optical parameters of the OMC should be carefully chosen to satisfy the requirements to filter out unwanted light whilst transmitting the gravitational wave signal and reference light. The Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA plans to use a very small amount of reference light to minimize the influence of quantum noise for gravitational waves from binary neutron stars, and hence the requirements to the OMC are more challenging than for other advanced detectors. In this paper, we present the result of numerical simulations, which verify that the OMC requirements are satisfied with the current design. We use the simulation program FINESSE and realistic mirror phase maps that have the same surface quality as the...

  9. REGULARIZATION OF SINGULAR SYSTEMS BY OUTPUT FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-lin Chu; Da-yong Cai

    2000-01-01

    Problem of regularization of a singular system by derivative and proportional output feedback is studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained under which a singular system can be regularized into a closed-loop system that is regular and of index at most one. The reduced form is given that can easily explore the system properties as well as the feedback to be determined. The main results of the present paper are based on orthogonal transformations. Therefore, they can be implemented by numerically stable ways.

  10. Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.

  11. Example of input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  12. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  13. Inductive Output Tubes -- Status and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Heinz

    2002-08-01

    Invented in 1938, at the same time as the klystron, it took the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) more than 40 years to surface as a useful device. Its progress after that event was rapid. Though plagued by teething problems in the beginning, it has since replaced the klystron as a TV amplifier in UHF, and it holds its own against the solid-state competition in that application. The IOT also shows much promise as a high-power amplifier, but early developments in this direction have remained solitary events so far. The paper discusses the causes and the potential of the device for future high-power applications.

  14. Modelling Waste Output from Trout Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, J. O.; From, J.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The aim of waste modelling in aquaculture is to provide tools for simulating input, transformation, output and subsidiary degradation in recipients of organic compounds, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The direct purpose of this modelling is to make it possible for caretakers and water authorities...... to calculate waste discharge from existing and planned aquaculture activities. A special purpose is simulating outcome of waste water treatment and altered feeding programmes. Different submodels must be applied for P, N, and organics, as well as for the different phases of food and waste treatment. Altogether...

  15. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  16. Mapping of Indian neuroscience research: A scientometric analysis of research output during 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Adarsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study analyses the research output in India in neurosciences during the period 1999-2008 and the analyses included research growth, rank, global publications′ share, citation impact, share of international collaborative papers and major collaborative partner countries and patterns of research communication in most productive journals. It also analyses the characteristics of most productive institutions, authors and high-cited papers. The publication output and impact of India is also compared with China, Brazil and South Korea. Materials and Method s: Scopus Citation database was used for retrieving the publications′ output of India and other countries in neurosciences during 1999-2008. Results : India′s global publications′ share in neurosciences during the study period was 0.99% (with 4503 papers and it ranked 21 st among the top 26 countries in neurosciences. The average annual publication growth rate was 11.37%, shared 17.34% of international collaborative papers and the average citation per paper was 4.21. India was far behind China, Brazil and South Korea in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences. Conclusion : India is far behind in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences when compared to other countries with an emerging economy. There is an urgent need to substantially increase the research activities in the field of neurosciences in India.

  17. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control.

  18. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  19. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  20. Application of superb microvascular imaging in the evaluation of focal liver lesions%超微血管成像评价肝局灶性病变的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓娜; 周路遥; 谢晓燕; 黄光亮; 田文硕; 谢晓华; 王伟; 林满霞; 吕明德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the value of superb microvascular imaging(SMI) in the detection of microvascular flow signal of focal liver lesions(FLLs).Methods A total of 54 patients with 56 FLLs who had underwent CDFI(Color Doppler Flow imaging) and SMI were included in this study.Adler semiquantitative assessment was used to grade the distribution of blood flow signal for each FLL by two observers,then inter-observer agreement was assessed.The distribution of blood flow grade between CDFI and SMI was also compared with contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS) as the reference standard.Results The inter-observer agreement for Adler semi-quantitative grading were fair (K =0.579) on CDFI and good (K =0.605) on SMI,respectively.The grade 0,Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ of Adler semi-quantitative grading of all total 56 FLLs' blood flow signal on three flow imaging tools were 4(7.14%),25(42.86%),14(25%),14(25%) onCDFI,0(0%),12(21.43%),12(19.64%),33(58.93%) on SMI,and 0(0%),3(5.36%),21(37.50%),32 (57.14%) on CEUS micro-flow imaging,respectively.With CEUS blood flow distribution in the arterial phase as the reference,the coincidence rate of CDFI was 30.35%,while that of SMI was 73.21%.The distinction of ability on FLL's micro-vascular imaging between CDFI and SMI was statistically significant (P <0.01).Conclusions The inter-observer agreement of SMI was better than that of CDFI and its capacity in displaying FLL's micro-vascular was superior to CDFI,SMI can exhibit more tiny vessels and thus SMI may possess potential value in the differential diagnosis of FLLs.%目的 评估超微血管成像(superb microvascular imaging,SMI)显示肝局灶性病变微血管血流信号的价值.方法 对54例患者共56个肝局灶性病变分别行彩色多普勒血流显像(CDFI)和SMI检查,由2名观察者对图像采用Adler半定量法进行血流分级,分析不同观察者间分级的一致性;并以超声造影为参考标准,分析两者显示血

  1. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO GLOBAL ROBUST OUTPUT REGULATION OF OUTPUT FEEDBACK SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HUANG

    2007-01-01

    The global robust output regulation problem of the output feedback systems has been extensively studied under various assumptions of the complexity and uncertainty. All these approaches boil down to a stabilization problem of a so-called augmented extended system. This paper will describe an alternative approach which converts the original problem into a stabilization problem of a so-called extended augmented system. As the extended augmented system is somewhat simpler than the augmented extended system, this alternative approach is also simpler than the first approach.

  2. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  3. Linear quadratic output tracking and disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud; Khajehoddin, S. Ali; Jain, Praveen; Bakhshai, Alireza

    2011-08-01

    This article introduces the problem of linear quadratic tracking (LQT) where the objective is to design a closed-loop control scheme such that the output signal of the system optimally tracks a given reference signal and rejects a given disturbance. Different performance indices that have been used to address the tracking problem are discussed and an appropriate new form is introduced. It is shown that a solution to the proposed optimality index exists under very mild conditions of stabilisability and detectability of the plant state-space equations. The solution is formulated based on converting the LQT problem to a standard linear quadratic regulation problem. The method is applied to two examples, a first-order plant and a third-order plant, and their simulation results are presented and discussed.

  4. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... n. We address the problem of extracting maximal patterns with at most k don’t care symbols and at least q occurrences. Our contribution is to give the first algorithm that attains a stronger notion of output-sensitivity, borrowed from the analysis of data structures: the cost is proportional...... to the actual number of occurrences of each pattern, which is at most n and practically much smaller than n in real applications, thus avoiding the aforementioned cost of O(nc) per pattern....

  5. Visualizing output for a data learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Daniel; Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor

    2016-05-01

    This paper details the process we went through to visualize the output for our data learning algorithm. We have been developing a hierarchical self-structuring learning algorithm based around the general principles of the LaRue model. One example of a proposed application of this algorithm would be traffic analysis, chosen because it is conceptually easy to follow and there is a significant amount of already existing data and related research material with which to work with. While we choose the tracking of vehicles for our initial approach, it is by no means the only target of our algorithm. Flexibility is the end goal, however, we still need somewhere to start. To that end, this paper details our creation of the visualization GUI for our algorithm, the features we included and the initial results we obtained from our algorithm running a few of the traffic based scenarios we designed.

  6. Newer methods of cardiac output monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yatin; Mehta; Dheeraj; Arora

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac output(CO) is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per minute and is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. CO can thus be manipulated by alteration in heart rate or rhythm, preload, contractility and afterload. Moreover it gives important information about tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. CO can be measured by various methods and thermodilution method using pulmonary artery catheter(PAC) is till date considered as gold standard method. Complications associated with PAC led to development of newer methods which are minimally or non-invasive. Newer methods fulfil other properties like continuous and reproducible reading, cost effective, reliable during various physiological states and have fast response time. These methods are validated against the gold standard with good level agreement. In this review we have discussed various newer methods of CO monitoring and their effectiveness in clinical use.

  7. Computer Diagnosis of Output Light Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern applications for PCs, mobile phones or tablets are increasingly stirring the interest of users and contribute to the labour productiveness in diverse fields. The paper presents the method of computer diagnostic of output signals in railway stations, based on the diagrams and diagnosis software, elaborated by the authors. The diagnostic diagrams were drawn up by using the diagrams from the stations with electrodynamics centralisation (CED of the CR4 type. The software may run on diverse modern devices and can be also adapted for other types of CED installations. Grace to the answers to different questions asked by the application, the possible causes of the failure or fault may be displayed fast and accurately. The purpose of the computer diagnostic is to reduce the normal diagnosis time.

  8. Generic eigenvalue assignment by memoryless real output feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rosenthal; J.M. Schumacher (Hans); J.C. Willems

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBy extensive use of methods from algebraic geometry, X. Wang proved that arbitrary pole placement by static output feedback is generically possible for strictly proper plants with $n$ states, $m$ inputs, and $p$ outputs, if $n

  9. Academic Staff Development and Output in State Universities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Staff Development and Output in State Universities in South-South Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... This study examines staff development and the output of academic staff in the ...

  10. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining and non mining ... The sample size was 120 rice farmers (60 mining area rice farmers and 60 non ... contacts significantly affected rice output at given levels of probability.

  11. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC INPUT-OUTPUT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoChonghui; TangHuanwen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic input-output model is well known in economic theory and practice. In this paper, the asymptotic stability and balanced growth solutions of the dynamic input-output system are considered. Under some natural assumptions which do not require the technical coefficient matrix to be indecomposable,it has been proved that the dynamic input-output system is not asymptotically stable and the closed dynamic input-output model has a balanced growth solution.

  12. A Distance Function Model with Good and Bad Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach that pursues an adequate representation of product transformation possibilities for a technology generating, in addition to marketed (good) products, some environmentally detrimental non-marketed byproducts (bad outputs). As the shadow price of a non-marketed output depends on its marginal transformation rates with marketed outputs, representation of technological relationships between different groups of outputs deserves a particular attention. We model the technology ...

  13. Equivalence of Nonlinear Systems to Input-Output Prime Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, R.; Respondek, W.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of transforming nonlinear control systems into input-output prime forms is dealt with, using state space, static state feedback, and also output space transformations. Necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the solvability of this problem are obtained. The results obtained generalize well-known results both on feedback linearization as well as input-output decoupling of nonlinear systems. It turns out that, from a computational point of view, the output space transforma...

  14. Regional Input Output Table for the State of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inderjeet; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2011-01-01

    Because of policy relevance of regional input-output analysis, a vast literature on the construction of regional input-output tables has emerged in the recent past, especially on the non-survey and hybrid methods. Although, construction of regional input-output tables is not new in India, but generation of input-output table using non-survey methods is relatively a rare phenomenon. This work validates alternative non-survey, location quotient methodologies and finally uses comparatively bette...

  15. The Optimal Regulation of Product Quality under Monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Zenger

    2006-01-01

    This paper characterizes the optimal quality regulation of a monopolist when quality is observable. In contrast to Sheshinski (1976) it is shown that a minimum quality standard may be desirable even if it induces the firm to reduce output.

  16. REFLECTIONS ON THE INOPERABILITY INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Miller, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the inoperability input-output model is a straightforward - albeit potentially very relevant - application of the standard input-output model. In addition, we propose two less standard input-output approaches as alternatives to take into consideration when analyzing the effects of disa

  17. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment o

  18. Data Acquisition for Quality Loss Function Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Quality loss functions can be a valuable tool when assessing the impact of variation on product quality. Typically, the input for the quality loss function would be a measure of the varying product performance and the output would be a measure of quality. While the unit of the input is given by t...... by the product function in focus, the quality output can be measured and quantified in a number of ways. In this article a structured approach for acquiring stakeholder satisfaction data for use in quality loss function modelling is introduced.......Quality loss functions can be a valuable tool when assessing the impact of variation on product quality. Typically, the input for the quality loss function would be a measure of the varying product performance and the output would be a measure of quality. While the unit of the input is given...

  19. Data Acquisition for Quality Loss Function Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Quality loss functions can be a valuable tool when assessing the impact of variation on product quality. Typically, the input for the quality loss function would be a measure of the varying product performance and the output would be a measure of quality. While the unit of the input is given by t...... by the product function in focus, the quality output can be measured and quantified in a number of ways. In this article a structured approach for acquiring stakeholder satisfaction data for use in quality loss function modelling is introduced.......Quality loss functions can be a valuable tool when assessing the impact of variation on product quality. Typically, the input for the quality loss function would be a measure of the varying product performance and the output would be a measure of quality. While the unit of the input is given...

  20. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  1. Global methaemoglobinaemia research output (1940-2013): a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Khalil, Suleiman; Alqub, Malik; Awang, Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometric studies, which involve the use of statistical methods, are increasingly being used for research assessment. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate the publication pattern of methaemoglobinaemia research output at the global level based on the Scopus database. We analysed selected documents with "methemoglobinemia", or "methaemoglobinaemia" as a part of the title and reported the following parameters: trends of publication output, country of publication, journal pattern, collaborative measures, citations pattern, and institute productivity. A total of 1770 articles were published worldwide. The time trend for the number of articles showed an increase after 2000. The highest number of articles related to methaemoglobinaemia was from the USA (24.8 %), followed distantly by the UK (4.5 %), India (3.7 %), and France (3.7 %). No data related to methaemoglobinaemia were published from 152 countries. The total number of citations at the date of data collection was 10,080, with an average of 5.7 citations per document. The USA and UK had the highest h-index of 31 and 14, respectively, and six countries had an h-index of 9-14. It is notable that Canada was ranked eighth in the number of publications but fourth in h-index and India was ranked third in the number of publications but eighth in h-index. Furthermore, Canada produced the most internationally collaborated papers out of the total number of publications for each country (16.1 %), followed by the UK (13.9 %). This bibliometric analysis provides data contributing to a better understanding of the methaemoglobinaemia research field. The number of publications on methaemoglobinaemia increased significantly after 2000. The USA was the most productive country as measured by total publications. The USA and UK achieved the highest h-index in the field of methaemoglobinaemia research, signifying a higher quality of research than other countries.

