WorldWideScience

Sample records for superantigen sag genes

  1. Relationships among superantigen toxin gene profiles, genotypes, and pathogenic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Kun; Zhou, Xuezhang; Han, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiological agents of bovine mastitis, harboring a wide variety of staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) toxin genes. The SAg toxin genes are reported to be closely associated with the pathogenicity of the Staph. aureus causing the bovine mastitis. This study was conducted to investigate SAg toxin gene profiles and to assess the relationships among SAg toxin genes, genotypes of Staph. aureus, and their pathogenic properties. A total of 327 quarter milk samples were collected from bovine mastitis cases for isolation and identification of pathogens. In total, 35 isolates were identified as Staph. aureus, and the prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples was 13.6% (35/256). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were used to detect the SAg toxin genes and to genotype Staph. aureus strains isolated from milk samples of bovine mastitis in 10 dairy herds located in Ningxia, China, respectively. The results showed that among the Staph. aureus isolates (n = 35), 71.4% (n = 25) of isolates carried at least one SAg toxin gene. In total, 18 SAg genes and 21 different gene combination patterns were detected among these isolates. The most common SAg genes in Staph. aureus isolates were sei, sen, and seu (44.0% each), followed by seo, tst, and etB (28.0% each), etA (24.0%), sem and sep (16.0% each), seb, sec, sed, and sek (12.0% each), and sea and seh genes (8.0% each); the seg, sej, and ser genes were present in 4.0% of the isolates. Three gene combinations were found to be related to mobile genetic elements that carried 2 or more genes. The egc-cluster of the seg-sei-sem-sen-seo genes, located on the pathogenicity island Type I υSaβ, was detected in 16% of isolates. Interestingly, we observed 6 RAPD genotypes (I to VI) in Staph. aureus isolates, and 2 of these genotypes were strongly associated with the severity of bovine mastitis; there was a close relationship between the RAPD genotypes

  2. Presence of superantigen genes and antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus isolates obtained from the uteri of dairy cows with clinical endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J-L; Ding, Y-X; Zhao, H-X; He, X-L; Li, P-F; Li, Z-F; Guan, H; Guo, X

    2014-10-11

    Clinical endometritis is an important disease of dairy cattle and results in decreased reproductive performance. This disease is caused by contamination of the uterus with a broad spectrum of microorganisms after calving. In this study, staphylococcal isolates from the uterus of dairy cows with clinical endometritis were tested for their distribution of superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial resistance. Between the 127 staphylococcal isolates collected in this study, 10 species were identified. The predominant strain identified was Staphylococcus aureus (n=53), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=38) and Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=22). PCR analysis demonstrated that most isolates (63.0 per cent) harboured at least one SAg gene. The most commonly observed SAg gene and genotype was selj (38.6 per cent) and sec-selj-seln (24.0 per cent), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin (79.5 per cent), ampicillin (71.7 per cent), erythromycin (56.7 per cent), and tetracycline (52.0 per cent). PCR analysis demonstrated that the antimicrobial resistance determinants ermA, ermB, ermC, tetK, tetM and blaZ were detected in 0 per cent, 44.4 per cent, 51.4 per cent, 68.2 per cent, 13.6 per cent and 86.1 per cent of the erythromycin, tetracycline and β-lactam resistant isolates, respectively. There were 22 (17.3 per cent of all isolates) coagulase-negative staphylococci shown to be methicillin resistant. In the methicillin-resistant isolates, significant resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin and penicillin were observed (P<0.01). The results of this study demonstrate that staphylococci recovered from dairy cows with clinical endometritis contain an extensive and complex prevalence of SAg genes. Significant resistances to antibiotics were also seen, highlighting the need for the rational appliance of antibiotics in veterinary medicine.

  3. Staphylococcal superantigens in colonization and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey X Xu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Superantigens (SAgs are a family of potent immunostimulatory exotoxins known to be produced by only a few bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. More than 20 distinct SAgs have been characterized from different S. aureus strains and at least 80% of clinical strains harbour at least one SAg gene, although most strains encode many. SAgs have been classically associated with food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome (TSS, for which these toxins are the causative agent. TSS is a potentially fatal disease whereby SAg-mediated activation of T cells results in overproduction of cytokines and results in systemic inflammation and shock. Numerous studies have also shown a possible role for SAgs in other diseases such as Kawasaki disease, atopic dermatitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. There is also now a rich understanding of the mechanisms of action of SAgs, as well as their structures and function. However, we have yet to discover what purpose SAgs play in the life cycle of S. aureus, and why such a wide array of these toxins exists. This review will focus recent developments within the SAg field in terms of the molecular biology of these toxins and their role in both colonization and disease.

  4. Staphylococcal superantigens in colonization and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; McCormick, John K

    2012-01-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are a family of potent immunostimulatory exotoxins known to be produced by only a few bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. More than 20 distinct SAgs have been characterized from different S. aureus strains and at least 80% of clinical strains harbor at least one SAg gene, although most strains encode many. SAgs have been classically associated with food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome (TSS), for which these toxins are the causative agent. TSS is a potentially fatal disease whereby SAg-mediated activation of T cells results in overproduction of cytokines and results in systemic inflammation and shock. Numerous studies have also shown a possible role for SAgs in other diseases such as Kawasaki disease (KD), atopic dermatitis (AD), and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is also now a rich understanding of the mechanisms of action of SAgs, as well as their structures and function. However, we have yet to discover what purpose SAgs play in the life cycle of S. aureus, and why such a wide array of these toxins exists. This review will focus on recent developments within the SAg field in terms of the molecular biology of these toxins and their role in both colonization and disease.

  5. Binding of superantigen toxins into the CD28 homodimer interface is essential for induction of cytokine genes that mediate lethal shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Arad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial superantigens, a diverse family of toxins, induce an inflammatory cytokine storm that can lead to lethal shock. CD28 is a homodimer expressed on T cells that functions as the principal costimulatory ligand in the immune response through an interaction with its B7 coligands, yet we show here that to elicit inflammatory cytokine gene expression and toxicity, superantigens must bind directly into the dimer interface of CD28. Preventing access of the superantigen to CD28 suffices to block its lethality. Mice were protected from lethal superantigen challenge by short peptide mimetics of the CD28 dimer interface and by peptides selected to compete with the superantigen for its binding site in CD28. Superantigens use a conserved β-strand/hinge/α-helix domain of hitherto unknown function to engage CD28. Mutation of this superantigen domain abolished inflammatory cytokine gene induction and lethality. Structural analysis showed that when a superantigen binds to the T cell receptor on the T cell and major histocompatibility class II molecule on the antigen-presenting cell, CD28 can be accommodated readily as third superantigen receptor in the quaternary complex, with the CD28 dimer interface oriented towards the β-strand/hinge/α-helix domain in the superantigen. Our findings identify the CD28 homodimer interface as a critical receptor target for superantigens. The novel role of CD28 as receptor for a class of microbial pathogens, the superantigen toxins, broadens the scope of pathogen recognition mechanisms.

  6. Superantigen-SEA gene modified tumor vaccine for hepatocellular carcinoma:An in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Ying Lu; Yan-Fang Sui; Zeng-Shan Li; Jing Ye; Hai-Long Dong; Ping Qu; Xiu-Min Zhang; Wen-Yong Wang; Yu-Song Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct an eukaryotic superantigen gene expression vector containing the recombinant gene of SEA and CD80 molecule transmembrane region (CD80TM), and to express staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA) on the membrane of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell to form a superantigen gene modified tumor vaccine for HCC.METHODS: SEA and linker-CD80TM gene were amplified through PCR from plasmid containing cDNA of SEA and CD80.Gene fragments were then subcloned into the multiple cloning sites of retroviral vector pLXSN. Recombinant plasmid was transferred into HepG2 cells mediated with lipofectamine,positive clones were selected in culture medium containing G418. RT-PCR and indirect immunofiuorescence studies confirmed that SEA was expressed specifically on HCC cell membrane. INFγ-ELISPOT study demonstrated that SEA protein was expressed on the membrane of HCC cells.Cytotoxicity of HepG2-SEA primed CTLs (SEA-T) was analyzed by 51Cr release assay. T cells cultured with rhIL-2(IL-2-T) were used as control.RESULTS: Restriction digestion and sequence analyses confirmed the correctness of length, position and orientation of inserted fusion genes. SEA was expressed on the surface of HepG2 cells, HepG2-SEA had strong stimulating effect on production of HepG2 specific CTL (P<0.001). SEA-T had enhanced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Tumor cell membrane expressed superantigen can be used to reinforce the immune effect of tumor cell vaccine for HCC, which provides a new method of the enhanced active immunotherapy for HCC.

  7. Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with psoriasis possess genes that code for toxins (superantigens): clinical and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ferezli, Jessica; Jenbazian, Lori; Rubeiz, Nelly; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Zaynoun, Shukrallah; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2008-01-01

    Superantigens are powerful T lymphocyte-stimulating agents that are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases such as psoriasis. Toxins produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are superantigens. The aim of this study was to detect genes that code for superantigens in Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from psoriatic patients. Primers to amplify streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, B, and C and streptolysin O genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C, and D genes were used. Streptococcal exotoxin B was detected in five streptococcal isolates. Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin A and/or C genes were detected in nine S. aureus isolates. Isolates from 13 of 22 patients possesed gene(s) that code for toxin(s) (superantigens). These results might support the role of superantigens in the exacerbation of psoriasis.

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteraemia, emm types and superantigen profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, S; Vähäkuopus, S; Siljander, T; Vuopio, J; Huhtala, H; Vuento, R; Syrjänen, J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the emm types and superantigen profiles of bacteraemic group A streptococcal (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) isolates and to detect possible associations between the molecular characteristics of isolates and the clinical presentations of disease. In this population-based study, 87 bacteraemic GAS isolates from adult patients in Pirkanmaa Health District (HD), Finland, during the period 1995-2004 were emm typed and genotyped for superantigen (SAg) profiles. The epidemiological and clinical data of the patients were analysed with the microbiological characterisation data. Among the 87 isolates, 18 different emm types were found. emm1, emm28 and emm81 were the three most common types, covering 52% of isolates. The prevalence of specific emm types showed high variability during the 10-year study period. We could not find any association between the emm type and clinical features of bacteraemic infection, such as underlying diseases, disease manifestations or case fatality. Of nine superantigen genes examined, speA and speC were identified in 20 and 30% of the strains, respectively. No association was found between disease manifestation and the presence of single superantigen genes. The 26-valent GAS vaccine would have covered only 62% of isolates causing invasive disease in Pirkanmaa HD during the study period.

  9. Evolutionary paths of streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Kayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS harbors several superantigens (SAgs in the prophage region of its genome, although speG and smez are not located in this region. The diversity of SAgs is thought to arise during horizontal transfer, but their evolutionary pathways have not yet been determined. We recently completed sequencing the entire genome of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE, the closest relative of GAS. Although speG is the only SAg gene of SDSE, speG was present in only 50% of clinical SDSE strains and smez in none. In this study, we analyzed the evolutionary paths of streptococcal and staphylococcal SAgs. Results We compared the sequences of the 12–60 kb speG regions of nine SDSE strains, five speG+ and four speG–. We found that the synteny of this region was highly conserved, whether or not the speG gene was present. Synteny analyses based on genome-wide comparisons of GAS and SDSE indicated that speG is the direct descendant of a common ancestor of streptococcal SAgs, whereas smez was deleted from SDSE after SDSE and GAS split from a common ancestor. Cumulative nucleotide skew analysis of SDSE genomes suggested that speG was located outside segments of steeper slopes than the stable region in the genome, whereas the region flanking smez was unstable, as expected from the results of GAS. We also detected a previously undescribed staphylococcal SAg gene, selW, and a staphylococcal SAg -like gene, ssl, in the core genomes of all Staphylococcus aureus strains sequenced. Amino acid substitution analyses, based on dN/dS window analysis of the products encoded by speG, selW and ssl suggested that all three genes have been subjected to strong positive selection. Evolutionary analysis based on the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method showed that each clade included at least one direct descendant. Conclusions Our findings reveal a plausible model for the comprehensive evolutionary pathway of streptococcal and

  10. Strain Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus Using Superantigen Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Shuo-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs). Due to the importance of staphylococcal infections, reliable methods for the discrimination of strains of this species are important. Such data may allow us to trace the infection origins and be used for epidemiological study. For strain discrimination, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), etc., could be used. Recently, toxin gene profiles, which can be used for the elucidation of the genetic and pathogenic relatedness between strains, also have been used to improve the strain discrimination. For S. aureus, as more SAg genes were discovered, the SAg profiles become more useful for the strain discrimination of S. aureus. In this chapter, a method for the discrimination of S. aureus strains using superantigen profiles will be described in detail.

  11. Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prosthetic joint infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon K.; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; David, Chella S.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The prevalence of superantigens (SAgs) among PJI-associated S. aureus is unknown. Eighty-four S. aureus isolates associated with PJI isolated between 1999 and 2006 were studied. SAg genes, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei and tst, were assayed by PCR. Seventy-eight (92.9%) isolates carried at least one SAg gene studied, with 61 (72.6%) harboring more than one. seg was most commonly (70.2%) and seh was least frequently (4.8%) detected. tst-positive isolates were associated with early infection and increased ESR at diagnosis (P = 0.006 and P = 0.021, respectively). seg and sei were associated with methicillin resistance (P = 0.008 and 0.002, respectively). SAg genes are prevalent in S. aureus causing PJI; a majority of PJI-associated isolates produce biologically active SAgs in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. PMID:25619753

  12. Superantigen presenting capacity of human astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan-Zahraee, M; Ladiwala, U; Lavoie, P M;

    2000-01-01

    We found that human fetal astrocytes (HFA) are able to support superantigen (SAG) staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-induced activation of immediately ex vivo allogenic human CD4 T cells. Using radiolabelled toxins, we demonstrate that both SEB and TSST-1...

  13. Geographical variation in the presence of genes encoding superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    2002-01-01

    for the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, and H, toxic shock toxin-1 (TSST-1), and beta-hemolysin, and 128 of these were examined for exfoliative toxins A and B. The detection was done by PCR. Phenotypic methods were used to confirm the PCR-results. None of the 128 isolates carried...... for the individual exotoxins. The genes encoding enterotoxin C, TSST-1, and enterotoxin D were the most common superantigens. The present and earlier studies demonstrate that the superantigenic exotoxins that were investigated in this study, do not play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus mastitis...

  14. The rice OsSAG12-2 gene codes for a functional protease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBARAN SINGH; ANUPRIYA SINGH; ASHIS KUMAR NANDI

    2016-09-01

    Senescence is the final stage of plant development. Although expression of most of the genes is suppressed duringsenescence, a set of genes referred as senescence-associated genes (SAGs) is induced. Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12(AtSAG12) is one such gene that has been mostly studied for its strict association with senescence. AtSAG12 encodes apapain-like cysteine protease, expressed predominantly in senescence-associated vacuoles. Rice genome containsmultiple AtSAG12 homologues (OsSAGs). OsSAG12-1, the closest structural homologue of AtSAG12, is a negativeregulator of developmental and stress-induced cell death. Proteolytic activity has not been established for any SAG12homologues in vitro. Here, we report that OsSAG12-2, the second structural homologue of AtSAG12 from rice, codesfor a functional proteolytic enzyme. The recombinant OsSAG12-2 protein produced in Escherichia coli undergoesautolysis to generate a functional protease. The matured OsSAG12-2 protein shows 27% trypsin-equivalent proteolyticactivity on azocasein substrate. Dark-induced senescence activates OsSAG12-2 expression. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-2 in the transgenic artificial miRNA lines results in enhanced salt- and UV-induced cell death, even thoughit does not affect cell viability in the stress-free condition. Our results show that OsSAG12-2 codes for a functionalprotease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death in rice.

  15. Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao G Vu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human adipocytes may have significant functions in wound healing and the development of diabetes through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation by gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. Diabetic foot ulcers are most often associated with staphylococcal infections. Adipocyte responses in the area of the wound may play a role in persistence and pathology. We studied the effect of staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs on immortalized human adipocytes, alone and in the presence of bacterial endotoxin or staphylococcal α-toxin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary non-diabetic and diabetic human preadipocytes were immortalized by the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase (TERT and the E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus. The immortal cells were demonstrated to have properties of non-immortalized pre-adipocytes and could be differentiated into mature and functional adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes exposed to staphylococcal SAgs produced robust levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but there were no significant differences in levels between the non-diabetic and diabetic cells. Cytokine production was increased by co-incubation of adipocytes with SAgs and endotoxin together. In contrast, α-toxin alone was cytotoxic at high concentrations, but, at sub-cytotoxic doses, did not stimulate production of IL-6 and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endotoxin has been proposed to contribute to diabetes through enhanced insulin resistance after chronic exposure and stimulation of adipocytes to produce cytokines. Our data indicate staphylococcal SAgs TSST-1 and SEB alone and in combination with bacterial endotoxin also stimulate adipocytes to produce cytokines and thus may contribute to the inflammatory response found in chronic diabetic ulcers and in the systemic inflammation that is associated with the development and persistence of diabetes. The immortal human pre-adipocytes reported here will be useful for studies to

  16. Multiplex PCR for detection of superantigenic toxin genes in methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients and carriers of a hospital in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongboot, Warawan; Chomvarin, Chariya; Engchanil, Chulapan; Chaimanee, Prajuab

    2013-07-04

    The aims of this study were to develop multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of five superantigenic toxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and tst-1) in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 149 clinical samples and nasal swabs from 201 healthy subjects in Thailand, and to compare prevalence and expression of those genes between methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was 10(3) CFU/ml (60 CFU/PCR reaction) for DNA templates extracted by both boiling and extraction methods. S. aureus strains from patients (65%) harbored more superantigenic toxin genes than healthy subjects (54%). MRSA (80%) isolated from patients harbored more superantigenic toxin genes than MSSA (52%). Sea was the most frequently found gene in S. aureus strains from patients and carriers. MRSAisolates harbored sea and produced SEA more frequently than MSSA isolates (p <0.05) and MRSA isolates (59%) from blood samples consisted of a higher number of superantigenic toxin producers than MSSA (9%) (p < 0.05). More S. aureus strains isolated from patients with severe septicemia contained superantigenic toxin genes (94%) and produced toxins (82%) than those from non-severe patients (64% and 57%, respectively). The multiplex PCR method described here offers a reliable tool for simultaneous detection of various staphylococcal toxin genes.

  17. Superantigen presenting capacity of human astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan-Zahraee, M; Ladiwala, U; Lavoie, P M

    2000-01-01

    We found that human fetal astrocytes (HFA) are able to support superantigen (SAG) staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-induced activation of immediately ex vivo allogenic human CD4 T cells. Using radiolabelled toxins, we demonstrate that both SEB and TSST-1...... bind with high affinity to MHC class II antigen expressing astrocytes; binding is displaceable with excess cold toxin. Competition experiments further indicate that TSST-1 and SEB at least partially compete with each other for binding to astrocytes suggesting they bind to the same HLA-DR region...

  18. Cytokine Gene Expression in Response to SnSAG1 in Horses with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer A.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Ellison, Siobhan E.; Bird, R. Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L.

    2005-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. β-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-γ production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease. PMID:15879026

  19. Uptake and intracellular trafficking of superantigens in dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B Ganem

    Full Text Available Bacterial superantigens (SAgs are exotoxins produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS. According to current paradigm, SAgs interact directly and simultaneously with T cell receptor (TCR on the T cell and MHC class II (MHC-II on the antigen-presenting cell (APC, thereby circumventing intracellular processing to trigger T cell activation. Dendritic cells (DCs are professional APCs that coat nearly all body surfaces and are the most probable candidate to interact with SAgs. We demonstrate that SAgs are taken up by mouse DCs without triggering DC maturation. SAgs were found in intracellular acidic compartment of DCs as biologically active molecules. Moreover, SAgs co-localized with EEA1, RAB-7 and LAMP-2, at different times, and were then recycled to the cell membrane. DCs loaded with SAgs are capable of triggering in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and, injected into mice, stimulate T cells bearing the proper TCR in draining lymph nodes. Transportation and trafficking of SAgs in DCs might increase the local concentration of these exotoxins where they will produce the highest effect by promoting their encounter with both MHC-II and TCR in lymph nodes, and may explain how just a few SAg molecules can induce the severe pathology associated with TSS.

  20. 新孢子虫NcSAG4基因克隆及原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the Neospora caninum NcSAG4 gene in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赫; 丁鹤; 李建华; 刘畅; 宫鹏涛; 王伟利; 杨举; 张国才; 张西臣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector of the Neospora caninum NcSAG4 gene and express it in Escherichia coli. Methods Special primers were designed on the basis of the reported Neosporosis NcSAG4 gene. The NcSAG4 gene was amplified by PCR from the total DNA of N. caninum and was cloned into pMD-18-T to construct pMD-NcSAG4. The plasmid pMD-NcSAG4 was then digested with restriction ribozymes and subcloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-T to construct pGEX-NcSAG4. It was then expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) induced with IPTG. The fusion product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results A prokaryotic expression vector of the NcSAG4 gene was constructed and expressed in E. coli. Induced with IPTG, the expressed recombinant protein was detected as a band of 18. 79 ku by SDS-PAGE. A special reaction band to anti-NcSAG4 sera was observed in Western blot. Conclusion The fusion protein of NcSAG4 gene was successfully expressed in prokaryotic cells and it has the potential to facilitate diagnosis via ELISA.%目的 构建新孢子虫NcSAG4基因原核表达载体,并在大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3)中表达.方法 根据新孢子虫NcSAG4基因序列设计特异性引物,以新孢子虫总核酸为模板PCR扩增目的片段,与pMD-18-T连接,构建克隆载体pMD-NcSAG4,经双酶切后回收目的片段,与表达载体pGEX-T连接,构建原核表达载体pGEX-NcSAG4,用IPTG诱导,通过SDS-PAGE及Western blot进行鉴定.结果 成功构建了新孢子虫NcSAG4基因原核表达载体pGEX-Nc-SAG4;SDS-PAGE电泳显示,在IPTG诱导下阳性菌高效表达了分子质量单位为18.79 ku的蛋白质;Western blot显示表达产物可被抗新孢子虫的多克隆血清识别.结论 成功构建了NcSAG4基因原核表达载体,并在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)中高效表达,为建立经济、实用的诊断新孢子虫病的ELISA方法奠定了基础.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus isolates encode variant staphylococcal enterotoxin B proteins that are diverse in superantigenicity and lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra L Kohler

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces superantigens (SAgs that bind and cross-link T cells and APCs, leading to activation and proliferation of immune cells. SAgs bind to variable regions of the β-chains of T cell receptors (Vβ-TCRs, and each SAg binds a unique subset of Vβ-TCRs. This binding leads to massive cytokine production and can result in toxic shock syndrome (TSS. The most abundantly produced staphylococcal SAgs and the most common causes of staphylococcal TSS are TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1, and staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C (SEB and SEC, respectively. There are several characterized variants of humans SECs, designated SEC1-4, but only one variant of SEB has been described. Sequencing the seb genes from over 20 S. aureus isolates show there are at least five different alleles of seb, encoding forms of SEB with predicted amino acid substitutions outside of the predicted immune-cell binding regions of the SAgs. Examination of purified, variant SEBs indicates that these amino acid substitutions cause differences in proliferation of rabbit splenocytes in vitro. Additionally, the SEBs varied in lethality in a rabbit model of TSS. The SEBs were diverse in their abilities to cause proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and differed in their activation of subsets of T cells. A soluble, high-affinity Vβ-TCR, designed to neutralize the previously characterized variant of SEB (SEB1, was able to neutralize the variant SEBs, indicating that this high-affinity peptide may be useful in treating a variety of SEB-mediated illnesses.

  2. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea. PMID:28166280

  3. Prokaryotic expression of surface membrane antigen SAG1 gene from Toxoplasma Gondii and the diagnostic value of the recombinant protein%弓形虫膜表面抗原SAG1基因的原核表达及重组蛋白的免疫诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝兰; 汤冬生; 姚湧; 汪学龙; 王业梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重组弓形虫膜表面抗原SAG1基因的表达产物-原核表达蛋白(rSAG1)用于弓形虫病的免疫诊断价值.方法 用异丙基-B-D-硫代吡喃半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导大肠埃希菌重组质粒pET28a-SAG1(pET28a-SAG1/BL21)表达,纯化重组pET28a-SAG1/BL21弓形虫膜表面抗原SAG1基因表达产物;用弓形虫缓殖子感染的鼠血清、正常鼠血清和10例弓形虫患者血清为一抗,基因表达产物rSAG1用免疫印迹法进行鉴定,比较rSAG1在弓形虫病免疫诊断中的价值.结果 纯化重组弓形虫膜表面抗原SAG1基因后获得了相对分子质量约38.5×103的表达产物rSAG1;表面抗原SAG1可被弓形虫缓殖子感染的鼠血清所识别;10例弓形虫患者血清在免疫印迹诊断中,有4例出现了弓形虫膜表面抗原SAG1基因表达产物rSAG1.结论 rSAG1具备一定的弓形虫病的免疫诊断价值.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of the recombinant surface antigen 1 (rSAG1) in immunodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Methods Isopropyl β-D- 1 -thio-galaetopyranoside (IPTG) was used to induce the expression of recombinant plasmid pET28a-SAG1 of Escherich coli(pET28a-SAG1/BL21 ). The expression products (rSAG1) of pET28a-SAG1/BL21 were identified by Western blotting. The serum of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, normal mouse serum and the serum from 10 toxoplasma gondii patients were used as primary anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and the rSAG1 gene products were identified by Western blotting, by which the diagnostic value of rSAG1 in Toxoplasmosis was compared. Results After induction and purification, rSAG1 protein was obtained and its relative molecular mass was 38.5 × 103. The fusion protein could be recognized by the serum of mouse infected with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, rSAG1 of expression products of surface membrane antigen SAG1 gene from Toxoplasma Gondii could be detected in 4 cases from 10 patients by Westem blotting.Conclusion The rSAG

  4. Superantigen Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Won; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Ballard, Alessandro D.; Tilahun, Ashenafi; Khaleghi, Shahryar Rostamkolaei; David, Chella S.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of superantigen production among Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with endocarditis is not well defined. We tested 154 S. aureus isolates from definite infective endocarditis cases for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, H and TSST-1 by PCR, ELISA and using an HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse splenocyte proliferation assay. Sixty-three isolates (50.8%) tested positive for at least one superantigen gene, with 21 (16.9%) testing positive for more than two. tst (28.6%) was most common, followed by seb (27%), sea (22.2%), sed (20.6%), see (17.5%), and sec (11.1%). Of 41 methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 21 had superantigen genes, with sed being more frequently detected in this group compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (P<0.05). Superantigen genes were not associated with mortality (P=0.81). 75% of PCR-positive isolates induced robust splenocyte proliferation. Overall, more than half of S. aureus isolates causing endocarditis carry superantigen genes of which most are functional. PMID:24745820

  5. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Xu, Stacey X; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P Patrick; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2014-05-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  6. Staphylococcal superantigen-like genes, ssl5 and ssl8, are positively regulated by Sae and negatively by Agr in the Newman strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantrangi, Madhulatha; Singh, Vineet K; Wolz, Christiane; Shukla, Sanjay K

    2010-07-01

    Some of the staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins SSL5, SSL7, SSL9, and SSL11 act as immunomodulatory proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. However, little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. We determined the expression levels of ssl5 and ssl8 in seven clinically important S. aureus strains and their regulatory mechanisms in the Newman strain, which had the highest ssl5 and ssl8 expression. Independent comparisons of ssl5 or ssl8 coding and upstream sequences in these strains identified multiple haplotypes that did not correlate with the differential expression of ssl5 and ssl8, suggesting the role of additional regulatory elements. Using knockout mutant strains of known S. aureus global regulators such as Agr, Sae, and SigB in the Newman strain, we showed that both ssl5 and ssl8 were induced by Sae and repressed by Agr, suggesting that Sae and Agr are the positive and the negative regulators, respectively, of these two ssl genes. Moreover, we observed upregulation of sae in the agr mutant and upregulation of agr in the sae mutant compared with the isogenic Newman strain, suggesting that the Agr and Sae may be inhibiting each other. The SigB mutation did not affect ssl5 and ssl8 expression, but they were downregulated in the agr/sigB double mutant, indicating that SigB probably acts synergistically with Agr in their upregulation.

  7. Cytotoxin and Pyrogenic Toxin Superantigen Gene Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows and Relationships with Macrorestriction Genomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueyo, J. M.; Mendoza, M. C.; Rodicio, M. R.; Muñiz, J.; Alvarez, M. A.; Martín, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    A set of 84 Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis in Asturias (a cattle region of Spain) and six control strains were tested for sequences of genes encoding hemolysins (hla, hlb, hld, hlg, and hlg-2), leukotoxins (lukPV, lukM, and lukED), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), and enterotoxins (sea to see, seg to ser, and seu) by conventional and multiplex PCR. It was found that 84, 83, 11, and 39 isolates carried some type of hl, luk, tst, or se gene, respectively, which were arranged in 14 exotoxin genotypes. All of the isolates were negative for lukPV, hlg, sea, sed, see, sej, sek, sep, seq, and ser. Two gene groupings could be related with pathogenicity islands—[lukED, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo ± seu] with Saβ-1 and [tst, sec, sel] with SaPIbov, present in 45 and 13.1% of the isolates, respectively—while 11.9% of them carried both islands. Only one contained seb (together with υSaβ-1), and another contained seh (together with lukED). The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed with SmaI. Thirty-nine SmaI profiles (similarity coefficient [S] = 0.94 to 0.21) were differentiated; 12, 1, and 10 of these, respectively, were generated by isolates presumptively carrying Saβ-1, SaPIbov, or both. Five SmaI profiles (S ≥ 0.8) formed a cluster, which contained 20 and 10 isolates carrying one (υSaβ-1) or both islands. These data show the high frequency of genes encoding cytotoxins and pyrogenic toxin superantigens, their relationship with pathogenicity islands, and their distribution among a diversity of genetic types of S. aureus related to subclinical mastitis. PMID:15750096

  8. Staphylococcal Superantigens Spark Host-Mediated Danger Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry eKrakauer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB of Staphylococcus aureus, and related superantigenic toxins produced by myriad microbes, are potent stimulators of the immune system causing a variety of human diseases from transient food poisoning to lethal toxic shock. These protein toxins bind directly to specific V regions of T-cell receptors (TCR and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II on antigen-presenting cells, resulting in hyperactivation of T lymphocytes and monocytes / macrophages. Activated host cells produce excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1, IL-2, interferon γ (IFNγ, and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 causing clinical symptoms of fever, hypotension, and shock. Because of superantigen-induced T cells skewed towards TH1 helper cells, and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, superantigens can exacerbate autoimmune diseases. Upon TCR / MHC ligation, pathways induced by superantigens include the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and cytokine receptor signaling, resulting in activation of NFκB and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase / mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Various mouse models exist to study SEB-induced shock including those with potentiating agents, transgenic mice and an SEB-only model. However, therapeutics to treat toxic shock remain elusive as host response genes central to pathogenesis of superantigens have only been identified recently. Gene profiling of a murine model for SEB-induced shock reveals novel molecules upregulated in multiple organs not previously associated with SEB-induced responses. The pivotal genes include intracellular DNA / RNA sensors, apoptosis / DNA damage-related molecules, immunoproteasome components, as well as anti-viral and IFN-stimulated genes. The host-wide induction of these, and other, anti-microbial defense genes provide evidence that SEB elicits danger signals resulting in multi

  9. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants, exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons compared with the wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than the wild type, and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in the wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG.

  10. A Novel Loop Domain in Superantigens Extends Their T Cell Receptor Recognition Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther,S.; Varma, A.; Moza, B.; Kasper, K.; Wyatt, A.; Zhu, P.; Nur-ur Rahman, A.; Li, Y.; Mariuzza, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Superantigens (SAGs) interact with host immune receptors to induce a massive release of inflammatory cytokines that can lead to toxic shock syndrome and death. Bacterial SAGs can be classified into five distinct evolutionary groups. Group V SAGs are characterized by the {alpha}3-{beta}8 loop, a unique {approx}15 amino acid residue extension that is required for optimal T cell activation. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the group V SAG staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) alone and in complex with the TCR hV{beta}5.1 domain. SEK adopts a unique TCR binding orientation relative to other SAG-TCR complexes, which results in the {alpha}3-{beta}8 loop contacting the apical loop of framework region 4, thereby extending the known TCR recognition site of SAGs. These interactions are absolutely required for TCR binding and T cell activation by SEK, and dictate the TCR V{beta} domain specificity of SEK and other group V SAGs.

  11. Induction of immune responses in mice by vaccination with Liposome-entrapped DNA complexes encoding Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 and ROP1 genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海峰; 陈观今; 郑焕钦; 郭红

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immune responses induced by experimental DNA construct encoding Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) surface antigen1 (SAG1) and rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1) in mice as a hybrid gene. Methods Truncated SAG1 and ROP1 DNA fragments were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inserted into pEGFP-N3 vector to construct recombinant plasmid pSAG1-ROP1. NIH3T3 mammalian cells were transiently transfected with the DNA construct. Female BALB/c mice were given three intramuscular injections of 10 μg plasmid DNA entrapped in liposome. Four weeks after the final booster injection, blood samples were collected and subjected to enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Reversal transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the transcription of inoculated DNA-liposome complex in the injected site. Dot-blot hybridization was employed in order to detect whether or not the injected DNA was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the immunized mice.Results Green fluorescence was observed in pSAG1-ROP1-transfected cells. Western blot analysis showed antibody recognition of the expressed SAG1-ROP1 was between 58 kDa and 75 kDa. No expression was observed in blank control plasmid-transfected cells. The sera of immunized mice exhibited antibodies to T.gondii tachyzoites and primarily interferon-γ and interlukin-2. RT-PCR showed that the duration of transcribed inoculated liposome entrapped DNA in the injected muscular tissue was at least ten days post the first injection. Dot-blot hybridization revealed that the presence of foreign DNA in the splenocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes was transient and that no foreign DNA had inserted into the genomic DNA of mice immunized with pSAG1-ROP1. Conclusions Immunization with a liposome-encapsulated DNA construct encoding the T.gondii SAG1 and ROP1 can induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  12. Superantigen presentation by human retinal pigment epithelial cells to T cells is dependent on CD2-CD58 and CD18-CD54 molecule interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Junker, N; Kaestel, C G

    2001-01-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of presenting bacterial superantigens (SAg) to T cells in vitro by ligation of MHC class II molecules on RPE cells with the T cell receptor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of adhesion molecules in presentation...

  13. Sags- og episodeanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Gitte

    Bogen giver en introduktion til metoden sags- og episodeanalyse, som er udviklet af forfatteren i samspil mellem forskning og praksis. Sags- og episodeanalyse er en metode, der kan være med til at afklare handling og tydeliggøre grundlaget for handling i socialt arbejde. Gennem en bestemt...... systematik skabes en fælles faglig forståelse af en sag eller en situation, hvilket danner grundlag for fælles handleretning og beslutning om konkrete handlingstiltag. Sags- og episodeanalyse adskiller sig fra supervision ved at hele teamet inddrages i at udarbejde en faglig analyse af en sag/episode, samt...

  14. The Staphylococcus aureus superantigen SElX is a bifunctional toxin that inhibits neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffs, Stephen W; James, David B A; Bestebroer, Jovanka; Richards, Amy C; Goncheva, Mariya I; O'Shea, Marie; Wee, Bryan A; Seo, Keun Seok; Schlievert, Patrick M; Lengeling, Andreas; van Strijp, Jos A; Torres, Victor J; Fitzgerald, J Ross

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) cause Vβ-dependent T-cell proliferation leading to immune dysregulation associated with the pathogenesis of life-threatening infections such as toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing pneumonia. Previously, we demonstrated that staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) from Staphylococcus aureus is a classical superantigen that exhibits T-cell activation in a Vβ-specific manner, and contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia. Here, we discovered that SElX can also bind to neutrophils from human and other mammalian species and disrupt IgG-mediated phagocytosis. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved sialic acid-binding motif of SElX abolished neutrophil binding and phagocytic killing, and revealed multiple glycosylated neutrophil receptors for SElX binding. Furthermore, the neutrophil binding-deficient mutant of SElX retained its capacity for T-cell activation demonstrating that SElX exhibits mechanistically independent activities on distinct cell populations associated with acquired and innate immunity, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that the neutrophil-binding activity rather than superantigenicity is responsible for the SElX-dependent virulence observed in a necrotizing pneumonia rabbit model of infection. Taken together, we report the first example of a SAg, that can manipulate both the innate and adaptive arms of the human immune system during S. aureus pathogenesis.

  15. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kasper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6 mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  16. Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC –II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  17. B-cell superantigens: definition and potential impact on the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, A I; Kozlowski, L; Zheng, Y; Wheatley, L

    1995-11-01

    Superantigens have been extremely helpful tools in exploring fundamental questions in immunobiology including mechanisms of cell activation, tolerance, and autoimmunity. Until recently, attention has been focused exclusive on T-cell superantigens. However, new data suggest that there are superantigens that directly activate B cells. By definition, these agents (1) stimulate a high frequency of B cells, (2) target B cells that have restricted usage of VH or VL family genes, and (3) bind to immunoglobulins outside the sites that bind conventional antigens. A candidate B-cell superantigen that has received considerable attention in this laboratory is staphylococcal protein A. This agent is best known to the immunologist because of its ability to bind to the Fc fragment of IgG. This binding has been localized to two alpha-helical structures on each of four or five homologous regions that comprise the extracellular domain of protein A. However, it is now clear that protein A contains a second site that binds to determinants on the Fab regions of certain immunoglobulins independently of their heavy-chain isotype. In man this so-called alternative site appears to bind only to immunoglobulins that utilize heavy-chain genes of the VH3 subfamily. In the mouse this type of binding is restricted to immunoglobulins using heavy chains belonging to the S107 and J606 VH families. In this review, we examine the growing list of microbial products that dominate B-cell superantigenic properties. Using staphylococcal protein A as a model for a B-cell superantigen, we consider the potential impact of this novel class of antigens on the immune response. We focus on the ability of B-cell superantigens to influence the expression of the B-cell repertoire. In addition, we consider the hypothesis that the interaction of a B-cell superantigen with its reactive serum immunoglobulins activates the classical complement cascade and thus represents a powerful stimulant of tissue inflammation.

  18. SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdus, Carolyn A; Marsh, Antoinette E; Saville, Willliam J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-11-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Previous work has identified a gene family of paralogous surface antigens in S. neurona called SnSAGs. These surface proteins are immunogenic in their host animals, and are therefore candidate molecules for development of diagnostics and vaccines. However, SnSAG diversity exists in strains of S. neurona, including the absence of the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1. Instead, sequence for an alternative SnSAG has been revealed in two of the SnSAG1-deficient strains. Herein, we present data characterizing this new surface protein, which we have designated SnSAG5. The results indicated that the protein encoded by the SnSAG5 sequence is indeed a surface-associated molecule that has characteristics consistent with the other SAGs identified in S. neurona and related parasites. Importantly, Western blot analyses of a collection of S. neurona strains demonstrated that 6 of 13 parasite isolates express SnSAG5 as a dominant surface protein instead of SnSAG1. Conversely, SnSAG5 was not detected in SnSAG1-positive strains. One strain, which was isolated from the brain of a sea otter, did not express either SnSAG1 or SnSAG5. Genetic analysis with SnSAG5-specific primers confirmed the presence of the SnSAG5 gene in Western blot-positive strains, while also suggesting the presence of a novel SnSAG sequence in the SnSAG1-deficient, SnSAG5-deficient otter isolate. The findings provide further indication of S. neurona strain diversity, which has implications for diagnostic testing and development of vaccines against EPM as well as the population biology of Sarcocystis cycling in the opossum definitive host.

  19. Crystallization and Structure Determination of Superantigens and Immune Receptor Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödström, Karin E J; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Structure determination of superantigens and the complexes they form with immune receptors have over the years provided insight in their modes of action. This technique requires growing large and highly ordered crystals of the superantigen or receptor-superantigen complex, followed by exposure to X-ray radiation and data collection. Here, we describe methods for crystallizing superantigens and superantigen-receptor complexes using the vapor diffusion technique, how the crystals may be optimized, and lastly data collection and structure determination.

  20. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay based on the single-copy SAG1 gene for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijie; Huang, Bin; Zhuo, Xunhui; Chen, Xueqiu; Du, Aifang

    2013-11-08

    Real-time PCR-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii is very sensitive and convenient for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. However, the performance of the PCR assays could be influenced by the target gene chosen. Here we evaluate a real-time PCR assay using double-stranded DNA dyes (SYBR(®) Green I assay) with a new set of primers targeting the SAG1 gene for the fast and specific detection of T. gondii. The assay showed higher sensitivity than conventional PCR protocols using T. gondii DNA as template. The detection limit of the developed real-time PCR assay was in the order of 1 tachyzoite. The assay was also assessed by experimentally infected mice and showed positive results for blood (25%), spleen (50%) and lung (50%) as early as 1 dpi. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by using DNA from Neospora caninum, Escherichia coli, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma brucei, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxocara canis. Assay applicability was successfully tested in blood samples collected from slaughtered pigs. These results indicate that, based on SYBR(®) green I, the quantitative SAG1 assay may also be useful in the study of the pathogenicity, immunoprophylaxis, and treatment of T. gondii.

  1. [The role of superantigens in infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, M E

    1998-07-01

    Exogenous antigens are presented to T lymphocytes through mechanisms that ensure high recognition specificity. Recently described superantigens in contrast to conventional antigens are particles that follow a different processing and presentation route not binding to a specific region of T lymphocyte receptors. These particles bind to a large number of T lymphocytes, generating a disproportionate and non-specific immune response. Two types of superantigens have been described. Endogenous superantigens, transported in the host genoma, have been involved in clonal depletion and immunological tolerance phenomena. Exogenous superantigens, mainly bacterial toxins, have been involved in several diseases. There is evidence that these antigens participate in diseases such as Kawasaki disease, toxic shock caused by Staphylococcus aureus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection and Streptococcus pyogenes infections.

  2. Soluble T cell receptor Vβ domains engineered for high-affinity binding to staphylococcal or streptococcal superantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wang, Ningyan; Kranz, David M

    2014-01-28

    Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus secrete a collection of toxins called superantigens (SAgs), so-called because they stimulate a large fraction of an individual's T cells. One consequence of this hyperactivity is massive cytokine release leading to severe tissue inflammation and, in some cases, systemic organ failure and death. The molecular basis of action involves the binding of the SAg to both a T cell receptor (TCR) on a T cell and a class II product of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on an antigen presenting cell. This cross-linking leads to aggregation of the TCR complex and signaling. A common feature of SAgs is that they bind with relatively low affinity to the variable region (V) of the beta chain of the TCR. Despite this low affinity binding, SAgs are very potent, as each T cell requires only a small fraction of their receptors to be bound in order to trigger cytokine release. To develop high-affinity agents that could neutralize the activity of SAgs, and facilitate the development of detection assays, soluble forms of the Vβ regions have been engineered to affinities that are up to 3 million-fold higher for the SAg. Over the past decade, six different Vβ regions against SAgs from S. aureus (SEA, SEB, SEC3, TSST-1) or S. pyogenes (SpeA and SpeC) have been engineered for high-affinity using yeast display and directed evolution. Here we review the engineering of these high-affinity Vβ proteins, structural features of the six different SAgs and the Vβ proteins, and the specific properties of the engineered Vβ regions that confer high-affinity and specificity for their SAg ligands.

  3. Soluble T Cell Receptor Vβ Domains Engineered for High-Affinity Binding to Staphylococcal or Streptococcal Superantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus secrete a collection of toxins called superantigens (SAgs, so-called because they stimulate a large fraction of an individual’s T cells. One consequence of this hyperactivity is massive cytokine release leading to severe tissue inflammation and, in some cases, systemic organ failure and death. The molecular basis of action involves the binding of the SAg to both a T cell receptor (TCR on a T cell and a class II product of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC on an antigen presenting cell. This cross-linking leads to aggregation of the TCR complex and signaling. A common feature of SAgs is that they bind with relatively low affinity to the variable region (V of the beta chain of the TCR. Despite this low affinity binding, SAgs are very potent, as each T cell requires only a small fraction of their receptors to be bound in order to trigger cytokine release. To develop high-affinity agents that could neutralize the activity of SAgs, and facilitate the development of detection assays, soluble forms of the Vβ regions have been engineered to affinities that are up to 3 million-fold higher for the SAg. Over the past decade, six different Vβ regions against SAgs from S. aureus (SEA, SEB, SEC3, TSST-1 or S. pyogenes (SpeA and SpeC have been engineered for high-affinity using yeast display and directed evolution. Here we review the engineering of these high-affinity Vβ proteins, structural features of the six different SAgs and the Vβ proteins, and the specific properties of the engineered Vβ regions that confer high-affinity and specificity for their SAg ligands.

  4. Molecular requirements for MHC class II alpha-chain engagement and allelic discrimination by the bacterial superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Xi, Wang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Nooh, Mohammed M; Kotb, Malak; Sundberg, Eric J; Madrenas, Joaquín; McCormick, John K

    2008-09-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial toxins that bind to both TCR beta-chain variable domains (Vbetas) and MHC class II molecules, resulting in the activation of T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner. It is now well established that different isoforms of MHC II molecules can play a significant role in the immune response to bacterial SAgs. In this work, using directed mutational studies in conjunction with functional analyses, we provide a complete functional map of the low-affinity MHC II alpha-chain binding interface of the SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC) and identify a functional epitope in the beta-barrel domain that is required for the activation of T cells. Using cell lines that exclusively express individual MHC II isoforms, our studies provide a molecular basis for the selectivity of SpeC-MHC II recognition, and provide one mechanism by how SAgs are capable of distinguishing between different MHC II alleles.

  5. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  6. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  7. A B-Cell Superantigen Induces the Apoptosis of Murine and Human Malignant B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniela; Duarte, Alejandra; Mundiñano, Juliana; Berguer, Paula; Nepomnaschy, Irene; Piazzon, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    B-cell superantigens (Sags) bind to conserved sites of the VH or VL regions of immunoglobulin molecules outside their complementarity-determining regions causing the apoptosis of normal cognate B cells. No attempts to investigate whether B-cell Sags are able to induce the apoptosis of cognate malignant B cells were reported. In the present study we show that protein L (PpL), secreted by Finegoldia magna, a B-cell Sag which interacts with κ+ bearing cells, induces the apoptosis of murine and human κ+ lymphoma B cells both in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis was not altered by caspase-8 inhibitor. No alterations in the levels of Bid, Fas and Fas-L were found suggesting that PpL does not activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The involvement of the intrinsic pathway was clearly indicated by: i) alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) both in murine and human lymphoma cells exposed to PpL; ii) decreased levels of apoptosis in the presence of caspase-9 inhibitor; iii) significant increases of Bim and Bax protein levels and downregulation of Bcl-2; iv) the translocation from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria of Bax and Bim pro-apoptotic proteins and its inhibition by caspase-9 inhibitor but not by caspase-8 inhibitor and v) the translocation of Bcl-2 protein from the mitochondria to the cytosol and its inhibition by caspase-9 inhibitor but not by caspase-8 inhibitor. The possibility of a therapeutic use of Sags in lymphoma/leukemia B cell malignancies is discussed. PMID:27603942

  8. Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Lubritz, Gabriele; Weilert, Maria; Peters, Georg; Von Eiff, Christof

    2003-01-01

    A total of 429 different Staphylococcus aureus isolates encompassing 219 blood isolates and 210 isolates taken from anterior nares were systematically searched by two multiplex PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassays (PCR-DEIA) for exfoliative toxin (ET) genes eta and etb, as well as for the classical members o

  9. SAG-UPS attenuates proapoptotic SARM and Noxa to confer survival advantage to early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C; Choo, W Q W; Toh, H C; Ding, J L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer because of its commonly late diagnosis and limited treatment options. SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene)-dependent UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) is a key switch between immune-mediated apoptosis and overactivation-mediated protumorigenesis, prompting us to hypothesize that SAG-UPS modulates chronic inflammation-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which SAG-UPS regulates death/survival of liver cancer cells. By retrospective studies, we found reciprocal expressions of anti-/proapoptotic factors: SAG/SARM and SAG/Noxa in human primary HCC tissues - the antiapoptotic SAG was significantly upregulated whereas the proapoptotic SARM and Noxa were markedly downregulated, suggesting their involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis. Upregulated SAG-UPS effectively manipulates the levels of high-molecular-weight ubiquitinated SARM and Noxa in carcinoma tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. SAG-overexpressing HCC cell lines display reduced SARM and Noxa (but not Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xL), suggesting that SARM and Noxa are specific substrates of SAG-dependent ubiquitination. SARM overexpression activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, reducing cell viability. SAG knockdown significantly elevated apoptosis with increased cytosolic cytochrome c, confirming SAG-mediated antiapoptosis in HCC. SAG overexpression stimulated protumorigenic cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF, but not antitumorigenic IL-12p40 and anti-inflammatory IL-10. This is consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF) in hepatoma compared with healthy tissues. Altogether, early stage-upregulated SAG-UPS exacerbates hepatocarcinogenesis progression, through: (1) ubiquitination-mediated degradation of proapoptotic SARM and Noxa; and (2) production of protumorigenic cytokines that induce a protumorigenic microenvironment, conferring survival advantage to HCC cells. Thus, we propose SAG-UPS to be an early

  10. Structure-based receptor MIMICS targeted against bacterial superantigen toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Goutam; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Shiflett, Patrick R.; Lehnert, Nancy M.

    2009-08-18

    The invention provides therapeutic compositions useful in the treatment of bacterial superantigen mediated conditions, such as Toxic Shock Syndrome. The compositions comprise genetically engineered bifunctional polypeptides containing a specific T-cell receptor binding domain and a specific MHC class II receptor binding domain, each targeting non-overlapping epitopes on a superantigen molecule against which they are designed. The anti-superantigen "receptor mimetics" or "chimeras" are rationally designed to recreate the modality of superantigen binding directly to both the TCR and the MHC-II receptor, and are capable of acting as decoys for superantigen binding, effectively out-competing the host T-cell and MHC-II receptors, the natural host receptors.

  11. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-1 results in enhanced senescence and pathogen-induced cell death in transgenic rice plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subaran Singh; Mrunmay Kumar Giri; Praveen Kumar Singh; Adnan Siddiqui; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2013-09-01

    Senescence is a highly regulated process accompanied by changes in gene expression. While the mRNA levels of most genes decline, the mRNA levels of specific genes (senescence associated genes, SAGs) increase during senescence. Arabidopsis SAG12 (AtSAG12) gene codes for papain-like cysteine protease. The promoter of AtSAG12 is SA-responsive and reported to be useful to delay senescence by expressing cytokinin biosynthesis gene isopentenyltransferase specifically during senescence in several plants including Arabidopsis, lettuce and rice. The physiological role of AtSAG12 is not known; the homozygous atsag12 mutant neither fails to develop senescence-associated vacuoles nor shows any morphological phenotype. Through BLAST search using AtSAG12 amino acid sequences as query, we identified a few putative homologues from rice genome (OsSAGs; Oryza sativa SAGs). OsSAG12-1 is the closest homologue of AtSAG12 with 64% similar amino acid composition. Expression of OsSAG12-1 is induced during senescence and pathogen-induced cell death. To evaluate the possible role of OsSAG12-1 we generated RNAi transgenic lines in Japonica rice cultivar TP309. The transgenic lines developed early senescence at varying levels and showed enhanced cell death when inoculated with bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae. Our results suggest that OsSAG12-1 is a negative regulator of cell death in rice.

  12. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2010-01-01

    Power line voltage sags are among the most frequent and costly power quality problems. Most equipment must be designed such that they can tolerate voltage sags (within limits defined according to some standards). Furthermore, some equipment must continue proper operation even under extreme sag...... conditions (critical loads) and this property often may not be accommodated inside the device itself and sag compensating power conditioners have been developed for such purposes. While in practice voltage sags are not wanted, generating sags becomes necessary for the purpose of experimentally verifying...... the performances of the equipment (both the equipment under sag condition and the sag compensating power conditioner) under sag conditions. In this work, a simple and economical, yet highly performing sag generator is developed, its design discussed, and its feasibility demonstrated by experiments. The proposed...

  13. A Simple Sag Generator Using SSRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2012-01-01

    Power line voltage sags are among the most frequent and costly power quality problems. Most equipment must be designed such that they can tolerate voltage sags (within limits defined according to some standards). Furthermore, some equipment must continue proper operation even under extreme sag...... conditions (critical loads) and this property often may not be accommodated inside the device itself and sag compensating power conditioners have been developed for such purposes. While in practice voltage sags are not wanted, generating sags becomes necessary for the purpose of experimentally verifying...... the performances of the equipment (both the equipment under sag condition and the sag compensating power conditioner) under sag conditions. In this work, a simple and economical, yet highly performing sag generator is developed, its design discussed, and its feasibility demonstrated by experiments. The proposed...

  14. Staphylococcal superantigens; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and enterotoxins in pediatric otitis media effusion: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcal superantigens (SAg's may have some role in otitis media with effusion (OME. The aim of this study was the search of staphylococcal SAg's in middle ear effusion of children with OME.  Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was done in ENT & pediatric wards upon 64 children with otitis media with effusion (OME between 1-15 years, (mean age=7.42+4 years of Rasoul Akram University Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2009-2011. Fifty six percent (36 of cases were male, 43.8% (28 were female. Staphylococcal SAg's; Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1, Staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C, D (Enzyme immune assay, AB Cam, USA were detected in middle ear effusion samples after conventional culture.Results: None type of SAg's found in 39% of OME cases, enterotoxin B found in: 22%; enterotoxin A: 17%, enterotoxin C: 15.6%, enterotoxin D: 12.5%, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1: 7.8% Mean age of cases with positive TSST-1, enterotoxin A, B, C, and D was: 1, 5, 8.6, 9.6 and 9.6 years respectively. Positive TSST had no agreement with positive enterotoxin A and C but had weak agreement with type B and D. Mean age of cases with positive TSST was one years which had significant difference with (7.9 years in cases with negative TSST test (P<0.0001.Conclusion: At least one or more type of staphylococcal toxins had found in middle ear effusion of 70% of OME cases with negative culture for Staphylococcus aureus. Even in culture negative cases, staphylococcal toxins might have some immunologic role in middle ear effusion forming. Finding the SAg's (at least one type are important for treatment of immunosuppressive or corticosteroid in cases with resistant OME.

  15. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...... to guide these grid-connected distributed power generation systems. In order to verify the response of such systems for voltage disturbance, mainly for evaluation of voltage sags/dips, a Voltage Sag Generator (VSG) is needed. This paper evaluates such sag test devices according to IEC 61000 in order...... to provide cheaper solutions to test against voltage sags. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the shunt impedance based VSG solution is the easiest and cheapest one for laboratory test applications. The back-to-back fully controlled converter based VSG is the most flexible solution...

  16. Evolving Superantigens of Staphylococcus Aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    20000302 m (81 ELSEVIER FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 27 (2000) 1-7 IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY www.fems-microbiology.org...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited R.G. Ulrich IFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 27 (2000) 1-7 w...nonessential gene products that are R.G. Ulrich IFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 27 (2000) 1-7 selectively expressed and result in lower host

  17. Superantigenic activity of emm3 Streptococcus pyogenes is abrogated by a conserved, naturally occurring smeZ mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Turner

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm3 strains have been epidemiologically linked with enhanced infection severity and risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, a syndrome triggered by superantigenic stimulation of T cells. Comparison of S. pyogenes strains causing STSS demonstrated that emm3 strains were surprisingly less mitogenic than other emm-types (emm1, emm12, emm18, emm28, emm87, emm89 both in vitro and in vivo, indicating poor superantigenic activity. We identified a 13 bp deletion in the superantigen smeZ gene of all emm3 strains tested. The deletion led to a premature stop codon in smeZ, and was not present in other major emm-types tested. Expression of a functional non-M3-smeZ gene successfully enhanced mitogenic activity in emm3 S. pyogenes and also restored mitogenic activity to emm1 and emm89 S. pyogenes strains where the smeZ gene had been disrupted. In contrast, the M3-smeZ gene with the 13 bp deletion could not enhance or restore mitogenicity in any of these S. pyogenes strains, confirming that M3-smeZ is non-functional regardless of strain background. The mutation in M3-smeZ reduced the potential for M3 S. pyogenes to induce cytokines in human tonsil, but not during invasive infection of superantigen-sensitive mice. Notwithstanding epidemiological associations with STSS and disease severity, emm3 strains have inherently poor superantigenicity that is explained by a conserved mutation in smeZ.

  18. Superantigenic activity of emm3 Streptococcus pyogenes is abrogated by a conserved, naturally occurring smeZ mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claire E; Sommerlad, Mary; McGregor, Karen; Davies, Frances J; Pichon, Bruno; Chong, Deborah L W; Farzaneh, Leili; Holden, Matthew T G; Spratt, Brian G; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes M/emm3 strains have been epidemiologically linked with enhanced infection severity and risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), a syndrome triggered by superantigenic stimulation of T cells. Comparison of S. pyogenes strains causing STSS demonstrated that emm3 strains were surprisingly less mitogenic than other emm-types (emm1, emm12, emm18, emm28, emm87, emm89) both in vitro and in vivo, indicating poor superantigenic activity. We identified a 13 bp deletion in the superantigen smeZ gene of all emm3 strains tested. The deletion led to a premature stop codon in smeZ, and was not present in other major emm-types tested. Expression of a functional non-M3-smeZ gene successfully enhanced mitogenic activity in emm3 S. pyogenes and also restored mitogenic activity to emm1 and emm89 S. pyogenes strains where the smeZ gene had been disrupted. In contrast, the M3-smeZ gene with the 13 bp deletion could not enhance or restore mitogenicity in any of these S. pyogenes strains, confirming that M3-smeZ is non-functional regardless of strain background. The mutation in M3-smeZ reduced the potential for M3 S. pyogenes to induce cytokines in human tonsil, but not during invasive infection of superantigen-sensitive mice. Notwithstanding epidemiological associations with STSS and disease severity, emm3 strains have inherently poor superantigenicity that is explained by a conserved mutation in smeZ.

  19. Study on the relationship between M protein gene-types and superantigen genes of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from scarlet fever patients in Beijing%北京市猩红热患者 A 组链球菌 M 蛋白基因型别与超抗原基因特征的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双胜; 赵佳琛; 王全意; 杨鹏; 彭晓旻; 马春娜; 张代涛; 卢桂兰; 潘阳; 崔淑娟; 石伟先; 刘医萌

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2012年5月至2013年7月北京市猩红热患者A组链球菌(G A S )超抗原基因特征及其与M蛋白基因(emm基因)型别的相关性。方法采集猩红热患者标本进行GAS分离鉴定,并应用PCR方法检测 emm基因和超抗原基因(speA、speB、speC、speF、speG、speH、speI、speJ、speL、speK、speM、ssa和smeZ)。应用卡方检验比较率和构成比。结果2012年5月至2013年7月分离到的423株GAS菌株进行超抗原基因检测,结果显示 speB、speC、speF、speG、smeZ和ssa的检出率较高,分别达97.6%、99.8%、98.3%、99.8%、94.1%和88.4%,其次为 speH(54.6%)、speI(53.4%)、speA(45.2%)和 speJ(43.5%),而 speK(2.4%)、speL(1.4%)和 speM(1.7%)的检出率较低。GAS菌株主要 emm型别为emm12型(59.5%)和emm1型(37.4%)。 emm12型携带 speH和speI基因的比例高达84.8%和84.0%,而 emm1型仅为4.0%和3.4%;emm12型携带 speA 和speJ基因的比例仅为17.3%和14.8%,而 emm1型为95.3%和94.6%。emm12型与emm1型菌株之间携带基因谱的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论2012年至2013年,北京市GAS菌株流行型别以 emm1和 emm12型为主,且emm型别与超抗原基因谱之间存在相关关系。%Objective To explore the relationship between superantigen and M protein gene (emm)-types genes of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) isolated from patients with scarlet fever in Beijing from May 2012 to July 2013 .Methods GAS was isolated from specimens of patients with scarlet fever . Superantigen genes (speA ,speB ,speC ,speF ,speG ,speH ,speI ,speJ ,speL ,speK ,speM ,ssa ,and smeZ) ,and emm gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction .Rate and proportion were compared by chi-square test .Results Of the 423 GAS strains isolated from patients with scarlet fever from 2012 to 2013 ,most of the isolates

  20. CD28: Direct and Critical Receptor for Superantigen Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziv Rotfogel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every adaptive immune response requires costimulation through the B7/CD28 axis, with CD28 on T-cells functioning as principal costimulatory receptor. Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen toxins hyperstimulate the T-cell-mediated immune response by orders of magnitude, inducing a lethal cytokine storm. We show that to elicit an inflammatory cytokine storm and lethality, superantigens must bind directly to CD28. Blocking access of the superantigen to its CD28 receptor with peptides mimicking the contact domains in either toxin or CD28 suffices to protect mice effectively from lethal shock. Our finding that CD28 is a direct receptor of superantigen toxins broadens the scope of microbial pathogen recognition mechanisms.

  1. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1SAG expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, F J; van der Wal, J E; Ligtenberg, A J M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1(SAG)). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Though...... DMBT1(SAG) is expressed in the salivary glands, its expression in salivary gland tumors is unknown. Here we analyzed DMBT1(SAG) expression in 20 salivary gland tumors and 14 tumor-flanking tissues by immunohistochemistry. DMBT1(SAG) in salivary gland tumors resembles the changes of expression levels...... defense, SAG may serve as a potential tumor indicator and/or tumor suppressor in salivary gland tissue....

  2. Mainstream traffic flow control at sags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goni Ros, B.; Knoop, V.L.; Van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sags are freeway sections along which the gradient changes significantly from downwards to upwards. The capacity of sags is significantly lower than the capacity of normal sections. As a result, sags often become bottlenecks in freeway networks, causing the formation of congestion in conditions of h

  3. Transient expression of Neospora caninum Jilin strain SAG1 gene in BHK21 cells and the evaluation of immunology%犬新孢子虫吉林株SAG1基因在BHK21细胞中的表达及免疫学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守发; 栾杨; 贾立军; 鞠玉琳; 鲁承; 张西臣

    2011-01-01

    The correct recombinant plasmid pVAX-SAG1 was transfected into BHK21 cells.The expression condition of the recombinant plasmid was detected by IFAT and RT-PCR.A great quantity of the recombinant plasmid pVAX-SAG1 was extracted.Balb/c mice were immunized by pVAX-SAG1.Mice's blood was got by cutting their tails before the first immunity,the second immunity,the third immunity and on the first week,the second week,on the third week after the third immunity.The result indicated that that the recombinant plasmid was transiently expressed.After Balb/c mice were immunized by pVAX-SAG1,in the humoral immune level,pVAX-SAG1 group and empty vector pVAX1、PBS control group was significantly different(P0.01);in the cellular immunity level,pVAX-SAG1 group and PBS control group was significantly different(P0.05).This research settled a solid foundation for preparing the genetically engineering vaccine against Neospora caninum.%将构建成功的重组质粒pVAX-SAG1转染至BHK21细胞上,通过IFAT与RT-PCR方法检测重组质粒在BHK21细胞上的表达情况。大量提取重组质粒pVAX-SAG1,免疫Balb/c小鼠,分别在首免前、二免前、三免前以及三免后的第1、2、3周进行小鼠断尾采血,应用ELISA方法与流式细胞技术检测体液免疫水平和细胞免疫水平。结果表明,转染的重组质粒pVAX-SAG1在BHK21细胞中得到瞬时表达,并且重组质粒pVAX-SAG1免疫Balb/c小鼠后,在体液免疫水平上,pVAX-SAG1组与空载体pVAX

  4. En sag af principiel karakter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel argumenterer for at der er brug for en mere systematisk tilgang til spørgsmålet om religionsdefinitoner. Udgangspunktet for artiklen er en sag hvor en fodboldfanklub fik afvist sin ansøgning om officiel godkendelse uden at afslaget henviste til egentlige kriterier for hvornår noget er...

  5. 弓形虫表面抗原SAG1基因自杀性DNA疫苗的构建及免疫原性检测%Construction and immunogenicity of a suicidal DNA vaccine with surface antigen SAG1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽娜; 谭峰; 潘长旺

    2016-01-01

    目的 构建表达弓形虫表面抗原SAG1的自杀性DNA疫苗pDREP-SAG1并检测其免疫原性.方法 以弓形虫RH株基因组DNA为模板,PCR扩增SAG1基因(GenBank No.HM776940.1),克隆至甲病毒复制子载体pDREP-eGFP中替换原有的eGFP基因,菌液PCR、双酶切及测序鉴定重组质粒.重组的自杀性DNA疫苗pDREP-SAG1经股四头肌注射并联合瞬时电穿孔免疫BALB/c小鼠,同时以原质粒pDREP-eGFP作为对照组,间隔3周后以相同条件再免疫1次,收集小鼠血清,以弓形虫裂解抗原Western blotting检测其诱导产生的特异性抗体.结果 从弓形虫基因组中PCR扩增得到1 011 bp长度的SAG1基因,成功构建重组质粒pDREP-SAG1.Western blotting结果显示,重组质粒免疫的小鼠血清能特异性地识别虫体抗原中的SAG1抗原.结论 成功构建了弓形虫自杀性DNA疫苗pDREP-SAG1,能诱导小鼠产生特异性的抗体,具有免疫原性.

  6. FDA-approved immunosuppressants targeting staphylococcal superantigens: mechanisms and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakauer T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Krakauer Department of Immunology, Molecular Translational Sciences Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA Abstract: Immunostimulating staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related superantigenic toxins cause diseases in human beings and laboratory animals by hyperactivating cells of the immune system. These protein toxins bind to the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II molecules and specific Vβ regions of T-cell receptors (TCRs, resulting in the stimulation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. The bridging of TCR with MHC II molecules by superantigens triggers intracellular signaling cascades, resulting in excessive release of proinflammatory mediators and massive polyclonal T-cell proliferation. The early induction of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 2 (IL-2, interferon gamma (IFNγ, and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 promotes fever, inflammation, and multiple organ injury. The signal transduction pathways for staphylococcal superantigen-induced toxicity downstream from TCR/major histocompatibility complex (MHC ligation and interaction of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules include the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and cytokine receptor signaling, activating nuclear factor kB (NFkB and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Knowledge of host regulation within these activated pathways and molecules initiated by SEB and other superantigens enables the selection of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs to interrupt and prevent superantigen-induced shock in animal models. This review focuses on the use of FDA-approved immunosuppressants in targeting the signaling pathways induced by staphylococcal superantigens. Keywords: immunosuppressant, superantigen, toxic shock, NFkB, mTORC1

  7. On the Origin of Cratonic Sag Basins: Did They Sag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Cratonic sag basins are regions of long-lived, extremely slow (~20-30 m/Myr) shallow water and terrestrial sediment accumulation that have no striking signs of tectonic activity (cf. Allen and Armitage, 2012). In their evolution, hundreds of Myr-long periods of slow sediment accumulation are separated by unconformities. The mechanisms for their formation resist geodynamic characterization by other common hypotheses for basin subsidence because of their extremely slow subsidence and lack of evident tectonic activity. I propose their dynamics are better understood within the geodynamic context of continental cratons that ride over a ~250km-deep sub-asthenospheric mantle with lateral temperature variations between a few wide and persistent 1000s-km broad ~1400C 'superplume' upwelling mantle structures (e.g. currently beneath S. African Atlantic and French Polynesia) and prevalent surrounding ~1150C average temperature sub-asthenospheric mantle. When continents pass over typical mantle plumes, buoyant plume material tends to drain beneath the continent along junctions between cratons where the lithosphere is relatively thin, keeping the lithosphere over regions where plume material drains hotter than the average temperature of ~250km-deep mantle. (e.g., the Cameroon Line.) Regions where melting of plume material occurs during decompression associated with either plume ascent or lateral drainage beneath continents are associated with the addition of a buoyant rind of more depleted mantle to the continent. In addition, regions where plume material can pond in a relatively thin sub-lithospheric 'anti-basin' beneath a continent, or that stay stationary for long times over super plumes will heat to a lithospheric basal temperature of ~1400C instead of ~1150C, with ~700m of associated uplift. (e.g., Southern Africa). In this scenario (cf. Yamamoto, Morgan, and Morgan in "Plumes, Plates, and Paradigms"), it is the relative plume-passage-induced uplift of arches between

  8. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS.

  9. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of human T cells by major histocompatability complex class II expressing neutrophils: proliferation in the presence of superantigen, but not tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, N A; Liu, C; Guyre, P M; Wardwell, K; O'Neil, J; Guo, T L; Christian, T P; Mudzinski, S P; Gosselin, E J

    1997-06-01

    The primary function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the immune response appears to be acute phagocytic clearance of foreign pathogens and release of inflammatory mediators. Consistent with their assumed lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, PMN have not been considered to play a role in antigen presentation and T-cell activation. However, recent reports have shown that human PMN can express MHC class II molecules both in vitro and in vivo after stimulation with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Thus, under appropriate conditions, PMN could play a significant role in immune regulation, including T-cell activation. In this report, we demonstrate that human class II-expressing PMN can serve as accessory cells in superantigen (SAg)-mediated T-cell activation. This accessory activity for SAg presentation was present only after induction of MHC class II expression, and was especially pronounced following culture of PMN with GM-CSF plus IFN-gamma, which acted synergistically to induce MHC class II molecules on PMN. Moreover, the level of MHC class II expression and the magnitude of SAg-induced T-cell responses were found to be highly correlated and distinctly donor dependent, with PMN from some donors repeatedly showing fivefold higher responses than PMN from other donors. On the other hand, culture of PMN with GM-CSF plus IFN-gamma under conditions that resulted in optimal MHC class II expression did not enable them to function as antigen-presenting cells for either intact tetanus toxoid (TT) or for a TT peptide. These results delineate a new pathway for T-cell activation by SAg that may play an important role in the severity of SAg-induced inflammatory responses. They also identify a donor-specific polymorphism for induction of PMN MHC class II expression which may be of significance for therapies involving GM-CSF and IFN-gamma.

  11. 吉林株犬新孢子虫SAG1基因片段的克隆及蛋白抗原性预测%Cloning of SAG1 Gene Fragment in Jilin Strain of Neospora caninum and Prediction of Its Protein Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾杨; 张守发; 薛书江; 贾立军; 其木格

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 对犬新孢子虫SAG1基因进行克隆与序列分析.[方法] 从细胞培养的吉林株虫体中提取犬新孢子虫DNA,根据已发表的犬新孢子虫SAG1基因的核苷酸序列,设计并合成1对特异性引物,采用PCR技术,扩增犬新孢子虫SAG1基因片段,并成功克隆到pMD18-T simple载体上,对经PCR、酶切鉴定为阳性的重组质粒进行序列分析.[结果] 对犬新孢子虫SAG1基因进行克隆后,获得阳性重组质粒.克隆的SAG1基因片段长780 bp,编码260个氨基酸,与已发表的美国株犬新孢子虫SAG1基因核苷酸序列(AF132217)的同源性为99.0%,氨基酸序列同源性为98.8%.通过分子生物学软件对翻译水平进行预测,发现吉林株核苷酸序列并不影响氨基酸翻译与蛋白质的表达.[结论] 该试验成功克隆重组质粒,为建立犬新孢子虫的高效表达系统奠定了基础.