  2. Output-sensitive 3D line integral convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We propose an output-sensitive visualization method for 3D line integral convolution (LIC) whose rendering speed is largely independent of the data set size and mostly governed by the complexity of the output on the image plane. Our approach of view-dependent visualization tightly links the LIC generation with the volume rendering of the LIC result in order to avoid the computation of unnecessary LIC points: early-ray termination and empty-space leaping techniques are used to skip the computation of the LIC integral in a lazy-evaluation approach; both ray casting and texture slicing can be used as volume-rendering techniques. The input noise is modeled in object space to allow for temporal coherence under object and camera motion. Different noise models are discussed, covering dense representations based on filtered white noise all the way to sparse representations similar to oriented LIC. Aliasing artifacts are avoided by frequency control over the 3D noise and by employing a 3D variant of MIPmapping. A range of illumination models is applied to the LIC streamlines: different codimension-2 lighting models and a novel gradient-based illumination model that relies on precomputed gradients and does not require any direct calculation of gradients after the LIC integral is evaluated. We discuss the issue of proper sampling of the LIC and volume-rendering integrals by employing a frequency-space analysis of the noise model and the precomputed gradients. Finally, we demonstrate that our visualization approach lends itself to a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation that supports both steady and unsteady flow. Therefore, this 3D LIC method allows users to interactively explore 3D flow by means of high-quality, view-dependent, and adaptive LIC volume visualization. Applications to flow visualization in combination with feature extraction and focus-and-context visualization are described, a comparison to previous methods is provided, and a detailed performance

  3. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bixler, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  4. High-Precision Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerayut Jamjaem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present high-precision half-wave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 μm CMOS technology, +/- 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 μAp-p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.Keywords-component; half-wave; rectifier circuit; highprecession; dual phase;

  5. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  6. Experimental Investigation on Power Output in Aged Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Murugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the power output on effect of tower height with same diameter of rotor was conducted in a wind turbine site. As the wind acceleration is varying with height, 3 levels were selected according to the availability of tower. The responses of power output with respect to variation of wind speed are changing for the tower heights of 30, 40, and 50 m. The study showed that the actual ideal power output and measured real power output follow the same trend within range of operating wind speed. The empirical model used for calculation of actual ideal power output was compared with real power output and the overall concepts in power output also had been analysed.

  7. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  8. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  9. Input--output capital coefficients for energy technologies. [Input-output model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1976-12-01

    Input-output capital coefficients are presented for five electric and seven non-electric energy technologies. They describe the durable goods and structures purchases (at a 110 sector level of detail) that are necessary to expand productive capacity in each of twelve energy source sectors. Coefficients are defined in terms of 1967 dollar purchases per 10/sup 6/ Btu of output from new capacity, and original data sources include Battelle Memorial Institute, the Harvard Economic Research Project, The Mitre Corp., and Bechtel Corp. The twelve energy sectors are coal, crude oil and gas, shale oil, methane from coal, solvent refined coal, refined oil products, pipeline gas, coal combined-cycle electric, fossil electric, LWR electric, HTGR electric, and hydroelectric.

  10. Study of dual wavelength composite output of solid state laser based on adjustment of resonator parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Nie, Jinsong; Wang, Xi; Hu, Yuze

    2016-10-01

    The 1064nm fundamental wave (FW) and the 532nm second harmonic wave (SHW) of Nd:YAG laser have been widely applied in many fields. In some military applications requiring interference in both visible and near-infrared spectrum range, the de-identification interference technology based on the dual wavelength composite output of FW and SHW offers an effective way of making the device or equipment miniaturized and low cost. In this paper, the application of 1064nm and 532nm dual-wavelength composite output technology in military electro-optical countermeasure is studied. A certain resonator configuration that can achieve composite laser output with high power, high beam quality and high repetition rate is proposed. Considering the thermal lens effect, the stability of this certain resonator is analyzed based on the theory of cavity transfer matrix. It shows that with the increase of thermal effect, the intracavity fundamental mode volume decreased, resulting the peak fluctuation of cavity stability parameter. To explore the impact the resonator parameters does to characteristics and output ratio of composite laser, the solid-state laser's dual-wavelength composite output models in both continuous and pulsed condition are established by theory of steady state equation and rate equation. Throughout theoretical simulation and analysis, the optimal KTP length and best FW transmissivity are obtained. The experiment is then carried out to verify the correctness of theoretical calculation result.

  11. Assessment of paediatric hydronephrosis using output efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saundres, C.A.B.; Choong, K.K.L.; Gruenewald, S.M. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Diuretic renography is an important tool in the evaluation of paediatric hydronephrosis. Recently a newly developed parameter, output efficiency (OE) has allowed normalisation of washout according to renal function. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of OE in 56 children (70 hydronephrotic kidneys). There were 16 females and 41 males (mean age 1.4 years, range 3 weeks-12 years). Diuretic renography ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG3) was performed using i.v. volume expansion (15 mL/kg), frusemide diuresis (1mg/kg) and urethral catheterisation if VUR was present. Final diagnosis was made using surgery (n = 15) or clinical outcome (n = 42). Clinical follow up exceeded one year and included repeat MAG3 scan (n = 20), resolving hydronephrosis on ultrasound (n = 15) or percutaneous antegrade pyelogram (n = 1). Initial scans were classified as obstructed (n 13), indeterminate (n = 13) or non obstructed (n = 30) based on standard qualitative and quantitative criteria. Using a normal range of >84%, OE correctly predicted 12/13 (92%) obstructed kidneys and 44/44 non-obstructed kidneys (100%). In the indeterminate group, three kidneys developed obstruction at follow -up and 10 became non obstructed. Initial OE predicted outcome in two and four kidneys respectively. Overall, OE sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 89%. In the subgroup of patients (n = 19) with reduced differential function (<40%) the sensitivity of OE was 100% and specificity was 75%. This compares to 83% and 66% for Tl/2 in this subgroup. Therefore OE is a useful marker of renal outflow tract obstruction and maybe superior to other parameters such as Tl/2 particularly when renal function is reduced. 1 tab.

  12. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  13. Paranoia.Ada: Sample output reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan. Paranoia.Ada incorporates a major structural redesign and employs applicable Ada architectural and stylistic features.

  14. Maximum energy output of a DFIG wind turbine using an improved MPPT-curve method

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh-Chung Phan; Shigeru Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed for obtaining the maximum power output of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine to control the rotor- and grid-side converters. The efficiency of maximum power point tracking that is obtained by the proposed method is theoretically guaranteed under assumptions that represent physical conditions. Several control parameters may be adjusted to ensure the quality of control performance. In particular, a DFIG state-space model and a control technique based o...

  15. 3D Visualization of Hydrological Model Outputs For a Better Understanding of Multi-Scale Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J.; Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, many hydrological models has been created to simulate extreme events or scenarios on catchments. The classical outputs of these models are 2D maps, time series or graphs, which are easily understood by scientists, but not so much by many stakeholders, e.g. mayors or local authorities, and the general public. One goal of the Blue Green Dream project is to create outputs that are adequate for them. To reach this goal, we decided to convert most of the model outputs into a unique 3D visualization interface that combines all of them. This conversion has to be performed with an hydrological thinking to keep the information consistent with the context and the raw outputs.We focus our work on the conversion of the outputs of the Multi-Hydro (MH) model, which is physically based, fully distributed and with a GIS data interface. MH splits the urban water cycle into 4 components: the rainfall, the surface runoff, the infiltration and the drainage. To each of them, corresponds a modeling module with specific inputs and outputs. The superimposition of all this information will highlight the model outputs and help to verify the quality of the raw input data. For example, the spatial and the time variability of the rain generated by the rainfall module will be directly visible in 4D (3D + time) before running a full simulation. It is the same with the runoff module: because the result quality depends of the resolution of the rasterized land use, it will confirm or not the choice of the cell size.As most of the inputs and outputs are GIS files, two main conversions will be applied to display the results into 3D. First, a conversion from vector files to 3D objects. For example, buildings are defined in 2D inside a GIS vector file. Each polygon can be extruded with an height to create volumes. The principle is the same for the roads but an intrusion, instead of an extrusion, is done inside the topography file. The second main conversion is the raster

  16. Circadian clock-regulated physiological outputs: dynamic responses in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Golembeski, Greg S; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-05-01

    The plant circadian clock is involved in the regulation of numerous processes. It serves as a timekeeper to ensure that the onset of key developmental events coincides with the appropriate conditions. Although internal oscillating clock mechanisms likely evolved in response to the earth's predictable day and night cycles, organisms must integrate a range of external and internal cues to adjust development and physiology. Here we introduce three different clock outputs to illustrate the complexity of clock control. Clock-regulated diurnal growth is altered by environmental stimuli. The complexity of the photoperiodic flowering pathway highlights numerous nodes through which plants may integrate information to modulate the timing of flowering. Comparative analyses among ecotypes that differ in flowering response reveal additional environmental cues and molecular processes that have developed to influence flowering. We also explore the process of cold acclimation, where circadian inputs, light quality, and stress responses converge to improve freezing tolerance in anticipation of colder temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  18. The output feedback control for uncertain nonholonomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangde WANG; Chunling WEI; Siying ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problems of almost asymptotic stabilization and global asymptotic regulation (GAR) by output feedback for a class of uncertain nonholonomic systems. By combining the nonsmooth change of coordinates and output feedback domination design together, we construct a simple linear time-varying output feedback controller, which can universally stabilize a whole family of uncertain nonholonomic systems. The simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  19. Certainty equivalence in nonlinear output regulation with unmeasured error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, F.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we consider a nonlinear output regulation problem in which the controlled output and the measured output are not the same. It is assumed that the controlled plant has a single control input, and that it can be transformed into Gauthier-Kupka's observability canonical form. Then, it is shown that a design based on certainty equivalence is effective for determining a controller that solves the given problem.

  20. Cooperative Output Regulation of Singular Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Xu, Shengyuan; Lewis, Frank L; Zhang, Baoyong; Zou, Yun

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative output regulation problem of singular heterogeneous multiagent systems. General distributed observers are proposed for every agent obtaining the estimated state of the exosystem. The feedforward control technique and reduced-order approach are used to design distributed singular output feedback controllers and distributed normal output feedback controllers. The proposed cooperative dynamic controller is dependent on the plant parameters and the interaction topologies. A simulation example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  1. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  2. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples.

  3. Correlation Degree and Correlation Coefficient of Multi- Output Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Gui-zhi; ZHAO Ya-qun

    2005-01-01

    We present definitions of the correlation degree and correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. Two relationships about the correlation degree of multi-output functions are proved. One is between the correlation degree and independency,the other is between the correlation degree and balance. Especially the paper discusses the correlation degree of affine multioutput functions. We demonstrate properties of the correlation coefficient of multi-output functions. One is the value range of the correlation coefficient, one is the relationship between the correlation coefficient and independency, and another is the sufficient and necessary condition that two multi-output functions are equivalent to each other.

  4. Global output gap and domestic inflation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether globalization has led to greater sensitivity of Chinese consumer price inflation to the global output gap. The empirical analysis uses quarterly data over the period 1995-2012. The global output gap is measured by weighted output gap of China’s top eighteen trading partners. Estimating Phillips curve models and vector autoregressive models, we find that global capacity constraints have both explanatory and predictive power for domestic consumer’s price inflation in China. Therefore, the central bank of China should react to developments in global output gaps.

  5. Multiple input/output random vibration control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-input/output random vibration control algorithm was developed based on system identification concepts derived from random vibration spectral analysis theory. The unique features of the algorithm are: (1) the number of input excitors and the number of output control responses need not be identical; (2) the system inverse response matrix is obtained directly from the input/output spectral matrix; and (3) the system inverse response matrix is updated every control loop cycle to accommodate system amplitude nonlinearities. A laboratory demonstration case of two imputs with three outputs is presented to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  6. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  7. The effect of atmospheric pressure on ventricular assist device output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Masaharu; Yamazaki, Akio; Fukuda, Wakako; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-03-01

    The effect of cabin pressure change on the respiratory system during flight is well documented in the literature, but how the change in atmospheric pressure affects ventricular assist device (VAD) output flow has not been studied yet. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the change in VAD output using a mock circulatory system in a low-pressure chamber mimicking high altitude. Changes in output and driving pressure were measured during decompression from 1.0 to 0.7 atm and pressurization from 0.7 to 1.0 atm. Two driving systems were evaluated: the VCT system and the Mobart system. In the VCT system, output and driving pressure remained the same during decompression and pressurization. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped and recovered during pressurization. The lowest output was observed at 0.7 atm, which was 80% of the baseline driven by the Mobart system. Under a practical cabin pressure of 0.8 atm, the output driven by the Mobart system was 90% of the baseline. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped, and recovered during pressurization. However, the decrease in output was slight. In an environment where the atmospheric pressure changes, it is necessary to monitor the diaphragmatic motion of the blood pump and the driving air pressure, and to adjust the systolic:diastolic ratio as well as the positive and negative pressures in a VAD system.

  8. Observer-based output feedback control of discrete-time linear systems with input and output delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study observer-based output feedback control of discrete-time linear systems with both multiple input and output delays. By generalising our recently developed truncated predictor feedback approach for state feedback stabilisation of discrete-time time-delay systems to the design of observer-based output feedback, two types of observer-based output feedback controllers, one being memory and the other memoryless, are constructed. Both full-order and reduced-order observer-based controllers are established in both the memory and memoryless schemes. It is shown that the separation principle holds for the memory observer-based output feedback controllers, but does not hold for the memoryless ones. We further show that the proposed observer-based output feedback controllers solve both the l2 and l∞ semi-global stabilisation problems. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  9. On the appropriate use of (input-output) coefficients to generate non-survey regional input-output tables: Implications for the determination of output multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Regional input-output (IO) tables are constructed as either scaled down versions of national tables or by means of surveys. In the first type, location quotients (LQ) usually use employment structures to account for differences between nation and region. A LQ is designed to scale down national (input-output) coefficients to representative regional ones that are then used to derive regional multiplier effects. In this process there are two main approaches to define regional coefficients. The f...

  10. Global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown output function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-yong; Du, Hai-bo; Fei, Shu-min

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the problem of global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems whose output function is unknown. A systematic design scheme is developed to construct a linear output feedback control law in sampled-data form. An explicit formula for the maximum allowable sampling period is computed to guarantee global stability of the uncertain nonlinear systems under the proposed controller with appropriate gains. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  11. Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegley, H.L.

    1984-08-01

    A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.

  12. Made in U.S.A.: a renaissance in quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, J M

    1993-01-01

    In the opinion of some journalists and business leaders, Japan's preeminence in product quality is a direct consequence of lectures delivered 40 years ago in Tokyo by two Americans--W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran. According to Dr. Juran, this view is pure chauvinist nonsense. Despite the shoddiness of Japanese consumer goods before the war, the Japanese did have a quality tradition in the superb workmanship of certain ancient crafts and in the design and manufacture of their military hardware, which, at the outset of the war, was highly competitive with our own. It was just that the Japanese had never devoted engineering expertise, capital, or management attention to the quality of exportable consumer goods. The shock of losing the war changed that mind-set. When Dr. Juran first lectured in Japan in 1954, his audience consisted of 140 CEOs. He had given the very same lectures dozens of times in the United States, but never to top management. American CEOs concentrated their attention on financial reports. Quality was a discipline that they delegated to engineers and special quality departments. In Japan, senior executives took personal charge of managing for quality; trained their managers, engineers, and employees in quality methods; developed quality measurements; pursued quality change at a revolutionary pace; and kept at it year after year until, by the mid-1970s, Japan had passed the United States in quality manufacturing. The unsung heroes of the Japanese quality revolution were Japanese managers, not American experts. Now Dr. Juran sees the beginnings of a quality revolution in the United States as global competition drives managers to focus on their nondelegable responsibilities in quality management.