  12. Er Skolen virkelig en Troes–Sag?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenvad, Carsten Michael

    2004-01-01

    Om Grundtvigs artikel "Er Troen virkelige en Skole-Sag" og Christen Kolds forståelse heraf, samt hvorledes denne blev implementeret i de frie skoler.......Om Grundtvigs artikel "Er Troen virkelige en Skole-Sag" og Christen Kolds forståelse heraf, samt hvorledes denne blev implementeret i de frie skoler....

  13. Staphylococcus enterotoxin profile of China isolates and the superantigenicity of some novel enterotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Menglu; Li, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Dai, Songbao; Wang, Jiashun; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jinhai

    2017-02-24

    The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates. In particular, 95.9% of the isolates harbored at least one se/sel gene. Moreover, 47.5% of them bore at least 5. Remarkably, several non-pathogenic species of animal- and environment-origin were also found to carry multiple se/sels. The most frequent genes detected were tsst (62.3%), sei (54.1%), and seb (46.7%), followed by some sel genes (selo, selu, and selm), which also were present at relatively high frequency (20-30%). The generated data improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression. The gene products of the latter (selo and selu) were subsequently analyzed for their antigenicity in a mouse model using purified E. coli-based recombinant proteins. The studies revealed a strong activity for SEO in induction of T-lymphocyte proliferation and production of various inflammatory cytokines either in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, SEU exhibited little superantigenic effects. The molecular basis for the difference in antigenicity was analyzed by 3D homology remodeling, which revealed a difference in binding and affinities for MHC-II molecules and TCR Vβ region.

  14. A model of an integrated immune system pathway in Homo sapiens and its interaction with superantigen producing expression regulatory pathway in Staphylococcus aureus: comparing behavior of pathogen perturbed and unperturbed pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Namrata; De, Rajat K

    2013-01-01

    Response of an immune system to a pathogen attack depends on the balance between the host immune defense and the virulence of the pathogen. Investigation of molecular interactions between the proteins of a host and a pathogen helps in identifying the pathogenic proteins. It is necessary to understand the dynamics of a normally behaved host system to evaluate the capacity of its immune system upon pathogen attack. In this study, we have compared the behavior of an unperturbed and pathogen perturbed host system. Moreover, we have developed a formalism under Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) for the optimization of conflicting objective functions. We have constructed an integrated pathway system, which includes Staphylococcal Superantigen (SAg) expression regulatory pathway and TCR signaling pathway of Homo sapiens. We have implemented the method on this pathway system and observed the behavior of host signaling molecules upon pathogen attack. The entire study has been divided into six different cases, based on the perturbed/unperturbed conditions. In other words, we have investigated unperturbed and pathogen perturbed human TCR signaling pathway, with different combinations of optimization of concentrations of regulatory and signaling molecules. One of these cases has aimed at finding out whether minimization of the toxin production in a pathogen leads to the change in the concentration levels of the proteins coded by TCR signaling pathway genes in the infected host. Based on the computed results, we have hypothesized that the balance between TCR signaling inhibitory and stimulatory molecules can keep TCR signaling system into resting/stimulating state, depending upon the perturbation. The proposed integrated host-pathogen interaction pathway model has accurately reflected the experimental evidences, which we have used for validation purpose. The significance of this kind of investigation lies in revealing the susceptible interaction points that can take back the

  15. 弓形体SAG1基因DNA诱导小鼠体液免疫应答及保护性研究%Study on the humoral and protective immunity responses induced by the recombinant plasmid with the SAG1 gene of toxoplasma godii in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永安; 高宝英; 陈观今; 郭虹; 吕芳丽

    2001-01-01

    目的:用重组真核表达质粒pcDNA3-SAG1直接免疫BALB/c小鼠,观察其DNA免疫所诱导的小鼠体液免疫反应和保护性作用.方法:大量制备重组质粒pcDNA3-SAG1,然后将其导入BALB/c小鼠体内.抗体滴度用ELISA法进行测定:采用PCR方法对小鼠的血液组织外源基因进行检测;对试验组及对照组进行RH株攻击感染,并对其进行分析.结果:用ELISA法检测的抗体IgG滴度为1∶2560;免疫后三周、六个月从免疫鼠的血液组织中用PCR仍可检测到特异的SAG1基因的存在:体外弓形虫攻击感染实验组和对照组,可见实验组的存活时间较对照组时间延长(P<0.05).结论:重组质粒pcDNA3-SAG1免疫BALB/c小鼠可诱导一定的体液免疫应答和一定的保护性作用.

  16. Construction of a eukaryotic expression vector and its expression of NcSAG1-NcSRS2 fusion gene of Neospora caninum%新孢子虫SAG1-SRS2融合基因真核表达质粒的构建及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢计委; 刘群; 汪明

    2007-01-01

    根据犬新孢子虫NcSAG1-NcSRS2融合基因序列,设计了1对含有Kozak序列、终止密码子、BamH Ⅰ和XhoⅠ酶切位点的引物,以含有NcSAG1-NcSRS2融合基因的质粒pGEX-tNcP43-P36为模板,经PCR 扩增获得NcSAG1-NcSRS2融合基因片段,用BamH Ⅰ和XhoⅠ双酶切该片段,回收得到含有以上2 个酶切位点黏端的NcSAG1-NcSRS2融合基因,将此基因片段克隆至相同酶切回收后的pcDNA3.1 (+) 真核表达载体中,获得重组质粒pcNCSAG1-SRS2.经PCR 鉴定、限制性内切酶酶切分析和克隆片段序列测定、比较,证实了重组质粒的正确性.将构建好的真核表达质粒转染到COS-7细胞中进行瞬时表达,经免疫荧光检测,证实了该载体能在细胞内进行蛋白表达.

  17. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Triggers Senescence and Inhibits Kras-Induced Immortalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and KrasG12D-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, KrasG12D-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates KrasG12D activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a KrasG12D-cooperating oncogene required for KrasG12D-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment.

  18. Traffic Flow at Sags: Theory, Modeling and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goni-Ros, B.

    2016-01-01

    Sag vertical curves (sags) are roadway sections along which the gradient increases gradually in the direction of traffic. Empirical observations show that, on freeways, traffic congestion often occurs at sags; actually, in some countries (e.g., Japan), sags are one of the most common types of freewa

  19. Multiple Optimal Solutions and Sag Occurrence Index Based Placement of Voltage Sag Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents optimal placement of voltage sag monitors based on new Sag Occurrence Index (SOI which ensures observability even in case of monitor failure or line outages. Multiple solutions for optimal placement of voltage sag monitors for voltage sag detection have been obtained by genetic algorithm approach such that observability of the whole system is guaranteed. A new Sag Occurrence Index (SOI is proposed to obtain the severity of voltage sag at all the buses in the system. To obtain the best monitor arrangement in the system, the sum of SOI for each optimal combination is determined. IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS and IEEE 57-bus system were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The details of implementation and simulation results are also presented.

  20. Mutations to Cysteine Residues in the Trypanosoma cruzi B-Cell Superantigen Tc24 Diminish Susceptibility to IgM-Mediated Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Sarah; Jones, Kathryn M; Seid, Christopher; Essigmann, Heather T; Zhan, Bin; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Eric Luis

    2017-06-05

    B-cell superantigens (BC-SAgs) are immunoevasins that have evolved in response to innate catalytic IgM antibodies; germ-line encoded immunoglobulins present in the preimmune repertoire independent of prior antigen exposure. Catalysis is the result of a 2-step process that involves the formation of a non-covalent bond between the BC-SAg and the immunoglobulin first followed by covalent bond formation at the catalytic site resulting in target hydrolysis. Tc24 is a recently described Trypanosoma cruzi BC-SAg hypothesized to play a role in evading the humoral response early in the infection period. We previously demonstrated that exposure to Tc24 following immunization or infection resulted in the depletion of the catalytic IgM response leaving a gap in the catalytic IgM repertoire. The present report compares the BC-SAg properties of wild-type Tc24 (Tc24-WT) to that of 2 recombinant Tc24 isoforms: Tc24-C2 (Cys to Ser mutations in the 2-most proximal Cys residues) and Tc24-C4 (Cys to Ser mutations in all 4 Cys residues present). BC-SAg activity was assessed by immunizing mice with the respective isoforms and examining the ability of IgM purified from the respective groups to hydrolyze the 3 Tc24 isoforms. In addition, the ability of IgM purified from naive mice to hydrolyze the Tc24 isoforms was also assessed. Immunization with Tc24-WT, Tc24-C2, or Tc24-C4 resulted in loss of IgM mediated hydrolysis of Tc24-WT. However, the ability of IgM purified from naive mice (previously shown to hydrolyze Tc24-WT) was less effective in hydrolyzing the 2 Tc24 isoforms. These data demonstrate that although the BC-SAg site in the mutants remained intact, their reduced susceptibility to IgM-mediated hydrolysis suggested that structural changes resulting from the Cys to Ser mutations altered accessibility to the catalytic site in the 2 isoforms.

  1. Comparison of SAGS I vs. SAGS II delivery systems in emerging implantation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    The International Fire Code has classified Subatmospheric Gas Delivery Systems (SAGS) technologies into two main categories: SAGS Type I and SAGS Type II systems. SAGS Type I delivery systems both store and deliver gases at subatmospheric pressures. An example of this technology is ATMI's Safe Delivery Source (SDS®) adsorbent based cylinder. SAGS Type II delivery systems store fluids at high pressure and utilize mechanical devices internal to the cylinder to deliver the gas at subatmospheric pressures. Typical mechanical devices used to enable subatmospheric delivery are either set point regulators or mechanical capillary based systems. This paper focuses on how these delivery systems perform against the unique requirements of traditional beam line ion implantation as well as solar and flat panel applications. Specifically, data are provided showing the capability of these systems with respect to flow rate, residual gas left within the cylinder, and cylinder end-point flow and delivery pressure dynamics.

  2. Assessment of the Functional Regions of the Superantigen Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Rogers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional activity of superantigens is based on capacity of these microbial proteins to bind to both the β-chain of the T cell receptor (TcR and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II dimer. We have previously shown that a subset of the bacterial superantigens also binds to a membrane protein, designated p85, which is expressed by renal epithelial cells. This binding activity is a property of SEB, SEC1, 2 and 3, but not SEA, SED, SEE or TSST. The crystal structure of the tri-molecular complex of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB with both the TcR and class II has previously been reported. However, the relative contributions of regions of the superantigen to the overall functional activity of this superantigen remain undefined. In an effort to better define the molecular basis for the interaction of SEB with the TcR β-chain, we report studies here which show the comparative contributions of amino- and carboxy-terminal regions in the superantigen activity of SEB. Recombinant fusion proteins composed of bacterial maltose-binding protein linked to either full-length or truncated toxins in which the 81 N-terminal, or 19 or 34 C-terminal amino acids were deleted, were generated for these studies. This approach provides a determination of the relative strength of the functional activity of the various regions of the superantigen protein.

  3. Inactivation of SAG E3 ubiquitin ligase blocks embryonic stem cell differentiation and sensitizes leukemia cells to retinoid acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjia Tan

    Full Text Available Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG, also known as RBX2 (RING box protein-2, is the RING component of SCF (SKP1, Cullin, and F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SAG is an anti-apoptotic protein and an attractive anti-cancer target. We also found recently that Sag knockout sensitized mouse embryonic stem cells (mES to radiation and blocked mES cells to undergo endothelial differentiation. Here, we reported that compared to wild-type mES cells, the Sag(-/- mES cells were much more sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (RA-induced suppression of cell proliferation and survival. While wild-type mES cells underwent differentiation upon exposure to RA, Sag(-/- mES cells were induced to death via apoptosis instead. The cell fate change, reflected by cellular stiffness, can be detected as early as 12 hrs post RA exposure by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy. We then extended this novel finding to RA differentiation therapy of leukemia, in which the resistance often develops, by testing our hypothesis that SAG inhibition would sensitize leukemia to RA. Indeed, we found a direct correlation between SAG overexpression and RA resistance in multiple leukemia lines. By using MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme (NAE, that inactivates SAG-SCF E3 ligase by blocking cullin neddylation, we were able to sensitize two otherwise resistant leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1 to RA. Mechanistically, RA sensitization by MLN4924 was mediated via enhanced apoptosis, likely through accumulation of pro-apoptotic proteins NOXA and c-JUN, two well-known substrates of SAG-SCF E3 ligase. Taken together, our study provides the proof-of-concept evidence for effective treatment of leukemia patients by RA-MLN4924 combination.

  4. Superantigen-induced collagenase gene expression in human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes involves prostaglandin E{sub 2}: Evidence for a role of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehindate, K; Al-Daccak, R.; Mourad, W. [Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    MHC class II molecules expressed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells act as signal-transducer molecules. We demonstrate that engagement of MHC class II molecules on human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes by their natural ligand, the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), selectively induces the production of interstitial collagenase over the expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). Collagenase gene expression required de novo protein synthesis and was accompanied by high levels of PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting its implication in this response. Two inhibitors that affect prostaglandin biosynthesis, indomethacin and arachidonyl-trifluoromethyl-ketone, inhibited both PGE{sub 2} production and collagenase gene expression. The addition of exogenous PGE{sub 2} to inhibitor-treated cells partially restored the SEA-induced collagenase, indicating a role for PGE{sub 2} in this response. As cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2), cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}), and secreted PLA{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) are the enzymes potentially implicated in prostaglandin synthesis, their involvement in SEA-induced collagenase was investigated. The mRNA levels of COX-2 and cPLA{sub 2} rapidly increased following ligation of MHC class II molecules, while COX-1 and sPLA{sub 2} mRNA levels were unchanged and transiently depressed, respectively. SEA-induced COX-2 mRNA was translated adequately to protein, whereas cPLA{sub 2} protein level was not enhanced, but rapidly phosphorylated, a process previously linked to the enzyme activation. In conclusion, this work demonstrates a selective induction of collagenase gene expression over its natural inhibitor TIMP in human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes mediated, at least in part, by PGE{sub 2}, and provides evidence that signaling via MHC class II molecules induces the production of PGE{sub 2} through enhanced production of COX-2 and possibly activation of the cPLA{sub 2}. 46 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  6. Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) Sag Measurements and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesel, K; Loveless, D

    1997-01-01

    We describe the measurements of sag on P1A 2 layer prototype Cathode Strip Chamber and compare the results with calculated values. Using this information we predict the sag of P1 6-layer chamber with the present design for the aluminium frame, and compare this value to measured sag.

  7. Voltage sag source location based on instantaneous energy detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Xinzhou, Dong; Wei, Kong

    2007-01-01

    Voltage sag is the major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of sensitive equipment. This paper presents the applications of instantaneous energy direction for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the analysis for system with distributed ge...... generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of the voltage sag source....

  8. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  9. Effect of codon optimization and subcellular targeting on Toxoplasma gondii antigen SAG1 expression in tobacco leaves to use in subcutaneous and oral immunization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacono María L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon optimization and subcellular targeting were studied with the aim to increase the expression levels of the SAG178-322 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in tobacco leaves. The expression of the tobacco-optimized and native versions of the SAG1 gene was explored by transient expression from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary expression vector, which allows targeting the recombinant protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the apoplast. Finally, mice were subcutaneously and orally immunized with leaf extracts-SAG1 and the strategy of prime boost with rSAG1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to optimize the oral immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1. Results Leaves agroinfiltrated with an unmodified SAG1 gene accumulated 5- to 10-fold more than leaves agroinfiltrated with a codon-optimized SAG1 gene. ER localization allowed the accumulation of higher levels of native SAG1. However, no significant differences were observed between the mRNA accumulations of the different versions of SAG1. Subcutaneous immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1 (SAG1 protected mice against an oral challenge with a non-lethal cyst dose, and this effect could be associated with the secretion of significant levels of IFN-γ. The protection was increased when mice were ID boosted with rSAG1 (SAG1+boost. This group elicited a significant Th1 humoral and cellular immune response characterized by high levels of IFN-γ. In an oral immunization assay, the SAG1+boost group showed a significantly lower brain cyst burden compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion Transient agroinfiltration was useful for the expression of all of the recombinant proteins tested. Our results support the usefulness of endoplasmic reticulum signal peptides in enhancing the production of recombinant proteins meant for use as vaccines. The results showed that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as vaccine and provides a potential means for protecting humans and

  10. Amplication of SAG2 gene fragment and its appication in detection of Toxoplama gondii in pregnant women%SAG2基因片段的体外扩增及在孕妇弓形虫感染诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平; 高世同

    2001-01-01

    目的根据弓形虫表面抗原SAG2基因序列,设计弓形虫特异性引物一对,采用聚合酶链反应技术,进行弓形虫感染的检测.结果从弓形虫DNA提取物中扩增出593bp的基因片段,与预期的扩增片段大小相符;与弓形虫亲缘关系相近的三株恶性疟原虫、间日疟原虫、利什曼原虫和正常人全血核酸抽提物经扩增后均未见特异性的扩增条带;该检测体系至少可检测出相当于每μl血样中2个弓形虫的水平;将该检测体系用于临床孕妇产前诊断,56份标本中检查出3例.结论所建立弓形虫PCR检测体系灵敏、特异,适用于孕妇弓形虫感染的诊断.

  11. Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are Gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome.

  12. Characterization of Tn5801.Sag, a variant of Staphylococcus aureus Tn916 family transposon Tn5801 that is widespread in clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Tili, Emily; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Montanari, Maria Pia; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2013-09-01

    Tn5801, originally detected in Staphylococcus aureus Mu50, is a Tn916 family element in which a unique int gene (int5801) replaces the int and xis genes in Tn916 (int916 and xis916). Among 62 tet(M)-positive tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates, 43 harbored Tn916, whereas 19 harbored a Tn5801-like element (Tn5801.Sag, ∼20.6 kb). Tn5801.Sag was characterized (PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and chromosomal integration) and compared to other Tn5801-like elements. Similar to Tn5801 from S. aureus Mu50, tested in parallel, Tn5801.Sag was unable to undergo circularization and conjugal transfer.

  13. Strains of Sarcocystis neurona exhibit differences in their surface antigens, including the absence of the major surface antigen SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Marsh, Antoinette E; Patil, Bhagyashree A; Saville, William J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E

    2008-05-01

    A gene family of surface antigens is expressed by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona, the primary cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). These surface proteins, designated SnSAGs, are immunodominant and therefore excellent candidates for development of EPM diagnostics or vaccines. Prior work had identified an EPM isolate lacking the major surface antigen SnSAG1, thus suggesting there may be some diversity in the SnSAGs expressed by different S. neurona isolates. Therefore, a bioinformatic, molecular and immunological study was conducted to assess conservation of the SnSAGs. Examination of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed several notable SnSAG polymorphisms. In particular, the EST information implied that the EPM strain SN4 lacked the major surface antigen SnSAG1. The absence of this surface antigen from the SN4 strain was confirmed by both Western blot and Southern blot. To evaluate SnSAG polymorphisms in the S. neurona population, 14 strains were examined by Western blots using monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the four described SnSAGs. The results of these analyses demonstrated that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 are present in all 14 S. neurona strains tested, although some variance in SnSAG4 was observed. Importantly, SnSAG1 was not detected in seven of the strains, which included isolates from four cases of EPM and a case of fatal meningoencephalitis in a sea otter. Genetic analyses by PCR using gene-specific primers confirmed the absence of the SnSAG1 locus in six of these seven strains. Collectively, the data indicated that there is heterogeneity in the surface antigen composition of different S. neurona isolates, which is an important consideration for development of serological tests and prospective vaccines for EPM. Furthermore, the diversity reported herein likely extends to other phenotypes, such as strain virulence, and may have implications for the phylogeny of the various Sarcocystis spp. that undergo sexual stages

  14. The sagging rope sign: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N M; Harrison, M H; Keret, D

    1983-05-01

    Certain features of the sagging rope sign recently analysed by Apley and Weintroub (1981) are examined in detail. Evidence is presented to show that the line is a radiological shadow cast by the lateral edge of a severely deformed femoral head rather than a condensation of the spongiosa within the neck. An explanation is offered to explain the common association of the presence of this radiological sign with premature epiphysial fusion.

  15. Voltage Sag Source Location Based on Instantaneous Energy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Kong, Wei; Dong, Xinzhou

    2008-01-01

    Voltage sag is a major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of voltage-sensitive equipment. This paper presents the method based on variation components-based instantaneous energy for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the thorough analysi...... for system with distributed generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of voltage sag source....

  16. Persistence of Zinc-Binding Bacterial Superantigens at the Surface of Antigen-Presenting Cells Contributes to the Extreme Potency of These Superantigens as T-Cell Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Contributes to the Extreme Potency of These Superantigens as T-Cell Activators Dorothy D. Pless,† Gordon Ruthel, Emily K. Reinke, Robert G. Ulrich, and Sina...immunoglobulin G, and the cells were analyzed with a FACSort flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson , Mountain View, CA). To measure off rates, 1 or 5 g of SE or

  17. Hyporesponsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to streptococcal superantigens in patients with guttate psoriasis: evidence for systemic stimulation of T cells with superantigens released from focally infecting Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokura, Y; Seo, N; Ohshima, A; Wakita, H; Yokote, R; Furukawa, F; Takigawa, M

    1999-01-01

    Throat infection with Streptococcus pyogenes is the most important trigger for acute guttate psoriasis. We examined the in vitro responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to streptococcal superantigens, SPEA and SPEC, and staphylococcal superantigens, SEB and TSST-1, in patients with guttate psoriasis, in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, and in healthy subjects. PBMC from patients with guttate psoriasis responded poorly to SPEA and SPEC at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 ng/ml as compared with those from patients with plaque psoriasis, but showed high responses to SEB and TSST-1. The hyporesponsiveness recovered after improvement of the skin eruption. There was no significant difference between guttate and chronic types of psoriasis in the percentage of circulating T-cell receptor BV2 or BV8-bearing T cells, responsive to streptococcal superantigens, indicating that T-cell clonal anergy was a mechanism underlying the hyporesponsiveness. Our results suggest that superantigens released from focally infecting S. pyogenes induce a transient activation of relevant T cells, leading to the development of skin eruption and, subsequently, temporary T-cell anergy to these toxins.

  18. Superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 mutant can reduce paraquat pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Xu, Mingkai; Wang, Nana; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    A network of inflammation factors is related to pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat (PQ) poisoning. At high doses, the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) can induce immunological unresponsiveness and inhibit release of inflammation factors. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was performed at the H118 and H122 amino acid residues of SEC1 to reduce SEC1 toxicity. The SEC1 mutant showed significantly decreased pyrogenic toxicity, but retained clonal anergy at high dosages in vitro. Pretreatment with the SEC1 mutant prior to PQ poisoning in mice reduced symptom duration and severity, prolonged survival time, and decreased the splenocyte response to ConA induction. The SEC1 mutant also down-regulated several important cytokines related to fibrosis in the plasma after PQ poisoning. SEC1 decreased the expression of genes related to pulmonary fibrosis, including α-SMA, COL1a1, COL3 and TGF-β1, in PQ poisoned mice. Histomorphological observation indicated alleviation of pathological changes in the lungs after SEC1 pretreatment compared to mice in the PQ group. In conclusion, the SEC1 mutant reduced pulmonary interstitial fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning.

  19. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...... control of SAG mills has the potential to signicantly improve eciency and reduce the specic energy consumption for mineral processes. Grinding circuits involving SAG mills are multivariate processes. Commissioning of a control system based on a classical single-loop controllers with logic is time...

  20. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...... to the PLC gamma 1 signal transduction pathway, and that coligation of HLA-DR with CD3 augments T cell signaling comparable to that induced by enterotoxin superantigen. Thus, we suggest that superantigen-induced early signaling responses in activated T cells may be due in part to class II transmembrane...

  1. Therapeutic Down-Modulators of Staphylococcal Superantigen-Induced Inflammation and Toxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related superantigenic toxins are potent stimulators of the immune system and cause a variety of diseases in humans, ranging from food poisoning to toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and specific Vb regions of T-cell receptors (TCR, resulting in hyperactivation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. Activated host cells produce massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activating inflammation and coagulation, causing clinical symptoms that include fever, hypotension, and shock. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of staphylococcal superantigens, the role of pivotal mediators induced by these toxins in the pathogenic mechanisms of tissue injury, and the therapeutic agents to mitigate the toxic effects of superantigens.

  2. Effect of pipe sags on wastewater collection system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, V Firat; Foust, Henry

    2011-04-01

    Sagging of pipelines is a common problem in centralized wastewater collection systems. Wastewater flowing through sags experiences several changes of slope, and the flow through flat and negative slope sections is prone to a significant reduction in mean velocity. The objective of this study is to determine when pipe sags would result in significant velocities below design conditions, which also would increase the risk of a sewer backup. A sagged pipe configuration that could be encountered in sanitary sewer systems was depicted; thereby, analyses on uniform and gradually varied flows were conducted to determine velocity profiles through different segments of the sagged pipeline setup used for the study. The results indicate that there are significant occurrences when either the velocity in the pipe sags goes below minimum, as recommended in the Ten States Standards (Health Research, Inc., 2004) (0.61 m/s [2.0 ft/ sec]), or flow depth rises to pipe diameter (full section flow). Additionally, velocities along a sagged pipe were calculated for temporal flow rates to account for daily and seasonal flow rate changes in a typical wastewater collection system. Results of the temporal flow rate analysis suggest that, for a 200-mm (8-in.) diameter sagged pipe segment with full-section (wet weather) flow, 75% of the mean velocities would be below the minimum velocity recommended as a Ten States Standard.

  3. Electric Double-Layer Capacitors Applying to Voltage Sag Compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Hidetaka

    Recently the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) which is rapidly charged and discharged and offers long life, maintenance-free, has been developed as a new energy storage element. Therefore, we developed the uninterruptible power supply as voltage sag compensator utilizing EDLC. This paper describes an abstract of EDLC and applying to voltage sag compensation.

  4. Nasopharyngeal Infection of Mice with Streptococcus pyogenes and In Vivo Detection of Superantigen Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Kasper, Katherine J; Xu, Stacey X; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific pathogen that is responsible for an enormous burden of infectious disease. Despite intensive experimental efforts to understand the molecular correlates that contribute to invasive infections, there has been less focus on S. pyogenes carriage and local infection of the nasopharynx. This chapter describes an acute nasopharyngeal infection model in mice that is utilized in our laboratory to study the role of superantigen toxins in the biology of S. pyogenes. We also describe a method to detect superantigen-specific T cell activation in vivo.

  5. Lack of evidence for superantigen activity of Toxoplasma gondii towards human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Vallochi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite whose life cycle may include man as an intermediate host. More than 500 million people are infected with this parasite worldwide. It has been previously reported that T. gondii contains a superantigen activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the putative superantigen activity of T. gondii would manifest towards human T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from individuals with no previous contact with the parasite were evaluated for proliferation as well as specific Vß expansion after exposure to Toxoplasma antigens. Likewise, PBMC from individuals with the congenital infection were evaluated for putative Vß family deletions in their T cell repertoire. We also evaluated, over a period of one year, the PBMC proliferation pattern in response to Toxoplasma antigens in patients with recently acquired infection. Some degree of proliferation in response to T. gondii was observed in the PBMC from individuals never exposed to the parasite, accompanied by specific Vß expansion, suggesting a superantigen effect. However, we found no specific deletion of Vß (or Valpha families in the blood of congenitally infected individuals. Furthermore, PBMC from recently infected individuals followed up over a period of one year did not present a reduction of the Vß families that were originally expanded in response to the parasite antigens. Taken together, our data suggest that T. gondii does not have a strong superantigen activity on human T cells.

  6. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Flammier

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs. Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections.

  7. The sag: A forgotten parameter in need of resurrection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D.H. Gillan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The advent of large-diameter rigid contact lenses (semi-scleral lenses has necessitated renewed understanding of the concept of ‘the sag’ of a contact lens and/or cornea. This article reviews the concept of ‘the sag’ and how to calculate the sag for spherical and aspherical surfaces. Reviews of empirical studies investigating the sag of the eye are presented. Data for normal and keratoconic corneas for sags as measured with an Oculus Keratograph are also included. How to include empirical measurements obtained in practice, in the determination of a first-trial semi-scleral lens, is suggested.

  8. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar;

    2013-01-01

    problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0....

  9. The tumor targeted superantigen ABR-217620 selectively engages TRBV7-9 and exploits TCR-pMHC affinity mimicry in mediating T cell cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Hedlund

    Full Text Available The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120, now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.

  10. A robust and fast generic voltage sag detection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Dantas, Joacillo; Lima, Francisco Kleber A.; Branco, Carlos Gustavo C.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fast and robust voltage sag detection algorithm, named VPS2D, is introduced. Using the DSOGI, the algorithm creates a virtual positive sequence voltage and monitories the fundamental voltage component of each phase. After calculating the aggregate value in the o:;3-reference frame......, the algorithm can rapidly identify the starting and the ending of symmetric and asymmetric voltage sags, even if there are harmonics on the grid. Simulation and experimental results are given to validate the proposed algorithm....

  11. Sagging eye syndrome presenting as a form of strabismus fixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Ho; Jung, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Lateral rectus-superior rectus band degeneration with aging is the major cause of sagging eye syndrome, which usually presents with small-angle esotropia or hypotropia. In contrast, heavy eye syndrome, also called myopic strabismus fixus, is characterized by profound esotropia and hypotropia with the eyeball fixed nasally. We report the case of a 71-year-old man with sagging eye syndrome presenting with strabismus fixus and no myopia.

  12. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L;

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial enterotoxin superantigens bind directly to HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR) expressed on both APC and activated human T cells, and simultaneously bind to certain V beta chains of the TCR. In this report, we compared early T cell signaling events in human alloantigen-stimulated T cells when...... activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however....... In addition, down-modulation of CD3 receptors with antibody demonstrated that superantigen-induced signaling events were CD3-dependent. Superantigen signaling was also class II-dependent, in that resting T cells were not responsive to direct enterotoxin stimulation. To address how early signal transducing...

  13. Gaojushen:a novel anti-cancer drug prepared from SEC superantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈廷祚

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Clinical observations Gaojushen is a novel anti-cancer drug developed by Xiehe Bio-pharmaceutical Company,Shenyang, China. It is prepared and processed from the filtrate of Staphylococcus aureus culture. The active component contained in it has been shown to be a SEC superantigen that is a metabolite of the culture.This superantigen is marked by its ability to stimulate T cells at a high frequency, thereby giving rise to potent cell-mediated immunological responses and producing a large variety of cytokines with the final rsult of apoptosis of tumor cells. The drug was approved for trial prodoction in 1994 by the Center of the State Evaluation and Review of New Drugs,China,and was licenced for marketing by 1996 after finishing the phase III clinical trial.

  14. [Superantigens: concept and applications in the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, E; Maroto, M C

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of conventional antigens and the way they work, as well as to remark their differences with superantigens. They bind exclusively to the lymphocytic TCR V beta portion, are not processed by macrophages, are related to dependent HLA but not restrained HLA and are able to stimulate a hugh number of lymphocytes, leading them to destruction. Different microorganisms (toxins from S. aureus, S. pyogenes, M. arthritidis, etc. produce a high number of superantigens, which have been associated with infectious diseases, especially by HIV. They have also been related to immunological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, Siögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, etc. In conclusion, these new molecules will enable us to review the etiology of many diseases and, the most relevant from a clinical point of view, its treatment.

  15. Identification and Characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi B-cell Superantigen Tc24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Sarah M; Jones, Kathryn M; Zhan, Bin; Essigmann, Heather T; Murray, Kristy O; Garcia, Melissa N; Gorchakov, Rodion; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes life-long disease after infection and leads to cardiac disease in 30% of infected individuals. After infection, the parasites are readily detectable in the blood during the first few days before disseminating to infect numerous cell types. Preliminary data suggested that the Tc24 protein that localizes to the T. cruzi membrane during all life stages possesses B-cell superantigenic properties. These antigens facilitate immune escape by interfering with antibody-mediated responses, particularly the avoidance of catalytic antibodies. These antibodies are an innate host defense mechanism present in the naive repertoire, and catalytic antibody-antigen binding results in hydrolysis of the target. We tested the B-cell superantigenic properties of Tc24 by comparing the degree of Tc24 hydrolysis by IgM purified from either Tc24 unexposed or exposed mice and humans. Respective samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver stained, and the degree of hydrolysis was measured. Data presented in this report suggest that the T. cruzi Tc24 is a B-cell superantigen based on the observations that 1) Tc24 was hydrolyzed by IgM present in serum of unexposed mice and humans and 2) exposure to Tc24 eliminated catalytic activity as early as 4 days after T. cruzi infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Mitigation Voltage Sag in Power System by Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It cause in voltage sag in power system. Approach: This study applied the STATCOM to mitigate voltage of the system. The mathematical model of power system equipped with a STATCOM is systematically derived. The presented mathematical model is shown how it effects on voltage sag improvement. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with severe disturbance. The variation voltage of the system without and with a STATCOM is plotted and compared. Results: It was found that the system without a STATCOM has high voltage variation especially voltage sags whereas with a STATCOM the system voltage has small voltage sages. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the STATCOM can mitigate voltage of power system.

  17. Geological Characteristics and Exploration Potential of Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Herong

    1997-01-01

    @@ Dongying Sag is an area where the country's earlier large-scale exploration campaign was conducted in Bohai Bay Basin in 1961. An 8.1 t/d of commercial oil flow was discovered in Well Hua-8. Well blowout happened in Well Ying-2 on Sept. 23, 1962.After the drilling, the tested production was 555 t/d with a 15 mm choke, which was the highest single well daily production in China at that time. Since then, stepout exploration has been carried out in Dongying Sag. With 32years of unremitting efforts, 32 oil/gas fields with a 870-square-kilemeter of proved oil-bearing area and 1.75 billion tons of original oil in place, as well as 100-square-kilemeter of proved gas-bearing area and 13.48 billion m3 of gas in place have been discovered in Dongying Sag.

  18. Sagging rope sign in achondroplasia is different from Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Wug; Shingade, Viraj Uttamrao; Song, Hae-Ryong; Suh, Seung-Woo; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seok-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The "sagging rope" sign is a radiopaque line seen on radiographs of hips with Perthes disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, cause, and importance of this sign in achondroplasia and to reveal how it differs from in Perthes disease. Serial radiograms, along with two- and three-dimensional CT images were studied in 42 patients with achondroplasia. The sign was observed bilaterally in all patients. Evaluation of CT images revealed spherical heads with the presence of circumferential overhang in all hips. This circumferential overhang seen on three-dimensional CT images corresponded to the sagging rope sign on plain radiographs. The presence of the sagging rope sign in bilateral hips is a characteristic feature of achondroplasia. It usually appears before epiphyseal closure. Its cause, incidence, and nature differ from in Perthes disease, and its presence does not carry a negative prognosis in achondroplasia.

  19. 抗体——超抗原融合蛋白及其应用的研究进展%Advance in Antibody-Superantigen Fusion Protein and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振洪

    2007-01-01

    超抗原(Superantigen,SAg)是一类具有多种免疫活性的蛋白分子,在一定条件下能比普通抗原十至数千倍激活T细胞和抗原呈递细胞.超抗原能引导T细胞产生细胞毒作用(SDCC)和诱导产生一些细胞因子来杀伤肿瘤细胞.然而单用SAg效果差,毒副作用强,其作用受到限制.研究表明使用肿瘤特异性的单抗Fab-SAg融合蛋白,能比单用SAg取得更稳定、更明显的效果.该融合蛋白对肿瘤部位的靶向性强、亲和力高,并能很好地减少系统的免疫原性.另外发现使用突变的Fab-SAg融合蛋白,能进一步增加动物的耐受性、降低毒副作用.目前已有多个用单抗Fab-SAg融合蛋白药物进入临床研究,该药物将会为治疗人类恶性肿瘤带来希望.

  20. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended v...

  1. Mapping peat morphology in sag pond with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanti, Mimin; Nugraha, Harya Dwi; Setiawan, Tedy; Bijaksana, Satria

    2013-09-01

    In the tropics peat is commonly found in low-land areas. In certain condition, however, peat could also be found in high elevation, such as in sag ponds near fault zones. Information regarding thickness and morphology of peat in Sag Pond can be used to infer fault activities in the past. In this study, we attempt to identify the thickness and morphology of peat in a sag pond at Karyawangi Village near the Lembang fault, to the north of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) method with 250 Mhz antennae in several lines. The data were them processes using Reflexw software. The results show that in each survey line, peat layer is clearly identifiable. In some lines, the peat layer is continous while in some other, the peat layer is undulated. The peat layer in general in about 0.5 to 2 m thick. In conclusion, the GPR method with 250 Mhz antennae is suitable for mapping peat thickness and morphology in Sag Pond.

  2. Elastic Sag Property of Low Carbon Martensite Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye-sheng; CHEN Mi-song; WU Zi-ping; ZHU Yin-lu; DUO Tie-yun

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of new low-carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points out that the cause of elastic sag is attributed to cyclic softening of spring steel engendered during its serving,also considers that elastic sag property should be evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties of spring material such as dynamic yield strength σ'0.2, ratio of dynamic yield strength σ'0.2 vs. tensile strength σb (σ'0.2/σb) and ratio of dynamic yield strength σ' 0.2vs. static yield strengthσ0.2 (σ'0.2/σ0. 2 )etc. , which are measured by the cyclic stress-strain curve test. Compared with conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, 35Si2CrVB has good advantages in both dynamic and static properties, which show it possesses higher elastic sag resistance than 60Si2MnA because of its lath-martensite structure tempering in low temperature different from 60Si2MnA steel's plate martensite structure tempering inmedium temperature. So it can be demonstrated that low carbon martensite spring steel is more appropriate for the demands of spring.

  3. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Control Under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lima, K.;

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control technique to improve the fault-ride through capability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). In such generators the appearance of severe voltage sags at the coupling point make rise to high over currents at the rotor/stator windings, something that makes...

  4. Multi-origin alkanes related to CO2-rich, mantle-derived fluid in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the newly obtained carbon isotope data for the natural gas, a pilot study of multiple-sourced alkanes related to the mantled-derived fluid is presented. The carbon isotope values of alkanes in the Dongying Sag possess thefea tures indicating a general organic origin. However, there are two sub-populations in the isotopic data set, which reflect two specific types of origins. In gene ral, the sub-population with high δ13CCH4 values is related to the CO2-rich, mantle-derived fluid, and it is distributed in the belts where mantle-derived fluid flow and basic volcanic activities have occurred. Geological and geochemical studies demonstrate that this variation of methane carbon isotope values in the Dongying Sag is unrelated with the basin bury and thermal histories, types of source rocks, and reactions between basin fluid and rocks. Mixing of mantle-derived fluid and organic sourced hydrocarbons is probably the cause for the variation .

  5. The influence of transformers, induction motors and fault resistance regarding propagation voltage sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Blanco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of voltage sag propagation. The ATPDraw tool was selected for simulating the IEEE 34 node test feeder. It takes into account both voltage sags caused by electrical fault network, as well as voltage sag propagation characteristics caused by induction motor starting and transformer energising. The analysis was aimed at assessing the influence of transformer winding connections, the impedance of these transformers, lines and cables, summarising the effects on disturbance magnitude and phase. The study shows that the influence of an induction motor on voltage sag propagation results in increased voltage sag severity. Voltage sags caused by induction motor starting and transformer energising have no zero-sequence component, so they are only affected by type 3 transformers. The influence of fault resistance on voltage sag magnitude and phase characteristics is examined and some aspects of interest in characterising these electromagnetic disturbances is identified.

  6. Accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells for superantigen is resistant to ultraviolet-B light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, Yoshiki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Takigawa, Masahiro (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology); Yagi, Junji (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1994-08-01

    We examined the effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation on the accessory cell ability of Langerhans cells (LC) to induce a T-cell response to a superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The ability of LC-enriched epidermal cells (LC-EC) to evoke a T-cell response to SEB was retained at the doses of UVB (up to 40 mJ/cm[sup 2]) that profoundly affected the antigen-presenting function of LC-EC for a hapten, trinitrophenyl (TNP), and a protein antigen, conalbumin. Higher doses of UVB (more than 60 mJ/cm[sup 2]) reduced the accessory cell ability of LC-EC for SEB up to 50% of control. The addition of monoclonal antibodies against adhesion molecules between LC and T cells to the culture resulted in substantial suppression of the T-cell response to SEB induced by nonirradiated LC-EC, while the UVB-irradiated LC-EC induced T-cell response was not significantly blocked with these monoclonal antibodies. This suggested that the reduction of LC ability for superantigen by high doses of UVB is at least partly due to impairment of adhesion molecules on LC by UVB irradiation. (author).

  7. The Crystal Structures of EAP Domains from Staphylococcus aureus Reveal an Unexpected Homology to Bacterial Superantigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisbrecht, B V; Hamaoka, B Y; Perman, B; Zemla, A; Leahy, D J

    2005-10-14

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an {alpha}-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed {beta}-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the {beta}-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  8. Superantigen activates the gp130 receptor on adipocytes resulting in altered adipocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Elin; Rödström, Karin; Ekelund, Mikael; Dalla-Riva, Jonathan; Lagerstedt, Jens O; Nilsson, Staffan; Degerman, Eva; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Nilson, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal bacterial flora and produces a repertoire of enterotoxins which can cause food poisoning and toxic shock and might contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. These enterotoxins directly cross-link the T cell receptor with MHC class II, activating large amounts of T cells and are therefore called superantigens. It was recently discovered that the superantigen SEA binds to the cytokine receptor gp130. As obesity and type 2 diabetes are highly associated with inflammation of the adipose tissue and gp130 has been shown to play an important role in adipocytes, we wanted to investigate the effect of SEA on adipocyte signaling and function. Binding of SEA to gp130 was examined using surface plasmon resonance in a cell free system. Effects of SEA on adipocyte signaling, insulin sensitivity and function were studied using western blotting and biological assays for lipolysis, lipogenesis and glucose uptake. We demonstrate that SEA binds to gp130 with a medium affinity. Furthermore, SEA induces phosphorylation of a key downstream target, STAT3, in adipocytes. SEA also inhibits insulin-induced activation of PKB and PKB downstream signaling which was associated with reduced basal and insulin induced glucose uptake, reduced lipogenesis as well as reduced ability of insulin to inhibit lipolysis. SEA inhibits insulin signaling as well as insulin biological responses in adipocytes supporting that bacterial infection might contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Responsive demand to mitigate slow recovery voltage sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; da Silva, Luiz Carlos Pereira; Xu, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that in the future, customers will play a much more active role in modern power distribution systems. Instead of being passive agents, customers will be encouraged to participate in many other functions, such as frequency and voltage control, by providing a rapid, active......, and reactive power reserve for peak load management through price responsive methods and also as energy providers through embedded generation technologies. This article introduces a new technology, called demand as voltagecontrolled reserve, which can help mitigation of momentary voltage sags. The technology...... can be provided by thermostatically controlled loads as well as other types of load. This technology has proven to be effective in distribution systems with a large composition of induction motors, when voltage sags present slow recovery characteristics because of the deceleration of the motors during...

  10. On bacterial role in hydrocarbon generation mechanism,Banqiao Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁冠; 钟宁宁; 侯读杰; 黄光辉; 于志海; 杨池银; 廖前进

    1995-01-01

    Terrestrial organic matter is a main primary source material for oil and gas generation in theEogene Shahejie Formation in Banqiao Sag,bacterial degradation and reworking of sedimentary organic matterwould be conducive to the enhancement of its sapropelification level and to the early generation of immatureoil.Bacteria-derived short-chain alkanes are a major material base for the light hydrocarbon formation ofcondensate and crude oil in Banqiao Sag,certain thermal maturation,formation temperature and pressure areexternal conditions for the condemate formation.The establishment of hydrocarbon generation model shouldbe favorable to the resource prediction of deep-lying high-mature and shallow-lying immature oils and gases.

  11. Structural basis for signaling by exclusive EDS1 heteromeric complexes with SAG101 or PAD4 in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Stuttmann, Johannes; Rietz, Steffen; Guerois, Raphael; Brunstein, Elena; Bautor, Jaqueline; Niefind, Karsten; Parker, Jane E

    2013-12-11

    Biotrophic plant pathogens encounter a postinfection basal resistance layer controlled by the lipase-like protein enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and its sequence-related interaction partners, senescence-associated gene 101 (SAG101) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4). Maintainance of separate EDS1 family member clades through angiosperm evolution suggests distinct functional attributes. We report the Arabidopsis EDS1-SAG101 heterodimer crystal structure with juxtaposed N-terminal α/β hydrolase and C-terminal α-helical EP domains aligned via a large conserved interface. Mutational analysis of the EDS1-SAG101 heterodimer and a derived EDS1-PAD4 structural model shows that EDS1 signals within mutually exclusive heterocomplexes. Although there is evolutionary conservation of α/β hydrolase topology in all three proteins, a noncatalytic resistance mechanism is indicated. Instead, the respective N-terminal domains appear to facilitate binding of the essential EP domains to create novel interaction surfaces on the heterodimer. Transitions between distinct functional EDS1 heterodimers might explain the central importance and versatility of this regulatory node in plant immunity.

  12. The sagging rope sign in Perthes' disease and allied disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, A G; Wientroub, S

    1981-02-01

    The sagging rope sign is the term used to describe the radiographic appearances which sometimes occur after Perthes' disease. It is severe examples of that disease and indicates damage to the growth plate with a marked metaphysial reaction. The same appearance follows severe epiphysitis after forcible reduction of a congenitally dislocated hip, and certain rare epiphysial dysplasias. The origin and significance of the sign are discussed.

  13. Experimental testing of a SAG digital SILT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG(SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG`s digital SILT technology. The report describes the testing of the SAG application. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. The experience show that dynamic testing is one feasible way to get more confidence about the safety and reliability of a programmable system that would be hard to achieve by other means. It also shows that more development of the test harness is still needed, especially concerning the comparison of the obtained test response to the expected response provided by the logical model of the system. Also the user interface of the on-line part of the test harness needs development. Methods for generation of the test cases also need further development eg. for achieving statistical significance for the reliability estimates. (10 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.).

  14. Sagging of evaporating droplets of colloidal suspensions on inclined substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Leonardo; Kumar, Satish

    2014-10-14

    A droplet of a colloidal suspension placed on an inclined substrate may sag under the action of gravity. Solvent evaporation raises the concentration of the colloidal particles, and the resulting viscosity changes may influence the sag of the droplet. To investigate this phenomenon, we have developed a mathematical model for perfectly wetting droplets based on lubrication theory and the rapid-vertical-diffusion approximation. Precursor films are assumed to be present, the colloidal particles are taken to be hard spheres, and particle and liquid dynamics are coupled through a concentration-dependent viscosity and diffusivity. Evaporation is assumed to be limited by how rapidly solvent molecules can transfer from the liquid to the vapor phase. The resulting one-dimensional system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the droplet height and particle concentration is solved numerically for a range of initial particle concentrations and substrate temperatures. The solutions reveal that the interaction between evaporation and non-Newtonian suspension rheology gives rise to several distinct regimes of droplet shapes and particle concentration distributions. The results provide insight into how evaporation and suspension rheology can be tuned to minimize sagging as well as the well-known coffee-ring effect, an outcome which is important for industrial coating processes.

  15. Voltage Sags Ride-Through of Motion Sensorless Controlled PMSG for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatu, Marius; Lascu, Cristian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel;

    2007-01-01

    is used to robustly estimate the grid voltage positivesequence for control in the case of asymmetric voltages. The paper investigates the ride-through performance of this system during asymmetric power grid voltage sags. Design details for various parts of the control system are presented, together...... with experimental results for single-, two-, and three-phase voltage source sags. Smooth transition through asymmetric voltage sags is demonstrated by all experiments....

  16. 牛源犬新孢子虫NcSAG1基因重组腺病毒株的构建及动物免疫试验%Construction and Animal Experiment of a Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing NcSAG1 Protein of Bovine Neospora caninum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立军; 张守发

    2012-01-01

    [目的]构建表达牛源犬新孢子虫NcSAG1基因的重组腺病毒株,并接种Ba1b/c小鼠,评价重组腺病毒株对Ba1b/c小鼠的体液免疫和细胞免疫应答水平.[方法]PCR扩增牛源犬新孢子虫NcSAG1基因,构建pMD18-T-NcSAG1克隆质粒和pCR259-NcSAG1重组腺病毒穿梭质粒;将鉴定正确的pCR259-NcSAG1重组腺病毒穿梭质粒依次转化HighQ-1 Transpose-Ad 294和HighQ-1 感受态细胞,构建Transpose-Ad-NcSAG1重组腺病毒表达质粒;PacI酶切线性化后,脂质体介导转染QBI-HEK 293细胞包装重组腺病毒Ad5-NcSAG1,应用PCR和Western blotting技术检测Ad5-NcSAG1及其表达蛋白产物.测定Ad5-NcSAG1重组腺病毒滴度后,接种Balb/c小鼠,测定小鼠血清中IgG特异性抗体和细胞因子IFN-γ、IL-4水平,以此评价重组腺病毒株的免疫应答效果.[结果]扩增的牛源犬新孢子虫NcSAG1基因大小为982bp,与GenBank中发表的NcSAG1(AF132217)核苷酸序列的同源性为99.2%;经PCR和Western blotting检测,重组腺病毒Ad5-NcSAG1在QBI-HEK 293细胞中包装成功,表达蛋白的分子量为33kD,具有较好的反应原性;测得重组腺病毒Ad5-NcSAG1滴度为1010TCID50/mL,Ad5-NcSAG1接种Ba1b/c小鼠后,能够诱导产生高水平的IgG特异性抗体和IFN-γ、IL-4细胞因子.说明Ad5-NcSAG1重组腺病毒对Ba1b/c小鼠产生了较强的体液免疫和细胞免疫应答.[结论]成功构建了牛源犬新孢子虫NcSAG1基因的重组腺病毒株,该毒株能够诱导Ba1b/c小鼠产生高水平的体液免疫和细胞免疫应答,为犬新孢子虫新型疫苗的临床试验奠定了基础.%[Objective] A recombinant adenovirus expressing NcSAG1 protein of bovine N. caninum was constructed. Balb/c mice were immunized with the recombinant adenovirus to evaluate the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. [Method] NcSAGI gene of bovine N. caninum was amplified by PCR. pMD18-T-NcSAGl and pCR259- NcSAGI were constructed. The correct pCR259-NcSAGl was transformed

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1, a key component of plant immunity, in complex with its signalling partner SAG101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Rietz, Steffen; Parker, Jane E; Niefind, Karsten

    2011-02-01

    In plants, the nucleocytoplasmic protein EDS1 (Enhanced disease susceptibility1) is an important regulator of innate immunity, coordinating host-cell defence and cell-death programs in response to pathogen attack. Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1 stabilizes and signals together with its partners PAD4 (Phytoalexin deficient4) and SAG101 (Senescence-associated gene101). Characterization of EDS1 molecular configurations in vitro and in vivo points to the formation of structurally and spatially distinct EDS1 homomeric dimers and EDS1 heteromeric complexes with either PAD4 or SAG101 as necessary components of the immune response. EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 constitute a plant-specific protein family with a unique `EP' (EDS1-PAD4-specific) domain at their C-termini and an N-terminal domain resembling enzymes with an α/β-hydrolase fold. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of a functional EDS1 complex formed by EDS1 and SAG101 from Arabidopsis thaliana are reported. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 101.8, b = 115.9, c = 122.8 Å, and diffracted to 3.5 Å resolution.

  18. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S

    2001-01-01

    Similar to native peptide/MHC ligands, bacterial superantigens have been found to bind with low affinity to the T cell receptor (TCR). It has been hypothesized that low ligand affinity is required to allow optimal TCR signaling. To test this, we generated variants of Staphylococcus enterotoxin C3...... (SEC3) with up to a 150-fold increase in TCR affinity. By stimulating T cells with SEC3 molecules immobilized onto plastic surfaces, we demonstrate that increasing the affinity of the SEC3/TCR interaction caused a proportional increase in the ability of SEC3 to activate T cells. Thus, the potency...... correlation between ligand affinity and ligand potency indicating that it is the density of receptor-ligand complexes in the T cell contact area that determines TCR signaling strength....

  19. Multiple Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins: Pathogenicity, Superantigenic Activity, and Correlation to Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gálvez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stable enterotoxins are the most notable virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus, a common pathogen associated with serious community and hospital acquired diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs cause toxic shock-like syndromes and have been implicated in food poisoning. But SEs also act as superantigens that stimulate T-cell proliferation, and a high correlation between these activities has been detected. Most of the nosocomial S. aureus infections are caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains, and those resistant to quinolones or multiresistant to other antibiotics are emerging, leaving a limited choice for their control. This review focuses on these diverse roles of SE, their possible correlations and the influence in disease progression and therapy.

  20. [Hyperparathyroidism disclosed by forward sagging of the head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, F; Rajzbaum, G; Bonnichon, P; Amor, B

    1993-06-01

    An unusual clinical presentation of hyperparathyroidism is reported. The 73-year-old patient was unable to maintain her head upright after ten minutes of walking or standing. Parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound and pathological findings and parathyroid hormone assays. Following surgery the forward sagging of the head no longer occurred and serum levels of calcium and phosphorus returned to normal. Pathophysiological hypotheses are discussed. No similar cases with isolated weakness of the cervical and dorsal paravertebral muscles has been reported to date.

  1. Standard Test Method for Sag of Tungsten Wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a determination of the sag properties of tungsten wire 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) and over in diameter. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Restrepo, Magda Piedad; Ortiz Grisales, Sanín; Sánchez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    For Colombian people the edible fruit of Sagú Maranta arundinacea are the rhizome. This is used in an informal way by their starch in different products elaboration for human feeding. However, their agronomy is unknown. Plant propagation, dais to rhizome harvest, native starch production and chemical and phytochemical of the integral plant was analyzed. The cultivation settled down to open sky with 0.5x1.0 m. inside furrow and among furrows respectively. Uses descriptive statistic for the qua...

  3. Structure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin E in Complex with TCR Defines the Role of TCR Loop Positioning in Superantigen Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin E J Rödström

    Full Text Available T cells are crucial players in cell-mediated immunity. The specificity of their receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR, is central for the immune system to distinguish foreign from host antigens. Superantigens are bacterial toxins capable of inducing a toxic immune response by cross-linking the TCR and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II and circumventing the antigen specificity. Here, we present the structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE in complex with a human T cell receptor, as well as the unligated T cell receptor structure. There are clear structural changes in the TCR loops upon superantigen binding. In particular, the HV4 loop moves to circumvent steric clashes upon complex formation. In addition, a predicted ternary model of SEE in complex with both TCR and MHC class II displays intermolecular contacts between the TCR α-chain and the MHC, suggesting that the TCR α-chain is of importance for complex formation.

  4. ew Breakthrough in Research of Framework and Faults in Basement of Turfan Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCaifu; HaoHongjian; ChenXiuru

    2003-01-01

    The deep information of the Turfan sag was extracted and analyzed through the re-processing of the magneto-gravitational data of the Turfan sag in the Turfan-Hami basin. It is considered that the basement faults have played an important role in the controlling of the framework, lithology and the distribution of volcanic rocks in the basement of the Turfan sag. The deep crystalline basement and the upper Hercynian folded basement were studied part by part in the sag through the combined data of aeromagnetic and electric methods. It is revealed that the Huoyanshan fault is steep in the upper and lower parts but gentle in the middle, displaying a “S” type texture, and discovered that there are at least a row of local structures in the down-thrown block of the Huoyanshan fault, through the CEMP prospecting in Huoyanshan. The result is very important for the studying of the Turfan sag as a whole.

  5. Cytotoxicity of lymphocytes activated by superantigen toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 against colorectal cancer LoVo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Xuejun; Lu, Le; Zheng, Jian-Bao; Tian, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen, can stimulate T cell activation and be used for immunotherapy. In this study, we employed the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive LoVo cells to test whether retrovirus-mediated TSST-1 expression could activate human T cells and promote cytotoxicity against tumor cells. We first generated plasmids of pLEGFP-N1-5HRE-CEAp-TSST-1-linker-CD80TM containing a fusion gene of the CEA promoter, 5 copies of the hypoxia-response elements (HRE) as an enhancer, the fragments for TSST-1, and the transmembrane domain of CD80 (CD80TM) and control pLEGFP-N1-5HRE-CEAp (without TSST-1) and generated retroviruses of 5HCTC and 5HC, respectively. After infection with 5HC and 5HCTC retroviruses to establish cell lines, the high levels of TSST-1 expression were observed on the membrane and cytoplasm of the 5HCTC-infected LoVo cells, particularly culture under a hypoxic condition, but not on CEA(-) HeLa cells. Furthermore, the TSST-1-expressing LoVo cell lysates, but not the control cell lysates, stimulated human T cell proliferation, and the co-culture of the TSST-1-expressing LoVo, but not control cells, with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) induced a high frequency of TNF-α- and IL-2-secreting T cells in vitro, particularly under hypoxic conditions. More importantly, co-culture of the TSST-1-expressing LoVo cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions, but not control cells, with different numbers of PBMC promoted potent cytotoxicity against LoVo cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. These data provide proof of the principle that selective induction of TSST1 expression in CEA(+) colorectal cancer (CRC) cells activates T cells that destroy tumor cells, particularly under a hypoxic condition. Therefore, our findings may aid in the design of new immunotherapy for the intervention of CRC at clinic.

  6. Interferon gamma-dependent intestinal pathology contributes to the lethality in bacterial superantigen-induced toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Holz, Marah; Wu, Tsung-Teh; David, Chella S; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2011-02-03

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by robust T cell activation, profound elevation in systemic levels of multiple cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), followed by multiple organ dysfunction and often death. As IFN-γ possesses pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties, we delineated its role in the pathogenesis of TSS. Antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of IFN-γ or targeted disruption of IFN-γ gene conferred significant protection from lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Following systemic high dose SEB challenge, whereas the HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+) mice became sick and succumbed to TSS, HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) mice appeared healthy and were significantly protected from SEB-induced lethality. SEB-induced systemic cytokine storm was significantly blunted in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) transgenic mice. Serum concentrations of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-17) and chemokines (KC, rantes, eotaxin and MCP-1) were significantly lower in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) transgenic mice. However, SEB-induced T cell expansion in the spleens was unaffected and expansion of SEB-reactive TCR Vβ8(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was even more pronounced in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) transgenic mice when compared to HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+) mice. A systematic histopathological examination of several vital organs revealed that both HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+) and HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) transgenic mice displayed comparable severe inflammatory changes in lungs, and liver during TSS. Remarkably, whereas the small intestines from HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+) transgenic mice displayed significant pathological changes during TSS, the architecture of small intestines in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) transgenic mice was preserved. In concordance with these histopathological changes, the gut permeability to macromolecules was dramatically increased in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+) but not HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/-) mice during TSS. Overall

  7. Interferon gamma-dependent intestinal pathology contributes to the lethality in bacterial superantigen-induced toxic shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Y Tilahun

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS caused by the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by robust T cell activation, profound elevation in systemic levels of multiple cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ, followed by multiple organ dysfunction and often death. As IFN-γ possesses pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties, we delineated its role in the pathogenesis of TSS. Antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of IFN-γ or targeted disruption of IFN-γ gene conferred significant protection from lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Following systemic high dose SEB challenge, whereas the HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+ mice became sick and succumbed to TSS, HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- mice appeared healthy and were significantly protected from SEB-induced lethality. SEB-induced systemic cytokine storm was significantly blunted in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- transgenic mice. Serum concentrations of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-17 and chemokines (KC, rantes, eotaxin and MCP-1 were significantly lower in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- transgenic mice. However, SEB-induced T cell expansion in the spleens was unaffected and expansion of SEB-reactive TCR Vβ8(+ CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was even more pronounced in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- transgenic mice when compared to HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+ mice. A systematic histopathological examination of several vital organs revealed that both HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+ and HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- transgenic mice displayed comparable severe inflammatory changes in lungs, and liver during TSS. Remarkably, whereas the small intestines from HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+ transgenic mice displayed significant pathological changes during TSS, the architecture of small intestines in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- transgenic mice was preserved. In concordance with these histopathological changes, the gut permeability to macromolecules was dramatically increased in HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(+/+ but not HLA-DR3.IFN-γ(-/- mice during TSS. Overall

  8. Improved detection of equine antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using polyvalent ELISAs based on the parasite SnSAG surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Howe, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common neurologic disease of horses that is caused by the apicomplexan pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. To help improve serologic diagnosis of S. neurona infection, we have modified existing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the immunogenic parasite surface antigens SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4 to make the assays polyvalent, thereby circumventing difficulties associated with parasite antigenic variants and diversity in equine immune responses. Two approaches were utilized to achieve polyvalence: (1) mixtures of the individual recombinant SnSAGs (rSnSAGs) were included in single ELISAs; (2) a collection of unique SnSAG chimeras that fused protein domains from different SnSAG surface antigens into a single recombinant protein were generated for use in the ELISAs. These new assays were assessed using a defined sample set of equine sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) that had been characterized by Western blot and/or were from confirmed EPM horses. While all of the polyvalent ELISAs performed relatively well, the highest sensitivity and specificity (100%/100%) were achieved with assays containing the rSnSAG4/2 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to SnSAG2) or using a mixture of rSnSAG3 and rSnSAG4. The rSnSAG4 antigen alone and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera (Domain 1 of SnSAG4 fused to Domain 2 of SnSAG3) exhibited the next best accuracy at 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Binding ratios and percent positivity (PP) ratios, determined by comparing the mean values for positive versus negative samples, showed that the most advantageous signal to noise ratios were provided by rSnSAG4 and the rSnSAG4/3 chimera. Collectively, our results imply that a polyvalent ELISA based on SnSAG4 and SnSAG3, whether as a cocktail of two proteins or as a single chimeric protein, can give optimal results in serologic testing of serum or CSF for the presence of antibodies against S. neurona. The use of polyvalent SnSAG ELISAs will

  9. Graft-versus-leukemia reactivity involves cluster formation between superantigen-reactive donor T lymphocytes and host macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müerköster, S; Wachowski, O; Zerban, H; Schirrmacher, V; Umansky, V; Rocha, M

    1998-12-01

    T-cell-mediated antitumor effects play an important role clinically in allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reactivity, whereas T-cell-mediated antihost effects are associated with a risk of developing graft-versus-host (GvH) disease. GvL and GvH were compared in an animal tumor model system after the systemic transfer of allogeneic antitumor immune T lymphocytes from B10.D2 [H-2d; minor lymphocyte-stimulating antigen (Mls)b] mice into ESb-MP tumor-bearing or normal DBA/2 (H-2d; Mls(a)) mice. Here we demonstrate that this T-cell-mediated therapy involves the formation of clusters of donor CD4 and CD8 T cells with host macrophages, in particular, with a subpopulation expressing the lymphocyte adhesion molecule sialoadhesin. DBA/2 mice and the derived tumor ESb-MP express viral superantigen 7 (Mls(a)), an endogenous viral superantigen that is absent from B10.D2 mice. To test the contribution of viral superantigen 7-reactive Vbeta6 donor T cells in the GvL-mediated eradication of liver metastases, we performed immunohistological and transmission electron microscopy studies. Vbeta6+ CD4 and CD8 T cells from B10.D2 donors formed tight clusters with host sialoadhesin-positive macrophages, and transmission electron microscopy pictures revealed direct membrane-membrane interactions between T cells and macrophages. Clusters were more abundant and consisted of more cells in tumor-bearing hosts (GvL model) than in non-tumor-bearing hosts (GvH model). In addition, Vbeta6 T cells within the clusters showed a strong proliferation activity, indicating stimulation. Moreover, in an in vitro tumor cytostasis assay, primed as well as nonprimed purified Vbeta6 T cells from donor mice were able to inhibit the proliferation of superantigen-expressing ESb-MP lymphoma cells. This suggests that the transferred superantigen-reactive Vbeta6 T cells contribute to the eradication of metastases. The observed cell clusters might be sites for antigen presentation and the activation of tumor

  10. WAVELET BASED CLASSIFICATION OF VOLTAGE SAG, SWELL & TRANSIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gajanan Neve

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When the time localization of the spectral components is needed, the WAVELE TRANSFORM (WT can be used to obtain the optimal time frequency representation of the signal. This paper deals with the use of a wavelet transform to detect and analyze voltage sags, voltage swell and transients. It introduces voltage disturbance detection approach based on wavelet transform, identifies voltage disturbances, and discriminates the type of event which has resulted in the voltage disturbance, e.g. either a fault or a capacitor-switching incident.Feasibility of the proposed disturbance detection approach is demonstrated based on digital time-domain simulation of a distribution power system using the PSCAD software package, and is implemented using MATLAB. The developed algorithm has been applied to the 14-buses IEEE system to illustrate its application. Results are analyzed.

  11. Surgical treatment of the denervated or sagging lower lid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, E O; Guibor, P; Hecht, S D; Wolfley, D E

    1982-05-01

    Paralytic ectropion of the lower eyelid and increased curvature of the lower eyelid associated with anophthalmos both cn be optimally treated by use of an autogenous fascia lata sling. Some patients also have problems with prosthesis retention due to lower eyelid deformity with a shortened inferior fornix. In some instances, it is also necessary to perform a horizontal shortening operation on the lower eyelid. In anophthalmic patients, the relationship between prosthesis size and weight and a sagging lower lid is discussed. In some patients when the lower eyelid is elevated, the patient then has an upper lid ptosis for which it is necessary to perform an appropriate levator shortening operation. Surgical technique and illustrative pre- and post-operative photographs are shown.

  12. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs. By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  13. Immunogenic Eimeria tenella glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigens (SAGs induce inflammatory responses in avian macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yock-Ping Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At least 19 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored surface antigens (SAGs are expressed specifically by second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella, but the ability of these proteins to stimulate immune responses in the chicken is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten SAGs, belonging to two previously defined multigene families (A and B, were expressed as soluble recombinant (r fusion proteins in E. coli. Chicken macrophages were treated with purified rSAGs and changes in macrophage nitrite production, and in mRNA expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and of a panel of cytokines were measured. Treatment with rSAGs 4, 5, and 12 induced high levels of macrophage nitric oxide production and IL-1β mRNA transcription that may contribute to the inflammatory response observed during E. tenella infection. Concomitantly, treatment with rSAGs 4, 5 and 12 suppressed the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ and elevated that of IL-10, suggesting that during infection these molecules may specifically impair the development of cellular mediated immunity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, some E. tenella SAGs appear to differentially modulate chicken innate and humoral immune responses and those derived from multigene family A (especially rSAG 12 may be more strongly linked with E. tenella pathogenicity associated with the endogenous second generation stages.

  14. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  15. Effect and Mechanism of Superantigen Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Therapy for Mouse Gastric Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅清; 舒晓钢

    2003-01-01

    Summary.. The anti-tumor effect and mechanism of the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) werestudied. The mouse gastric tumor model was produced by subcutaneously inoculating gastric tumorcells (MGC80-3). The experimental group was treated with SEA, and the control group was treatedwith normal saline. The percentage of tumor generation and tumor mass was measured. The resultsshowed that the percentage of the tumor generation in the SEA-treated mice was lower than in thecontrol group, but there was no significant difference (P>0. 05). However, the tumor mass in theexperimental group was significantly lighter than in the control group, with the difference being verysignificant (P<0. 001). There were more CD+4 T cells and CD+8 T cells in the tumor of the micetreated with SEA than those of the control group. SEA has an obvious anti-tumor effect on mice gas-tric tumor. The mechanism might be that SEA induces the effect of superantigen-dependent cell me-diated cytotoxicity to the tumor cells.

  16. Identification of the blood coagulation factor interacting sequences in staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Saotomo; Takii, Takemasa; Onozaki, Kikuo; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Hida, Shigeaki

    2017-03-25

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that SSL10 binds to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and inhibits blood coagulation induced by recalcification of citrated plasma. SSL10 was revealed to bind to coagulation factors via their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. In this study we attempted to identify the responsible sequence of SSL10 for the interaction with coagulation factors. We prepared a series of domain swap mutants between SSL10 and its paralog SSL7 that does not interact with coagulation factors, and examined their binding activity to immobilized prothrombin using ELISA-like binding assay. The domain swap mutants that contained SSL10β1-β3 ((23)MEMKN ISALK HGKNN LRFKF RGIKI QVL(60)) bound to immobilized prothrombin, and mutants that contained SSL10β10-β12 ((174)SFYNL DLRSK LKFKY MGEVI ESKQI KDIEV NLK(207)) also retained the binding activity. On the other hand, mutants that lacked these two regions did not bind to prothrombin. These sequences, each alone, bound to prothrombin as 33 amino acid length polypeptides. These results suggest that SSL10 has two responsible sequences for the binding to prothrombin. These prothrombin-binding peptides would contribute to the development of new anticoagulants.

  17. Modelling and Simulation of SVM Based DVR System for Voltage Sag Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and simulate three phase DVR system using MATLAB simulink. SVM based DVR is proposed to reduce the sag on the transmission line. The SVM based DVR injects voltage into the line to compensate the voltage drop. Sag is created by connecting a heavy load in parallel with the existing system. This sag will be compensated by injecting the inverter output through an injection transformer. The results of simulation are compared with the theoretical results.

  18. "Sagging heart syndrome": a cause of acute lead dislodgment in two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskos, D; Lurie, K G; Shultz, J J; Fabian, W H; Benditt, D G

    1999-02-01

    Acute passive fixation atrial lead dislodgment occurred due to an unexpected and marked postural descent of the heart after permanent pacemaker implantation in two patients. Sagging of the heart in these two individuals may have been related to a history of morbid obesity followed by weight loss of over 100 pounds. Lead replacement with active fixation leads was required in both cases. The term "sagging heart syndrome" is proposed to describe this clinical entity. In certain adult populations, such as in patients with a history of significant weight loss, the "sagging heart syndrome" may represent a previously unrecognized cause of acute lead dislodgment.

  19. 对业务接入网关 SAG 的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳

    2012-01-01

      本文分析了智能网节点 SCP (业务控制点)实现增值业务的方式。讨论了 SCP 演进至业务接入网关 SAG 的过程,并通过 SAG 的实现论述了 SAG 为互联网和电信网络的增值业务融合所起的重要作用

  20. A Pulsed Power Supply with Sag Compensation using Controlled Gradational Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamada, Masaki; Tashiro, Shojirou; Iwata, Akihiko

    A pulsed power supply with sag compensation using controlled gradational voltage to increase the flatness of output waveforms has been developed.The sag compensation circuit consists of compensation units connected in series. Each compensation unit consists of capacitances, diodes, and semiconductor switches. The capacitances of each unit are charged with different voltages by 2n (V0, 2V0, 4V0, ···). The compensation voltages, which has 2n-1 steps, is generated by switching the semiconductor switches of each unit in a binary sequence. Using this method, compensation voltage waveforms up to 6.2kV with 31 steps can be obtained with 5 compensation units. The sag compensation circuit has been adapted to a direct switch type pulsed power supply, which generates 7kV pulsed voltage with a pulse width of 700μs, thus realizing sag compensation.