  13. GENERIC EIGENVALUE ASSIGNMENT BY MEMORYLESS REAL OUTPUT-FEEDBACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROSENTHAL, J; SCHUMACHER, JM; WILLEMS, JC

    1995-01-01

    By extensive use of methods from algebraic geometry, X. Wang proved that arbitrary pole placement by static output feedback is generically possible for strictly proper plants with n states, m inputs, and p outputs, if n

  14. Research Self-Efficacy, Publication Output, and Early Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has two aims: to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs in terms of research on publication output; and, to identify the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs about research to the publishing outputs of neophyte lecturers. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was utilised to obtain responses from…

  15. University Lecturer Publication Output: Qualifications, Time and Confidence Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of factors which differentiate between university lecturers in relation to publication output is reported. The study drew on data from lecturers working full-time at two large Australian universities. Measures of research publication output were used to select two groups of lecturers (N[subscript 1] = 119; N[subscript 2] = 119);…

  16. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained v...

  17. Equivalence of nonlinear systems to input-output prime forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, R.; Respondek, W.; Schaft, van der A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of transforming nonlinear control systems into input-output prime forms is dealt with, using state space, static state feedback, and also output space transformations. Necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the solvability of this problem are obtained. The results obtained gen

  18. A Result on Output Feedback Linear Quadratic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; Weeren, A.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we consider the static output feedback linear quadratic control problem.We present both necessary and sufficient conditions under which this problem has a solution in case the involved cost depend only on the output and control variables.This result is used to present both necessary and

  19. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output...

  20. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, Claudio; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Ortega, Romeo;

    2014-01-01

    The problem of output regulation for a class of hydraulic networks found in district heating systems is addressed in this brief. The results show that global asymptotic and semiglobal exponential output regulation is achievable using a set of decentralized proportional-integral controllers. The f...

  1. Distributed control design for nonlinear output agreement in convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitenberg, Erik; De Persis, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the problem of output agreement in homogeneous networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances using controllers placed at the nodes of the networks. For the class of contractive systems, necessary and sufficient conditions for output agreement are derived,

  2. On English Study in Terms of Input and Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茂林

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two theories in English study-input and output.Then their respective roles in language learning are underscored by citing several examples.It shows the prominent role of input,and stresses the necessity of output as a means for English

  3. Equivalence of Nonlinear Systems to Input-Output Prime Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, R.; Respondek, W.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    The problem of transforming nonlinear control systems into input-output prime forms is dealt with, using state space, static state feedback, and also output space transformations. Necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the solvability of this problem are obtained. The results obtained gen

  4. Constructions of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Pin-hui; ZHANG Sheng-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Carlet et al. recently introduced generalized nonlinearity to measure the ability to resist the improved correlation attack of a vector output Boolean function. This article presents a construction of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity using the sample space. The relation between the resilient order and generalized nonlinearity is also discussed.

  5. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  6. DESIGN NOTE: A very high output resistance current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatleh, K.; Terzopoulos, N.; Hart, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertical stacking of two identical sub-circuits—improved versions of a bipolar transistor configuration proposed by Baxandall and Swallow—driven by dual output current mirrors, facilitates the design of a current generator producing a direct current of 1 mA with an incremental output resistance exceeding 200 GΩ.

  7. Input-output cross analysis : A theoretical account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonis, M.; Oosterhaven, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we deal with extractions of one sector (region) or a number of sectors (regions) from an (interregional) input-output system. When a certain number of sectors is taken out of the input-output matrix one obtains a cross. It is shown that the Leontief-inverse for a cross can be decompose

  8. Duplicating MC-15 Output with Python and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpaden, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Two Python scripts have been written that process the output files of MCNP6 into a format that mimics the list-mode output of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s MC-15 and NPOD neutron detection systems. This report details the methods implemented in these scripts and instructions on their use.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  10. A Single Switch Dual Output Non-Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2008-01-01

    very simple dual output non-isolated boost converter is presented. Single active switch is used to control both, positive and negative output voltages. The converter is desired to boost unregulated low input voltage 25-50 Vdc to regulated high voltage ±400 Vdc in dual dc-link. In this paper proposed...

  11. Comparison of Tissue-Maximum Ratio and Output Factors ESTRO booklet with 6 for Siemens Primus accelerator Mevatron; Comparacion de Tissue-Maximum Ratio y Output Factors con el ESTYRO booklet 6 para un acelerador Siemens Primus Mevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupiani Castellanos, J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Richarte Reina, J. M.; Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Angulo Pain, E.; Castro Ramierez, I. J.; Iborra Oquendo, M. A.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2011-07-01

    The ESTRO Booklet 6 gives the numerical data collected in four different sizes and different accelerators for different beam qualities. Although the end of this guide is the calculation and verification of monitor units, the data we have used Siemens Primus accelerator Mevatron 6 MV photons to perform quality control of the experimental measurements for the tissue-maximum ratio (TMR) and the output factor (OF) in air yen dummy.

  12. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  13. Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Bin; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-28

    The routing capability is a requisite in quantum network. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated in various systems both in theory and experiment, the general form of quantum routing with many output terminals still needs to be explored. Here we propose a scheme to achieve the multi-channel quantum routing of the single photons in a waveguide-emitter system. The channels are composed by the waveguides and are connected by intermediate two-level emitters. By adjusting the intermediate emitters, the output channels of the input single photons can be controlled. This is demonstrated in the cases of one output channel, two output channels and the generic N output channels. The results show that the multi-channel quantum routing of single photons can be well achieved in the proposed system. This offers a scheme for the experimental realization of general quantum routing of single photons.

  14. Output power enhancement from ZnO nanorods piezoelectric nanogenerators by Si microhole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Hasan, Md Roqibul; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-02-12

    We demonstrate the enhancement of output power from a ZnO nanorod (NR)-based piezoelectric nanogenerator by using Si microhole (Si-μH) arrays. The depth-controlled Si-μH arrays were fabricated by using the deep reactive ion etching method. The ZnO NRs were grown along the Si-μH surface, in holes deeper than 20 μm. The polymer layer, polydimethylsiloxane, which acts a stress diffuser and electrical insulator, was successfully penetrated into the deep Si-μH arrays. Optical investigations show that the crystalline quality of the ZnO NRs on the Si-μH arrays was not degraded, even though they were grown on the deeper Si-μH arrays. As the depth of the Si-μH arrays increase from 0 to 20 μm, the output voltage was enhanced by around 8.1 times while the current did not increase. Finally, an output power enhancement of ten times was obtained. This enhancement of the output power was consistent with the increase in the surface area, and was mainly attributed to the accumulation of the potentials generated by the series-connected ZnO NR-based nanogenerators, whose number increases as the depth of the Si-μH increases.

  15. Ground Based Low-Frequency Gravitational-wave Detector With Multiple Outputs

    CERN Document Server

    Shoda, Ayaka; Ando, Masaki; Eda, Kazunari; Tejima, Kodai; Aso, Yoichi; Itoh, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new gravitaional-wave (GW) detector, TOrsion-Bar Antenna (TOBA), with multiple-output configuration. TOBA is a detector with bar-shaped test masses that rotate by the tidal force of the GWs. In our detector, three independent information about the GW signals can be derived by monitoring multiple rotational degrees of freedom, i.e., horizontal rotations and vertical rotations of the bars. Since the three outputs have different antenna pattern functions, the multi-output system improves the detection rate and the parameter estimation accuracy. It is effective in order to obtain further details of the GW sources, such as population and directions. We successfully operated the multi-output detector continuously for more than 24 hours with stable data quality. Also, the sensitivity of one of the signals is improved to be $1 \\times 10^{-10}$ ${\\rm Hz}^{-1/2}$ at 3 Hz by the combination of the passive and active vibration isolation systems, while sensitivities to possible GW signals derived from ...

  16. Preliminary Retrospective Analysis of Daily Tomotherapy Output Constancy Checks Using Statistical Process Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Mezzenga

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the results from a Helical TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system relating to quality controls based on daily static and dynamic output checks using statistical process control methods. Individual value X-charts, exponentially weighted moving average charts, and process capability and acceptability indices were used to monitor the treatment system performance. Daily output values measured from January 2014 to January 2015 were considered. The results obtained showed that, although the process was in control, there was an out-of-control situation in the principal maintenance intervention for the treatment system. In particular, process capability indices showed a decreasing percentage of points in control which was, however, acceptable according to AAPM TG148 guidelines. Our findings underline the importance of restricting the acceptable range of daily output checks and suggest a future line of investigation for a detailed process control of daily output checks for the Helical TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system.

  17. Salivary Output in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common but complex metabolic disorder affecting various systems in the body. Oral cavity is no exception as this chronic condition exerts a huge impact on oral health. Salivary dysfunction has been reported to be a frequent oral complication in Type 2 diabetics which in turn leads to an array of oral complications because oral health is to a greater extent dependent on the quality and quantity of saliva. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the salivary flow rate and prevalence of subjective symptoms of xerostomia in diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 non-diabetic subjects. Random non-fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were used to determine the diabetic status of the individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected using “Spit technique”. Stimulated saliva was collected using 2% citric acid. Unstimulated and Stimulated Salivary Flow Rate (USFR and SSFR was calculated for every patient and expressed as ml/min. Xerostomia was evaluated using a multi-item inventory comprising 19 questions. Results: In our study, both whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were decreased in diabetics compared to non-diabetics and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000. A greater percentage of diabetic patients perceived xerostomia symptoms compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics have higher prevalence of xerostomia and significantly reduced salivary flow rate compared to non-diabetics. Alterations in salivary flow create an imbalance in the homeostasis of oral environment leading to spectrum of oral ailments in these individuals

  18. Output and English as a Second Language Pragmatic Development: The Effectiveness of Output-Focused Video-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Swain's Output Hypothesis proposes a facilitative effect for output on the acquisition of second language morphosyntax. In the context of classroom instruction, a number of studies and reviews suggest that explicit instruction in pragmatic elements promotes development. Other studies have offered less conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of…

  19. Validation of Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption : a study of cardiac output during epoprostenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A; van den Heuvel, A F M; Zijlstra, F; Berger, R M F; Mook, G A; van Veldhuisen, D J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of using assumed oxygen consumption for Fick cardiac output during administration of epoprostenol. METHODS: In 24 consecutive patients Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen (COLM) and according to Bergstra et

  20. Spike output jitter, mean firing time and coefficient of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianfeng; Brown, David

    1998-01-01

    To understand how a single neurone processes information, it is critical to examine the relationship between input and output. Marsalek, Koch and Maunsell's study focused on output jitter (standard deviation of output interpike interval) found that for the integrate-and-fire (I&F) model this response measure converges towards zero as the number of inputs increases indefinitely when interarrival times of excitatory inputs (EPSPs) are normally or uniformly distributed. In this work we present a complete, theoretical investigation, corroborated by numerical simulation, of output jitter in the I&F model with a variety of input distributions and a range of values of number of inputs, N. Our main results are: the exponential distribution input is a critical case and its output jitter is independent of N. For input distributions with tails which decrease faster than the exponential distribution, output jitter converges to zero as discovered by Marsalek, Koch and Maunsell; whereas an input distribution with a more slowly decreasing tail induces divergence of output jitter. Exact formulae for mean firing time are also obtained which enable us to estimate the coefficient of variation. The I&F model with leakage is also briefly considered.

  1. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shikha Kabra; Ritika Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    ...), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality...

  2. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-Lin; Chen Xiu-Qin; Shen Zhi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers;a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable.Compared with the existing results,the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain,simple structure and less conservation.Finally,numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Determining state-space models from sequential output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiguan Gene

    1988-01-01

    This talk focuses on the determination of state-space models for large space systems using only the output data. The output data could be generated by the unknown or deliberate initial conditions of the space structure in question. We shall review some relevant fundamental work on the state-space modeling of sequential output data that is potentially applicable to large space structures. If formulated in terms of some generalized Markov parameters, this approach is in some sense similar to, but much simpler than, the Juang-Pappa Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) and the Ho-Kalman construction procedure.

  4. Input-output interactions and optimal monetary policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. Part of the output of each sector serves as a production input in both sectors, in accordance with a realistic input–output structure. Strategic...... complementarities induced by factor demand linkages significantly alter the transmission of shocks and amplify the loss of social welfare under optimal monetary policy, compared to what is observed in standard two-sector models. The distinction between value added and gross output that naturally arises...

  5. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the mainquestion is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often, an output distance function is used,where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one outputquantity as the dependent variable...... as directional components asregressors. A number of studies have compared these specifications using real world dataand have found significant differences in the inefficiency estimates. However, in order to getto the bottom of these differences, we apply a Monte-Carlo simulation. We test the robustnessof both...

  6. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  7. Robust Input-Output Energy Decoupling for Uncertain Singular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhuang Dong; Qing-Ling Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the robust input-output energy decoupling problem for uncertain singular systems in which all parameter matrices except E exist as time-varying uncertainties. By means of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of linear state feedback and input transformation control laws, such that the resulting closed-loop uncertain singular system is generalized quadratically stable and the energy of every input controls mainly the energy of a corresponding output, and influences the energy of other outputs as weakly as possible.

  8. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  9. Light output of EJ228 scintillation neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L., E-mail: luca.stevanato@pd.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Hao, Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The light output of neutron detectors based on the plastic scintillator EJ228 is studied as a function of neutron energy using a time tagged {sup 252}Cf source. Calibration of the light output scale is performed by fitting the experimental distribution of Compton scattering events of photons from a {sup 22}Na source with a response function obtained by Gaussian smearing of the predicted line-shape. The light output curve as well as the pulse height resolution for the EJ228 scintillators is very close (within 5%) to those recently reported for NE213 type organic liquid scintillators.

  10. ESTIMATING THE OUTPUT GAP FOR ROMANIA’S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belingher Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper the authors try to estimate Romania’s Output Gap and how the country managed to evolve, from the given chronological perspective, in parallel with the estimated potential Output Gap. Romania started to feel the heat of the economic crisis at almost three quarters after the American economy started its decline, but when it comes to the economy’s Output Gap, the country macro-behaved with a pace somehow differentiated in parallel with the global economy. Where was Romania and where it is heading that is the question that this research paper tries to answer from macroeconomic perspective.