  1. Cenozoic Fault Distribution Characteristics and Evolution in Qikou Sag of Bohai Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Zhang; Chiyang Liu; Yijian Huang; Siqian Chen; Yi Lu; Zhipan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Qikou sag, located in north-center of Huanghua depression in Bohai Basin, is a Cenozoic sag with rich hydrocarbon. As a microcosm of Bohai Basin, the fault characteristics of Cenozoic struc-tural layers in Qikou sag could indicate and record the evolution of Cenozoic stress field in Bohai Basin. Based on the latest 3-D seismic data, the study takes statistics on the fault system of Cenozoic structural layers and analyzes the fault throws of major large faults along the strikes in different periods in Qikou sag, then the fault distribution regularities and the fault direction characteristics in each structural layer are summarized. The result shows that during Cenozoic, the fault activity strength migrates from southwest to northeast and the strikes of faults changes from northwestward in Sha-3 period to nearly east-westward since Sha-1 period.

  2. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Findings Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. T...

  3. Implementation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vinod Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is one of major concerns in the present. It has become important, especially with the introduction of sophisticated devices, whose performance is very sensitive to the quality of power supply. The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR is one of the modern devices used in distribution systems to improve the power quality. In this paper, emergency control in distribution systems is discussed by using the proposed multifunctional DVR control strategy.Also, themultiloop controller using the Posicast and P+Resonant controllers is proposed in order to improve the transient response and eliminate the steady state error in DVR response,respectively.The proposed process is applied to some riots in load voltage effected by induction motors starting, and a three-phase short circuit fault. The three-phase short circuits, and the large induction motors are suddenly started then voltage sags areoccurred.The innovation here is that by using the Multifunctional Dynamic Voltage Restorer, improve the power quality in distribution side. Simulation results show the capability of the DVR to control the emergency conditions of the distribution systems by using MATLAB/Simulink software.

  4. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  5. Study on source rock potential and source rocks spatial distribution in the Manghan Faulted Sag, Kailu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Manghan Faulted Sag is an exploratory target area in Kailu Basin. In order to determine its exploration prospect, the effectiveness of its source rocks is evaluated by organic geochemical behavior analysis of the samples, and their distributions are predicted using trace integration seismic inversion technology. Studies on their organic matter abundance, type and maturity indicate that the source rocks in the Sag have great generating potentials. Furthermore, it is found that, based on the spatial distribution predication, the source rocks in the Sag are well developed. Therefore, the Sag has a promising prospect for exploration.

  6. Initial Rifting Process and Dynamics Mechanism of Huaguang Sag:Evidence from a Numerical Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhourong Cai; Bin Xia; Baofeng L; Weiqi Yao; Jianfeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Huaguang Sag is located in the deep seawater area of Qiongdongnan Basin, and its tec-tonic position belongs to the intersection of NE-trending, SN-trending and NW-trending tectonic sys-tems in the continental margin of the Northwest South China Sea. To investigate the initial rifting process and further more the dynamics mechanism of Huaguang Sag, this paper sets up the structure model of basement which mainly makes up with several depression-controlling faults, and simulates the initial rifting process of Huaguang Sag by the FLAC software. The simulation results show that only affected by the S-N trending extensional stress, the rifting center appears in northern boundary base-ment faults (two NEE-trending and NWW-trending faults) of Huaguang Sag while does not take place at the NNE-trending and NE-trending basement fault zone in the middle sag, and doesn’t match the current pattern that the basement fault plays a main role in controlling the sediment. In the other case, affected by the S-N trending and E-W trending extensional stress at the same time, the areas of the northern boundary faults zone and internal NNE-trending basement faults zone come to be rifting cen-ter quickly, the sedimentary is controlled by the main basement faults to different degrees, and is con-sistent with the tectonic-sedimentary framework of Huaguang Sag which obtained by the data of geo-physical interpretation. In combination with the analysis of regional tectonic background, the paper proposes that two remote tectonic effects occurred by the collision of India-Eurasian Plate:One remote effect was the rotational extrusion of IndoChina Block, which led to form a series of NE-trending and NNE-trending basement faults, as well as the E-W trending tensile stress field in Huaguang Sag. The other remote effect was that the deep mantle material of South China Block flowed southward, which resulted in the S-N trending extensional rifting of the lithosphere in northern South China Sea, and fi

  7. Study on Superantigenic Toxin Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Cow Milk%牛乳金黄色葡萄球菌分离株超抗原肠毒素基因分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 汤婷婷; 鲍庆晗; 郭海勇; 崔京春

    2014-01-01

    To survey the enterotoxin genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus SP-3 strain isolated from the raw milk of subclinical mastitis cow,we developed specific PCR primers for five classical enterotoxin types SEA through SEE and toxin shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)type genes,as positive control with the femA and femB gene of S.aureus .The type strain (ATCC126000)and 834 strain were used as reference strains.Genomic DNA of the enterotoxigenic S.aureus were used as the template,five classical enterotox-ins and TSST-1 genes produced by S.aureus were detected by PCR amplification.The result indicated that the SP-3 isolate and the reference strains harbored femA and femB,and the SP-3 isolate from milk harbored sea,sec,sed and tst-1 superantigenic toxin genes.The study would lay a foundation for further studies on the superantigenic toxin genotyping in animal source S.aureus isolates and for preventing and controlling the infection of S.aureus in mastitis cows.%为研究牛乳金黄色葡萄球菌 SP-3分离株携带超抗原肠毒素的基因型,设计合成了金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原肠毒素基因 SEA-SEE 及 TSST-1特异性引物,并以其固有基因 femA 和 femB 为阳性对照,以分离菌株 DNA 为模板,经 PCR 扩增菌株携带的毒素基因。结果表明,SP-3分离株和阳性对照菌株均含有femA 和 femB 基因,且牛乳分离株携带 sea、sec、sed 和 tst-14种超抗原肠毒素基因,为开展动物源超抗原毒素基因系统分型及有效防控金黄色葡萄球菌奶牛乳腺炎奠定基础。

  8. Analysis of voltage sag compensation in distribution systems using a multilevel DSTATCOM in ATP/EMTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Enrique Rojas-Cubides

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hundimientos de tensión (sags son perturbaciones de calida d de potencia comunes en los sistemas eléctricos. Estos pueden causar daños en equipos sensibles y la interrupción de procesos. El co mpensador estático de distribución (DSTATCOM es un dispositivo que puede compensar sags inyectando potencia reactiva al sistema. E ste artículo muestra la influencia que tiene la conexión de un DSTATCOM de 12-pulsos sobre los sags que se presentan en el sistema de d istribución IEEE-13 modificado. El análisis se realiza mediante la generación aleatoria de perturbaciones usan do una rutina de MATLAB para id entificar los nodos críticos del sistema de prueba. Además, se describe el modelo del DSTATCOM usando lo s elementos disponibles en el s oftware ATP/EMTP. Las simulaciones muestran que cuando el DSTATCOM se conecta al nodo afectado es posible mitigar el sag completamente. Finalmente, se considera la relación entre la po tencia reactiva inyectada por el DSTATCOM, el tipo de sag y la ubicaci ón del nodo afectado.

  9. Scaling Laws for Impacts into Wet Substrates: Applied to the Bomb Sag at Home Plate, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S. P.; Manga, M.; Delbridge, B. G.; Patel, A.; Knappe, E.; Dufek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit imaged a volcanic bomb sag in Gusev crater at Home Plate (Squyres et al., Science 2007). In order to gain a more complete understanding of these types of craters, we perform laboratory experiments to identify controls on the main features of bomb sags. In our previous work (Manga et al., GRL 2012), we were able to identify clear qualitative differences in the crater morphology, which allowed us to determine that the substrate at Home Plate was fully saturated. The current study focuses on further understanding the relationship between the depth of particle penetration, crater radius, impact velocity, impactor radius and substrate grain size for impacts into a fully saturated substrate. The results of these measurements provide a physical understanding to the previous empirical scaling relationships in crater morphology at intermediate impact velocities between 10 m/s and 100 m/s. By gaining insight into the mechanisms of how a saturated granular medium deforms under the load of an impacting sphere we are able to obtain revised scaling laws for the penetration depth of bomb sags with respect to impact velocity for observable bomb sags. With an inferred impact velocity for the case of the Home Plate bomb sag, we can provide a more accurate estimate of a paleo-Mars atmospheric density.

  10. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag2S and Ag nanoparticles is 45-50 and 15-20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag2S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag2S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV-Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag2S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.

  11. Voltage Sag Mitigation Using Pulse Width Modulation Switched Autotransformer through Matlab Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shyam Kiran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage sag compensator for critical loads in electrical distribution system discussed. The proposed scheme employs a Pulse width modulation ac-ac converter along with a auto transformer. During a disturbance such as voltage sag, the proposed scheme supplies the missing voltage and helps in maintaining the rated voltage at the terminals of the critical load. Under normal condition the approach work in bypass mode and delivering utility power directly to load. The proposed system has less number of switching devices and has good compensating capability in comparison to commonly used compensators. Simulation analysis of three-phase compensator is performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK and performance analysis of the system is presented for various levels of sag and swell.

  12. Geologic Features of the Petroleum-rich Sags in the Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jiayu; ZHAO Wenzhi; ZOU Caineng; JIANG Lingzhi

    2008-01-01

    More than 40 years have been passed since exploration and development of oil-gas began in the Bohai Bay Basin. Though we have faced with many difficulties during our exploration, exciting discoveries in petroleum-rich sags have been made in recent years. Studies show that the petroleumrich sags are characterized by multiple sets of oil-gas accumulation in the pre-Eogene to Neogene strata in profile and large-area connection or superimposition of oil-gas reservoirs in different strata. Therefore, petroleum-rich sags continue to be a focus of future oil-gas exploration in the Bohai Bay Basin. There is still a great potential of petroleum resources. Inshore and offshore areas, onshore stratigraphic reservoirs, high-precision exploration in old oilfields, reservoirs inside buried hills, and volcanic reservoirs will contribute a lot in increasing the annual off-gas production and reserves in the basin.

  13. A Study on the Innovation Cost and Effectiveness Evaluation of Compensation Devices for Voltage Sags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xuhui; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yonaga, Shigeru

    Due to the advancement of information technology and widespread use of power electronic devices in recent years, many customers in various fields have suffered from the voltage sag problem. In order to compensate voltage sags, sensitive loads have been primarily equipped with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) by each consumer individually. Because consumers have many individual needs, this topic becomes an important problem to be considered by quality consultants in the electric utility industry. Based on this situation, we present the applications of UPS and dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) as compensation devices of voltage sags. By considering the need for power quality, we examine the cost-efficiency of both devices quantitatively. Simulations are carried out and the results are shown in this paper.

  14. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Inrush Transient Current Analysis and Suppression of Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverters During Voltage Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongyu; Zhao, Rende; Xin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The Inrush Transient Current (ITC) in the output of the photovoltaic grid-connected inverters is usually generated when grid voltage sag occurs, which can trigger the protection of the grid-connected inverters, and even destroy the semiconductor switches. Then, the grid-connected inverters...... will thus fail to ride through the voltage sag and even further cause more serious grid faults. This paper analyzes the generation principle of ITC and explores its influence factors, upon which, the suppression approaches are presented. Simulation and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis...

  16. Dural Reduction Surgery: A Treatment Option for Frontotemporal Brain Sagging Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, Emily; Schievink, Wouter I; Sim, Valerie L

    2016-07-01

    Frontotemporal brain sagging syndrome is a dementia associated with hypersomnolence, personality changes, and features of intracranial hypotension on magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is sparse with respect to treatment options; many patients simply worsen. We present a case in which this syndrome responded to lumbar dural reduction surgery. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging indicated normalization of brain sagging and lumbar intrathecal pressure. Although no evidence of cerebrospinal leak was found, extremely thin dura was noted intraoperatively, suggesting that a thin and incompetent dura could result in this low-pressure syndrome. Clinicians who encounter this syndrome should consider dural reduction surgery as a treatment strategy.

  17. A study on the geochemical characteristics of natural gas and gas sources in the Bozhong sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is composed largely of hydrocarbon gas, especially wet gas in the Bozhong sag. The carbon isotopic composition shows that the gas is of organic origin. The carbon isotopic values of ethane indicate that the natural gas is dominated by mixed gas with minor coal-generated gas and oil-type gas. A gas-source correlation study showed that the source rocks of natural gas are those of the Lower Dongying Formation, the Shahejie Formation and the pre-Tertiary. The natural gas is characterized by multi-source and continuous generation in the study area, indicating that gas exploration potential is good in the Bozhong sag.

  18. Development of Voltage Sag Compensator and UPS using a Flywheel Induction Motor and an Engine Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuhei; Takaku, Taku; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Flywheel energy storage systems are focused as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) from the viewpoint of environmental friendliness and high durability performance. Using a low-speed and heavy flywheel, and a low-cost squirrel-cage induction motor/generator, two applications are proposed; 1) 11kW voltage sag compensator using a capacitor self-excited induction generator without semiconductor converters; 2) UPS composed of the flywheel system and an engine generator. From some experimental results, an ideal voltage sag compensator and UPS are realized by the low-technology flywheel system.

  19. Optimization of the expression of surface antigen SAG1/2 of Toxoplasma gondii in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, G; Init, I; Fong, M Y; Lau, Y L

    2011-12-01

    Surface antigens are the most abundant proteins found on the surface of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and Surface antigen 2 (SAG2) remain the most important and extensively studied surface proteins. These antigens have been identified to play a role in host cell invasion, immune modulation, virulence attenuation. Recombinant SAG1/2 was cloned and expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. We describe here optimization of critical parameters involved in high yield expression of the recombinant SAG1/2. Our results suggest that recombinant SAG1/2 were best expressed at 30ºC, pH 6 and 1% methanol as the carbon source by X33 Pichia cells. Additional optimizations included the downstream process such as ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The fusion protein was purified using Ni-NTA purification system with 80% recovery. The purified protein was 100% specific and sensitive in detection of toxoplasmosis.

  20. Sensitivity based Assessment of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator on th...

  1. Derivation and application of sensitivities to assess transient voltage sags caused by rotor swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator on th...

  2. Effect of voltage sags on digitally controlled line connected switched-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Different voltage disorders like voltage fluctuations, sags, frequency variations may occur in the power supply networks due to different fault conditions. These deviations from normal operation affects in different ways the line connected devices. Standards were developed to protect and ensure i...

  3. Mitigation of the impact of transformer inrush current on voltage sag by TCSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khederzadeh, Mojtaba [Department of Electrical Engineering, Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) as a dynamic system, besides its capability in increasing power transfer in transmission lines, can be used to enhance different power system issues. In this paper, the effect of TCSC on voltage sag following transformer inrush current is investigated. It is shown that excessive transient inrush current occurring during transformer energizing can be mitigated by TCSC. Hence, voltage sag as one of the key components of the power quality is alleviated for the sensitive loads that are connected to the same bus which the power transformer is energized from. During a fault, TCSC can improve the voltage sag by limiting the current and help to keep the voltage as high as possible. Moreover, the inrush currents and the associated voltage sags that usually occur after clearing heavy single- or multistage faults are mitigated by the presence of TCSC. The model used for simulating inrush current is based on the characteristics of the major hysteresis loop out of which the internal trajectories are defined using the translation principal and a linear compensation to generate closed loops. An arctangent relation between the flux and the exciting current is defined. The expression parameters are deduced by curve fitting empirical data defining the major loop or the single-valued saturation characteristic. (author)

  4. Super and Combinatorial Harmonic Response of Flexible Elastic Cables with Small Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of cables in stayed bridges and TV-towers, where the excitation is caused by harmonically varying in-plane motions of the upper support point with the amplitude ;. Such cables are characterized by a sag-to-chord-length ratio below 0·02, which means that the lowes...

  5. Formation Conditions and Exploration-favoring Areas of Subtle Reservoirs in West Taibei Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanMingsheng; WangJinsong; LiBin

    2004-01-01

    At the initial stage of subtle reservoir exploration in the shallow to medium formations of the Taibei Sag, Tuha Basin, so far, three kinds of subtle reservoirs (stratigraphic, lithologic and structural-lithologic reservoirs) have been found. Since both the amount and reserve of the discovered subtle reservoirs are small, a great exploration potential remains in the Taibei Sag. The shallow to medium formations in the west of the Taibei Sag were divided into three second-order sequences and ten third-order sequences, of which the rising cyclothems of SQ(J2q) and SQ8 (J2s2) datum level are major exploration targets for the subtle reservoirs (lithologic). The depositional systems of Qiquanhu and Subashi braided river delta were developed there, where the sedimentary sand body is dominated by the regional slopes and slope break belts. There are four main modes the formation of lithologic traps: deltaic front onlap on the slope belt, deltaic front toplap on the slope break belt, lately tilted frontal sand body and sublacustrine fan--slope fan on the slope break belt, of which the first three modes are the major styles of the formation of subtle reservoirs. Major targets for subtle reservoir exploration in the near future include Putaogou Member on the north slope of Huoyanshan, the east slope of Pubei, the nose-like palaeohigh regions of Huobei, Subashi and Lianmuqin, around the Shengbei secondary sag.

  6. Deep crustal structure of Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea revealed from deep seismic reflection profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chunju; ZHOU Di; SUN Zhen; CHEN Changmin; HAO Hujun

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses deep crustal architecture of the Baiyun Sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea based on velocity analysis, time-depth conversion and seismic interpretation of the deep seismic reflection profile DSRP-2002. The profile was acquired and processed to 14 S TWT by the China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) in 2002. It extends across the Baiyun Sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, from the northern continental shelf of the SCS to the deepwater province. As the first deep seismic reflection profile in the Pearl River Mouth Basin,this profile reveals seismic phases from basement down to upper most mantle. The Moho surface appears in the profile as an undulating layer of varying thickness of 1-3 km. It is not a single reflector interface, but a velocity gradient or intercon- version layer. The crust thins stepwisely from the shelf to the continental slope and the abyssal plain (from north to south), and also thins under depocenters. The crustal thickness is only 7 km in the depocenter of the main Baiyun Sag, which corresponds to a Moho upwelling mirroring the basement topography. In the lower slope and the ocean-continental transition zone of the southernmost portion of the profile, three sub-parallel, NW-dipping strong reflectors found at depths around 10-21 km are interpreted as indications of a subducted Mesozoic oceanic crust. Crustal faults exist in the northern and southern boundaries of the Baiyun Sag. The intense and persistent subsidence of the Baiyun Sag might be related to the long-term activity of the crustal faults.

  7. The fusion of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 vaccine candidate to Leishmania infantum heat shock protein 83-kDa improves expression levels in tobacco chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Romina M; Becher, Melina Laguía; Farran, Inmaculada; Sander, Valeria A; Corigliano, Mariana G; Yácono, María L; Pariani, Sebastián; López, Edwin Sánchez; Veramendi, Jon; Clemente, Marina

    2015-05-01

    Chloroplast transformation technology has emerged as an alternative platform offering many advantages over nuclear transformation. SAG1 is the main surface antigen of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii and a promising candidate to produce an anti-T. gondii vaccine. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SAG1 using chloroplast transformation technology in tobacco plants. In order to improve expression in transplastomic plants, we also expressed the 90-kDa heat shock protein of Leishmania infantum (LiHsp83) as a carrier for the SAG1 antigen. SAG1 protein accumulation in transplastomic plants was approximately 0.1-0.2 μg per gram of fresh weight (FW). Fusion of SAG1 to LiHsp83 significantly increased the level of SAG1 accumulation in tobacco chloroplasts (by up to 500-fold). We also evaluated the functionality of the chLiHsp83-SAG1. Three human seropositive samples reacted with SAG1 expressed in transplastomic chLiHsp83-SAG1 plants. Oral immunization with chLiHsp83-SAG1 elicited a significant reduction of the cyst burden that correlated with an increase of SAG1-specific antibodies. We propose the fusion of foreign proteins to LiHsp83 as a novel strategy to increase the expression level of the recombinant proteins using chloroplast transformation technology, thus addressing one of the current challenges for this approach in antigen protein production.

  8. Systematic survey on the prevalence of genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins SElM, SElO, and SElN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of food-poisoning with substantial impact on public health. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA), we studied the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) superantigens sem, sen, and seo, as

  9. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging II: Over-Expression of Neprilysin Plays an Essential Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP. We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1α and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent, which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts.

  10. Biological mechanisms underlying the ultraviolet radiation-induced formation of skin wrinkling and sagging II: over-expression of neprilysin plays an essential role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imokawa, Genji; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-04-08

    Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1α and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP)-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent), which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts.

  11. A new trivalent SnSAG surface antigen chimera for efficient detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle; de Assis Rocha, Izabela; Morrow, Jennifer; Graves, Amy; Reed, Stephen M; Howe, Daniel K

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the SnSAG surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona provide reliable detection of infection by the parasite. Moreover, accurate serodiagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is achieved with the SnSAG ELISAs by measuring antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to reveal active infection in the central nervous system. Two independent ELISAs based on recombinant (r)SnSAG2 or a chimeric fusion of SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 (rSnSAG4/3) are currently used together for EPM serodiagnosis to overcome varied antibody responses in different horses. To achieve reliable antibody detection with a single ELISA instead of 2 separate ELISAs, rSnSAG2 was fused with rSnSAG4/3 into a single trivalent protein, designated rSnSAG2/4/3. Paired serum and CSF from 163 horses were tested with all 3 ELISAs. When the consensus antibody titers obtained with the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs were compared to the single SAG2/4/3 ELISA titers, Spearman rank correlation coefficients of ρ = 0.74 and ρ = 0.90 were obtained for serum and CSF, respectively, indicating strong agreement between the tests. When the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 consensus serum-to-CSF titer ratio was compared to the rSnSAG2/4/3 serum-to-CSF titer ratio, the Spearman correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.87, again signifying strong agreement. Importantly, comparing the diagnostic interpretation of the serum-to-CSF titer ratios yielded a Cohen kappa value of 0.77. These findings suggest that the single ELISA based on the trivalent rSnSAG2/4/3 will provide serologic and diagnostic results that are highly comparable to the consensus of the 2 independent ELISAs based on rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Development of a Low-Cost ZIGBEE and GSM SMS-Based Conductor Temperature and Sag Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    M.V.Vijaya Saradhi; Nagaraju, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the design, construction, instrumentation and testing of a GSM and ZIGBEE based monitoring system for the measurement of Overhead High Voltage (HV) Conductor Temperature and Sag. The main advantage of this concept is the real time direct measurement of the parameters (i.e., conductor sag and temperature) needed for the operation of the transmission system without intermediate measurement of conductor tension and ambient weather conditions, by which the temperature contro...

  13. Dynamics Analysis of the Baiyun Sag in the Pearl River Mouth Basin,North of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhen; ZHONG Zhihong; ZHOU Di; PANG Xiong; HUANG Chunju; CHEN Changmin; HE Min; XU Hehua

    2008-01-01

    The Baiyun sag is a deep one developing on the slope of the Pearl River Mouth Basin.It occurs as a composite graben horizontally, and is composed of two sub-sags versus one low uplift.Vertically, the sedimentary architecture could be divided into three layers, i.e.the faulted layer on the bottom, the faulted-ductile stretching layer in the middle and the draping layer on the top. The main rifting stage of the sag is supposed to be characterized by ductile extension and thinning of the crust. The special deformation pattern is probably attributed to the fact that the Baiyun sag is located in the transfer zone of the pre-existing weak zone, which made the sag a strongly deformed area,characterized by the greatly thinned lithosphere and active magmatism. The highly rising mantle under the Baiyun sag should be an important mechanism responsible for the ductile deformation, which caused partial melting of the upper mantle. Upwelling to the upper crust and the sedimentary layers, the partial melting materials accommodated extensional strain and caused non.faulted vertical subsidence. Magma was collected under the transfer zone after the first stage of rifting, and transferred laterally in a direction perpendicular to the extension to the ENE and WSW parts of the sag and upwelled along the NW-trending basal faults, where WNW-trending shear faults developed in swarms. The faulting activity and sedimentation history of the Baiyun sag may have been affected by the ocean ridge jump around 24 Ma and the cessation of sea floor spreading around 16 Ma.

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  15. A NOVEL METHOD OF VOLTAGE SAG AND SWELL ESTIMATION FOR POWER SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vetrivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four simple mathematical models to build the voltage shape with the knowledge of few parameters and detects voltage sag and swells accurately. Fourier series, cubic polynomial, Rational functions and Sum of Sin functions are used in this study to model the voltage profile. A new algorithm is developed to detect sag or swell in all the four models. The voltage estimation due to cubic polynomial has more voltage error and then rational function. The sum of sine function and Fourier series functions does accurate voltage estimation. Errors due to various functions are also tabulated for one electrical cycle. The performance of each method has been compared with other to know the effectiveness of different models and their results are presented.

  16. Power Quality Improvement And Mitigation Of Voltage Sag And Current Swell Using Distributed Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.NIRMALA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern power utilities have to respond to a number of challenges such as growth of electricity demand specially in non-linear loads in power grids, consequently, That higher power quality should be considered. In this paper, DPFC which is similar to unified power flow controller (UPFC in structure, which is used to mitigate the voltage sag and swell as a power quality issue. Unlike UPFC, the common dc-link in DPFC, between the shunt and series converter devices should be eliminated and three-phase series converter is divided to several single-phase series distributed converters through the power transmission line. And also to detect the voltage sags and find out the three single-phase reference voltages of DPFC, the synchronous reference frame method is proposed. Application of DPFC in power quality enhancement is simulated in Mat lab/Simulink environment which show the effectiveness of the proposed structure

  17. The Multi-SAG project: filling the MultiDark simulations with semi-analytic galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Martínez, C. A.; Cora, S. A.; Padilla, N. D.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Orsi, A. A.; Ruiz, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    The semi-analytical model sag is a code of galaxy formation and evolution which is applied to halo catalogs and merger trees extracted from cosmological -body simulations of dark matter. This contribution describes the project of constructing a catalog of simulated galaxies by adapting and applying the model sag over two dark matter simulations of the spanish MultiDark Project publicly available. Those simulations have particles, each, in boxes with sizes of 1000 Mpc and 400 Mpc respectively with Planck cosmological parameters. They cover a large range of masses and have halo mass resolutions of , therefore each simulation is able to produce more than 150 millions of simulated galaxies. A detailed description of the method is explained, and the first statistical results are shown.

  18. Optimal Placement of Static Compensators for Global Voltage Sag Mitigation and Power System Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new multi-objective approach for optimal placement of Static Compensator (STATCOM for global (overall voltage sag mitigation as well as for power system performance improvement. The problem is formulated as a non linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem and solved using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The proposed method determines optimal locations of STATCOMs which simultaneously minimizes the overall voltage sags at network buses, bus voltage deviation and system real power loss and maximizes the voltage stability margin of the system. The proposed approach has been applied on IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS and IEEE 57-bus test systems. The details of implementation and simulation results are presented. The application results are promising and encouraging.

  19. Elimination & Mitigation of Sag & Swell Using a New UPQC-S Methodology & Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaka Raju Kalla,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the enhancement of voltage sags, harmonic distortion and low power factor using Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC with Fuzzy Logic Controller in distribution system, The series inverter of UPQC is controlled to perform simultaneous 1 voltage sag/swell compensation and 2 load reactive power sharing with the shunt inverter. Since the series inverter simultaneously delivers active and reactive powers, this concept is named as UPQC-S (S for complex power in this paper; a detailed mathematical formulation of PAC for UPQC-S is carried out. In this paper details are carried out on both series inverter & shunt inverter, and fuzzy logic controller is applied to shunt inverter in order to dc fluctuations and to compensate reactive power. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-S approach are validated by simulation in using MATLAB software.

  20. The progress in the superantigen of T cell%T细胞超抗原研究的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建名; 陈素芬

    2012-01-01

    为更新、更深刻及更全面认识T细胞超抗原(T-SAg).本文查阅大量相关资料,并结合有关临床病例.对T-SAg特点、生物效应、发病机制及治疗走向重新作了全面综合性分析,其中加入了许多新观点,尤其是对T-SAg扰乱Th1/Th2平衡、CD28是超抗原产生效应的必须受体、嵌合超抗原受体可抑制其效应、修饰树突状细胞、免疫佐剂为SAgT细胞提供新表位等作详细阐述.这些为进一步研究与探讨T-SAg将起到重要作用.

  1. Major histocompatibility class I molecules present Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen of vegetal origin, to T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, P; Buckle, M; Abastado, J P; Peumans, W J; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1999-05-01

    The Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) shares with the superantigens the property of activating T cell subsets bearing particular Vbeta segments of the TCR. However, UDA is a lectin capable of binding to many glycoproteins on cell membranes. The implication of MHC versus other glycoproteins in UDA presentation was presently studied. Using mutant mice lacking MHC class I (MHC-I), MHC class II (MHC-II) or both MHC antigens, we provided evidence that MHC-I and MHC-II molecules serve as UDA receptors. Presentation by either one of these molecules ensured similar T cell responses and co-stimulatory signals were mandatory for optimal T cell activation and proliferation both in MHC-I and MHC-II contexts. Remarkably, in the absence of MHC molecules, UDA could not be efficiently presented to T cells by other glycosylated proteins. Surface plasmon resonance studies were used to confirm the binding of UDA to MHC-I molecules using a fusion protein consisting of MHC-I domains and beta2-microglobulin. The results indicated that the interaction between UDA and MHC-I molecules implicated lectin-binding site(s) of UDA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that, in addition to MHC-II antigens, MHC-I molecules serve as an alternative ligand for UDA.

  2. A Method to Determine the Ball Filling, in Miduk Copper Concentrator SAG Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamali Moaveni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to investigate on the ball filling estimation of Miduk semi-autogenous (SAG Mill via an utilized method. Miduk copper concentrator is located in Kerman Province, Iran, and its size reduction stage includes one gyratory crusher which feeds one SAG mill (9.75 dia.(m*3.88 length(m following two parallel ball mills (5dia.(m*7lenght(m. After SAG mill, a trommel screen produces two over and under size materials which the oversize part is circulated into SAG mill and undersize reports to hydrocyclone for further process. Ball filling identify was implemented in this work using mill`s load sampling and ball abrasion test.These methods could estimate ball filling variation with easy, undeniable, and useful tests. Also, these tests have shown the digression of operating ball filling amount and its manual designed. To make more homogenous load, mill load samplings were carried out from 6 points after whirling the mill via inching motor. Acquired load sampling results were compared with ball abrasion tests. Ball abrasion tests were calculated for 3 different conditions include maximum, average, and minimum ball abrasion. However, the calculated maximum and minimum conditions never occurred. However, these are just for obtaining to ball filling variation in the mill. The results obtained from this work show, the ball filling percentage variation is between 1.2– 3.7% which is lower than mill ball filling percentage, according to the designed conditions (15%. In addition, acquired load samplings result for mill ball filling was 1.3%.

  3. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar; Cecati, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbala...

  4. New Control Technique Applied in Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Sag Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR was a power electronics device that was able to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery. By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. There were so many types of the control techniques being used in DVR for mitigating voltage sags. The efficiency of the DVR depends on the efficiency of the control technique involved in switching the inverter. Problem statement: Simulation and experimental investigation toward new algorithms development based on SVPWM. Understanding the nature of DVR and performance comparisons between the various controller technologies available. The proposed controller using space vector modulation techniques obtain higher amplitude modulation indexes if compared with conventional SPWM techniques. Moreover, space vector modulation techniques can be easily implemented using digital processors. Space vector PWM can produce about 15% higher output voltage than standard Sinusoidal PWM. Approach: The purpose of this research was to study the implementation of SVPWM in DVR. The proposed control algorithm was investigated through computer simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC software. Results: From simulation and experimental results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller based on SVPWM in mitigating voltage sags in low voltage distribution systems. It was concluded that its controller also works well both in balance and unbalance conditions of voltages. Conclusion/Recommendations: The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using PSCAD/EMTDC software based on SVPWM technique showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags. The DVR operates without any difficulties to inject the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the

  5. SAG-M红细胞保存液制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梅贵; 龚正明; 舒勤

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究SAG-M红细胞保存液的制备工艺及内在质量方法:依据文献[1]筛选设计处方,通过实验确定配制方法、灭菌温度时间.稳定性实验表明,产品质量稳定.结论:处方和工艺设计合理,操作简便.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF POWER QUALITY CONSIDERING VOLTAGE SAGS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS USING KDD PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Roges Teixeira Góes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to classify Power Quality (PQ in distribution systems based on voltage sags. The methodology uses the KDD process (Knowledge Discovery in Databases in order to establish a quality level to be printed in labels. The methodology was applied to feeders on a substation located in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, considering attributes such as sag length (remnant voltage, duration and frequency (number of occurrences on a given period of time. On the Data Mining Stage (the main stage on KDD Process, three different techniques were used, in a comparative way, for pattern recognition, in order to achieve the quality classification for the feeders: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN; Support Vector Machines (SVM and Genetic Algorithms (GA. By printing a label with quality level information, utilities companies (power concessionaires can get better organized for mitigation procedures by establishing clear targets. Moreover, the same way costumers already receive information regarding PQ based on interruptions, they will also be able to receive information based on voltage sags.

  7. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK CONTROLLER BASED DISTRIBUTION STATIC COMPENSATOR FOR VOLTAGE SAG MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rajasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching of loads, capacitors, along with the proliferation of power electronics equipment, non-linear loads in industrial, commercial and domestic applications have lead to power quality issues in the distribution system. Power quality issues such as voltage sag, voltage swell and harmonics, which are certainly major concerning issues in the present era. These issues can lead to failure or malfunction of the many sensitive loads connected to the distribution system, thus incurring a high cost for end users. Power quality problems are solved by advanced custom power devices. This study presents how the custom power device Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM is used to mitigate voltage sag and voltage harmonics in distribution system. Artificial Neural Network (ANN controller based D-STATCOM is simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. Prototype model for single phase D-STATCOM is developed to verify the results. The simulation and hardware results show clearly the performance of the D-STATCOM in mitigating voltage sag and voltage harmonics in distribution system.

  8. Cenozoic Subsidence Features of Beitang Sag and Relationship with Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tingting; Wang Hua; Yue Yong; Huang Chuanyan; Zhang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the application of the EBM basin modeling software and 2-D seismic profiles, the Paleogene and Neogene shubsidence histories of the Beitang(北塘) sag are simulated with the backstripping technique,and the relationship between subsidence character and tectonic revolution is discussed.Moreover,the result of the basin modeling reveals that the subsidence history of the Beitang sag has the characteristics of several geological periods,and these succeeding periods have shown certain inheritance and difference characteristics.At the early (Es3) and middle (Es2-Es1) rifting periods,the subsidence reaction of the Beitang sag was mainly in the charge of tectonic activity,while at the late (Ng-Nm+Q) rifting period-post rifting period and post rifting subsidence-acceleration period-the subsidence type is mainly that of thermal subsidence or regional depression effect; from the beginning of the subsidence history to the end,the reason for the basin subsidence has changed from tectonic activity to non-tectonic activity.

  9. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  10. Study on the Molecular Characteristics of Superantigen in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Groups of People%金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原在不同人群中的分子特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晶花; 柳必悦

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解菌血症患者血液,医护工作者、非感染性疾病入院患者以及社区健康人群前鼻腔内的金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原基因分子特征.方法 用PCR和multiplex- PCR方法对277株菌的毒性休克综合征毒素-1(toxic shock syndrome toxin -1,TSST-1)和肠毒素(staphylooocal enterotoxin,SE)编码基因进行了扩增.结果 277株分离的金黄色葡萄球菌中共有142株(51%)肠毒素基因检测结果为阳性.从医院内各人群组(包括医院菌血症患者组、医护人员组和非感染性疾病入院患者组)分离菌株的阳性率在50% ~59%,要比社区健康人群组阳性率(36%)高(x2=10.86,P<0.05).医院内各人群组分离株的SE基因主要以A型为主,而社区健康人群组的分离菌株则以D型为优势型别.另外,菌血症患者血液的金黄色葡萄球菌携带基因tsst-1的阳性率要高于其他人群组(x2=21.91,P<0.01).结论 本研究表明不同人群分离得到的金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原分子特点具有特异性,对临床金黄色葡萄球菌的诊断治疗和流行病学研究具有一定的指导意义.%Objective To explore the molecular characteristics of superantigen in Stapkylococcus aureus isolated from blood of patients with bacterial sepsis, anterior nasal cavities of heath care workers, hospitalized patients with non - infective diseases and healthy people from communities. Methods A total of 277 Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin(SE)and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST- 1) by PCR and multiplex PCR. Results SE gene (se) was detected in 51% (142/277) strains. The positive rate of se in isolates from people in hospital (50% - 59 %) was significantly higher than that in isolates from people in community (36%)(P<0.05). The se in isolates from people in hospital was mainly A type, while that from healthy people in community was mainly D type. The positive rate of tsst-1 gene in

  11. Characteristics and evolution of strike-slip tectonics of the Liaohe Western Sag,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Hengmao; Yu Fusheng; Geng Changbo

    2008-01-01

    Because of its rich oil and gas resources and the special tectonic location of the Liaohe Western Sag(the Tanlu Fault traverses the sag),Bohai Bay Basin,a detailed study of its strike-slip tectonics is significant in revealing the sag's tectonic evolution,its control on hydrocarbon accumulation,and the activity history of the northern section of the Tanlu Fault in the Cenozoic.Through systematic structure analysis of 3D seismic data of the Liaohe Western Sag,combined with balanced section analysis,a variety of structural features in relation to right-lateral strike-slip faults,such as echelon normal faults, "comb"structure," flower"structure, "interpretable" and "buried" strike-slip faults have been revealed exist in the Liaohe Western Sag.According to the research in this paper,the complex structural phenomena in the Liaohe Western Sag could be reasonably interpreted as right-lateral strike-slip activity and the strikeo-slip activities of the Liaohe Western Sag began in the early Oligocene.The activity was weak at the beginning(E3S1-2),then strengthened gradually and reached its strongest level in the late Oligocene(E3dl).In the Miocene,the strike-slip activity was low and then strengthened significantly once again from the Pliocene to the present.It is speculated that the entire northern section of the Tanlu Fault has had a similar evolution history since the Oligocene.

  12. SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifeng; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Lapchyk, Ludmila; Navarre, DuRoy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2011-11-01

    EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are common regulators of plant immunity against many pathogens. EDS1 interacts with both PAD4 and SAG101 but direct interaction between PAD4 and SAG101 has not been detected, leading to the suggestion that the EDS1-PAD4 and EDS1-SAG101 complexes are distinct. We show that EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are present in a single complex in planta. While this complex is preferentially nuclear localized, it can be redirected to the cytoplasm in the presence of an extranuclear form of EDS1. PAD4 and SAG101 can in turn, regulate the subcellular localization of EDS1. We also show that the Arabidopsis genome encodes two functionally redundant isoforms of EDS1, either of which can form ternary complexes with PAD4 and SAG101. Simultaneous mutations in both EDS1 isoforms are essential to abrogate resistance (R) protein-mediated defense against turnip crinkle virus (TCV) as well as avrRps4 expressing Pseudomonas syringae. Interestingly, unlike its function as a PAD4 substitute in bacterial resistance, SAG101 is required for R-mediated resistance to TCV, thus implicating a role for the ternary complex in this defense response. However, only EDS1 is required for HRT-mediated HR to TCV, while only PAD4 is required for SA-dependent induction of HRT. Together, these results suggest that EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 also perform independent functions in HRT-mediated resistance.

  13. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  14. The heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC is a key component of a cis-acting promoter element that is critical for SnSAG1 expression in Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Howe, Daniel K

    2009-07-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona undergoes a complex process of intracellular development, during which many genes are temporally regulated. The described study was undertaken to begin identifying the basic promoter elements that control gene expression in S. neurona. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of five S. neurona genes revealed a conserved heptanucleotide motif GAGACGC that is similar to the WGAGACG motif described upstream of multiple genes in Toxoplasma gondii. The promoter region for the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1, which contains three heptanucleotide motifs within 135 bases of the transcription start site, was dissected by functional analysis using a dual luciferase reporter assay. These analyses revealed that a minimal promoter fragment containing all three motifs was sufficient to drive reporter molecule expression, with the presence and orientation of the 5'-most heptanucleotide motif being absolutely critical for promoter function. Further studies should help to identify additional sequence elements important for promoter function and for controlling gene expression during intracellular development by this apicomplexan pathogen.

  15. Combined DC Resistivity Survey and Electric Conductivity- Dielectric Permittivity Measurement at Sag Pond near Lembang Fault, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanti, Mimin; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Bijaksana, Satria; Setiawan, Tedy

    2016-08-01

    Lembang Fault is a normal fault situated at the southern flank of Tangkuban Parahu Volcano in West Java Indonesia. The fault's movement may have caused the formation of sag pond in the vicinity of its which is characterized by the soil layers of the sag pond. The characteristics of the soil can be examined based on its electrical properties such as conductivity (the inverse of resistivity) and dielectric permittivity. Direct field measurement was conducted using DC-resistivity Wenner-Schlumberger method on the sag pond as well as laboratory resistivity measurement of cores taken from the sag pond. Two resistivity crosssections were obtained after performing 2D inversion of the data which reveal that the resistivity distribution consist of a resistive layer (40-60 ohm.m) overlying a medium resistive layer (30-35 ohm.m). The third layer has relatively low resistivity of 16-25 ohm.m. At the intersection of these two lines we took coring samples down to depth of 5 m below surface and measured the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity for each 1 cm of sample using EM-50 data logger. Results from both field and laboratory measurement were analysed to get a better understanding of the sag pond.

  16. Paleogene Tectonic Evolution Controls on Sequence Stratigraphic Patterns in the Fushan Sag, Northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanhong Wang; Hua Wang; Huajun Gan; Entao Liu; Cunyin Xia; Yingdong Zhao; Shanbin Chen; Chengcheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Tectonism is of extreme importance to sequence stratigraphic patterns in continental sedimentary basins, affecting both the architectures and internal makeup of sequences. Sequence stratigraphic framework of the Paleogene system in the Fushan sag, northern South China Sea, was built using 3D and 2D seismic data, complemented by drilling cores and well logs data. One first-order, three second-order and seven third-order sequences were identified. Analysis of paleotectonic stress field, unconformities and subsidence history showed that the Paleogene tectonic evolution presented significant characteristics of multistage and episode, and can be divided into three stages: rifting stage I (initial rifting period), rifting stage II (rapid subsidence period), rifting stage III (fault-depressed diver-sionary period). Partition of the west and east in tectonic activity was obvious. The west area showed relatively stronger tectonic activity than the east area, especially during the rifting stage II. Episodic rifting and lateral variations in tectonic activity resulted in a wide variety of structural slope break belts, which controlled both the sequence architectures and interval makeup, and strongly constrained the development of special facies zones or sand bodies that tended to form hydrocarbon accumulation. This paper classifies the genetic types of slope break belts and their relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns within the Fushan sag, and further discusses the tectonic evolution controls on sequence stratigraphic patterns, which suggests that vertical evolution paths of structural slope break belts and relevant sequence stratigraphic patterns as a response to the Paleogene tectonic evolution were strongly controlled by sag margin types and lateral variations of tectonic activity.

  17. Toxoplasmose em sagüi-de-bigode (Saguinus imperator: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Epiphanio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de toxoplasmose ocorrido em sagüi-de-bigode (Saguinus imperator. O animal foi encontrado morto sem que tenham sido observados sinais clínicos. Achados de necropsia e histopatológicos incluíram pneumonia intersticial moderada, hepatite necrótica multifocal e linfadenite necrosante multifocal a coalescente. A técnica imunoistoquímica (strepto-avidina-biotina peroxidase realizada em pulmão, fígado, linfonodos, baço, coração, intestino e tecido adiposo foi fortemente positiva para Toxoplasma gondii.

  18. Identification of β-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for β-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the β-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for β-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of β-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for β-haemolysin production in S. anginosus.

  19. New methods for calculating the sag of high-temperature conductors; Neue Methoden zur Durchhangberechnung fuer Hochtemperaturleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Ramzi [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany). Fachbereich IEM; Sassmannshausen, Achim [DB Energie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Energieerzeugungs- und Uebertragungssysteme; Scheel, Joerg

    2010-11-15

    The DB installed its fi rst high-temperature conductor in its 110 kV network in 2002. The line was designed using the standard calculation methods for the sags. In the future high-temperature conductors will be used increasingly in high-voltage grids. When operating such conductors at high currents, more precise models for calculating the sags are recommended. The method presented hereafter uses a bilinear model for representing the behaviour of bimetallic conductors at high temperatures and determines the transition point above which the steel core alone carries the mechanical load. Above the transition point the tensile force is reduced to a lower extent than by standard calculations. The sag above the transition point will be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  20. Distribution of newly described enterotoxin-like genes in Staphylococcus aureus from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Jacek; Dabrowska, Anna; Bystron, Jarosław; Korzekwa, Kamila; Chrzanowska, Jozefa; Molenda, Jerzy

    2006-04-15

    Extensive analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus genome has allowed the identification of new genes encoding enterotoxin-like superantigens (SEls). Some of these are thought to be involved in staphylococcal food poisoning, while others do not elicit any emetic effect. The potential impact of these members of the enterotoxin-like family on the human organism seems to rely mainly on their superantigenic activity. In this paper the distribution of the genes coding for enterotoxin-like superantigens in S. aureus isolated from food was studied. Fifty isolates of S. aureus were examined and 27 were shown to be enterotoxigenic. Only 9 of the 27 strains carried genes encoding enterotoxins SEA-SEE. In 18 SEA-SEE-negative strains the presence of newly described enterotoxin genes was detected. All SEA-SEE-positive strains simultaneously carried genes of new SEls. We show that the gene encoding SElH (staphylococcal enterotoxin-like enterotoxin H) was the most frequently detected (n=14), while genes encoding SElI together with SElG accompanied by the other genes of the egc locus were detected in three strains. We also detected the presence of three less investigated genes: sep, sel, and sek. These genes were present in eight, two, and one isolate, respectively. In one strain, sep was accompanied by genes of other SEls, while in the remaining seven it was the only enterotoxin-like gene detected. The high prevalence of newly discovered enterotoxin genes, including the genes encoding emetic toxins, was demonstrated in food-derived strains. This supports the need for additional work on its role in food poisoning and, alternatively, to monitor its presence in S. aureus isolated from food. Our results suggest that yet unknown genetic elements encoding enterotoxin genes may exist.

  1. Comparison of the effects of SAG-M and whole-blood transfusions on postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1991-01-01

    pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens. The postoperative skin-test response decreased more in the patients who received whole blood (15 patients) than in those who received SAG-M blood (16 patients) (60% versus 42%, p less than 0......The influence of perioperative whole-blood transfusion and transfusion with erythrocyte suspension (SAG-M blood) on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 67 patients who underwent elective resection for colorectal cancer. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed...

  2. Paleogeomorphy, provenance system and sedimentary system of the Dongying formation in the Qikou sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; HUANG Chuan-yan; ZHAO Shu-e; YAN De-tian; BAI Yun-feng; XIANG Xue-mei; CHEN Si; XIA Cun-yin; LIAO Ji-hua

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructed synsedimentary paleogeomorpholgy is an effective method in predicting the distribution of sandbodies and can provide valid evidence in the search for reservoirs. Based on a synsedirnentary paleogeomorpholgy reconstruction of the third member of the Dongying formation (Ed3) in the Qikou sag, the basic paleogeomorphic characteristics of Ed3 are described and the spatial distributions of denudation and subsidence areas are discussed. Key boundary faults controlling the deposition of impor-tant sediment bodies are proposed and the interrelations among faulted slope-break belts or flexure belts, intra-depression uplifts and sags, sediment sources and sediments input points have been investigated. Furthermore, the spatial distributions of the depo-center, subsidence centers and a sedimentary system have been determined. Our results are beneficial in the search for prominent reservoirs in petroleum exploration. Therefore, they are of important theoretical and practical value in discussing the compilation techniques of syndepositional paleogeomorphology, in recognizing paleogeomorphic characteristics and the coupling analysis of provenance and sedimentary systems.

  3. A Single Mooring System with Sag-Extensibility and Flexural Rigidity Applied to Offshore Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.-C.Tsai; Hsien Hua Lee; Jun-Yen Lee; S.-S.Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Floating platform system has been extensively used in ocean exploitation,particularly for a tension-leg platform (TLP) system in deep water.Most of the TLPs are multi-mooring systems,where multi-joints are connected to the tension-legs so that the platform is not allowed to twist freely and may subject to enormous force induced by large incident waves in the weak-direction of the structure.This study aims to exploit a single moored offshore platform system that may attract less force and can be operated with less effort.In our analysis,in addition to mechanical properties of the tether,two important properties are also taken into consideration for the single mooring tether with expanded cross sectional dimension and utilization of stronger material,namely,the sag-extensibility and the flexural rigidity.Finally,the dynamic structural behavior produced by the mechanical effects on the new system is investigated and compared with that of traditional design while the wave-structure interactions of large body are also accounted for.Our study finds that the neglect of sag-extensibility or the flexural rigidity of large,strong mooring cable may result in a conservative but not necessarily safe design.

  4. Analogue modelling and mechanism of tectonic inversion of the Xihu Sag, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Sanzhong; Guo, Lingli; Suo, Yanhui; Dai, Liming

    2017-05-01

    The East China Sea Shelf Basin lies between the Pacific Subduction and Indian-Eurasian Collision tectonic domains and records Cenozoic tectonic inversion, especially in the Xihu Sag. To improve the understanding of the evolution and mechanism of tectonic inversion, this paper employs analogue modelling to reproduce the evolutionary process. Combined with the structural analysis of seismic profile, this paper determines the pattern of basement-involved faults. Simulation results show that under the transtension, two subsidence centers developed and a number of normal faults assembled in two flower structures. When the stress field turned into transpression, the geometry and deformation of inversion basin inherited the previous transtensional basin and pre-existing faults, respectively. The geometry and fault patterns in models are well consistent with those observed in the Xihu Sag, which indicates the plausibility of similar deformation controls. The formation of the tectonic inversion is related to the variation in stress field caused by the changes in the rates and directions of the subduction of the Pacific Plate and the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasian Plate.

  5. Solution to avoid unwanted trips for PV systems connected to LV network facing voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Minh, Chau; Tran-Quoc, Tuan; Kieny, Christophe [IDEA, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Bacha, Seddik [Grenoble Electric Engineering Laboratory, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cabanac, Philippe; Grenard, Sebastien [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Goulielmakis, David [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Projects and Engineering Center

    2011-07-01

    Most of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks have a single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase PV inverters facing voltage sags caused by short circuits is of major concern. These behaviors depend on fault types, fault location, types of grid architecture, grid protection systems (with or without auto-recloser system) and PV protection types. Therefore, the first investigation of this work is to study comprehensively the behaviors of PV systems connected to real LV networks facing voltage sags in different scenarios by taking into account the real network protection. Furthermore, future power systems with a large share of PV systems connected could be severely affected if several of the PV systems are tripping at the same instant. From these results of simulation, unwanted trip cases, due to the disconnection protection of PV systems are identified. Finally, a simple efficient solution by using the voltage-time characteristic for PV system is proposed. The validation by simulations shows the efficiency of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  6. Application of Reservoir Seismic Inversion to the Damintun Sag in the Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yunqing; Wang Yanchun; Qin Tian; Yang Wenjun; Gao Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    According to the special geologic conditions of the Damintun (大民屯) sag in the Liaohe(辽河) basin, with a complex structure and rapid lateral change of thin interbeds, the technique of logging-constraint seismic inversion based on prestack high-resolution seismic data was used in the description of oil-gas reservoirs. Reservoir seismic inversion can effectively identify underground complex geologic structures and seismic anomalous reflection volumes and quantitatively predict the distribution of sandstones in space and their variant law in combination with lithologic interpretation.This work studies the wave impedance inversion of high-resolution prestack seismic data, and logging multi-attribute data inversion, and applies these methods to the Damintun sag. As a result, the vertical resolution of reservoir prediction is raised, ability of identifying thin-interbed sand bodies is enhanced,reliability of reservoir prediction is improved, and favorable lithologic traps of this area are further confirmed. These effects are of significance in the exploration of hidden hydrocarbons in this oilfield.

  7. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  8. Sag mitigation in distribution system by using Dynamic voltage Restorer (DVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is most important concern in the current age. It’s now a day’s necessary with the refined devices, where performance is very perceptive to the quality of power supply. Power quality crisis is an incidence manifest as a typical voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure of end use equipments. One of the major crises dealt here is the power sag. Perceptive industrial loads and distribution networks suffer from different types of service interruptions and outages which results in a major financial loss. To improve the power quality, custom power-devices are used. The device considered in this work is Dynamic Voltage Restorer. This paper shows modelling, analysis and simulation of a DVR test systems using MATLAB. I have considered single line to ground fault for linear load. The role of DVR is to “compensate load voltage” is examined during the different fault conditions like voltage sag, single phase to ground faults.

  9. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  10. Corruption of Human Follicular B-Lymphocyte Trafficking by a B-Cell Superantigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Viau, Muriel; Badr, Gamal; Richard, Yolande; Zouali, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Protein A (SpA) of Staphylococcus aureus is known to target the paratope of immunoglobulins expressing VH3 genes, and to delete marginal zone B cells and B-1a in vivo. We have discovered that SpA endows S. aureus with the potential to subvert B-cell trafficking in the host. We found that SpA, whose Fc-binding site has been inactivated, binds essentially to naïve B cells and induces a long-lasting decrease in CXCR4 expression and in B-cell chemotaxis to CXCL12. Competition experiments indicated that SpA does not interfere with binding of CXCR4 ligands and does not directly bind to CXCR4. This conclusion is strongly supported by the inability of SpA to modulate clathrin-mediated CXCR4 internalization, which contrasts with the potent effect of anti-immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies. Microscopy and biochemical experiments confirmed that SpA binds to the surface IgM/IgD complex and induces its clathrin-dependent internalization. Concomitantly, the SpA-induced signaling leads to protein kinase C–dependent CXCR4 downmodulation, suggesting that SpA impairs the recycling of CXCR4, a postclathrin process that leads to either degradation into lysozomes or de novo expression at the cell surface. In addition to providing novel insight into disruption of B-cell trafficking by an infectious agent, our findings may have therapeutic implications. Because CXCR4 has been associated with cancer metastasis and with certain autoimmune diseases, SpA behaves as an evolutionary tailored highly specific, chemokine receptor inhibitor that may have value in addition to conventional cytotoxic therapy in patients with various malignancies and immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22367177

  11. 渤海湾盆地沾化凹陷富林洼陷油气来源及分布规律研究%Hydrocarbon origin and distribution regularity in Fulin sub-Sag, Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红

    2013-01-01

      通过对渤海湾盆地沾化凹陷富林洼陷原油的生物标志物分布与组合特征分析,认为该区主要存在3类原油:Ⅰ类原油主要分布于东次洼,呈植烷优势,伽马蜡烷含量高,重排甾烷与4-甲基甾烷含量较低,来源于东次洼本身的沙四上亚段烃源岩;Ⅱ类原油分布于中次洼洼陷内部,具有姥鲛烷优势、伽马蜡烷含量低、重排甾烷含量高的特征,纵向上不同储层油气来源存在差异,其中浅部储层油气来源于孤南洼陷沙三下亚段烃源岩,深部储层油气主要来自于富林洼陷沙三下亚段烃源岩;Ⅲ类原油分布于中次洼断裂带附近,成熟度较低,姥鲛烷优势,伽马蜡烷含量中等,C28甾烷含量丰富,孕甾烷和重排甾烷含量较低,为孤南洼陷沙一段与富林洼陷沙三下亚段烃源岩所形成的混源油。%Based on the studies of biomarker distribution and composition of crude oils in the Fulin sub-Sag of the Zhanhua Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, there are 3 types of crude oil in the study area. The crude oils of typeⅠ mainly exist in the east of the sub-sag, characterized by low Pr/ Ph ratio, high gammacerence content as well as low diasterane and 4-methyl-sterane contents. They are originated from source rocks in the upper subsection of the 4th member of the Shahejie Formation in the east of the sub-sag. The crude oils of type Ⅱ mainly locate in the center of the sub-sag, featured by high Pr/ Ph ratio, low gammacerence content and high diasterane content. The origin for oil and gas is different vertically. Hydrocarbon in the middle and shallow reservoirs is mainly origi-nated from source rocks in the lower subsection of the 3rd member of the Shahejie Formation in the Gunan sub-Sag while hydrocarbon in the deep reservoir is mainly originated from source rocks in the lower subsection of the 3rd member of the Shahejie Formation in the Fulin sub-Sag. The crude oils of type Ⅲ mainly distribute around fault

  12. Immunity assay of the NcSAG1 subunit vaccine against bovine Neospora caninum%牛新孢子虫NcSAG1基因工程亚单位疫苗的免疫试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立军; 张守发; 栾杨; 焦石

    2010-01-01

    为了解新孢子虫NcSAG1表面蛋白基因工程亚单位疫苗对实验动物的免疫效果,本试验提取延边黄牛新孢子虫野毒株基因组DNA,用PCR技术扩增新孢子虫NcSAG1表面蛋白基因,并在大肠杆菌中进行原核表达,将Western-blot鉴定具有免疫活性的重组蛋白与弗氏佐剂混合制备NcSAG1基因工程亚单位疫苗,免疫BALB/c小鼠,应用间接ELISA方法测定体液免疫水平,应用流式细胞技术测定细胞免疫水平,以此评价疫苗对实验动物的免疫应答反应.结果显示,制备的NcSAG1基因工程亚单位疫苗免疫BALB/c小鼠后,在三免后第3天时,检测抗体的OD450nm值达0.688;CD4+/CD8+值达3.650,均显著高于重组蛋白免疫组和PBS对照组,说明制备的基因工程亚单位疫苗能够提高实验动物的体液免疫和细胞免疫水平.本试验为牛新孢子虫NcSAG1表面蛋白基因工程亚单位疫苗的深入研究奠定了基础.

  13. Semi-Active Control of Three-Dimensional Vibrations of an Inclined Sag Cable with Magnetorheological Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, W. L.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional semi-active vibration control of an inclined sag cable with discrete magnetorheological (MR) dampers is investigated in this paper using the finite difference method (FDM). A modified Dahl model is used to describe the dynamic property of MR damper. The nonlinear equations of mo...

  14. An exact, closed-form solution for equilibrium of traveling, sagged, elastic cables under uniformly distributed loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO; C.D.MOTE,Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The exact, closed-form solution for equilibrium of traveling, sagged, elastic cables under uniformly-distributed loading is derived. Three components of displacement describing two equilibria of an extensible, traveling, elastic cable are also obtained. Illustrations of equilibrium configuration, tension distribution and displacements of cables are given.

  15. Glutenite bodies sequence division of the upper Es4 in northern Minfeng zone of Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xupeng

    2017-04-01

    Glutenite bodies are widely developed in northern Minfeng zone of Dongying Sag. Their litho-electric relationship is not clear. In addition, as the conventional sequence stratigraphic research method drawbacks of involving too many subjective human factors, it has limited deepening of the regional sequence stratigraphic research. The wavelet transform technique based on logging data and the time-frequency analysis technique based on seismic data have advantages of dividing sequence stratigraphy quantitatively comparing with the conventional methods. Under the basis of the conventional sequence research method, this paper used the above techniques to divide the fourth-order sequence of the upper Es4 in northern Minfeng zone of Dongying Sag. The research shows that the wavelet transform technique based on logging data and the time-frequency analysis technique based on seismic data are essentially consistent, both of which divide sequence stratigraphy quantitatively in the frequency domain; wavelet transform technique has high resolutions. It is suitable for areas with wells. The seismic time-frequency analysis technique has wide applicability, but a low resolution. Both of the techniques should be combined; the upper Es4 in northern Minfeng zone of Dongying Sag is a complete set of third-order sequence, which can be further subdivided into 5 fourth-order sequences that has the depositional characteristics of fine-upward sequence in granularity. Key words: Dongying sag, northern Minfeng zone, wavelet transform technique, time-frequency analysis technique ,the upper Es4, sequence stratigraphy

  16. Prolonged post-rift magmatism on highly extended crust of divergent continental margins (Baiyun Sag, South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Alves, Tiago M.; Wu, Shiguo; Li, Wei; Huuse, Mads; Mi, Lijun; Sun, Qiliang; Ma, Benjun

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic, borehole and geochemical data reveal a prolonged phase of post-rift magmatism on highly extended crust of the Baiyun Sag, South China Sea. Two volcanic complexes are identified and described in the context of continental rifting and diachronous continental breakup of the South China Sea. Biostratigraphic data from exploration wells BY7-1 and BY2, complemented by K-Ar datings from core samples, confirm that magmatic activity in the Baiyun Sag occurred in two main stages: (1) a first episode at the base of the Miocene (23.8 Ma); and (2) a second episode occurring at the end of the Early Miocene (17.6 Ma). The relative location of volcanic complexes in the Baiyun Sag, and their stratigraphic position, reveals prolonged magmatism inboard of the ocean-continent transition zone during continental breakup. We suggest that magmatism in the Baiyun Sag reflects progressive continental breakup in the South China Sea, with the last volcanic episode marking the end of a breakup sequence representing the early post-rift tectonic events associated with the continental breakup process. Seismic and borehole data from this breakup sequence records diachronous magma emplacement and complex changes in depositional environments during continental breakup.

  17. Filling History and Post-Breakup Acceleration of Sedimentation in Baiyun Sag,Deepwater Northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Di; Sun Zhen; Liao Jie; Zhao Zhongxian; He Min; Wu Xiangjie; Pang Xiong

    2009-01-01

    The Baiyun (白云) sag in the southern Pearl River Mouth basin is the largest and deepest sag in deepwater northern South China Sea.Researches and exploration in this sag have revealed many distinct features of the sag.This article reports its filling history through backstripping of depth data of interpreted sequence boundaries.Maps of sediment rates of 10 sequences from 49 Ma to the present were constructed,showing the spatio-temporal variation of the sediment rate.Three stages of sediment infilling,49-17.5 Ma,17.5-10.5 Ma,and 10.5-0 Mn,were divided by abrupt changes of sedimentary patterns.If the breakup of the South China Sea took place at ~30 Mn,significant pint-breakup acceleration of sedimentation was observed at 17.5-15.5 Ma and 13.8-12.5 Mn,indicating acceleration of subsidence at these times.We propose that the onset of strong post-breakup snbsidence at ~17.5 Ma was an important tectonic event that changed the pattern of sedimentation from discrete and medium-rate depmition centers in both main and south snbsags to restricted but high-rate deposition in the main snbsag.The cause and implications of this newly recognized event need tobe investigated.

  18. Distinct SagA from Hospital-Associated Clade A1 Enterococcus faecium Strains Contributes to Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, F L; de Been, M; Braat, J C; Hoogenboezem, T; Vink, C; Bayjanov, J; Rogers, M R C; Huebner, J; Bonten, M J M; Willems, R J L; Leavis, H L

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as matrix components contributing to biofilm development. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation capacity and the roles of eDNA and secreted proteins for 83 E. faecium strains with different phylogenetic origins that clustered in clade A1 and clade B. Although there was no significant difference in biofilm formation between E. faecium strains from these two clades, the addition of DNase I or proteinase K to biofilms demonstrated that eDNA is essential for biofilm formation in most E. faecium strains, whereas proteolysis impacted primarily biofilms of E. faecium clade A1 strains. Secreted antigen A (SagA) was the most abundant protein in biofilms from E. faecium clade A1 and B strains, although its localization differed between the two groups. sagA was present in all sequenced E. faecium strains, with a consistent difference in the repeat region between the clades, which correlated with the susceptibility of biofilms to proteinase K. This indicates an association between the SagA variable repeat profile and the localization and contribution of SagA in E. faecium biofilms.

  19. “Complementarity” Feature of Hydrocarbon Distribution in Oil-rich Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuJinhu; YiShiwei; LuXuejun; WangQuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research and exploration of lithostratigraphic reservoir in me Jizhong depression of the Bohai Bay basin and Erlian basin, the hydrocarbon distribution in a continental oil-rich sag has "complementarity" feature, viz. the hydrocarbon resources configuration and plane distribution of the structural reservoir and lithostratigraphic reservoir have the "complementarity". This distribution feature is controlled by many factors such as the macroscopical geological setting, reservoir-forming condition, and the reservoir-forming mechanism of structural reservoir and lithostratigraphic reservoir. More research shows that the "complementarity" of hydrocarbon distribution is prevalent in every kind of continental basin. This "rule" helps to establish a new exploration theory, a scientific exploration program, and make proper exploration deployments in hydrocarbon exploration. Therefore, it is significant for the exploration work in continental petroliferous basins of China.

  20. Sag Compensation System for Assembly of MDT-Chambers for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barashkou, A V; Chepurnov, V F; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Glonti, G L; Gongadze, A L; Ilyushenka, Y N; Kotov, S A; Kruchonak, V G; Tskhadadze, E G

    2005-01-01

    The description of a system of the devices created for compensation of the gravitational deflection of the drift chamber during its assembly is presented. By means of this system during stage-by-stage gluing of layers of tube drift detectors to the chamber the transversal deflection considerably decreases and by that high accuracy of mutual position of separate tubes is provided. The devices were applied at assembly of 74 MDT-chambers of the ATLAS experiment. Design values of deformation of the chambers as well as the results of measurement of transversal deflections obtained during the assembly with the use of the system of sag compensation are given. Testing of chambers on the X-ray tomograph at CERN has shown that the accuracy of the positions of separate signal wires inside the assembled chambers is within the limits of the required 20 $\\mu$m.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Correlation of Gravity Sag in Solar Sail Quality Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jonathan T.; Leifer, Jack; DeMoss, Joshua A.; Walker, Eric N.; Belvin, W. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are among the most studied members of the ultra-lightweight and inflatable (Gossamer) space structures family due to their potential to provide propellentless propulsion. They are comprised of ultra-thin membrane panels that, to date, have proven very difficult to experimentally characterize and numerically model due to their reflectivity and flexibility, and the effects of gravity sag and air damping. Numerical models must be correlated with experimental measurements of sub-scale solar sails to verify that the models can be scaled up to represent full-sized solar sails. In this paper, the surface shapes of five horizontally supported 25 micron thick aluminized Kapton membranes were measured to a 1.0 mm resolution using photogrammetry. Several simple numerical models closely match the experimental data, proving the ability of finite element simulations to predict actual behavior of solar sails.

  2. Mitigation of voltage sag, swell and power factor correction using solid-state transformer b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel topology of solid-state transformer (SST. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC and AC/AC converters have been integrated to achieve higher efficiency. To obtain higher efficiency from other SST with DC-link topologies, the AC/DC and DC/AC converters have been integrated in one matrix converter. The proposed SST performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. In addition, it has other benefits such as light weight, low volume and elimination of hazardous liquid dielectrics because it uses medium frequency transformer. The operation and some performances of the proposed SST have been verified by the simulation results.

  3. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag+ was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag+ becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles.

  4. Evidence that antibodies against recombinant SnSAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites are involved in infection and immunity in equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Siobhan; Witonsky, Sharon

    2009-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the principal etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). An immunodominant protein of S. neurona, SnSAG-1, is expressed by the majority of S. neurona merozoites isolated from spinal tissues of horses diagnosed with EPM and may be a candidate for diagnostic tests and prophylaxis for EPM. Five horses were vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant SnSAG1 (rSnSAG1) and 5 control (sham vaccinated) horses were vaccinated with adjuvant only. Serum was evaluated pre- and post-vaccination, prior to challenge, for antibodies against rSnSAG1 and inhibitory effects on the infectivity of S. neurona by an in vitro serum neutralization assay. The effect of vaccination with rSnSAG1 on in vivo infection by S. neurona was evaluated by challenging all the horses with S. neurona merozoites. Blinded daily examinations and 4 blinded neurological examinations were used to evaluate the presence of clinical signs of EPM. The 5 vaccinated horses developed serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers of SnSAG1, detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), post-vaccination. Post-vaccination serum from vaccinated horses was found to have an inhibitory effect on merozoites, demonstrated by in vitro bioassay. Following the challenge, the 5 control horses displayed clinical signs of EPM, including ataxia. While 4 of the 5 vaccinated horses did not become ataxic. One rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horse showed paresis in 1 limb with muscle atrophy. All horses showed mild, transient, cranial nerve deficits; however, disease did not progress to ataxia in rSnSAG-1 vaccinated horses. The study showed that vaccination with rSnSAG-1 produced antibodies in horses that neutralized merozoites when tested by in vitro culture and significantly reduced clinical signs demonstrated by in vivo challenge.