  11. A New Current Mode SIMO-Type Universal Biquad Employing Multi-Output Current Conveyors (MOCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Du

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new current-mode singleinput and multi-output (SIMO type universal biquad circuit using second generation multi-output current conveyors (MOCCII as the active components. The proposed circuit employs three MOCCIIs, two grounded capacitors and four grounded resistors, therefore offers electroning tuning possibilities. It can simultaneously realize second order low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, notch and all-pass filters. The circuit is cascadable and has low sensitivities. It provides independent control of ω0 (natural angular frequency and Q (quality factor. The influences of MOCCII parasitic elements have been analyzed and simulated using PSPICE. Experimental results including frequency responses of low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters, as well as frequency responses of filters with different ω0 (keeping Q invariable and different Q (keeping ω0 invariable are shown to be in agreement with theory.

  12. A Test of the New VIIRS Lights Data Set: Population and Economic Output in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the new Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS lights data to determine whether it can provide more accurate proxies for socioeconomic data in areas with poor quality data than proxies based on stable lights. Our analysis indicates that VIIRS lights are a promising supplementary source for standard measures on population and economic output at a small scale, especially for low population and economic density areas in Africa. The current analysis also suggests that in comparison to stable lights generated by the DMSP-OLS system, data generated by the VIIRS system provide more information to estimate population than output index. However, further analysis and formal statistical models are needed to evaluate the usefulness of VIIRS lights versus other lights products. With more advanced methods, there is also a potential to generate a synthetic index by combining different lights products to produce a better proxy measure for other indexes.

  13. Web of Science: showing a bug today that can mislead scientific research output's prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, Pablo Diniz; Fauth, Leduc Hermeto de Almeida; Brandão, Marcia de Oliveira Reis

    2016-01-01

    As it happened in all domains of human activities, economic issues and the increase of people working in scientific research have altered the way scientific production is evaluated so as the objectives of performing the evaluation. Introduced in 2005 by J. E. Hirsch as an indicator able to measure individual scientific output not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality, h index has spread throughout the world. In 2007, Hirsch proposed its adoption also as the best to predict future scientific achievement and, consequently, a useful guide for investments in research and for institutions when hiring members for their scientific staff. Since then, several authors have also been using the Thomson ISI Web of Science database to develop their proposals for evaluating research output. Here we show that a subtle flaw in Web of Science can inflate the results of info collected, therefore compromising the exactness and, consequently, the effectiveness of Hirsch's proposal and its variations

  14. Estimation of the Appropriate Output of Diesel Generator for Microgrid System in Chuja Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to estimate the appropriate minimum output of diesel generator in the microgrid system that composed of renewable energy, diesel generator and energy storage systems. While maximizing the output of the renewable energy in the microgrid, to maintain the power system stability is very important. To analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation is carried out by using the PSCAD/EMTDC program with past weather and power load data in Chuja Island located in the south area of Korean peninsula, respectively. In the simulation result, power quality of Chuja Island power system under variable renewable energy generation is stable. The proposed method is useful for operating the isolated microgrid system.

  15. Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a tool ... The water management sector has been one of the first sectors in South Africa to ... Reviewed against 'direct output' indicators it achieved a 'poor' effectiveness ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    must start to spell out a shared concept of what constitutes 'quality of life'. ENVIRONMENTAL .... tables of GNP output, income per capita, school emolment figures ..... contrast with medieval times where religion was what gave one's life ...

  17. Method of automatic regulation of output of the feed unit of a conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A.V.; Feofilov, G.P.; Karpov, B.G.

    1979-11-15

    A method is proposed for regulating the output of a feed unit of a conveyer for fuel supply of an TES operating on solid fuel. Regulation of each feeder 7-8-9 is done by the corresponding regulator 13-14-15 by changing the output according to the lower signal of the drive of a common conveyer 1. In order to improve reliability and quality of operation of the feed unit, an additional signal is supplied to each regulator of output 13-14-15 of the feeders which equals the distance between the signal averaged for the levels in all the bins 4-5-6 and the signal for the level in the given bin. Loading of the conveyer is stabilized at the assigned level by changing the rotations of the drives 10-11-12 of feeders 7-8-9 from regulators 13-14-15 for output of the feeders to which the signal is supplied from sensor 3 for load of the engine 2 of conveyer 1. In order to balance the level in the bins 4-5-6, supply to each regulator of output of the feeders of additional signals is stipulated equal to h /SUB cp/ -h /SUB i/ (i=1, 2, 3). The signals from the level sensors 16-17-18 enter the averaging block 19, from whose outlet h /SUB cp/ =h/sub 1/+h/sub 32/+h/sub 3/ is fed to the block of summation 20-21-22 to which signals are also supplied from the level sensors 16-17-18. The total signal does not influence the contour for regulating the conveyer load. The signals coming to each of the regulators change the output of its feeder so that the levels of the bulk material in the bins will be leveled. Thus, maximum loading of the conveyer with fuel is implemented, and at the same time misalignment of the levels in the bins is eliminated. The specific consumption of electricity is diminished, the reliability and quality of operation of the feed unit are improved, the personnel are freed of the need to trace the fuel level in the bins.

  18. Output regulation problem for a class of regular hyperbolic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Dubljevic, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the output regulation problem for a class of regular first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) systems. A state feedback and an error feedback regulator are considered to force the output of the hyperbolic PDE plant to track a periodic reference trajectory generated by a neutrally stable exosystem. A new explanation is given to extend the results in the literature to solve the regulation problem associated with the first-order hyperbolic PDE systems. Moreover, in order to provide the closed-loop stability condition for the solvability of the regulator problems, the design of stabilising feedback gain and its dual problem design of stabilising output injection gain are considered in this paper. This paper develops an easy method to obtain an adjustable stabilising feedback gain and stabilising output injection gain with the aid of the operator Riccati equation.

  19. Predoction Model of Data Envelopment Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边馥萍; 范宇

    2004-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has become a standard non-parametric approach to productivity analysis, especially to relative efficiency analysis of decision making units (DMUs). Extended to the prediction field, it can solve the prediction problem with multiple inputs and outputs which can not be solved easily by the regression analysis method.But the traditional DEA models can not solve the problem with undesirable outputs,so in this paper the inherent relationship between goal programming and the DEA method based on the relationship between multiple goal programming and goal programming is explored,and a mixed DEA model which can make all factors of inputs and undesirable outputs decrease in different proportions is built.And at the same time,all the factors of desirable outputs increase in different proportions.

  20. CMAQv502 Base AQS Hourly site compare output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly AQS hourly site compare output files for the CMAQv502 Base simulation. Monthly files contain hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. These data were...

  1. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here, we propose to develop a breadboard laser system that is capable of producing radiation in two UV wavelengths.  This Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser...

  2. An Estimation of X-Radiation Output using Mathematic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Kothan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diagnosis x-ray radiation safety is key in medical examination. The quantity of patient radiation doses is beneficial for radiation protection of the patient. It was proposed that the equation for estimating the output (milliReongent, mR from x-ray machines. Approach: A was 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 for single phase, three phases and high frequency x-ray machines, respectively. To compare calculated output (mR used this equation and measured output (mR used ionizing chamber dosimeter. Results: The difference between the calculated and measured radiation dose was quite small. Conclusion: This equation could use to estimate output and it altered the reliable and inexpensive techniques for patient dose measurement in routine diagnostic x-ray examinations.

  3. Cooperative Control for Uncertain Multiagent Systems via Distributed Output Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed robust output regulation problem for multiagent systems is considered. For heterogeneous uncertain linear systems and a linear exosystem, the controlling aim is to stabilize the closed-loop system and meanwhile let the regulated outputs converge to the origin asymptotically, by the help of local interaction. The communication topology considered is directed acyclic graphs, which means directed graphs without loops. With distributed dynamic state feedback controller and output feedback controller, respectively, the solvability of the problem and the algorithm of controller design are both investigated. The solvability conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. It is shown that, for polytopic uncertainties, the distributed controllers constructed by solving LMIs can satisfy the requirements of output regulation property.

  4. Antiretroviral therapy increases thymic output in children with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Sandgaard, Katrine; Lewis, Joanna; Adams, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children is different to that of adults. Immune reconstitution in adults is mainly from memory T cells, whereas in children it occurs predominantly from the naive T-cell pool. It is unclear however what...... and cannot in themselves be used as quantitative estimates of thymic output. DESIGN: To compare thymic output in HIV-infected children on ART, HIV-infected children not on ART and uninfected children of different ages. METHOD: Combined T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) and proliferation data are used...... with a recently described mathematical model to give explicit measures of thymic output. RESULTS: We found that age-adjusted thymic output is reduced in untreated children with HIV, which increases significantly with length of time on ART. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a highly active thymus in early...

  5. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  6. Exchange Rate Adjustment And Output In South-East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamal P Upadhyaya; Robert Rainish; Neetu Kaushik; Rabindra N Bhandari

    2013-01-01

      This paper studies the effect of currency devaluation on aggregate output level in South- East Asian countries using panel data from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines for a period from 1980 to 2010...

  7. Policy Issues in Enhancing the Output Of Agribusiness Small And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    Key-words: Policy, Enhancing, Output, Accessibility, Piggery,. Enterprises ..... Central Bank of Nigeria (1990), First Annual Monetary Policy and. Measurement ... Onwumere, J.U.J., Ige, C.S., (2000), Economic Development – Meaning.

  8. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...... on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...

  9. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An Empirical ... changes (reforms) since the inception of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). ... place when monetary management was largely based on direct controls and those ...

  10. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  11. The Role of Entrepreneurial Financing on National Output: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    AN INTERNATIONAL MULTI-DISCIPLINARY JOURNAL,. BAHIR DAR, ETHIOPIA ... Faculty of Management Sciences. University of Port ... Due to the magnanimous role of entrepreneurial finance in spurring output thereby fostering economic ...

  12. Output spectrum of an unlocked optically driven semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallion, P.; Debarge, G.; Chabran, C.

    1986-05-01

    The output of an unlocked optically injected semiconductor laser exhibits a two-sided spectral distribution about its lasing frequency. The experimental results are explained by coupled phase and amplitude modulation and described by a rate-equation analysis.

  13. Implementation strategy for soft switching PFC with low output voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel implementation strategy for soft switching PFC whose circuit is simple and can achieve low voltage output directly. The main circuit adopts current mode full-bridge converter and all the power switches can realize ZCS or ZVS in the way of phase-shifted control, using the leakage inductance of the transformer, the junction capacitor of the switches and the stored energy of the output capacitor. The problems such as the function of phase-shifted link in control circuit, the implementation conditions of soft switching and bias restrained are analyzed. The adoption of constant frequency PWM control makes the design of the input and output filter link and the high frequency transformer simple. The transformation ratio regulation so as to achieve low voltage output and electrical insulation can be realized by using high frequency transformer.

  14. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  15. Output Feedback Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keylan Alimhan; Hiroshi Inaba

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the global stabilization problem by an output controller for a family of uncertain nonlinear systems satisfying some relaxed triangular-type conditions and with dynamics which may not be exactly known. Using a feedback domination design method, we explicitly construct a dynamic output compensator which globally stabilizes such an uncertain nonlinear system. The usefulness of our result is illustrated with an example.

  16. Training Input-Output Recurrent Neural Networks through Spectral Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sedghi, Hanie; Anandkumar, Anima

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of training input-output recurrent neural networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose a novel spectral approach for learning the network parameters. It is based on decomposition of the cross-moment tensor between the output and a non-linear transformation of the input, based on score functions. We guarantee consistent learning with polynomial sample and computational complexity under transparent conditions such as non-degeneracy of model parameters, polynomi...

  17. Mini invasive hemodynamic monitoring: from arterial pressure to cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    Della Rocca, Giorgio; Cecconi, Maurizio; Costa, Maria Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the Cardiac Output (CO) the standard invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is considered today the gold standard. The major criticism to the PAC is that its level of invasiveness is not supported by an improvement in patient's outcome. The interest to lesser and lesser invasive techniques is high. Therefore, the alternative techniques have been recently developed.Cardiac Output can be monitored continuously by different devices that analyze the arterial waveform to track change...

  18. A simplified NARMAX method using nonlinear input-output data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Sheng FENG

    2007-01-01

    A system identification method for nonlinear systems with unknown structure is presented using short input-output data. The method simplifies the original NARMAX method. It introduces more general model structures for nonlinear systems. The group method of data handling (GMDH) method is employed to obtain the model terms and parameters. Effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a typical nonlinear system with unknown structure and deficient input-output data.

  19. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller.......This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  20. Experimental Research on Output Performances of Giant Magnetostrictive Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-ping; CHEN Zi-chen

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces the performances of magnetostrictive actuators and its applications, discusses the design methods for the structure and internal magnetic circuit of a giant magnetostrictive actuator, and makes tests on the output displacement and force characteristics for an actuator using homemade magnetostrictive material. The experimental result shows that the actuator has satisfactory output precisions and ranges in transient and stable states, and can be used in lowfrequency vibration control system of precise equipment.

  1. Does daily urine output really matter in renal transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Orczyk, Clément; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2013-12-27

    Our objective was to clarify the clinical outcome of renal transplantation based on residual daily urine output (RDUO). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of 276 patients who underwent renal transplantation (Tx) between January 2008 and December 2012. Patients had pre-transplantation daily urine output measurement of 24-h proteinuria and were clinically re-evaluated the day before transplantation. We included patients with no daily urine output and those with residual daily urine output. Real bladder capacity was not measured. We excluded patients with a history of lower urinary tract malformation, those treated by trans-ileal conduit or enterocystoplasty, and those with early graft thrombosis or graft primary non-function. Sex ratio, age at Tx, pre-Tx MHC antibodies levels, donor age, and cold ischemia duration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Dialysis duration was longer in group I (p<0.001). The dialysis duration was correlated with the volume of residual urine output (r=0.12, p<0.0001). We found 14 (19.4%) urological complications in Group I (11 urinary leaks and 3 urethral stenosis) and 13 (6.4%) in Group II (5 urinary leaks and 8 stenosis). This difference was significant (p=0.0013 and relative risk [RR]=2.2). Absence of residual daily urine output was a risk factor of post-transplantation urinary leak (p<0.0001: RR=2.95). At 3 years, graft survival was 74.7% and 94.6%, respectively, in Group I and II (p=0.003). The absence of residual daily urine output seems to be a major risk factor for urological complications. Taking into account recipient residual daily urine output should modify surgical strategy during renal transplantation.

  2. Downscaling Global Weather Forecast Outputs Using ANN for Flood Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Nam Do Hoai; Keiko Udo; Akira Mano

    2011-01-01

    Downscaling global weather prediction model outputs to individual locations or local scales is a common practice for operational weather forecast in order to correct the model outputs at subgrid scales. This paper presents an empirical-statistical downscaling method for precipitation prediction which uses a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network. The MLP architecture was optimized by considering physical bases that determine the circulation of atmospheric va...