  5. SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Zhu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are common regulators of plant immunity against many pathogens. EDS1 interacts with both PAD4 and SAG101 but direct interaction between PAD4 and SAG101 has not been detected, leading to the suggestion that the EDS1-PAD4 and EDS1-SAG101 complexes are distinct. We show that EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 are present in a single complex in planta. While this complex is preferentially nuclear localized, it can be redirected to the cytoplasm in the presence of an extranuclear form of EDS1. PAD4 and SAG101 can in turn, regulate the subcellular localization of EDS1. We also show that the Arabidopsis genome encodes two functionally redundant isoforms of EDS1, either of which can form ternary complexes with PAD4 and SAG101. Simultaneous mutations in both EDS1 isoforms are essential to abrogate resistance (R protein-mediated defense against turnip crinkle virus (TCV as well as avrRps4 expressing Pseudomonas syringae. Interestingly, unlike its function as a PAD4 substitute in bacterial resistance, SAG101 is required for R-mediated resistance to TCV, thus implicating a role for the ternary complex in this defense response. However, only EDS1 is required for HRT-mediated HR to TCV, while only PAD4 is required for SA-dependent induction of HRT. Together, these results suggest that EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 also perform independent functions in HRT-mediated resistance.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of sagging shifts on isocenter accuracy and image quality of cone-beam CT from kV on-board imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2009-07-17

    To investigate the effects of sagging shifts of three on-board kV imaging systems (OBI) on the isocenter positioning accuracy and image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT). A cubical phantom having a metal marker in the center that can be aligned with the radiation isocenter was used to measure sagging shifts and their variation with gantry angle on three Varian linacs with kV on-board imaging systems. A marker-tracking algorithm was applied to detect the shadow of the metal marker and localize its center in the two-dimensional cone-beam radiographic projections. This tracking algorithm is based on finding the position of maximum cross-correlation between a region-of-interest from a template image (including the metal marker) and the projections containing the shadow of the metal marker. Sagging shifts were corrected by mapping the center of the metal marker to a reference position for all projections acquired over a full gantry rotation (0-360 degrees). The sag-corrected radiographic projections were then used to reconstruct CBCT using Feldkamp back-projection. A standard quality assurance phantom was used to evaluate the image quality of CBCT before and after sagging correction. Sagging affects both the positioning accuracy of the OBI isocenter and the CBCT image quality. For example, on one linac, the position of the marker on the cone-beam radiographic projections depends on the angular view and has maximal shifts of about 2 mm along the imager x-direction (patient's cross-plane). Sagging produces systematic shifts of the OBI isocenter as large as 1 mm posterior and 1 mm left in patient coordinates relative to the radiation isocenter. Further, it causes spatial distortion and blurring in CBCT image reconstructed from radiographic projections that are not corrected for OBI sagging. CBCT numbers vary by about 1% in full-fan scans and up to 3.5% in half-fan scans because of sagging. In order to achieve better localization accuracy in image-guided radiation therapy

  7. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Witt, Pamela S; Simion, F Anthony; Takema, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included 85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45 degrees views were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group, and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females. The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant TgSAG2 and NcSAG1 to detect Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic animals in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, Mo; CAO, Shinuo; SEVINC, Ferda; SEVINC, Mutlu; CEYLAN, Onur; LIU, Mingming; WANG, Guanbo; MOUMOUNI, Paul Franck Adjou; JIRAPATTHARASATE, Charoonluk; SUZUKI, Hiroshi; NISHIKAWA, Yoshifumi; XUAN, Xuenan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the scarce information on occurrences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in domestic animals from Turkey, the aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of these parasite infections in cattle, horses, sheep, goats and dogs in Turkey. The specific antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected by iELISAs based on the recombinant TgSAG2 or NcSAG1 in a total of 2,039 serum samples from eleven provinces. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infections was 46.3%, 4.0%, 20.0%, 12.9% and 19.8%, that of N. caninum infections was 0.3%, 7.4%, 2.1%, 3.2% and 16.6% in the horses, cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, respectively. These results indicated that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are prevalent in Turkish domestic animals. PMID:27523504

  9. Gene Network Analysis and Functional Studies of Senescence-associated Genes Reveal Novel Regulators of Arabidopsis Leaf Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghai Li; Jinying Peng; Xing Wen; Hongwei Guo

    2012-01-01

    Plant leaf senescence has been recognized as the last phase of plant development,a highly ordered process regulated by genes known as senescence associated genes (SAGs).However,the function of most of SAGs in regulating leaf senescence as well as regulators of those functionally known SAGs are still unclear.We have previously developed a curated database of genes potentially associated with leaf senescence,the Leaf Senescence Database (LSD).In this study,we built gene networks to identify common regulators of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana using promoting or delaying senescence genes in LSD.Our results demonstrated that plant hormones cytokinin,auxin,nitric oxide as well as small molecules,such as Ca2+,delay leaf senescence.By contrast,ethylene,ABA,SA and JA as well as small molecules,such as oxygen,promote leaf senescence,altogether supporting the idea that phytohormones play a critical role in regulating leaf senescence.Functional analysis of candidate SAGs in LSD revealed that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY75 and a Cys2/His2-type transcription factor AZF2 are positive regulators of leaf senescence and loss-of-function of WRKY75 or AZF2 delayed leaf senescence.We also found that silencing of a protein phosphatase,AtMKP2,promoted early senescence.Collectively,LSD can serve as a comprehensive resource for systematic study of the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence as well as offer candidate genes for functional analyses.

  10. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on detecting intrathecal antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 ELISAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Howe, D K; Morrow, J K; Graves, A; Yeargan, M R; Johnson, A L; MacKay, R J; Furr, M; Saville, W J A; Williams, N M

    2013-01-01

    Recent work demonstrated the value of antigen-specific antibody indices (AI and C-value) to detect intrathecal antibody production against Sarcocystis neurona for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The study was conducted to assess whether the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced to a simple serum : cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titer ratio to achieve accurate EPM diagnosis. Paired serum and CSF samples from 128 horses diagnosed by postmortem examination. The sample set included 44 EPM cases, 35 cervical-vertebral malformation (CVM) cases, 39 neurologic cases other than EPM or CVM, and 10 non-neurologic cases. Antibodies against S. neurona were measured in serum and CSF pairs using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 (SnSAG2, 4/3) ELISAs, and the ratio of each respective serum titer to CSF titer was determined. Likelihood ratios and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on serum titers, CSF titers, and serum : CSF titer ratios. Excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was obtained from the SnSAG2, 4/3 serum : CSF titer ratio. Sensitivity and specificity of 93.2 and 81.1%, respectively, were achieved using a ratio cutoff of ≤100, whereas sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 95.9%, respectively, if a more rigorous cutoff of ≤50 was used. Antibody titers in CSF also provided good diagnostic accuracy. Serum antibody titers alone yielded much lower sensitivity and specificity. The study confirms the value of detecting intrathecal antibody production for antemortem diagnosis of EPM, and they further show that the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced in practice to a simple serum : CSF titer ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    OpenAIRE

    Genji Imokawa; Koichi Ishida

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA) predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or ...

  12. Over-expression of 60s ribosomal L23a is associated with cellular proliferation in SAG resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a, identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism.

  13. [Inhibition of invasion and multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii in human colonic epithelial cells by a monoclonal antibody against protein SAG2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J C; Sánchez, R M; Iraola, R C; Pérez, J S

    2001-01-01

    By an bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, it was proved hat an IgG 1 subclass, murine monoclonal antibody to surface protein SAG2 of Toxoplasma gondii is capable of reducing the invasion and multiplication of the parasites in highly differentiated mucine secretory HT29-18N2 line cells from a human colon adenocarcinoma. This result shows the importance of surface protein SAG2 of T.gondii in invasion and further multiplication of parasites in the host cell.

  14. Comparison of the effects of SAG-M and whole-blood transfusions on postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    The influence of perioperative whole-blood transfusion and transfusion with erythrocyte suspension (SAG-M blood) on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 67 patients who underwent elective resection for colorectal cancer. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed...... pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens. The postoperative skin-test response decreased more in the patients who received whole blood (15 patients) than in those who received SAG-M blood (16 patients) (60% versus 42%, p less than 0.......001) and in those who did not receive a blood transfusion (36 patients) (60% versus 40%, p less than 0.001). The enhanced postoperative immunosuppression in patients who received whole-blood transfusions persisted after matching according to age, sex, height, weight, hemoglobin and serum albumin levels, duration...

  15. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter

  16. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. Determinar a presença de anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos e o grau de sensibilização mediada por esses, assim como se esses estão associados à gravidade da asma em pacientes adultos. Estudo transversal incluindo asmáticos adultos em acompanhamento ambulatorial em

  17. Determination of age-related changes in the morphological structure (sagging) of the human cheek using a photonumeric scale and three-dimensional surface parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, K; Takema, Y; Fujimura, T; Moriwaki, S; Kitahara, T; Imokawa, G

    2000-08-01

    The usefulness of the photo standard for evaluating skin sagging in the face, especially in the cheeks, was evaluated. A six-stage photo standard was prepared using photos of women aged 17-83-years-old at three magnification rates (136-188 women in each group). Based on this photo standard, scoring was performed using a six-grade scoring system by two specialists to obtain the consensus score. Scoring was also performed in parallel by five general observers. The degree of agreement between the two scores was evaluated by calculating the Kappa value. In each group, the Kappa value was 0.452-0.563, indicating moderate agreement. Thus, the photo standard may be useful for evaluating sagging. Based on the photo standard, a score of 2, at which sagging becomes detectable appeared at the age of 40 years. In parallel, 3D analysis of replicas around the cheek was performed to morphologically analyse age-related changes in sagging. When the depth parameter was compared between the nasolabial groove and the mouth corners, a higher value was observed in the nasolabial groove until the age of 40 years, but higher values were seen in the mouth corners thereafter. This may have been because sagging in the cheeks descends to the area around the mouth, resulting in reversion in the sWv value. These findings indicated that sagging in the cheeks becomes morphologically distinct in women in their forties.

  18. The account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors of air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The opportunity approached is shown, but more exact as it is usually accepted, the account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines. The technique of reception of analytical expressions is resulted. For an opportunity of comparison traditional expressions for specific potential factors are resulted also. Communication of the offered and traditional analytical expressions is shown. Offered analytical expressions are not difficult...

  19. The impacts of voltage sags in industrial electric systems; Os impactos dos afundamentos de tensao em sistemas eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Reinaldo Moreira [Moinhos Vera Cruz, Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Selenio Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The sensitiveness increasing of industrial equipment related to the perturbation of electric grid, resulting in losses to the productive chain, turns the energy quality in the subject more discussed by the electrical community. In this study case on the problems caused by voltage sags to equipment of an industrial plant from the food sector, it is presented the identification process and the adopted solutions. (author)

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Hydrocarbon Expulsion of Petroleum Systems in the Niuzhuang Sag,Bohai Bay Basin,East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; LI Sumei; JIN Zhijun; BAI Guoping

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed survey of the distribution and organic geochemical characteristics of potential source rocks in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, a new approach to assess the amount of hydrocarbons generated and expelled has been developed. The approach is applicable to evaluate hydrocarbons with different genetic mechanisms. The results show that the models for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion vary with potential source rocks, depending on thermal maturity, types of organic matter and paleoenvironment. Hydrocarbons are mostly generated and expelled from source rocks within the normal oil window. It was calculated that the special interval (algal-rich shales of the Es4 member formed in brackish environments) in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag has a much higher potential of immature oil generation than the other intervals in the area. This suggests that hydrocarbons can definitely be generated in early diagenesis, especially under certain special geological settings. The proportion of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the Es4 shales in the early diagenetic stage is up to 26.75% and 17.36%,respectively. It was also observed that laminated shales have a much higher expulsion efficiency than massive mudstones.In contrast, the special interval of the Es4 shales proposed from previous studies is probably not the whole rock for oil in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag because of the small proportion of the gross volume and corresponding low percentage of hydrocarbons generated and expelled. A much lower expulsion efficiency of the source rock during the early stage relative to that within the normal oil window has been calculated. Our results indicate that the Es4 mudstones rather than the shales deposited in the Niuzhuang and Guangli Sag are the main source rocks for the oil discovered.

  1. Geochemical constraints on mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in theYingjisu Sag, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Lingyun; CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; YU Xinghe; MA Lixin; DUAN Yunge

    2009-01-01

    The Yingjisu Sag was petroliferous for normal oil, condensate oil, reservoir bitumen and natural gases. Geochemical studies showed that natural gases in the Yingjisu Sag were a gas mixture consisting mainly of Cambrian pyrolysis gas, Jurassic condensate oil in well Yingnan 2 and normal oil in well Tadong 2, reflecting the characteristics of marine-phase gases and oils, while crude oils in well Longkou 1 demonstrated the characteristics of both marine and terrestrial oils, which were derived from lower algae and higher plants. Jurassic oils from wells Longkou 1 and Huayingcan 1 and Cambrian crude oils from well Tadong 2 were derived mainly from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks. Jurassic and Silurian reservoir bitumens from well Yingnan 2 were biodegradated, suggesting they are of marine and terrestrial origins. The bitumens have similar geochemical characteristics, which are correlated well with Ordovician crude oils from well Tadong 2 and Jurassic condensate oil from well Yingnan 2. Based on the characteristics of tectonic evolution in this area and the analysis of hydrocarbon accumulation, the constraints on the mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in the Yingjisu Sag were brought forward.

  2. Geology, thermal maturation, and source rock geochemistry in a volcanic covered basin: San Juan sag, south-central Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, R.R. [Priority Oil & Gas, Denver, CO (United States); Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Leonard, C. [Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The San Juan sag, concealed by the vast San Juan volcanic field of south-central Colorado, has only recently benefited from oil and gas wildcat drilling and evaluations. Sound geochemical analyses and maturation modeling are essential elements for successful exploration and development. Oil has been produced in minor quantities from an Oligocene sill in the Mancos Shale within the sag, and major oil and gas production occurs from stratigraphically equivalent rocks in the San Juan basin to the southwest and in the Denver basin to the northeast. The objectives of this study were to identify potential source rocks, assess thermal maturity, and determine hydrocarbon-source bed relationships. Source rocks are present in the San Juan sag in the upper and lower Mancos Shale (including the Niobrara Member), which consists of about 666 m (2184 ft) of marine shale with from 0.5 to 3.1 wt. % organic carbon. Pyrolysis yields (S{sub 1} + S{sub 2} = 2000-6000 ppm) and solvent extraction yields (1000-4000 ppm) indicate that some intervals within the Mancos Shale are good potential source rocks for oil, containing type II organic matter, according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis assay.

  3. Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1,2 Ferial Fanian,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Sophie Robin,3 Carol Courderot-Masuyer,3 Hélène Tauzin,3 Christine Lafforgue,1,2,4 Marek Haftek5 1Research and Studies Center on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, Clinical Investigation Center (CIC 1431, Besançon University Hospital; 2INSERM UMR1098, FED4234 IBCT, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3SARL BIOEXIGENCE, Besançon, France; 4Dermopharmacology and Cosmetology Unit, University of Paris Sud, France; 5University of Lyon 1, EA4169, Experimental, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the skin barrier function, INSERM US7 – CNRS UMS3453, Lyon, France Background: Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc. but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]. A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods: Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years, with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10 and electron microscopy (n=10. Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self

  4. Comprehensive Reactive Power Support of DFIG Adapted to Different Depth of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangwu Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG significantly impacts upon the integration of wind power into the power grid. This paper develops a novel comprehensive control strategy to enhance the LVRT and reactive power support capacities of the DFIG by installing the energy storage system (ESS. The ESS is connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG and used to regulate the DC-link voltage during normal or fault operations. The unbalanced power between the captured wind power and the power injected to the grid during the transient process is absorbed or compensated by the ESS. The rotor-side converter (RSC is used to control the maximum power production and the grid-side converter (GSC is used to control the reactive power before participating in the voltage support. When the supply voltage continues to drop, the rotor speed is increased by controlling the RSC to realize the LVRT capability and help the GSC further enhance the reactive power support capability. The capacity of the GSC is dedicated to injecting the reactive power to the grid. An auxiliary transient pitch angle controller is proposed to protect the generator’s over speed. Both RSC and GSC act as reactive power sources to further enhance the voltage support capability with serious voltage sags. Simulations based on a single-machine infinite-bus power system verify the effectiveness of the developed comprehensive control strategy.

  5. Design of a MEMS Capacitive Comb-drive Micro-accelerometer with Sag Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. PANT

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents an optimization study for the designing of a highly sensitive inertial grade capacitive accelerometer based on comb-drive actuation and sensing. The proof mass, suspension system (beams or tethers, stators and rotors have to be realized through an HAR (high aspect ratio DRIE (deep reactive ion etching process for which process optimization has already been done at our laboratory. As the proof mass is a bulk micro-machined structure having a mass in milligram range, the optimum positioning of the tethers on the proof mass is important to have minimum sag, necessary to reduce the off-axis sensitivity. The optimization for the positioning of the tethers has been carried out using a commercial software tool ANSYSTM Multiphysics. The accelerometer has been modeled analytically to predict its characteristics. The dependency of sensitivity on the dimensions of the suspension beams (tethers has also been verified using the above FEM software tool. The present device has been designed to deliver a high sensitivity of 13.6 mV/g/V for low-g applications.

  6. Design of a MEMS Capacitive Comb-drive Micro-accelerometer with Sag Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. PANT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents an optimization study for the designing of a highly sensitive inertial grade capacitive accelerometer based on comb-drive actuation and sensing. The proof mass, suspension system (beams or tethers, stators and rotors have to be realized through an HAR (high aspect ratio DRIE (deep reactive ion etching process for which process optimization has already been done at our laboratory. As the proof mass is a bulk micro-machined structure having a mass in milligram range, the optimum positioning of the tethers on the proof mass is important to have minimum sag, necessary to reduce the off-axis sensitivity. The optimization for the positioning of the tethers has been carried out using a commercial software tool ANSYSTM Multiphysics. The accelerometer has been modeled analytically to predict its characteristics. The dependency of sensitivity on the dimensions of the suspension beams (tethers has also been verified using the above FEM software tool. The present device has been designed to deliver a high sensitivity of 13.6 mV/g/V for low-g applications.

  7. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  8. EML Array fabricated by SAG technique monolithically integrated with a buried ridge AWG multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjie; Liang, Song; Zhang, Zhike; An, Junming; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a ten channel electroabsorption modulated DFB laser (EML) array. Different emission wavelengths of the laser array are obtained by selective area growth (SAG) technique, which is also used for the integration of electroabsorption modulators (EAM) with the lasers. An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) combiner is integrated monolithically with the laser array by butt-joint regrowth (BJR) technique. A buried ridge waveguide structure is adopted for the AWG combiner. A self aligned fabrication procedure is adopted for the fabrication of the waveguide structure of the device to eliminate the misalignment between the laser active waveguide and the passive waveguide. A Ti thin film heater is integrated for each laser in the array. With the help of the heaters, ten laser emissions with 1.8 nm channel spacing are obtained. The integrated EAM has a larger than 11 dB static extinction ratios and larger than 8 GHz small signal modulation bandwidths. The light power collected in the output waveguide of the AWG is larger than -13 dBm for each wavelength.

  9. Formation Dynamics and Quantitative Prediction of Hydrocarbons of the Superpressure System in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Fenggui; HAO Xuefeng; LIU Qing; ZHUO Qingong; ZHANG Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of formation dynamics of oil/gas pools, the Dongying sag can be divided into three dynamic systems regarding the accumulation of oil and gas: the superpressure closed system,the semi-closed system and the normal pressure open system. Based on the analysis of genesis of superpressure in the superpressure closed system and the rule of hydrocarbon expulsion,it is found that hydrocarbon generation is related to superpressure, which is the main driving factor of hydrocarbon migration. Micro fractures formed by superpressure are the main channels for hydrocarbon migration. There are three dynamic patterns for hydrocarbon expulsion: free water drainage, hydrocarbon accumulation and drainage through micro fissures. In the superpressure closed system, the oil-driving-water process and oil/gas accumulation were completed in lithologic traps by way of such two dynamic patterns as episodic evolution of superpressure systems and episodic pressure release of faults. The oil-bearing capacity of lithologic traps is intimately related to reservoir-forming dynamic force. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic conditions for pool formation can effectively predict the oil-bearing capability of traps.

  10. Hydrocarbon potential evaluation of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation in the Sufyan Sag, Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jinqi; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kangjun; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-01

    The Sufyan Sag is one of the low-exploration areas in the Muglad Basin (Sudan), and hydrocarbon potential evaluation of source rocks is the basis for its further exploration. The Abu Gabra Formation consisting of three members (AG3, AG2 and AG1 from bottom to top) was thought to be the main source rock formation, but detailed studies on its petroleum geology and geochemical characteristics are still insufficient. Through systematic analysis on distribution, organic matter abundance, organic matter type, organic matter maturity and characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation, the main source rock members were determined and the petroleum resource extent was estimated in the study area. The results show that dark mudstones are the thickest in the AG2 member while the thinnest in the AG1 member, and the thickness of the AG3 dark mudstone is not small either. The AG3 member have developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Type I kerogen. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG3 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the middle period of Bentiu. In the early period of Darfur, it reached the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion peak. It is in late mature stage currently. The AG2 member developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Types II1 and I kerogen, and has lower organic matter abundance than the AG3 member. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG2 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the late period of Bentiu. In the late period of Darfur, it reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation and its expulsion. It is in middle mature stage currently. The AG1 member developed fair-good source rock mainly with Types II and III kerogen. Throughout the geological evolution history, the AG1 source rock has no effective hydrocarbon generation or expulsion processes. Combined with basin modeling results, we have concluded that the AG3 and AG2 members are the main source rock layers and the Southern Sub-sag is

  11. Immunoglobulin superantigen protein L induces IL-4 and IL-13 secretion from human Fc epsilon RI+ cells through interaction with the kappa light chains of IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Arturo; Borgia, Guglielmo; Björck, Lars; Petraroli, Angelica; de Paulis, Amato; Piazza, Marcello; Marone, Gianni

    2003-02-15

    Peptostreptococcus magnus protein L is a multidomain bacterial surface protein that correlates with virulence. It consists of up to five homologous Ig-binding domains (B1-B5) that interact with the variable domain of Ig kappa L chains. Intact protein L stimulates the synthesis and the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from human basophils in vitro. A protein L fragment covering the Ig-binding domains B1-B4 also induced IL-4 and IL-13 release from basophils. There was an excellent correlation (r(s) = 0.82; p ADZ (kappa chains) blocked both anti-IgE- and protein L-induced secretion. Cyclosporin A, but not cyclosporin H, inhibited protein L-induced release of IL-4 and IL-13 from basophils. Thus, protein L acts as a bacterial Ig superantigen to induce the synthesis and release of IL-4 and IL-13 from basophils by interacting with kappa L chains of the IgE isotype.

  12. GPVI and GPIbα mediate staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 5 (SSL5 induced platelet activation and direct toward glycans as potential inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyuan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a common pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections. Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 5 (SSL5 has recently been shown to bind to platelet glycoproteins and induce platelet activation. This study investigates further the interaction between SSL5 and platelet glycoproteins. Moreover, using a glycan discovery approach, we aim to identify potential glycans to therapeutically target this interaction and prevent SSL5-induced effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In addition to platelet activation experiments, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, surface plasmon resonance and a glycan binding array, were used to identify specific SSL5 binding regions and mediators. We independently confirm SSL5 to interact with platelets via GPIbα and identify the sulphated-tyrosine residues as an important region for SSL5 binding. We also identify the novel direct interaction between SSL5 and the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. Together, these receptors offer one mechanistic explanation for the unique functional influences SSL5 exerts on platelets. A role for specific families of platelet glycans in mediating SSL5-platelet interactions was also discovered and used to identify and demonstrate effectiveness of potential glycan based inhibitors in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings further elucidate the functional interactions between SSL5 and platelets, including the novel finding of a role for the GPVI receptor. We demonstrate efficacy of possible glycan-based approaches to inhibit the SSL5-induced platelet activation. Our data warrant further work to prove SSL5-platelet effects in vivo.

  13. Hyposkillia: A sign of sagging medical profession-A pediatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Khalifa Abdel Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The practice of medicine since Hippocrates, the father of medicine (460-377 BC) had the care of the patient in the core of its ideals which included scholarship; confidentiality, altruism and no harm doing. These ideals evolved from individual physician adoption to professional organization adoption. The medical profession used to have autonomy, prestige, and values centered on patient care. With societal changing values and the appearance of managed care and bioethics the medical profession lost its autonomy, prestige and self regulation. This led to widespread dissatisfaction among the profession members and reflected in deficiency in education and training of medical students and young physicians and resulted in deficiency of clinical skills required to deliver health care. This situation has been referred to as hyposkillia. This sagging has been reported in many countries worldwide and brought concern to many medical education authorities and societies. In this paper nine cases are reported to demonstrate that hyposkillia is also prevalent in our part of the world and show some deficiencies in the clinical skills that are avoidable. Inadequacies in: accurate history taking, complete appropriate physical examination, pertinent investigation and sound critical reasoning in management planning, all precluded optimum health care delivery initially in these cases. Many professional and education authorities have suggested that the process of redemption of the medical profession should start before admission to medical school by change in admission requirements to include behavioral and social sciences, and that the curricula in the medical schools should be redesigned to meet the changing societal values and priorities. Teaching clinical skills should be a continuous lifelong learning process from the medical school through training and into practice. Modern technology is to complement and not to replace bedside teaching and the patient should remain the best

  14. Stratigraphy and reservoir quality of the turbidite deposits, western sag, Bohai bay, China P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, Oluwatosin J.; Ako, Bankole D.; Zhenli, Wang

    2014-11-01

    Stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs such as pinchouts, sand lenses and unconformities have been discovered in Bohai basin. These reservoirs occur in sub-basins and sag structures called depressions. A prolific depression is the Liaohe depression that has been filled with rapidly changing mixed alluvial fan deposit of the Cenozoic age. Attempts made at recovering residual hydrocarbon from the subtle reservoir have necessitated the re-evaluation of available data to characterize and model the prolific Shahejie Formation turbidite deposit occurring as pinchouts and sand lenses for hydrocarbon assessment, reservoir quality and possible recovery through enhanced methods. Methods employed covered well logs analysis, clustering analysis for electrofacies and fuzzy logic analysis to predict missing log sections. Stratigraphic and structural analysis was done on SEGY 3D seismic volume after seismic to well tie. Stochastic simulation was done on both discrete and continuous upscaled data. This made it possible to correctly locate and laterally track identified reservoir formation on seismic data. Petrophysical parameters such as porosity and permeability were modeled with result of clustering analysis. Result shows that electrofacies converged on 2 rock classes. The area is characterized by the presence of interbeded sand-shale blanket formations serving as reservoir and seal bodies. The reservoir quality of the formations as seen on the petrophysical analysis done is replicated in simulation volume results. Reservoir rocks have porosity between 0.1 and 0.25, permeability between 1 and 2mD and hydrocarbon saturation as high as 89%. Lithofacies are observed to be laterally inconsistent, sub-parallel to dipping and occurring as porous and permeable continuous beds or pinchouts hosting hydrocarbon. The stochastic stratigraphic model depicts rock units in associations that are synsedimentary. The prevalent configuration gotten from the model gave an insight into exploring and

  15. An algorithm for reduction of extracted power from photovoltaic strings in grid-tied photovoltaic power plants during voltage sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Hossein Dehghani; Maswood, Ali Iftekhar; Pou, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high penetration of the installed distributed generation units in the power system, the injection of reactive power is required for the medium-scale and large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs). Because of the current limitation of the grid-connected inverter......, the injected active power should be reduced during voltage sags. In order to obtain a constant dc-link voltage in a multi-string PVPP, the extracted power from PV strings should be equal to the injected power to the grid in all operating conditions (excluding power losses). Therefore, the extracted power of PV...

  16. The account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors of air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov V.M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity approached is shown, but more exact as it is usually accepted, the account of sagging of wires at definition of specific potential factors air High-Voltage Power Transmission Lines. The technique of reception of analytical expressions is resulted. For an opportunity of comparison traditional expressions for specific potential factors are resulted also. Communication of the offered and traditional analytical expressions is shown. Offered analytical expressions are not difficult for programming on a personal computer of any class and besides they allow to make an estimation of an error of traditional expressions by means of parallel definition of specific potential factors by both ways.

  17. Seismic Integrated Interpretation and Prediction on Channel Sandbody of Deep Layer at West Slope in Qikou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiao Gao; Li Liu; Yanzhang Zhang; Xiaoming Sun

    2003-01-01

    According to the seismic and geological differences among every oil measures in mid-deep layers at west slope in Qikou Sag, varieties of new techniques on geophysics and geochemistry were introduced, such as seismic process of target and CWS, neural network seismic microfacies cluster analysis, 3D interval velocity analysis. Taking advantage of the series of new techniques aims at predicting synthetically and quantitatively the deep gravity flow channel sandbody. Furthermore, considering the structural setting data, potential structural-lithologic traps were specified. As a result, the geological and drilling effect is obviously promoted.

  18. Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 binds to the Toll-like receptor 2 extracellular domain and inhibits cytokine production induced by Staphylococcus aureus, cell wall component, or lipopeptides in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryosuke; Itoh, Saotomo; Kamoshida, Go; Takii, Takemasa; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins sharing structural similarity with superantigens, but no superantigenic activity. Corresponding host target proteins or receptors against a portion of SSLs in the family have been identified. In this study, we show that SSL3 specifically binds to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and inhibits the stimulation of macrophages by TLR2 ligands. An approximately 100-kDa protein was recovered by using recombinant His-tagged SSL3-conjugated Sepharose from the lysate of porcine spleen, and the protein was identified as porcine TLR2 by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The SSL3-conjugated Sepharose recovered human and mouse TLR2 but not TLR4 from human neutrophils and mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, as well as a recombinant TLR2 extracellular domain chimera protein. The production levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) from mouse macrophages treated with heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus and of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from RAW 264.7 cells induced by peptidoglycan or lipopeptide TLR2 ligands were strongly suppressed in the presence of SSL3. The mutation of consensus sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues in SSL3 did not abrogate the binding ability to TLR2 or inhibitory activity on TLR2, indicating that the interaction of SSL3 with TLR2 was independent of the sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues. These findings demonstrate that SSL3 is able to bind the extracellular domain of TLR2 and interfere with TLR2 function. The present study provides a novel mechanism of SSL3 in immune evasion of S. aureus via interfering with its recognition by innate immune cells.

  19. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human.

  20. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity.

  1. Biological mechanisms underlying the ultraviolet radiation-induced formation of skin wrinkling and sagging I: reduced skin elasticity, highly associated with enhanced dermal elastase activity, triggers wrinkling and sagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-04-08

    The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA) predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity.

  2. Superantigen-primed T cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) replicate poorly following recall encounter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulconer, Laura; Camacho, Iris; Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, 980613, Richmond, VA (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, 980613, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The current study investigated the effect of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the ability of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)-primed T cells to divide by dual-labeling the cells with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and antibodies against the specific T cell receptors. C57BL/6 wild-type mice were injected ip with TCDD (10 {mu}g/kg body weight) followed by hind footpad injections of SEA (10 {mu}g/footpad). The draining popliteal lymph nodes (PLN) were harvested 1-4 days posttreatment, labeled with CFSE and cultured for 1-4 days without further stimulation or in the presence of the recall antigen. TCDD-exposed SEA-reactive V{beta}3+ and V{beta}11+ T cells showed decreased cell divisions upon in vitro culture in the absence of any stimulation, which correlated with increased levels of apoptosis. The recall cell-division response was also defective in SEA-reactive T cells isolated from TCDD-exposed mice. However, during the recall response, cells from TCDD-exposed mice did not exhibit a defect in apoptosis, suggesting the defective recall response may result from a state of anergy rather than increased apoptosis. Using AhR knockout (KO) mice, we found AhR involvement in the regulation of defective cell division and apoptosis induced by TCDD. Together, these data demonstrate, while TCDD-induced apoptosis may account for the decreased primary T cell proliferative response, that the reduced cell division seen during subsequent exposure to recall antigen may result from a state of anergy. The study also demonstrates that a combined use of superantigen and CFSE may offer a simple and useful tool to monitor the ability of immunotoxicants to alter the proliferative responsiveness of antigen-specific T cells. (orig.)

  3. Measurements of Saggings and Torsions of 1.15m Length Silicon Detector Ladder Supported by Lightweight Carbon Fibre Space Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, V S; CERN. Geneva; Bolonin, A A; Vitushkin, L F

    1995-01-01

    Results of measurements of gravitational sagging and torsions of the first prototype of long Si-ladder for the outer (the largest) layer of the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of ALICE are reported for different ladder orientations and different loads (up to 80g). 47.9 µm sagging in the middle of the ladder for the horizontal orientation of Si-wafers appear to be in a satisfactory agreement with the preliminary finite element calculations. The linearity of deformation as a function of load was also studied.

  4. Voltage sags due to the short-circuits on transmission lines; Afundamentos de tensao provocados por curto-circuitos em linhas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klock Junior, Odemar Solano [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the voltage sags influence on the buses, including the ones where consumers of the COPEL transmission electric system, determining the sags number and the approximate values for short-circuits on transmission lines. The voltage values, during the the short-circuit regime are obtained from the data for the short-circuit program. The short-circuits are simulated by the assembly of the electric system impedance matrix, from where the voltage values for short-circuits on any point of the electric system can be determined using simply calculations.

  5. Voltage sag loss estimation based on fuzzy membership function%基于模糊隶属函数的电压骤降损失估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会茹; 欧大昌; 李天友; 张奇

    2012-01-01

    通过分析电压骤降及敏感设备电压骤降耐受能力的特点,扩展用户的电压骤降耐受曲线的状态区域.以骤降幅值和持续时间为电压骤降的主要特征量,提出基于二维隶属分布函数的电压骤降经济损失估算方法.首先以用户历史生产中断损失为基础,将骤降幅值和持续时间设为自变量,通过确定合理的生产中断模糊隶属函数形式与参数,获取电压骤降对中断故障的隶属度;然后以隶属度为转换因子,将电压骤降的经济损失转换为不完全的生产中断损失.实例分析证明了所提方法可行,且适用于大部分敏感设备.%The user's state area of voltage sag tolerance curve is expanded by analyzing the characteristics of voltage sag and the voltage sag tolerance ability of sensitive equipment. An estimation method based on the two-dimensional membership distribution function is proposed for the economic loss of voltage sag,which takes the sag magnitude and duration as its main characteristic variants. With the sag magnitude and duration as the independent variables, the membership degree of voltage sag towards the interrupt fault is obtained by setting the reasonable form and parameters of production interruption fuzzy membership function based on user's historical production interrupt costs,and with the membership degree as the conversion factor,the economic loss of voltage sag is then converted into the incomplete production interrupt cost. Example analysis proves the proposed method is feasible and applicable for most sensitive equipments.

  6. METODOLOGÍA GENERAL PARA CORRELACIONAR SAGS CON EVENTOS AMBIENTALES U OPERATIVOS DEL SISTEMA DE DISTRIBUCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castillo Guasca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran importancia conocer cuáles son las causas  para que se presenten sags en las barrajes de distribución, debido a que la afectación sobre los clientes industriales es de carácter relevante. Por esta razón se planteó  una metodología para buscar la correlación existente entre sags y los eventos ambientales u operativos del sistema de distribución. A manera de ejemplo, se aplicó en tres subestaciones, las cuales se encuentran ubicadas en diferentes sectores de la ciudad. Para el desarrollo de esta metodología, se realizó la correlación de los datos mediante la implementación de tablas dinámicas y programación en Access, donde se evidenció qué tipo de eventos son los que tienen un mayor impacto sobre los clientes. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se sugiere algunas recomendaciones para mitigar este tipo de eventos en el sistema de distribución.

  7. The "sagging rope sign" in avascular necrosis in children's hip diseases--confirmation by 3D CT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H T; Eisenhauer, E; Wenger, D R

    1995-01-01

    Growth disturbance of the proximal femoral epiphysis and physis secondary to avascular necrosis (AVN) in a variety of children's hip disorders produces changes in the femoral head and neck that make radiographic interpretation difficult. The enlarged overhanging femoral head produces radiographic markings on the femoral neck which are sometimes confusing. These have sometimes been misinterpreted as growth arrest lines. Apley and Wientroub reintroduced Perkins' description of the "sagging rope" sign in AVN of the femoral head, and Clarke clarified that this puzzling radiographic transverse metaphyseal line overlying the femoral neck in fact represents the margin of the femoral head rather than a growth arrest line. Their report was made after studying plain and stereoscopic radiographs alone. Our review of 23 cases of femoral head AVN in children, documented by 3 dimensional computerized tomographic (3D CT) radiographs of the femoral head and pelvis, confirms Clarke's view of the nature of the "sagging rope" sign. These sophisticated radiographic studies provide new detail and understanding of head-neck relationship in AVN which allows better planning for surgical correction of hip disorders in children.

  8. The distribution of deep source rocks in the GS Sag: joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ling; Hu, Zu-Zhi; Huang, Wen-Hui; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Sheng; Meng, Cui-Xian; Ji, Lian-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The coal-bearing strata of the deep Upper Paleozoic in the GS Sag have high hydrocarbon potential. Because of the absence of seismic data, we use electromagnetic (MT) and gravity data jointly to delineate the distribution of deep targets based on well logging and geological data. First, a preliminary geological model is established by using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion results. Second, using the formation density and gravity anomalies, the preliminary geological model is modified by interactive inversion of the gravity data. Then, we conduct MT-constrained inversion based on the modified model to obtain an optimal geological model until the deviations at all stations are minimized. Finally, the geological model and a seismic profile in the middle of the sag is analysed. We determine that the deep reflections of the seismic profile correspond to the Upper Paleozoic that reaches thickness up to 800 m. The processing of field data suggests that the joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion can reduce the multiple solutions for single geophysical data and thus improve the recognition of deep formations. The MT-constrained inversion is consistent with the geological features in the seismic section. This suggests that the joint MT and gravity modeling and constrained inversion can be used to delineate deep targets in similar basins.