  3. Input-output stability for accelerometer control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Morris, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that, although accelerometer control systems are not well-posed in the sense of Salamon, a well-defined input-output relation exists. It is established that the output of an accelerometer control system can be described by the convolution of the input and a distribution. This distribution is Laplace transformable, and the Laplace transform of the distribution is the transfer function of the system.

  4. OUTPUT FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR MIMO NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH EXOGENOUS SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHOU; Yuqiang WU

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the global output tracking of a class of multi-input multi-output(MIMO) nonlinear systems affected by disturbances, which are generated by a known exosystem. An adaptive controller is designed based on the proposed observer and the backstepping approach to asymptotically track arbitrary reference signal and to guarantee the boundedness of all the signals in the closed loop system. Finally, the numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Adaptive practical output tracking of a class of nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangde WANG; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Focus is laid on the adaptive practical output-tracking problem of a class of nonlinear systems with high-order lower-triangular structure and uncontrollable unstable linearization. Using the modified adaptive addition of a power integrator technique as a basic tool, a new smooth adaptive state feedback controller is designed. This controller can ensure all signals of the closed-loop systems are globally bounded and output tracking error is arbitrary small.

  6. The measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  7. Measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  8. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  9. 1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Rose; Brown, Graeme; Beecher, Stephen J; Torrisi, Felice; Milana, Silvia; Popa, Daniel; Hasan, Tawfique; Sun, Zhipei; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Ohara, Seiki; Ferrari, Andrea C; Kar, Ajoy K

    2013-04-08

    We fabricate a saturable absorber mirror by coating a graphene- film on an output coupler mirror. This is then used to obtain Q-switched mode-locking from a diode-pumped linear cavity channel waveguide laser inscribed in Ytterbium-doped Bismuthate Glass. The laser produces 1.06 ps pulses at ~1039 nm, with a 1.5 GHz repetition rate, 48% slope efficiency and 202 mW average output power. This performance is due to the combination of the graphene saturable absorber and the high quality optical waveguides in the laser glass.

  10. Estimation of marginal abatement costs for undesirable outputs in India's power generation sector: An output distance function approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Many production activities generate undesirable byproducts in conjunction with the desirable outputs they produce. The present study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to estimate the marginal abatement cost of CO2 emissions from a sample of thermal plants in India. Two sets of exercises have been undertaken. The marginal abatement cost is first estimated without considering the distinction between the clean and the dirty plants (model-1) and t...

  11. Global output regulation of a class of lower triangular nonlinear systems with unknown control direction via output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the global output regulation problem of a class of lower triangular systems under measurement output feedback. A novel high-gain filter is proposed to estimate the unmeasured states of the systems. Furthermore, we integrate the robust stabilisation technique and Nussbaumgain technique to achieve asymptotic regulation when the control direction is unknown. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan,; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Part 21: Electronics: Applications; International audience; This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savin...

  13. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events.

  14. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p sea-level. A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  15. Predictors of low cardiac output in decompensated severe heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eidi Ochiai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of 60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63% patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4% patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015. Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001, lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001, hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036, and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007. Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001. Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001, ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035, and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.

  16. [h Index and scientific output of researchers in medicine from the University of Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, Arturo; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Rivera, Horacio; Roman, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate by the h index the scientific output of researchers from the University of Guadalajara who belong to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores in the field of Medicine and Health Sciences. Researchers from the University of Guadalajara were selected from the Active SNI Researchers 2013 file. The scientific output of researchers in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry was evaluated using the h index estimated by the Scopus website. A sample of capital researchers and Emeritus scientists was taken to perform the same procedure and compare data. The total number of researchers in the University of Guadalajara who are members of the SNI was 711, of which 67.2 % were level I and in less proportion were level II and III. Only 24.2 % of them were classified in the fields of Medicine/Health Sciences and Biology/Chemistry. The average h index value of researchers level I, II and III in Medicine/Health Sciences field was 5.4, 10.5 and 14.5, respectively. Capital and Emeritus scientists had an average h index of 23.4 and 19.8, respectively. The h index measures the quantity and quality of the scientific output and it also avoids bias in the evaluation process. It should be useful for future evaluations of the SNI members and for medical doctors who sign up for the National Academy of Medicine.

  17. Enhanced dynamic wedge output factors for Varian 2300CD and the case for a reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeh, Christopher F

    2015-09-08

    Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the shortcomings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly, to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby add credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian linac models were found in the literature. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF, with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57%, with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18 MV photon energies, respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. The consistency of value across models and institution provide further support that a standard dataset of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling, and quality assurance purposes.

  18. Determination of output factors for stereotactic radiosurgery beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Paskalev, K.; Wang, L.; Jin, L.; Li, J.; Eldeeb, A.; Ma, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Accurate dosimetry of the narrow beam tends to be difficult to perform due to the absence of lateral electronic equilibrium and the steep dose gradient, as well as the finite size of detectors. Thus, although the high dose rate 6 MV beam on the VARIAN Trilogy accelerator is increasingly utilized for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment, there is no general agreement in the SRS beam output factor values among the Trilogy user community. Trilogy SRS beams are confined by cone collimators and the available collimator sizes range from 5 and 10 to 30 mm, in every 2 mm increment. A range of the relative output factors are in clinic use. This variation may impair observations of dose response and optimizations of the prescribed dose. It is necessary to investigate an accurate, easily performable, and detector independent method for the narrow beam output factor measurement. In this study, a scanning beam/scanning chamber method was proposed to overcome the limitation/difficulty of using a relatively large detector in narrow beam output factor measurement. Specifically, for the scanning beam method, multiple narrow beams are used for the dose measurement using a finite size chamber. These multiple scanning beams form an equivalent large uniform field which provides lateral electron equilibrium condition. After the measurement, the contributions from neighboring beams are deconvolved and the value is used for output factor determinations. For a Linac that cannot move a beam laterally, the scanning chamber method can be used to achieve the same result. The output factors determined in such a method were compared to chambers (a 0.015 cc PTW PinPoint ion chamber and a 0.125 cc PTW ion chamber) and film measurement, as well as with Monte Carlo simulation. Film and Monte Carlo results are found to be in excellent agreement with the measurement using the scan beam method. However, the VARIAN recommended output factors measured directly by Wellhoefer CC01 chamber and

  19. Caste ratios affect the reproductive output of social trematode colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, T; Poulin, R

    2013-03-01

    Intraspecific phenotypic diversification in social organisms often leads to formation of physical castes which are morphologically specialized for particular tasks within the colony. The optimal caste allocation theory argues that specialized morphological castes are efficient at specific tasks, and hence different caste ratios should affect the ergonomic efficiency, hence reproductive output of the colony. However, the reproductive output of different caste ratios has been documented in few species of insects with equivocal support for the theory. This study investigated whether the ratios of nonreproductive and reproductive morphs affect the reproductive output of a recently discovered social trematode, Philophthalmus sp., in which the nonreproductive members are hypothesized to be defensive specialists. A census of natural infections and a manipulative in vitro experiment demonstrated a positive association between the reproductive output of trematode colonies and the ratio of nonreproductive to reproductive morphs in the presence of an intra-host trematode competitor, Maritrema novaezealandensis. On the contrary, without the competitor, reproductive output was negatively associated with the proportion of nonreproductive castes in colonies. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a clear fitness benefit associated with the nonreproductive castes in the presence of a competitor while illustrating the cost of maintaining such morphs in noncompetitive situations. Although the proximate mechanisms controlling caste ratio remain unclear in this trematode system, this study supports the prediction that the fitness of colonies is influenced by the composition of specialized functional morphs in social organisms, suggesting a potential for adaptive shifts of caste ratios over evolutionary time.

  20. Adaptive Output Regulation for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Periodic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Hidenobu; Ohmori, Hiromitsu

    Many mechanical systems are subjected to periodic disturbances which may adversely influence control performance. When the plants are nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, this disturbance compensation problem has been considered as adaptive output regulation problem. This paper discusses the problem about adaptive output regulation for nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree, which can be transformed into the output feedback form. The nonlinear plant is affected by unknown constant parameters and periodic disturbances with unknown frequencies, magnitudes and phases. The periodic disturbances are considered as signals generated from a linear time invariant exosystem. It is not assumed that the disturbances meet the matching condition for the control input. The design method of the adaptive controller and its parameter update law is based on adaptive backstepping manner for the coordinates-changed extended system, which is generated from the nonlinear plant and the exosystem. Then, it can be achieved that the output asymptotically converges to the output reference and that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded.

  1. Contribution of Agricultural Input to Output in Hohhot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinghe; DENG; Jie; TIAN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the research data from the economics and management platform of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,we analyze the changes in the input of agricultural production factors,such as farmland,labor and capital in Hohhot City. Based on the principle of econometrics,we select the agricultural production input-output data in Hohhot City during the period 1992-2010,and establish the econometric model using Cobb-Douglas production factor,to estimate the rate of contribution of agricultural input to the growth of agricultural output value,and study the quantitative relations between agricultural input and agricultural output value. The results show that in Hohhot City,the contribution of chemical fertilizer input to the growth of agricultural output value is the greatest; the contribution of mechanical power to agricultural output value is still not brought into full play; the contribution of remaining production inputs ( including technical progress) accounts for 35. 69% . In the future,Hohhot City should pay more attention to the technical input to develop agriculture.

  2. A modified relativistic magnetron with TEM output mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di-Fu; Qian, Bao-Liang; Wang, Hong-Gang; Li, Wei; Ju, Jin-Chuan; Du, Guang-Xing

    2017-01-01

    A modified relativistic magnetron (RM) with TEM output mode is proposed. By setting the coupling slots at the bottom of the resonant cavities in the transmission region rather than in the interaction region, besides possessing the original RM's advantages of high power conversion efficiency and radiating the lowest order mode, the modified RM not only improves the compactness and miniaturization of the magnetic field system, which is beneficial to realize the RMs packed by a permanent magnet, but also improves the robustness of operating frequency to structural perturbations of the coupling slots, which contributes to optimize the RM performance by adjusting the coupling slot dimensions with a relatively stable operating frequency. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation, the modified RM with a reduction of 27.2% in the weight of the coils, 35.8% in the occupied space of the coils, and 18.6% in the operating current, can output a relatively pure TEM mode, which has been demonstrated as the dominant output mode by simulation, corresponding to an output power of 495.0 MW and a power conversion efficiency of 56.4%, at the resonant frequency of 4.30 GHz. In addition, an output power of above 2 GW can also be obtained from the RM in simulations.

  3. 导游员素质与形象塑造%Tour Conductor Quality and Image Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱邻霖

    2012-01-01

    Tour conductor quality is related to the rise and decline of travel agency, including good personal quality, extensive and reasonable knowledge structure, excellent skills of organization and interpersonal communication, self-control ability, superb language expression skills, excellent and effective guide skills, and healthy psychology and physique.%导游员素质关系旅行社的兴衰,主要表现为良好的思想品质,广博合理的知识结构,杰出的组织、人际交往能力和自控力以及高超的语言表达能力,卓越而有效的导游技能,健康的心理和体质等方面.

  4. Podolian ‘caciocavallo’ cheese: seasonal variations of food quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cosentino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Podolian breed cows, that give a milk with superb organoleptic qualities, were introduced from Ukraine in Italy during Barbarian invasions. The goodness of “Podolian Caciocavallo”, whose name results from the type of ageing of the cheese tied up together “to ride” on a horizontal baton, is due to the climatic conditions and to the rearing system of Podolian cows. It comes in rounded forms with a soft, creamy white consistency and with sweet taste and delicate flavour. After three seasoning months “caciocavallo” is already excellent to eat; as time goes by the texture becomes firmer, the colour tends to yellow ochre, and the cheese reaches perfection after about two-three years...

  5. Synchronization in output-coupled temporal Boolean networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianquan; Zhong, Jie; Tang, Yang; Huang, Tingwen; Cao, Jinde; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of synchronization in an array of output-coupled temporal Boolean networks. A temporal Boolean network (TBN) is a logical dynamic system developed to model Boolean networks with regulatory delays. Both state delay and output delay are considered, and these two delays are assumed to be different. By referring to the algebraic representations of logical dynamics and using the semi-tensor product of matrices, the output-coupled TBNs are firstly converted into a discrete-time algebraic evolution system, and then the relationship between the states of coupled TBNs and the initial state sequence is obtained. Then, some necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the synchronization of an array of TBNs with an arbitrary given initial state sequence. Two numerical examples including one epigenetic model are finally given to illustrate the obtained results.

  6. Input-output Gaussian channels: theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; Plenio, Martin B; Serafini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Setting off from the classic input-output formalism, we develop a theoretical framework to characterise the Gaussian quantum channels relating the initial correlations of an open bosonic system to those of properly identified output modes. We then proceed to apply our formalism to the case of quantum harmonic oscillators, such as the motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions or nanomechanical oscillators, interacting with travelling electromagnetic modes through cavity fields and subject to external white noise. Thus, we determine the degree of squeezing that can be transferred from an intra-cavity oscillator to light, and also show that the intra-cavity squeezing can be transformed into distributed optical entanglement if one can access both output fields of a two-sided cavity.

  7. Input-output Gaussian channels: theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; Retzker, Alex; Plenio, Martin B.; Serafini, Alessio

    2012-09-01

    Setting off from the classic input-output formalism, we develop a theoretical framework to characterize the Gaussian quantum channels relating the initial correlations of an open bosonic system to those of properly identified output modes. We then proceed to apply our formalism to the case of quantum harmonic oscillators, such as the motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions or nanomechanical oscillators, interacting with travelling electromagnetic modes through cavity fields and subject to external white noise. We thus determine the degree of squeezing that can be transferred from an intra-cavity oscillator to light and show that the intra-cavity squeezing can be transformed into distributed optical entanglement if one can access both output fields of a two-sided cavity.

  8. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Light Output of Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Gundacker, S.; Knapitsch, A.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the scintillators is presented in this paper. We focus on the effect of narrowing down the section of crystals that have a given length. The light output of a set of crystals with very similar scintillating properties but different geometries measured with several coupling/wrapping configurations is provided. We observe that crystals shaped in thin rods have a lower light output as compared to bulk or sliced crystals. The effect of unpolishing the crystal faces is also investigated, and it is shown that highest light outputs are not necessarily obtained with crystals having all faces polished. Simulation results based on a realistic model of the crystal that implements light scattering on the crystal edges are in agreement with the experimental data. Fine-tuning of this model would allow us to further explore the details of light propagation in scintillators and would be highly valuable to fast timing detection and highly granular detectors.

  9. Spatial coherence at the output of multimode optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Anatoly

    2014-06-30

    The modulus of the complex degree of coherence is directly measured at the output of a step-index multimode optical fiber using lateral-sheering, delay-dithering Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pumping the multimode fiber with monochromatic light always results in spatially-coherent output, whereas for the broadband pumping the modal dispersion of the fiber leads to a partially coherent output. While the coherence radius is a function of the numerical aperture only, the residual coherence outside the main peak is an interesting function of two dimensionless parameters: the number of non-degenerate modes and the ratio of the modal dispersion to the coherence time of the source. We develop a simple model describing this residual coherence and verify its predictions experimentally.

  10. TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE INPUTS AND MULTIPLE OUTPUTS COMPLIANT MECHANISMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xianmin; OUYANG Gaofei; WANG Hua

    2007-01-01

    An optimal topology design method for multiple inputs and multiple outputs compliant micro-manipulation system is presented. Firstly, the topology design problem is posed in terms of a multiple inputs load and several specified output deflections. The compliance and stiffness of the system are expressed by the mutual potential energy and strain energy, respectively, which can be controlled by a multi-criteria objective function. Secondly, based on the optimality criteria method, a model solution algorithm is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the validity of the presented technique. The optimal topology of a 4 inputs and 4 outputs compliant mechanism is obtained by using the method, and the corresponding micro-positioning stage system is further designed.

  11. Stochastic Distribution Control of Singular Systems: Output PDF Shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. YUE; A.J.A. LEPRAND; H. WANG

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm designed to control the shape of the output probability density function (PDF) of singular systems subjected to non-Gaussian input. The aim is to select a control input uk such that the output PDF is made as close as possible to a given PDF.Based on the B-spline neural network approximation of the output PDF, the control algorithm is formulated by extending the developed PDF control strategies of non-singular systems to singular systems. It has been shown that under certain conditions the stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.

  12. Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kuang, Yang; Zhu, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE) modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.

  13. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    on the methodological considerations necessary in doing this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output in both......This article investigates the numerical research output of Crusades studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of Medieval Studies in general in the same period. The article shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates...... crusades studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article opts for further discussion on the why’s and how’s of this somewhat surprising result....

  14. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  15. Quantised output feedback control via limited capacity communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Quan; Jin, Fang

    2012-12-01

    This article addresses the output feedback stability problem for single-input single-output (SISO) linear systems with quantised measurements of the plant output, where sensors and controllers are connected via errorless digital channels carrying a finite number of bits per unit time. The main idea here is to present a lower bound of data rates, above which there exists a quantisation, coding and control scheme to guarantee both stability and a prescribed control performance of the unstable plant. A quantisation and coding scheme, which is based on the distribution of measurements and the dynamics of the plant, is proposed. The proof techniques rely on both information-theoretic and control-theoretic tools. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  16. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-10-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells.

  17. Drain removal and aspiration to treat low output chylous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiwakar, Muthuswamy; Nambi, G I; Ramanikanth, T V

    2014-03-01

    Chylous fistula following neck dissection is difficult to treat. We hypothesized that timely removal of the suction drain followed by daily aspiration might aid in resolution of the condition. The study model is prospective cohort study. Out of 170 consecutive neck dissections, 7 (4 %) developed chylous fistula postoperatively. Retaining the suction drain was associated with resolution of the fistula in only one case. The remaining six had peak 24 h outputs between 85 and 675 ml that showed no significant fall despite maximal conservative treatment. Suction drain removal followed by daily needle aspiration however led to cessation of the fistula in all six cases. No patient required surgical re-exploration. Drain removal was associated with a significant fall in the volume of chylous output (p = 0.002). In selected cases of low output chylous fistula, suction drain removal and daily needle aspiration is an effective treatment option.

  18. Orchestrating the management of patients with high-output stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison

    Working in isolation, managing high-output stomas can be stressful and difficult, with patient outcomes varying significantly. For the stoma care clinical nurse specialist, managing the choice of stoma appliance is only a small part of the care provided. To standardise and improve outcomes for patients with high-output stomas, team working is required. After contacting other stoma care services and using guidance from the High Impact Actions for Stoma Care document ( Coloplast, 2010 ), it was evident that the team should put together an algorithm/flow chart to guide both specialists and ward nursing staff in the evidence-based and standardised management of patients with high-output stomas. This article presents the flowchart that was produced and uses case studies to demonstrate improvements.

  19. PENDUGAAN ELASTISITAS PENAWARAN OUTPUT DAN PERMINTAAN INPUT USAHATANI JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Agustian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of changes in output and input prices, corn research expenditures and road infrastructure on output supply and input demand for corn in the Province of East Java and West Java. The data that are analyzed are those of structure of costs of corn farming in the Province of East Java and West Java in 1985-2009. Estimation model employed is the method of Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results showed that the output supply of corn both in the province of East Java and West Java are elastic to its price changes, however it is inelastic to the price changes of: seed, urea, TSP and labor. Input demand of seed, urea, TSP and labor area inelastic to their price changes. Policy implications of this research is efforts to increase the supply of corn can be carried out by increasing its price, expenditures of corn research, and road infrastructure.

  20. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  2. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates.

  3. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Southan

    Full Text Available The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually

  4. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  5. Stochastic Model Checking of the Stochastic Quality Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zeng, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    The Quality Calculus uses quality binders for input to express strategies for continuing the computation even when the desired input has not been received. The Stochastic Quality Calculus adds generally distributed delays for output actions and real-time constraints on the quality binders for input...

  6. Robust output regulation problem for linear time-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maobin; Huang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust output regulation problem for linear systems with input time-delay. By extending the internal model design method to linear time-delay systems, we have established solvability conditions for the problem by both dynamic state feedback control and dynamic output feedback control. The advantages of internal model approach over the feedforward design approach are that it can handle perturbations of the uncertain parameters in the plant and the control law, and it does not need to solve the regulator equations.

  7. Design of output voltage waveform on magnetic encoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Yu E-mail: shiyu_aaa@163.com; Zhang Huaiwu; Jiang Xiangdong; Wen Qiye; Han Baoshan

    2004-11-01

    A novel design model based on slant multi-phase filter (SMPF) theory is presented. By the theory nth harmonic voltage (n=2nd, 3rd and 4th...(V)) can be reduced easily. Magnetic encoder with sinusoidal output voltage waveform has been developed and sinusoidal output waveform can be easily improved. The minimum of distortion factor was observed when the difference of slant phase is 2{pi}3. This result agrees with SMPF theory value {phi}=4.904 deg. (p=0.8 mm, l=3 mm, {delta}{theta}=2{pi}3]. This result can be widely used in magnetoresistive sensor fields.

  8. Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadge, G.

    1980-01-01

    For part of their historic records, nine of the most active volcanoes on earth have each erupted magma at a nearly constant rate. These output rates are very similar and range from 0.69 to 0.26 cu m/s. The volcanoes discussed - Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nyamuragira, Hekla, Piton de la Fournaise, Vesuvius and Etna - represent almost the whole spectrum of plate tectonic settings of volcanism. A common mechanism of buoyantly rising magma-filled cracks in the upper crust may contribute to the observed restricted range of the rates of output.

  9. Replacing a battery by a nanogenerator with 20 V output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-01-03

    Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 {mu}A, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm{sup -3}. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Output Feedback Adaptive Stabilization of Uncertain Nonholonomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of output feedback adaptive stabilization control design for a class of nonholonomic chained systems with uncertainties, involving virtual control coefficients, unknown nonlinear parameters, and unknown time delays. The objective is to design a robust nonlinear output-feedback switching controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed loop systems. An observer and an estimator are employed for states and parameters estimates, respectively. A constructive controller design procedure is proposed by applying input-state scaling transformation, parameter separation technique, and backstepping recursive approach. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. KRASH 85 User’s Guide - Input/Output Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    OUTPUT FORNAT(U)2/LOCKHEED-CALIFORNIA CO BURBANK M A GANON ET AL. JUL 65 1)NLRSFEDLR-30777 DOT/FA/CT-85-1U DTFR3-83-C-06614 FOL3 U 1111W50 12.8 25 36 V...SE’SGUIDE INPUT/OUTPUT FORNATCU) 313 ADR6 @ LOKEED-CALREIFORNI CO BURBANK N A GANON ET AL. JUL 85 I LR-39777 DOT/FAA/CT-85-1S DTFR@3-83-C-098S4 UNCLASSIFIED

  12. Continuous measurement of cardiac output using stochastic system identification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelderman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Indicator dilutions techniques offer the most reliable methods of determining clinical cardiac output because of the elastic nature of the cardiac vessels. A catheter-mounted beating filament affords a simple means of supplying "heat" indicator, but is power and temperature limited because of possible patient injury. A stochastic signal processing method using pseudorandom binary infusion of heat offers a process of enhancing the signal to noise sufficiently to facilitate a computation of cardiac output over a reasonable time period (5 min) with a clinically acceptable error.

  13. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    Body diode of SiC MOSFETs has a relatively high forward voltage drop and still experiences reverse recovery phenomenon. Half bridge with split output aims to decouple both the body diode and junction capacitance of SiC MOSFETs, therefore achieving a reduced switching loss in a bridge configuration....... This paper makes the current commutation mechanism and efficiency analysis of half bridge with split output based on SiC MOSFETs. Current commutation process analysis is illustrated together with LTspice simulation and afterwards, verified by the experimental results of a double pulse test circuit with split...

  14. Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Guohai; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Monaghan, David S; Sheridan, John T

    2007-08-01

    The security of the encryption and verification techniques with significant output images is examined by a known-plaintext attack. We introduce an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm based on multiple intensity measurements to heuristically estimate the phase key in the Fourier domain by several plaintext-cyphertext pairs. We obtain correlation output images with very low error by correlating the estimated key with corresponding random phase masks. Our studies show that the convergence behavior of this algorithm sensitively depends on the starting point. We also demonstrate that this algorithm can be used to attack the double random phase encoding technique.

  15. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  16. Output feedback controller design for uncertain piecewise linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxiong ZHANG; Wansheng TANG

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes output feedback controller design methods for uncertain piecewise linear systems based on piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The α-stability of closed-loop systems is also considered. It is shown that the output feedback controller design procedure of uncertain piecewise linear systems with α-stability constraint can be cast as solving a set of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). The BMIs problem in this paper can be solved iteratively as a set of two convex optimization problems involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be solved numerically efficiently. A numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Output Error Method for Tiltrotor Unstable in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichota Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates unstable tiltrotor in hover system identification from flight test data. The aircraft dynamics was described by a linear model defined in Body-Fixed-Coordinate System. Output Error Method was selected in order to obtain stability and control derivatives in lateral motion. For estimating model parameters both time and frequency domain formulations were applied. To improve the system identification performed in the time domain, a stabilization matrix was included for evaluating the states. In the end, estimates obtained from various Output Error Method formulations were compared in terms of parameters accuracy and time histories. Evaluations were performed in MATLAB R2009b environment.

  18. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks......Value-chain networks are of major importance to multinational subsidiaries, yet they have failed to receive significant attention in the literature. We extend the knowledge-based view of the firm by exploring whether three different types of multinational subsidiary networks have dissimilar impact...

  19. Programming input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    The subprogram MTCFF was designed for carrying out input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape within the framework of the DOS ES EVM operation system. It is possible, by means of this subprogram, to perform any input-output operations of interest to the programmer such as recording and reading various control operations in the direct and reverse directions, even though for these purposes the facilities of the language FORTRAN itself are limited. The subprogram can also be used in programs written in other programming languages.

  20. Probability output of multi-class support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻栋; 吴朝晖; 潘云鹤

    2002-01-01

    A novel approach to interpret the outputs of multi-class support vector machines is proposed in this paper. Using the geometrical interpretation of the classifying heperplane and the distance of the pattern from the hyperplane, one can calculate the posterior probability in binary classification case. This paper focuses on the probability output in multi-class phase where both the one-against-one and one-against-rest strategies are considered. Experiment on the speaker verification showed that this method has high performance.

  1. Event-triggered output feedback control for distributed networked systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of output-feedback communication and control with event-triggered framework in the context of distributed networked control systems. The design problem of the event-triggered output-feedback control is proposed as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem. The scheme is developed for the distributed system where only partial states are available. In this scheme, a subsystem uses local observers and share its information to its neighbors only when the subsystem's local error exceeds a specified threshold. The developed method is illustrated by using a coupled cart example from the literature.

  2. A Comparative Study of Turkey's Output Gaps in the Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürkler, Harun; GÖKSEL, Türkmen

    2015-01-01

    An effective set of monetary, fiscal, and income policies can only be formulated on the basis of a correct estimation of the position of an economy in a cycle. Output gap estimation provides an important tool for predicting the position of the economy. In this paper, we measure output gap for the Turkish Economy for the period between 2000Q1 and 2013Q4, using production function approach and quarterly data. We utilize two definitions of recession: According to the first definition, we refer a...

  3. Effect of impurity doping concentration on solar cell output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.; Soclof, S. I.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made of solar cell and related photovoltaic parameters for silicon with high concentrations of dopant impurities. The cell output peaked for doping levels around 10 to the 17th power per cu cm. Independent measurements of diffusion length and open circuit voltage at high doping levels showed severe reductions at concentrations above 10 to the 18th power per cu cm. Theoretical reasons are given to explain these reductions. Indication is given of the problems requiring solution before increased cell output can be achieved at high doping levels.

  4. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...... analysis, namely the Finometer monitor (FNM) for further use on patients dialyzing on a central vascular catheter. Fifty simultaneous cardiac output measurements were obtained during hemodialysis sessions in 25 patients. The internal variability of the FNM measurements was assessed by comparing 24 pairs...

  5. A Matrix PRNG with S-Box Output Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modification to a previously published pseudorandom number generator improving security while maintaining high performance. The proposed generator is based on the powers of a word-packed block upper triangular matrix and it is designed to be fast and easy to implement in software since it mainly involves bitwise operations between machine registers and, in our tests, it presents excellent security and statistical characteristics. The modifications include a new, key-derived s-box based nonlinear output filter and improved seeding and extraction mechanisms. This output filter can also be applied to other generators.

  6. Trends of public health research output from India during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of how public health research output from India is changing in relation to the disease burden and public health priorities is required in order to inform relevant research development. We therefore studied the trends in the public health research output from India during 2001-2008 that was readily available in the public domain. Methods The scope and type of the published research from India in 2007 that was included in the PubMed database was assessed and compared with a previous similar assessment for 2002. Papers were classified based on the review of abstracts and original public health research papers were assessed in detail. Impact factors for the journals were used to compute quality-adjusted research output. The websites of governmental organizations, academic and research institutions and international organizations were searched in order to identify and review reports on original public health research produced in India from 2001 to 2008. The reports were classified based on the topics covered and quality and their trends over time were assessed. Results The number of original health research papers from India in PubMed doubled from 4494 in 2002 to 9066 in 2007. This included a 3.1-fold increase in public health research papers, but these comprised only 5% of the total papers in 2007. Within public health, the increase was lowest for the health system and policy category. Several major causes of disease burden in India continued to be underrepresented in the quality-adjusted public health research output in 2007. The number of papers evaluating population health interventions increased from 2002 to 2007, but there were none on the leading non-communicable causes of disease burden or on road traffic injuries. The number of identified original public health research reports increased by 64.7% from 204 in 2001-2004 to 336 in 2005-2008. The proportion of reports on reproductive and child health was very

  7. Detection and Use of Load and Gage Output Repeats of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2017-01-01

    Criteria are discussed that may be used for the detection of load and gage output repeats of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data. First, empirical thresholds are introduced that help determine if the loads or electrical outputs of a pair of balance calibration or check load data points match. A threshold of 0.01 percent of the load capacity is suggested for the identification of matching loads. Similarly, a threshold of 0.1 microV/V is recommended for the identification of matching electrical outputs. Two examples for the use of load and output repeats are discussed to illustrate benefits of the implementation of a repeat point detection algorithm in a balance data analysis software package. The first example uses the suggested load threshold to identify repeat data points that may be used to compute pure errors of the balance loads. This type of analysis may reveal hidden data quality issues that could potentially be avoided by making calibration process improvements. The second example uses the electrical output threshold for the identification of balance fouling. Data from the calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the calculation of the pure error of the balance loads.

  8. ISO 9001 quality management systems

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2017-01-01

    This book explains the requirements of ISO 9001 for establishing quality management system (QMS) for an organization. The requirements are illustrated with examples from industries for understanding the requirements and preparing the documents of QMS with high clarity. Methods of integrating ISO 9001 requirements with enterprise resource planning (ERP) software are presented. The software integrated approach enables process owners to focus on their core tasks of achieving the planned outputs of processes and the software generates quality records automatically.

  9. Advisory system for the diagnosis of lost electric output in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyunyoung Heo; Soon Heung Chang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea). Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering; Seong Soo Choi [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea); Gwang Hee Choi; Moon Hak Jee [Korea Power Electric Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2005-11-15

    The enhancement of efficiency is world-wide trend to survive under intense competition. In recent years, the efficiency in the power industry is also one of the important topics. In case of nuclear power plants(NPPs), the period and quality of maintenance is an especially important factor to increase efficiency as well as availability. Therefore, the accurate identification of the root causes for lost electric output is indispensable to decrease the period and to increase quality of maintenance. The diagnosis in NPPs is more difficult because the turbine cycle of NPPs uses saturated steam as working fluid. In this study, authors tried to develop an advisory system with the quantitative diagnosis model consisting of statistical regression analysis and Bayesian network for the support of nuclear turbine cycle diagnosis. The proposed advisory system includes the knowledge-base representing the normal or abnormal behavior of nuclear turbine cycle. Authors selected 34 boundary parameters that independently influence to electric output. Using the data collected from a turbine cycle simulation tool, the statistical correlation between a boundary parameter and electric output was analyzed. To give the belief, that is the degree of accuracy, of root causes under various uncertainty sources, belief module for the boundary parameters is developed on the basis of Bayesian network. In conclusion, this diagnosis module can give the impacts of the root causes and their uncertainty simultaneously, so we call it 'Lost MW calculator'. After the validation using simulated data and actual performance data, this module was installed in Younggwang NPP units 3 and 4 in Korea. (author)

  10. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF LINEAR-DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUIJPER, M; SCHUMACHER, JM

    1993-01-01

    Systems of linear differential and algebraic equations occur in various ways, for instance, as a result of automated modeling procedures and in problems involving algebraic constraints, such as zero dynamics and exact model matching. Differential/algebraic systems may represent an input-output relat

  11. Speech perception in children with speech output disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, L.

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception

  12. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run outp

  13. Input-output decoupling of Hamiltonian systems : The linear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, H.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1985-01-01

    In this note we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear Hamiltonian system to be input-output decouplable by Hamiltonian feedback, i.e. feedback that preserves the Hamiltonian structure. In a second paper we treat the same problem for nonlinear Hamiltonian systems.

  14. Input-output decoupling of Hamiltonian systems: The linear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this note we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear Hamiltonian system to be input-output decouplable by Hamiltonian feedback, i.e. feedback that preserves the Hamiltonian structure. In a second paper we treat the same problem for nonlinear Hamiltonian systems.

  15. Output Regulation Problem for Differentiable Families of Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Albert; Ferrer, Josep; Peña, Marta

    2009-09-01

    Given a family of linear systems depending on a parameter varying in a differentiable manifold, we obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of a (global or local) differentiable family of controllers solving the output regulation problem for the given family. Moreover, we construct it when these conditions hold.

  16. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...

  17. Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine; Harbison, Constance

    2012-01-01

    The print publishing industry is showing signs of recovering from the worst of the economic downturn even as the surge in popularity of ebooks raises questions about the future of printed materials. From a high of 190,502 titles in 2007, overall American book title output fell to 178,841 in 2009 but climbed back to 186,344 in 2010; preliminary…

  18. (Un)Desirable Effects of Output Funding for Flemish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, B.; De Ridder, A.; Vanhaecht, E.; Verbist, G.

    2011-01-01

    Governments introducing output parameters (e.g. graduation numbers) in the funding rule of universities believe that it will induce universities to raise their teaching efforts while educational standards will remain unaffected. In this article we first show on theoretical grounds that this desire can only be fulfilled if there exist positive…

  19. Recasts, Language Anxiety, Modified Output, and L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated (a) whether classroom language anxiety affects learners' ability to improve accuracy in their use of English articles when provided with corrective feedback in the form of recasts and (b) whether language anxiety influences the extent to which learners modify output following recasts. Four groups…

  20. A high energy output nanogenerator based on reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Liangliang; Li, Delong; Liao, Lei; Pan, Chunxu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report a novel graphene-based nanogenerator for high energy harvesting. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that the energy output mechanism is the joint action of the strain effect (band engineering) and the triboelectric effect of reduced graphene oxide. It was found that the current could be adjusted by experimental parameters, such as the electrolyte concentration and rotation rate. Furthermore, the voltage output could be amplified by series connection of the system. Compared with other nanogenerators, the present graphene-based nanogenerator provides advantages, such as simple assembly, flexibility and high structural stability. It is expected that this nanogenerator will be of potential application in active sensors and sustainable power sources.In this paper, we report a novel graphene-based nanogenerator for high energy harvesting. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that the energy output mechanism is the joint action of the strain effect (band engineering) and the triboelectric effect of reduced graphene oxide. It was found that the current could be adjusted by experimental parameters, such as the electrolyte concentration and rotation rate. Furthermore, the voltage output could be amplified by series connection of the system. Compared with other nanogenerators, the present graphene-based nanogenerator provides advantages, such as simple assembly, flexibility and high structural stability. It is expected that this nanogenerator will be of potential application in active sensors and sustainable power sources. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04971g

  1. Output Keywords in Context in an HTML File with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson builds on Keywords in Context (Using N-grams, where n-grams were extracted from a text. Here, you will learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  2. Bank output measurement in the euro area : A modified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, A.; Inklaar, R.

    Banks do not charge explicit fees for many of the services they provide, bundling the service payment with the offered interest rates. This output therefore has to be imputed using estimates of the opportunity cost of funds. We argue that rather than using the single short-term, low-risk interest

  3. Communications technology satellite output-tube design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D. J.; Forman, R.; Jones, C. L.; Kosmahl, H.; Sharp, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a 200-watt-output, traveling-wave tube (TWT) for the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is discussed, with emphasis on the design evolution during the manufacturing phase of the development program. Possible further improvements to the tube design are identified.

  4. High output paraffin actuators: Utilization in aerospace mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Scott

    1988-01-01

    High Output Paraffin (HOP) thermal actuators were developed to provide an alternative to conventional aerospace actuators: HOP actuators directly convert temperature changes to useful mechanical work. When fabricated with internal resistance heating elements, they provide an electric linear motor. For applications in which slower response times are acceptable or preferred, HOP actuators have distinct advantages over conventional approaches.

  5. The ACUMEN Portfolio: Accounting for Alternative Forms of Scholarly Output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Tatum, C.

    2013-01-01

    New tools for measuring the impact of research (altmetrics) bring much needed attention to changing scholarly communication practices. However, alternative forms of output are still widely excluded from the evaluation of individual researchers. The ACUMEN project addresses this problem in two ways.

  6. Multi-Output System Identification Using Evolutionary Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-04

    Evolutionary programming (EP) has been demonstrated to be an effective method of system identification of single-input-single-output (SISO) systems...This paper investigates the use of EP in system identification of single-input-multioutput (SIMO) systems. EP is used to identify parameters of a

  7. Speech perception in children with speech output disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, L.

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception

  8. Wage Differentials among Workers in Input-Output Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Luigi

    1981-01-01

    Using an input-output framework, the author derives hypotheses on wage differentials based on the assumption that human capital (in this case, education) will explain workers' wage differentials. The hypothetical wage differentials are tested on data from the Italian economy. (RW)

  9. Rational Expansion for Nonlinear Input-Output Maps

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    This paper introduces a Rational Expansion for Nonlinear Input-Output MAPS. The method is new and is based on the rational expansion of functions of several complex variables. If truncated, this series reduces to a ratio of truncated Volterra series, A "feedback form" will be presented.

  10. Veneer, 1980--A periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Nevel

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output based on a canvass of the veneer plants in the Northeast and contains statistics for 1980 on the veneer-log production and receipts by states and species, log shipments between states and regions, and the disposition of manufacturing residues. Between 1976 and 1980, veneer log production jumped 19 percent and northeastern veneer plant...

  11. Compilation of input-output data from the national accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, P.J.A.; Steenge, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented to derive an input-output table from a system of make and use tables. The method, which we call 'activity technology', is mathematically equivalent to the well-known commodity technology, but chooses another unit, i.e. the activity. We will argue that, in the

  12. QUALITATIVE DATA AND ERROR MEASUREMENT IN INPUT-OUTPUT-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJKAMP, P; OOSTERHAVEN, J; OUWERSLOOT, H; RIETVELD, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the rapidly emerging field of qualitative data analysis in economics. Ordinal data techniques and error measurement in input-output analysis are here combined in order to test the reliability of a low level of measurement and precision of data by means of a stochastic

  13. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%. Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  14. The ACUMEN Portfolio: Accounting for Alternative Forms of Scholarly Output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Tatum, C.

    2013-01-01

    New tools for measuring the impact of research (altmetrics) bring much needed attention to changing scholarly communication practices. However, alternative forms of output are still widely excluded from the evaluation of individual researchers. The ACUMEN project addresses this problem in two ways.

  15. Quantum dot amplifiers with high output power and low noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers have been theoretically investigated and are predicted to achieve high saturated output power, large gain, and low noise figure. We discuss the device dynamics and, in particular, show that the presence of highly inverted barrier states does not limit ...

  16. Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, S

    2016-09-10

    Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart. The heart then puts the volume back into the systemic circulation so that stroke return equals stroke volume. The heart cannot pump out more volume than comes back. Changes in cardiac output without changes in stressed volume occur because of changes in arterial and venous resistances which redistribute blood volume and change pressure gradients throughout the vasculature. Stressed volume also can be increased by decreasing vascular capacitance, which means recruiting unstressed volume into stressed volume. This is the equivalent of an auto-transfusion. It is worth noting that during exercise in normal young males, cardiac output can increase five-fold with only small changes in stressed blood volume. The mechanical characteristics of the cardiac chambers and the circulation thus ultimately determine the relationship between volume and cardiac output and are the subject of this review.

  17. Design of an emi output filter for frequency converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Bergsma, H.; Leferink, F.B.J.; Zhao, D.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, B.

    2006-01-01

    A filter has been designed to reduce conducted and radiated emission generated by a frequency converter. The frequency converter, cables and motor were modelled in order to make a good estimation of the radiated emission. A single stage output filter was designed making use of feedthrough apacitors

  18. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  19. Simultaneous exact model matching with stability by output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsis, Konstadinos H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, is studied the problem of simultaneous exact model matching by dynamic output feedback for square and invertible linear time invariant systems. In particular, explicit necessary and sufficient conditions are established which guarantee the solvability of the problem with stability and a procedure is given for the computation of dynamic controller which solves the problem.

  20. L2 Output, Reformulation, and Noticing: Implications for IL Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Extends a study on the developmental effects of learners noticing differences between their own and native speaker output. Spanish learners were assigned to three groups: task repetition, noticing, and noticing + simulated recall. Learners noticed differences between their own essays and reformulated writing and that there were quantitative…

  1. Fiscal output data produce versatile graphic-numeric charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. W.; Romo, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Refined computerized plotting system produces low-cost graphic-numeric charts that illustrate fiscal data on monthly incremental or cumulative basis, or both. Output is in the form of hard copy or microfilm, or visual-aid transparencies prepared from hard copy for rapid management status presentations.

  2. Prediction of Betavoltaic Battery Output Parameters Based on SEM Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Yakimov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach for the prediction of betavoltaic battery output parameters based on EBIC investigations of semiconductor converters of beta-radiation energy into electric power is presented. Using this approach the parameters of battery based on porous Si are calculated. These parameters are compared with those of battery based on a planar Si p-n junction.

  3. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-04-11

    The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-xPbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young's modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm². The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  4. Public Infrastructure Investment, Output Dynamics, and Balanced Budget Fiscal Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamic output and welfare effects of public infrastructure investment under a balanced budget fiscal rule, using an overlapping generations model of a small open economy. The government finances public investment by employing distortionary labor taxes. We find a negative short-run

  5. Assessment of output losses; Evaluacion de perdidas de rendimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraza Peregrin, A.

    2010-07-01

    Output losses are mainly produced by the ageing of equipment, which makes its efficiency decreasing, or else by be operating under different design conditions. There are also seasonal causes that make difficult to identify these losses, as room temperature or reactive power. This study is focused on Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant.

  6. Design of a CMOS temperature sensor with current output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolling, A.; Kölling, Arjan; Bak, Frans; Bergveld, Piet; Seevinck, E.; Seevinck, Evert

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a CMOS temperature-to-current converter is presented of which the output current is the difference between a PTC current and an NTC current. The PTC current is derived from a PTAT cell, while the NTC current is derived from a threshold voltage reference source. It is shown that this

  7. Cardiac output and vasodilation in the vasovagal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieling, Wouter; Jardine, David L.; de Lange, Frederik J

    2016-01-01

    The simple faint is secondary to hypotension and bradycardia resulting in transient loss of consciousness. According to Ohm's law applied to the circulation, BP = SVR × CO, hypotension can result from a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR), cardiac output (CO), or both. It is important ...

  8. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  9. Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

  10. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den A.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In
    other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output
    systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a

  11. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  12. An Interface Theory for Input/Output Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de~Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch's Input/Output Automata, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separa...

  13. Signal and background at the output of a laser receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepliakov, I. M.

    1985-04-01

    The noise spectrum at the output of a laser receiver (photodetector) in a laser communications or lidar system under the effect of a signal and an external background is determined. It is shown that the spectrum consists of quantum noise and a beat-noise spectrum analogous to the beat-noise spectrum of radio receivers.

  14. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  15. ANGELICA : choice of output modality in an embodied agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariët

    2001-01-01

    The ANGELICA project addresses the problem of modality choice in information presentation by embodied, humanlike agents. The output modalities available to such agents include both language and various nonverbal signals such as pointing and gesturing. For each piece of information to be presented by

  16. Passive output feedback and observer based autopilots: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Paulsen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for course-keeping of a ship are studied where no measurements of the yaw rate are available. The two methods are a passive output feedback controller and a controller-observer structure. A comparison with special attention to stability and wave filtering properties, is provided. Finally, a case study of a ship autopilot is included.

  17. Bank output measurement in the euro area : A modified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, A.; Inklaar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Banks do not charge explicit fees for many of the services they provide, bundling the service payment with the offered interest rates. This output therefore has to be imputed using estimates of the opportunity cost of funds. We argue that rather than using the single short-term, low-risk interest ra

  18. Jiangxi Copper Plans to Increase its Refined Copper Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to news published on March 30th, China’s largest copper producer--Jiangxi Copper alleged in its 2010 Financial Report Statement that it plans to improve its output of refined copper by 4.4% in 2011, to increase from 900,000 tonnes last year to 940,000 tons.

  19. Gamma-range corticomuscular coherence during dynamic force output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Wolfgang; Patino, Luis; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2007-02-01

    The beta-range synchronization between cortical motor and muscular activity as revealed by EEG/MEG-EMG coherence has been extensively investigated for steady-state motor output. However, there is a lack of information on the modulation of the corticomuscular coherence in conjunction with dynamic force output. We addressed this question comparing the EEG-EMG coherence and the cortical motor spectral power in eight healthy subjects in a visuomotor task, in which the subjects exerted a steady-state or periodically modulated dynamic isometric force output with their right-index finger to keep a visual cursor within a target zone. In the static condition, significant coherence was confined to the beta-range. In the dynamic condition, the most distinct coherence occurred in the gamma-range and the significant beta-range coherence was strikingly reduced. The cortical motor power in the beta-range during dynamic force output was decreased, whereas the power in the gamma-range remained without significant change. We conclude that during dynamic force the corticospinal oscillation mode of the sensorimotor system shifts towards higher (principally gamma) frequencies for the rapid integration of the visual and somatosensory information required to produce the appropriate motor command.

  20. Detonation Output Properties of D-shape Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng WEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The detonation wave propagation and output properties have been analyzed for D-shape structure. Four initiation modes were designed to compare wavefront profiles and output pressure distribution. Simulation results show that three-array-nine-point initiation mode (Mode-III brings about the most match-up wave front for D-shape structure. Detonation output properties have great influence on fragment ejection velocity and distribution density. The statistical results reveal that fragment parameters of Mode-III are the largest. Compared with Mode-III, the kinetic energies of other three modes decrease by 31.6 per cent, 19.6 per cent, 4.5 per cent, respectively. The computational values and normal curve of fragments distribution are obtained. From these analyses, it can be concluded that initiation mode has great influence on output parameters of fragments. With the optimal initiation Mode-III, ideal hitting angle should be within the range of -10° to 10°, the probability of distribution density would be close to 70 per cent.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.484-489, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.4746

  1. Immature spinal locomotor output in children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Cappellini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed descriptions of gait impairments have been reported in cerebral palsy (CP, but it is still unclear how maturation of the spinal motoneuron output is affected. Spatiotemporal alpha-motoneuron activation during walking can be assessed by mapping the electromyographic activity profiles from several, simultaneously recorded muscles onto the anatomical rostrocaudal location of the motoneuron pools in the spinal cord, and by means of factor analysis of the muscle activity profiles. Here, we analysed gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of bilateral muscles with lumbosacral innervation in 35 children with CP (19 diplegic, 16 hemiplegic, 2-12 years and 33 typically developing (TD children (1-12 years. TD children showed a progressive reduction of EMG burst durations and a gradual reorganization of the spatiotemporal motoneuron output with increasing age. By contrast, children with CP showed very limited age-related changes of EMG durations and motoneuron output, as well as of limb intersegmental coordination and foot trajectory control (on both sides for diplegic children and the affected side for hemiplegic children. Factorization of the EMG signals revealed a comparable structure of the motor output in children with CP and TD children, but significantly wider temporal activation patterns in children with CP, resembling the patterns of much younger TD infants. A similar picture emerged when considering the spatiotemporal maps of alpha-motoneuron activation. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain substantially affect the maturation of the spinal locomotor output and consequently the future locomotor behaviour.

  2. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  3. Effect of absorbed pump power on the quality of output beam from monolithic microchip lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranab K Mukhopadhyay; K Ranganathan; Jogy George; S K Sharma; T P S Nathan

    2002-04-01

    The dependence of the beam propagation factor (2 parameter) with the absorbed pump power in the case of monolithic microchip laser under face-cooled configuration is extensively studied. Our investigations show that the 2 parameter is related to the absorbed pump power through two parameters ( and ) whose values depend on the laser material properties and laser configuration. We have shown that one parameter arises due to the oscillation of higher order modes in the microchip cavity and the other parameter accounts for the spherical aberration associated with the thermal lens induced by the pump beam. Such dependency of 2 parameter with the absorbed pump power is experimentally verified for a face-cooled monolithic microchip laser based on Nd3+ - doped GdVO4 crystal and the values of and parameters were estimated from the experimentally measured data points.

  4. Ensuring Quality Assurance in Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idialu, Ethel E.

    2013-01-01

    Vocational education emphasises skill acquisition. Quality assurance in vocational education is a concept that is concerned with high performance involving activities with vocational education such as teaching, learning, infrastructures, students' behaviour and the entire academic process. Quality vocational education refers to input and output of…

  5. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  6. Overcoming x-ray tube small focal spot output limitations for high resolution region of interest imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandesh K.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    We investigate methods to increase x-ray tube output to enable improved quantum image quality with a higher generalized-NEQ (GNEQ) while maintaining a small focal-spot size for the new high-resolution Micro-angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) Region of Interest (ROI) imaging system. Rather than using a larger focal spot to increase tubeloading capacity with degraded resolution, we evaluated separately or in combination three methods to increase tube output: 1) reducing the anode angle and lengthening the filament to maintain a constant effective small focal-spot size, 2) using the standard medium focal spot viewed from a direction on the anode side of the field and 3) increasing the frame rate (frames/second) in combination with temporal filter. The GNEQ was compared for the MAF for the small focal-spot at the central axis, and for the medium focal-spot with a higher output on the anode side as well as for the small focal spot with different temporal recursive filtering weights. A net output increase of about 4.0 times could be achieved with a 2-degree anode angle (without the added filtration) and a 4 times longer filament compared to that of the standard 8-degree target. The GNEQ was also increased for the medium focal-spot due to its higher output capacity and for the temporally filtered higher frame rate. Thus higher tube output, while maintaining a small effective focal-spot, should be achievable using one or more of the three methods described with only small modifications of standard x-ray tube geometry.

  7. Distinguishing individual quality from habitat preference and quality in a territorial passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Ryan R; Arcese, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Theory predicts that animals breeding in heterogeneous landscapes preferentially occupy habitats likely to maximize individual fitness, but identifying those habitats has proved problematic. Many studies develop metrics of habitat quality linked to site-specific reproductive output measured in successive years, but few separate the independent effects of individual "intrinsic quality" from those due solely to the attributes of the habitats themselves. In many populations, processes such as competitive territory defense, longevity, site-fidelity, and variation in breeding density and territory size over time have the potential to limit the degree to which individual and habitat quality will be positively related in nature. However, the effects of these processes on estimates of habitat or site-specific reproductive output have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that, in an insular population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), females nested preferentially in breeding sites with high mean reproductive output assessed over 35 years, and that variation in site-specific reproductive output was positively related to female intrinsic quality, measured here as the lifetime reproductive success of individual females relative to others hatched the same year (rLRS). In contrast, vegetation traits (shrub cover, edge, and soil depth) predicted female preference for breeding sites but did not predict site-specific variation in annual reproductive output. Female quality also did not predict which females occupied more- or less-preferred breeding sites over the study period. However, mean annual reproductive output of breeding sites estimated over 35 years was strongly positively related to the quality of the females that nested in them. Overall, these results indicate that site-specific estimates of habitat quality that do not consider the quality of the individuals occupying those sites may include substantial bias due to variation in occupant quality, and thus may not

  8. A Novel Frequency Output Accelerometer Using Ring Oscillator and Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhaohua; YUERuifeng; LIULitian

    2004-01-01

    A novel digital accelerometer using ring oscillator and mixer is presented. The sensitive unit of this accelerometer is MOS ring oscillators located on silicon beams. The output is frequency signal. Mixer is used as interior signal processor in order to improve characteristics of the output signal. The accelerometer has many perfect characteristics such as high sensitivity, low temperature coefficient and simple fabrication process. The frequency character of MOS ring oscillator and its relationship with acceleration are described. The MOS ring oscillator, mixer circuits and physical structures of this accelerometer are designed. The device was fabricated by standard IC process mixed with MEMS process. The sensitivity of fabricated devices is 6.91 kHz/g.

  9. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    conditions, because of a parallel decrease in stroke volume (P exercise. Atrial pacing lowered central venous pressure (P ...In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... vasodilatation in the regulation of cardiac output during steady-state exercise, we measured central and peripheral haemodynamics in 10 healthy male subjects, with and without atrial pacing (100–150 beats min(−1)) during: (i) resting conditions, (ii) one-legged knee extensor exercise (24 W) and (iii) femoral...

  10. Characterizing pyrotechnic igniter output with high-speed schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, M. N.; Hargather, M. J.; Cooper, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale pyrotechnic igniter output has been characterized using a high-speed schlieren imaging system for observing critical features of the post-combustion flow. The diagnostic, with laser illumination, was successfully applied towards the quantitative characterization of the output from Ti/KClO_4 and TiH_{1.65}/KClO_4 pyrotechnic igniters. The high-speed image sequences showed shock motion, burned gas expansion, and particle motion. A statistical-based analysis methodology for tracking the full-field shock motion enabled straightforward comparisons across the experimental parameters of pyrotechnic material and initial density. This characterization of the mechanical energy of the shock front within the post-combustion environment is a necessary addition to the large body of literature focused on pyrotechnic combustion behavior within the powder bed. Ultimately, understanding the role that the combustion behavior has on the resulting multiphase environment is required for tailored igniter development and comparative performance assessments.

  11. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...

  12. Robust output LQ optimal control via integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Leonid; Bejarano, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Featuring original research from well-known experts in the field of sliding mode control, this monograph presents new design schemes for implementing LQ control solutions in situations where the output system is the only information provided about the state of the plant. This new design works under the restrictions of matched disturbances without losing its desirable features. On the cutting-edge of optimal control research, Robust Output LQ Optimal Control via Integral Sliding Modes is an excellent resource for both graduate students and professionals involved in linear systems, optimal control, observation of systems with unknown inputs, and automatization. In the theory of optimal control, the linear quadratic (LQ) optimal problem plays an important role due to its physical meaning, and its solution is easily given by an algebraic Riccati equation. This solution turns out to be restrictive, however, because of two assumptions: the system must be free from disturbances and the entire state vector must be kn...

  13. Tracking control of robot manipulators via output feedback linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Yue-nong; Wu Qing-hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robot manipulator tracking controller based on output feedback linearization.A sliding mode perturbation observer (SPO) is designed to estimate unmeasurable states and system perturbations that involve system nonlinearities,disturbances and unmodelled dynamics.The use of SPO allows to input/output linearize and decouple the strongly coupled nonlinear robot manipulator system merely by the feedback of joint angles.The controller design does not need an accurate model of the robot manipulator.Simulation studies are undertaken based on a two-link robot manipulator to evaluate the proposed approach.The simulation results show that the proposed controller has more superior tracking control performance,with payload changing in a wide range,in comparison with a sliding mode controller (SMC) designed based on state feedback linearization with full states available.

  14. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper....... The system consists of a power supply with power factor correction (PFC), a LED-driver and an optical system designed for an overall high efficiency. An interleaved boost converter was chosen as PFC converter. A soft switching phase-shifted full-bridge converter with current doubler provides isolation from...... the grid and delivers the required voltage to the LEDdriver which is a dual interleaved buck converter. Twelve highpower CBT-90 LEDs have been connected in a 4xRGBconfiguration to deliver high output of saturated colors without the need for subtractive color filters. More than 6000 lm of fixture light...

  15. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  16. Compressive Phase Retrieval From Squared Output Measurements Via Semidefinite Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Dong, Roy; Sastry, S Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Given a linear system in a real or complex domain, linear regression aims to recover the model parameters from a set of observations. Recent studies in compressive sensing have successfully shown that under certain conditions, a linear program, namely, l1-minimization, guarantees recovery of sparse parameter signals even when the system is underdetermined. In this paper, we consider a more challenging problem: when the phase of the output measurements from a linear system is omitted. Using a lifting technique, we show that even though the phase information is missing, the sparse signal can be recovered exactly by solving a simple semidefinite program when the sampling rate is sufficiently high. This is an interesting finding since the exact solutions to both sparse signal recovery and phase retrieval are combinatorial. Besides, this also extends the type of applications that compressive sensing can be applied to those where only output magnitudes can be observed. We demonstrate the accuracy of the algorithms ...

  17. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  18. Law of Conservation of the Capital-Output Ratio*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    Just as simple harmonic motion, definable by a variational condition, δ [unk] (½ ẋ2 - ½ x2) dt = 0, has motions which must conserve the sum of kinetic and potential energies, ½ ẋ2 + ½x2 ≅ constant, so in a neoclassical von Neumann economy, where all output is saved to provide capital formation for the system's growth, it will be true that there exists a conservation law—namely the constancy along any intertemporally-efficient motion of the capital-output ratio ΣPtjKtj/ΣPtjKt j. This is derived as an „energy” integral of a time-free integrand1 in an optimal-control problem of variational type. PMID:16591882

  19. An Introduction to Environmentally-Extended Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kitzes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally-extended input-output (EEIO analysis provides a simple and robust method for evaluating the linkages between economic consumption activities and environmental impacts, including the harvest and degradation of natural resources. EEIO is now widely used to evaluate the upstream, consumption-based drivers of downstream environmental impacts and to evaluate the environmental impacts embodied in goods and services that are traded between nations. While the mathematics of input-output analysis are not complex, straightforward explanations of this approach for those without mathematical backgrounds remain difficult to find. This manuscript provides a conceptual and intuitive introduction to the goals of EEIO, the principles and mathematics behind EEIO analysis and the strengths and limitations of the EEIO approach. The wider adoption of EEIO approaches will help researchers and policy makers to better measure, and potentially decrease, the ultimate drivers of environmental degradation.

  20. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.