  9. A double-cycle lake basin formed in extensional to transtensional setting: The Paleogene Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Jiang, Zaixing; Gierlowski-Kordesch, Elizabeth; Xian, Benzhong; Li, Zhenpeng; Wang, Siqi; Wang, Xiabin

    2017-03-01

    It has been known that both extensional and transtensional tectonics commonly trigger a one-cycle evolution of lake sediments, but lake-cycle development co-controlled by extensional and transtensional tectonics still need identification. Here we report a double-cycle of lake sediments formed in extensional to transtensional phases in the Paleogene Nanpu Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, China. The sag successively experienced five phases of lake-type evolution, characterized by: 1) overfilled, 2) balanced-fill, 3) overfilled, 4) balanced-fill, and 5) overfilled. Extensional tectonics was responsible for the opening of the basin and the initial creation of accommodation (1st through 3rd phase). Next, subsidence increased again through transtensional tectonics resulting in the creation of new accommodation (4th-5th phases). Investigations show this double-cycle lake-type evolution is also present in other lake-basins with similar tectonic settings (e.g., both extensional and transtensional tectonics). A different exploration and exploitation strategy should be devoted to the double-cycle evolution of lake basins controlled by extensional to transtensional tectonics in comparison to the single-cycle evolution in extensional or transtensional lake basins.

  10. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang

    2005-01-01

    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  11. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG{sub 5} of Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santal, Anita Rani, E-mail: anita.gangotra@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Singh, N.P. [Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Saharan, Baljeet Singh [Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG{sub 5} decolorizes 72.6 {+-} 0.56% of melanoidins. {yields} The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day. {yields} The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 {+-} 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG{sub 5}.

  12. Nitrogen metabolism and gas exchange parameters associated with zinc stress in tobacco expressing an ipt gene for cytokinin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Pavlík, Milan; Procházková, Dagmar; Zemanová, Veronika; Hnilička, František; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2014-04-15

    Increased endogenous plant cytokinin (CK) content through transformation with an isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant stress tolerance. The impact of zinc (tested levels Zn1=250, Zn2=500, Zn3=750mgkg(-1)soil) on gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration) and nitrogen utilization by plants resulted in changes of free amino acid concentrations (glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, aspartate, glycine, serine, cystein) and differed for transformed and non-transformed tobacco plants. For pot experiments, tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Wisconsin 38) transformed with a construct consisting of SAG12 promoter fused with the ipt gene for cytokinin synthesis (SAG plants) and its wild type (WT plants as a control) were used. Physiological analyses confirmed that SAG plants had improved zinc tolerance compared with the WT plants. The enhanced Zn tolerance of SAG plants was associated with the maintenance of accumulation of amino acids and with lower declines of photosynthetic and transpiration rates. In comparison to WT plants, SAG plants exposed to the highest Zn concentration accumulated lower concentrations of asparagine, which is a major metabolic product during senescence.

  13. 刚地弓形虫P30(SAG1)重组抗原的高效表达和体外纯化%Over-expression and purification of the recombinant p30 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佃波; 宰德富; 公茂庆; 李瑾; 魏庆宽; 崔勇; 黄炳成; 刘克义

    2005-01-01

    目的表达和纯化弓形虫P30(SAG1)蛋白,为弓形虫病快速诊断试剂盒及蛋白质疫苗的研制奠定基础.方法 PCR法从弓形虫基因组DNA 中扩增 P30基因片段,P30产物克隆到表达质粒pET-30a(+) 构建重组载体,将其转化到DH5α中.经PCR扩增和质粒酶切及基因测序鉴定后,阳性重组质粒转化到大肠埃氏菌BL21(DE3)中,经IPTG诱导,表达产物用SDS-PAGE和Western blot进行鉴定.大量的诱导表达产物用SNBC 3S NTA Resin方法纯化并进行复性.结果扩增的P30基因片段为750bp, 重组表达融合蛋白量单位为30ku,与理论值相符.结论成功构建重组体,获得纯化和复性的弓形虫主要表面抗原P30的高效表达产物,为弓形虫病的诊断和疫苗研究奠定了基础.%To provide the basis for preparation of diagnostic kits and vaccines in Toxoplasma gondii infection, the gene coding for the qualified recombinant p30 protein (SAG1) of this parasite was amplified by PCR, and the amplified gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a(+) to construct the recombinant plasmid, and then transformed to E.coli DH5α. The positive recombinant plasmid was screened by PCR and double enzymes digestion, and the nucleotide sequence of p30 gene was determined by automated DNA sequencing. Meanwhile, the identified recombinant plasmid was transformed to E.coli BL21(DE3) with the expression of p30 on bacteria induced by IPTG and the expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE. The protein obtained was then further purified and refolded, and its biological activity was checked by Western blotting. It was shown that the size of the amplified gene was 750 bp with molecular weight of 30 ku, and this protein could specifically react with monoclonal antibody against p30 protein.

  14. Impact of distributed generation in the probability density of voltage sags; Impacto da geracao distribuida na densidade de probabilidade de afundamentos de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the impact of distributed generation in studies of voltage sags caused by faults in the electrical system. We simulated short-circuit-to-ground in 62 lines of 230, 138, 69 and 13.8 kV that are part of the electrical system of the city of Goiania, of Goias state . For each fault position was monitored the bus voltage of 380 V in an industrial consumer sensitive to such sags. Were inserted different levels of GD near the consumer. The simulations of a short circuit, with the monitoring bar 380 V, were performed again. A study using stochastic simulation Monte Carlo (SMC) was performed to obtain, at each level of GD, the probability curves and sags of the probability density and its voltage class. With these curves were obtained the average number of sags according to each class, that the consumer bar may be submitted annually. The simulations were performed using the Program Analysis of Simultaneous Faults - ANAFAS. In order to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the methods of simulation of this program and allow data entry via windows, a computational tool was developed in Java language. Data processing was done using the MATLAB software.

  15. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J;

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test is use...

  16. High yield expression and single-step purification of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1, GRA1, and GRA7 antigens in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiszczynska-Sawicka, E.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Dabrowski, Slawomir;

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a simple, highly efficient and reproducible method for obtaining large quantities of highly pure recombinant Toxoplasma gondii antigens, which can be used for diagnostic application. The obtained T gondii SAG1, GRA1, and GRA7 antigens (as fusion proteins), expressed...... in the serodiagnosis of T gondii infection. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved....

  17. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo; Sanín Ortiz Grisales; Teresa Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre pl...

  18. 弓形虫入侵宿主细胞时SAG3基因表达抑制对β-微管蛋白mRNA水平的影响%The effect of the suppressed expression of SAG3 of Toxoplasma gondii on the mRNA level of β-tubulin during parasite invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉英; 汪琦; 朱家勇; 江钢锋; 覃姗姗; 李娟兰; 金小宝

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究表面抗原3(SAG3)基因表达被抑制对弓形虫β-微管蛋白mRNA水平的影响. 方法用电穿孔的方法将针对SAG3基因3'-UTR区的dsRNA转入弓形虫速殖子体内,转染后的虫体感染Hela细胞,感染后5 min提取总RNA,RT-PCR检测SAG3基因的抑制效率,并分别于感染后5 min、30 min和1 h检测β-微管蛋白mRNA水平.结果 实验组SAG3基因表达被抑制,弓形虫转染宿主细胞后5 min、30 min和1 h的β-微管蛋白mRNA水平均降低. 结论SAG3影响弓形虫入侵蛋白β-微管蛋白mRNA水平.

  19. 电压暂降对单相V/V牵引变压器的影响%Impact of voltage sag on V/V traction transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华伟; 范瑜

    2011-01-01

    基于EMTDC/PSCAD中UMEC变压器模型,研究电压暂降对V/V接线牵引变压器的影响机理,结果表明,电压暂降使变压器产生励磁涌流,电压暂降的时刻决定非周期分量磁通的大小,该值决定铁心的饱和与否,从而决定变压器励磁涌流是否发生.该时刻磁通的正负将影响涌流的正负.电压暂降持续时间对涌流的大小产生一定的影响,其值在1.2~1.8 p.u.之间变化.变压器有载运行时,电压暂降也将激发出变压器励磁涌流.%The impact of voltage sag on properties of traction transformers with v/v connection is studied. The research is conducted on the United Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (UMEC) transformer model in EMTDC/PSCAD. We show that voltage sags will result in inrush current when voltage restores;voltage sag instant will affect the value of non-periodic flux, which can determine whether transformer core saturates or not, and accordingly determine whether inrush occurs or not; the sign of non-periodic flux will affect the positive or negative value of inrush. Meanwhile, the sag duration will also affect values of inrush after voltage restores, which varies from 1.2 ~ 1.8 p. u.. We also proof that under transformer load operation, voltage sags can also produce inrush.

  20. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Larissa K.; Brannagan III, Thomas H.; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L.; Odel, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis. PMID:28182120

  1. Seroprevalence of antibody to NcSAG1 antigen of Neospora caninum in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Guswanto, Azirwan; Allamanda, Puttik; Mariamah, Euis Siti; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum can cause fetal abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle, and is a cause of economic concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia. Serum samples from 991 cattle from 21 locations were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the basis of recombinant NcSAG1. The overall seroprevalence was 16.6%, ranging from 0 to 87.5% in the sampled locations. The results of this study indicate latent infection rates of sampled animals were different in each location. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between N. caninum infection and abortion in cattle, and to identify risk factors for infection in high-prevalence environments.

  2. In-line filtration of SAG-M red cell concentrates prepared in top/bottom or conventional bag systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-01-01

    SAG-M RCCs were prepared in triple conventional or quadruple top/bottom bag systems and filtered at +4 degrees C using the in-line filter system Leucoflex LCR 4 Macopharma after 16-24-30 h of storage. Postfiltration WBC content was determined by Nageotte hemocytometer counting. The mean WBC content of the units prepared in conventional bag systems and filtered was higher than that of the units prepared in T/B bag systems. The best results could be obtained in T/B RCCs stored for 24 h; potassium and hemolysis levels were also improved. The Leucoflex LCR 4 in-line filter T/B system can be recommended for application in the clinical routine by virtue of the effective leukocyte elimination.

  3. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. L. Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient’s diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  4. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie S L; Ghadiali, Larissa K; Brannagan Iii, Thomas H; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L; Odel, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  5. Disulfide-stabilized single-chain antibody-targeted superantigen: Construction of a prokaryotic expression system and its functional analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Li Wang; Yu-Ling Zheng; Ru Ma; Bao-Li Wang; Ai-Guang Guo; Yong-Qiang Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct the expression vector of B3 (scdsFv)-SEA (D227A) and to identify its binding and cytotoxic ability to B3 antigen positive carcinoma cell lines.METHODS: This fusion protein was produced by a bacterial expression system in this study. It was expressed mainly in the inclusion body. The gene product was solubilized by guanidine hydrochloride, refolded by conventional dilution method, and purified using SP-sepharose cation chromatography.RESULTS: The expression vector B3 (scdsFv)-SEA-PETwas constructed, the expression product existed mainly in the inclusion body, the refolding product retained the binding ability of the single-chain antibody and had cytotoxic effect on HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. The stability assay showed that the resulting protein was stable at 37 ℃.CONCLUSION: This genetically engineered B3 (scdsFv)-SEA fusion protein has bifunction of tumor targeting and tumor cell killing and shows its promises as an effective reagent for tumor-targeted immunotherapy.

  6. Mechanism of Secondary Pore Formation and Prediction of Favorable Reservoir of Paleogene in Jiyang Sag,Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaomin; Chen Huanqing; Zhong Dakang; Zhang Qin; Zhang Shanwen; Lü Xixue

    2008-01-01

    Jiyang (济阳) sag is an oil rich basin,consisting of Huimin (惠民),Dongying (东营),Zhanhua (沾化),and Chezhen (车镇) depressions.The elastic rock of Paleogene has undergone early and middle diagenetic stages and now the main clastic reservoir is in the middle diagenetic stage.Primary and secondary pores are developed in Paleogene sandstone,the latter is generated from the dissolution of feldspar and calcite cement in rocks owing to the organic acid from the maturated source rock,but the materials dissolved are different in different depressions.The reservoir secondary pores of Dongying depression are generated from the dissolution of calcite cement,the ones of Zhanhua and Huimin depressions from the dissolution of feldspar,the secondary pores of Chezhen depression from the dissolution of feldspar in upper section,and the dissolution of calcite cement in the lower section of Paleogene,respectively.The secondary pores are developed in two depths and the depth goes down from west to east,from south to north in Jiyang sag.The major controlling factors for secondary pore development are maturity and location of source rock.Lastly,the favorable reservoirs are evaluated according to reservoir buried depth,sedimentation,and diagenesis.The reservoir with high quality is located in the northern and central parts in Dongying depression; there are some good reservoirs in Gndao (孤岛),Gudong (孤东),and Gunan (孤南) areas in Zhanhua depression,and the favorable reservoirs are located in the north steep slope and the south gentle slope of Chezhen depression and central uplift,south gentle slope of Huimin depression.

  7. Complete protection against lethal Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice immunized with a plasmid encoding the SAG1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H V; Lauemøller, S L; Christiansen, L

    1999-01-01

    gamma interferon production by CD8(+) T cells from p1tPASAG1-immunized mice was tested in an ELISPOT assay, and one new CTL epitope was identified. Adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells from p1tPASAG1-immunized to naïve mice showed partial protection. In conclusion, DNA vaccination with p1tPASAG1 gave...... effective protection in mice against T. gondii infection and the protection could be adoptively transferred by purified CD8(+) T cells....

  8. 塔拉斯-费尔干纳断裂对喀什凹陷的控制作用%Controls of Talas-Ferghana Fault on Kashi Sag,Northwestern Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金海; 周新源; 邱斌

    2004-01-01

    The right-slip Talas-Ferganhna fault plays significant roles in controlling the strata, structures and petroleum geologicfeatures in Kashi sag since Late Triassic.During the Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic,Kuzgongsu and Kezletaofault basins probably disconnected with each other occurred in the sag,with developed rifted-style source rocks of Lower-Middle Jurassic.During the Neogene-Quaternary,the relevant strike-slip deformation of the fault occurred and controlled the petroleum traps and accumulationsin Kashi sag.

  9. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  10. Evaluation of an in-house TgSAG1 (P30) IgG ELISA for diagnosis of naturally acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, L; Maksimov, P; Herrmann, D C; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Machuca, M; Moré, G; Basso, W; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2012-10-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite which is able to infect a large variety of warm-blooded animals. Raw or undercooked pork has been regarded as an important source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose natural T. gondii infection in swine using native affinity chromatography-purified T. gondii surface protein-1 (TgSAG1-ELISA) as antigen, comparing its performance to that of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting (IB). To obtain a panel of sera showing the evolution of the antibody response in the time course 12 pigs were experimentally inoculated intravenously (iv) with tachyzoites of the T. gondii strains RH (clonal type I), ME49 (clonal type II) and NED (clonal type III) and serologically monitored for a period of 11 weeks. Both IFAT and ELISA showed a similar time course of antibody response to T. gondii; but by IFAT this response was characterized by rapidly rising titers with peaks at two weeks post inoculation (wpi), while the ELISA indices increased slowly and reached a maximum in most animals at five wpi. Three-hundred randomly selected sera from a total of 602 pigs of different ages derived from outdoor and indoor farms from Argentina were analyzed. Serum samples testing either positive or negative by both IFAT and IB were considered as "relative standards of comparison" (RSC). Sensitivity and specificity of TgSAG1-ELISA were obtained by a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and statistical agreement among serological tests was evaluated. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 160 of 300 sera (53.3%) by IB, in 133 of 300 (44.3%) by IFAT and in 123 of 300 sera (41%) by TgSAG1-ELISA. One hundred and eleven sera tested positive and 118 sera tested negative by both IFAT and IB (RSC); 103 of 111 positive RSC sera tested positive by TgSAG1-ELISA, and 116 of 118 negative RSC sera tested negative by TgSAG1-ELISA. Agreement

  11. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  12. Systematic survey on the prevalence of genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins SElM, SElO, and SElN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2004-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of food-poisoning with substantial impact on public health. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA), we studied the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) superantigens sem, sen, and seo, associated with the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), in 429 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. 294 (68.5%) isolates tested positive for at least one of the three SEl genes. In contrast to the fixed gene combination seg/sei also located on egc, a substantial number of isolates (n = 108) were found to bear only one or two of the genes encoding SElM, SElN, and SElO. Regarding the origin of the S. aureus isolates, a significant difference (P = 0.022) was found for the possession of seo (61.2% of blood isolates versus 42.9% of nasal strains). Also sem (not significantly) was found more common in blood isolates (52.1% versus 40.5%). The survey of the newly described SEl genes sem-seo supports the concept that most clinical S. aureus isolates harbor subsets of pyrogenic toxin superantigens. The potential contribution of seo and sem to the pathogenic potential of S. aureus has to be further evaluated.

  13. Organic geochemistry and hydrocarbon potential contrasts among lithologically different source rocks in the Qingxi Sag, Jiuquan Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Zhilong; Gao, Gang; Yin, Yue; Li, Tianjun

    2017-04-01

    Jiuquan Basin, located in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor, is a medium- to small-sized superimposed basin in northwest China. Situated in the southwest of the basin is the Qingxi sag, in which the development of large sets of argillaceous dolomite dominate (lithological assemblage named as LSA) and dolomitic mudstone (LSB), partially being mudstone. From electronical and seismic profile features, the Lower Cretaceous can be divided into the Chijinpu Formation, Xiagou Formation, and Zhonggou Formation in the Qingxi Sag. Moreover, the Xiagou Formation can be divided into four members, represented as K1g0, K1g1, K1g2, and K1g3. The given lithological assemblages and occurrence of particular mineralogical combinations indicate that it is the product of hydrothermal deposition. Lithologically, the argillaceous dolomite and dolomitic mudstone are diametrically different in both mineral contents and types. The integration of field outcrop observation and sampling with laboratory analyses, including solvent extract, Rock-Eval (S1, S2, and Tmax), organic petrography (lithological identification, cement, grain, mineral, and maceral observation), and laboratory modeling of hydrocarbon generation, show that both LSA and LSB contains good hydrocarbon potentials but rather different mineralogical compositions. The concurrence of LSA and LSB indicates the alternate interaction between the hydrothermal deposition and normal lacustrine deposits. The LSA mainly contains Type I kerogen and much lower Pr/Ph ratio, indicating parental material sourced from lacustrine algae and bacteria and much stronger reduction depostional environment. However, the LSB mainly contains Type III kerogen, containing parental material mainly sourced from terrestrial higher plant. And in the mudstone, there is almost no Type I kerogen, indicating no substantial input of lacustrine phytoplankton. The LSA contains TOC value of 1.2-3.2% (wt), averaging 2.1% (wt); while the LSB contains 0.8-2.4% (wt) with

  14. Comparative Study on Diffrences of Buried Hill Hydrocarbon Enrichment Between Western and Eastern Sags in Liaohe Depression%辽河坳陷东、西部凹陷潜山油气富集差异性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶涛; 蒋有录; 刘华; 万涛; 田涛

    2012-01-01

    The western sag and eastern sag in Liaohe depression have the same tectonic setting, but the buried hill hydrocarben of the west- ern sag is more abundant than the eastern sag. In this paper, the buried hill hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in these two sags are ana- lyzed and shown that the western sag developed additional set of source rock of the Es4 and the quality of the Es3 source rock is better than that of the eastern sag, which makes the western sag be superior to the eastern sag in source rock condition; the lithology of the buried hill in the western sag is dominated by carbonate rock and metamorphic rock, while that in the eastern sag by clastic rock, the former is hettern than the latter in reservoir quality or petrophysical property; the western sag develops early faulting-early ceasing and inherited active faults, while the eastern sag only develops the inherited active fault, which allows the western sag to be of better buried hill trap and hydro- carbon-charging conditions in slope area than the eastern sag. It is the development and quality of the source rock, the reseryoir petrophysi- cal property and the diffrences of the faulting activity that controll the enrichment of oil and gas in buried hills of these two sags.%分析了辽河坳陷东部凹陷与西部凹陷的潜山油气成藏条件后指出,虽然构造背景相似,但西部凹陷较东部凹陷多发育1套沙四段烃源岩,且沙三段烃源岩质量优于东部凹陷,使得西部凹陷烃源岩条件优于东部凹陷;西部凹陷潜山岩性以碳酸盐岩和变质岩为主,而东部凹陷以碎屑岩为主,碳酸盐岩和变质岩较碎屑岩易于改造的特性使得西部凹陷潜山储集层物性优于东部凹陷;西部凹陷发育早断早衰型和继承性活动断裂,东部凹陷由于缺少早断早衰型断层,使得西部凹陷斜坡区的潜山圈闭条件和洼陷区的供烃条件优于东部凹陷。烃源岩的发育程度与质量

  15. Crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain complexed with the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody: structural basis for recognition of B-cell receptors and superantigen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graille, M; Stura, E A; Corper, A L; Sutton, B J; Taussig, M J; Charbonnier, J B; Silverman, G J

    2000-05-09

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a virulence factor, protein A (SpA), that contains five homologous Ig-binding domains. The interactions of SpA with the Fab region of membrane-anchored Igs can stimulate a large fraction of B cells, contributing to lymphocyte clonal selection. To understand the molecular basis for this activity, we have solved the crystal structure of the complex between domain D of SpA and the Fab fragment of a human IgM antibody to 2.7-A resolution. In the complex, helices II and III of domain D interact with the variable region of the Fab heavy chain (V(H)) through framework residues, without the involvement of the hypervariable regions implicated in antigen recognition. The contact residues are highly conserved in human V(H)3 antibodies but not in other families. The contact residues from domain D also are conserved among all SpA Ig-binding domains, suggesting that each could bind in a similar manner. Features of this interaction parallel those reported for staphylococcal enterotoxins that are superantigens for many T cells. The structural homology between Ig V(H) regions and the T-cell receptor V(beta) regions facilitates their comparison, and both types of interactions involve lymphocyte receptor surface remote from the antigen binding site. However, T-cell superantigens reportedly interact through hydrogen bonds with T-cell receptor V(beta) backbone atoms in a primary sequence-independent manner, whereas SpA relies on a sequence-restricted conformational binding with residue side chains, suggesting that this common bacterial pathogen has adopted distinct molecular recognition strategies for affecting large sets of B and T lymphocytes.

  16. Impact and Countermeasures of Voltage Sag on Power Distribution System in Civil Buildings%电压暂降对民用建筑配电系统的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2016-01-01

    By introducing the concept of voltage sag and analyzing the cause of voltage sag and the impact of voltage sag on power distribution system in civil buildings, the article proposes the following methods for power distribution system in civil buildings to cope with voltage sag: improving the tolerance of power distribution system against voltage sag of power supply; reduced voltage starting shall be adopted for large-capacity motors to reduce voltage sag caused by direct starting; voltage stabilizing measures shall be taken for sensitive equipment to reduce the impact of voltage sag on it; parameter of elements in power distribution system shall be properly rectified to reduce the impact on power distribution system in case voltage sag develops into short power supply interruption.%通过介绍电压暂降的概念,分析电压暂降的原因及其对民用建筑配电系统的影响,提出民用建筑配电系统设计应对电压暂降的方法:提高配电系统对电源电压暂降的耐受能力;大容量电机采用降压启动,减少由于大容量电机直接启动引起的电压暂降;对敏感设备采用稳压措施,减少电压暂降对其的影响;合理整定配电系统元件参数,降低电压暂降发展为短时断电对建筑配电系统的影响。

  17. Voltage sags and transient detection and classification using half/one-cycle windowing techniques based on continuous s-transform with neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Kamarulazhar; Abidin, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Ahmad Puad

    2017-08-01

    This paper was conducted to detect and classify the different power quality disturbance (PQD) using Half and One-Cycle Windowing Technique (WT) based on Continuous S-Transform (CST) and Neural Network (NN). The system using 14 bus bars based on IEEE standard had been designing using MATLAB©/Simulink to provide PQD data. The datum of PQD is analyzed by using WT based on CST to extract features and it characteristics. Besides, the study focused an important issue concerning the identification of PQD selection and detection, the feature and characteristics of two types of signals such as voltage sag and transient signal are obtained. After the feature extraction, the classified process had been done using NN to show the percentage of classification PQD either voltage sags or transients. The analysis show which selection of cycle for windowing technique can provide the smooth detection of PQD and the suitable characteristic to provide the highest percentage of classification of PQD.

  18. A pre-Paleogene unconformity surface of the Sikeshu Sag, Junggar Basin: Lithological, geophysical and geochemical implications for the transportation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Gao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unconformity surface at the bottom of the Paleogene is one of the most important migration pathways in the Sikeshu Sag of the Junggar Basin, which consists of three layers: upper coarse clastic rock, lower weathering crust and leached zone. The upper coarse clastic rock is characterized by higher density and lower SDT and gamma-ray logging parameters, while the lower weathering crust displays opposite features. The transport coefficient of the unconformity surface is controlled by its position in respect to the basal sandstone; it is higher in the ramp region but lower in the adjacent uplifted and sag areas. The content of saturated hydrocarbons increases with the decrease of the content of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltenes. The content of benzo[c] carbazole decreases as the content of benzo[a] carbazole and [alkyl carbazole]/[alkyl + benzo carbazole] increases. This suggests that the unconformity surface is an efficient medium for the transportation of hydrocarbons.

  19. Differences in sedimentary filling and its controlling factors in rift lacustrine basins, East China: A case study from Qikou and Nanpu sags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Shu JIANG; Chuanyan HUANG; Hua JIANG; Huajun GAN

    2011-01-01

    The riff lacustrine basin is characterized by a variety of sediment sources, multiple sedimentary systems,and complex filling, and its sediment supply is largely influenced by climate change. The sedimentary filling and its controlling factors have always been the focuses in basin analysis. This paper first reviews the recent advancement in riff lacustrine basin investigations with an emphasis on the structural controlling on lacustrine configuration, accommodation, and directly structural controlling on basin filling characteristics. The paleogeography resulted from spatial configuration of structural styles, and the sediment supplies synergically determine the types and distribution of depositional systems. The sedimentary filling characteristics of the fourth-order sequence record the evolution of cyclic climate. The case studies are followed on the basis of the sedimentary filling analysis in typical Nanpu sag and Qikou sag in Huanghua riff lacustrine basins in East China. The comparison of sedimentary fillings within sequence stratigraphic frameworks in the two sags shows the different episodic tectonic activities, and their resulting structural frameworks mainly controlled the different sequence stratigraphic developments, their internal architectures, and depositional systems distribution. Qikou sag has more complicate sedimentary filling controlled by episodic activities of boundary and intrabasin secondary faults and sediment supplies. Based on the studies from our own and the formers, we suggest that the sedimentary filling study in rift lacustrine basin should be under the guidance of sequence stratigraphy, use high resolution seismic and all available geological data, combine tectonic evolution and structural styles to build the sequence framework, and then reconstruct the paleo-structure and paleogeography. Studying the relationship between paleogeography and paleosedimentary filling can favor the understanding of the characteristics of sedimentary

  20. Detection Method of Voltage Sag Characterizations Based on Peak Value%基于幅值的电压暂降特征量检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付学谦; 陈皓勇; 黄良毅

    2013-01-01

    分析了现有的电压暂降检测方法,提出了基于幅值的电压暂降特征量检测新方法.该方法通过低通滤波器、根锁相和开平方等环节可快速推导出暂降基波电压的幅值,然后根据暂降基波电压幅值快速推导出相位跳变角.与DVR装置中广泛采用的瞬时电压dq分解法比较,该方法的延时明显减少,可以对电压暂降的特征量进行迅速、准确判断.MATLAB仿真结果证明了该方法的有效性.%After studying the existing detection methods for voltage sag characterizations,a new voltage-sag detection technique based on the peak value is put forward.Through a low-pass filter,phase locking and a square root circuit,the amplitude of the fundamental wave of sagging voltage can be calculated quickly and then the angle of a phase jump can be calculated quickly accordingly.Compared with the dq transform method widely used in DVR devices,this method can obviously reduce the delay time and determine the voltage sag characterizations quickly and accurately as well.The results of MATLAB simulation results verify the validity of the methods.

  1. 电压暂降起始点与相位跳变对交流接触器影响的分析%Influence Analysis of Point-on-wave of Voltage Sag Initiation and Sag Phase Jump on Alternating Current Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永海; 洪旺松; 兰巧倩

    2016-01-01

    电压暂降是电能质量中较为严重的问题之一,它对交流接触器等敏感设备造成了严重的影响。除电压暂降幅值和持续时间两个特征量会影响交流接触器的正常运行外,暂降的起始点、相位跳变等特征量也会对交流接触器的通断造成较大影响。文中进行了电压暂降对交流接触器影响的机理分析,建立了仿真模型,进行了暂降起始点、相位跳变对交流接触器磁通变化的影响分析与接触器通断分析;选取主流厂家生产的8个交流接触器进行了试验研究,得到了与机理分析相一致的结果,并绘制了电压暂降不同起始点与相位跳变特征量下交流接触器的耐受度曲线,可为交流接触器应对电压暂降问题提供基础数据,以减小电压暂降对其造成的影响,降低经济损失。%Voltage sag is one of the serious problems of power quality,which would cause severe impact on sensitive equipment such as alternating current (AC) contactors.In addition to voltage sag amplitude and duration which will affect the normal operation of AC contactors,the characteristics such as point-on-wave of sag initiation,sag phase jump also have significant impact on the switching of AC contactors.This paper makes a mechanism analysis of the impact of voltage sag on the AC contactor and builds a simulation model of the sag for analyzing the impact of point-on-wave of sag initiation and phase jump on the flux variation and switching of the AC contactor.Then eight AC contactors from mainstream manufacturers are studied and test results consistent with the results of the mechanism analysis are obtained.Finally,the AC contactor”s tolerance curves with different voltage sag characteristics of point-on-wave of sag initiation and the phase jump are plotted,which can provide basic data for the AC contactor to deal with the problem of voltage sag and reduce the corresponding economic loss.

  2. Characteristics and mechanism of low permeability beach-bar sandstone reservoir of Es4 in Dongying sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-ai; ZHONG Jian-hua; ZHONG Fu-ping; NIU Yong-bin; WANG Pei-jun

    2009-01-01

    Core and cast sections observation and description, and logging, scanning electron microscope and core lab analysis data etc. Were applied to the present research of the characteristics and mechanism of low permeability beach-bar sandstone reservoir of Es4 in Dongying sag. The results indicated the reservoir has the characteristics of middle-low pores, low-permeability, low compo-sitional and structural maturity, and thin throat. The low-permeability is mainly due to sedimentation (fine particles and argillaceous inter beds) and diagenesis (compaction, cementation, and dissolution). The cementation reduced the physical property of the reser-voir mainly by carbonate cementation, quartz autogeny and enragement, and autogeny clay. Clay minerals usually jam the pores by filling holes, close-fitting the wall of hole, bridging, wrapping grains, and separate attaching the pores and so on. The dissolution is insufficient so as not to improve the porosity and permeability of the reservoir obviously. So it is also an important factor of form-ing low-permeability reservoir.

  3. Immiscibility of high salinity fluids in volcanic rocks and the mechanism of magma degassing in the Dongying sag, eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; ZHOU Yaoqi; XIAO Huanqin; REN Yongjun; SUN Xinian; WANG Qiang; YAN Shiyong; LIU Chaoying

    2007-01-01

    Fluid inclusions that bear halite daughter min- erals were discovered in volcanic rocks at Pingnan area in the Dongying sag. The samples of the fluid inclusions collected from the BGX-15 well drill cores are hosted in quartz of diorite-porphyrite. The daughter minerals are identified as NaCl crystals after being observed under a microscope and analyzed by in situ Raman spectroscopy at -185℃. The results of micro-thermal analysis show that the homogeniza- tion temperatures of primary fluid inclusions are between 359 and 496℃, and the salinities of fluid inclusions are from 43.26 to 54.51 wt-%. All fluid inclusions in the studied sam- ples can be divided into five types including primary fluid inclusions and secondary fluid inclusions. The fact that five types of fluid inclusions were symbiotic in the same quartz grain implies that immiscibility happened in magma. Due to the decrease in temperature and pressure during the ascent of magma, the fluids became intensively immiscible. This pro- cess accelerates the degassing of CO2 from magma, but the remnant fluids with high salinity are preserved in fluid inclu- sions. Thus, the primary fluid inclusions are mainly in NaCl- H2O fluids and poor in CO2. The results of our study indicate that the degassing of magma and accumulation of CO2 gas at the Pingnan area are relative to the immiscibility of high salinity fluids. This discovery is important because it can help us have a further understanding of the mechanism of magma degassing and accumulation of the inorganic CO2 in eastern China.

  4. 基于暂降类型判断的短路故障类型识别研究%Research of Short-Circuit Fault Type Recognition Based on Sag Type Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Different types of short-circuit faults can lead to different sag phenomena. This paper analyzes the relationships between the fault types and sag types, the propagation laws of sags and the characteristics of sag magnitudes and sequence components. Then based on judging the voltage sag type it proposes the method of short-circuit fault type recognition is proposed, which applies symmetrical component method. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and actual case analysis.%  不同短路故障类型会引起不同的电压暂降类型,本文分析了故障类型与暂降类型之间的关系、电压暂降的传递规律,以及暂降类型的幅值及其对称分量的特点。基于电压暂降事件录波数据,提出了一种通过判断不同电压暂降类型来进行短路故障类型识别的方法,并通过仿真和实例分析验证了该方法的可行性。

  5. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D; Beaty, David W; Jones, Melissa A; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G; Boston, Penelope J; Chevrier, Vincent F; Clark, Benton C; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P; Gough, Raina V; Hallsworth, John E; Head, James W; Hipkin, Victoria J; Kieft, Thomas L; McEwen, Alfred S; Mellon, Michael T; Mikucki, Jill A; Nicholson, Wayne L; Omelon, Christopher R; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J

    2014-11-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth-including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations of

  6. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the Second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D.; Beaty, David W.; Jones, Melissa A.; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G.; Boston, Penelope J.; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Clark, Benton C.; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Gough, Raina V.; Hallsworth, John E.; Head, James W.; Hipkin, Victoria J.; Kieft, Thomas L.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mellon, Michael T.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Omelon, Christopher R.; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J.

    2014-01-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth—including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations

  7. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  8. A 1.3-μm four-channel directly modulated laser array fabricated by SAG-Upper-SCH technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Ruikang; Liu, Songtao; Sun, Mengdie; Kan, Qiang; Ji, Chen

    2017-01-01

    A monolithically integrated four-channel directly modulated laser (DML) array working at the 1.3-μm band is demonstrated. The laser was manufactured by using the techniques of selective area growth (SAG) of the upper separate confinement heterostructure (Upper-SCH) and modified butt-joint method. The fabricated device showed stable single mode operation with the side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) >35 dB, and high wavelength accuracy with the deviations from the linear fitted values 7 GHz was obtained, which may be suitable for 40 GbE applications in the 1.3-μm band.

  9. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo; Sanín Ortiz Grisales; Teresa Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de ...

  10. 用重组蛋白 NcSAG1t作为ELISA诊断抗原进行改良绒山羊Neospora caninum的血清学诊断%Serodiagnosis of Neospora Caninum Infection in Improvement Cashmere Goat by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Recombinant Truncated NcSAG1t

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆艳; 王戈平; 马利青

    2007-01-01

    N caninum的表面抗原1(NcSAG1)在建立新孢子虫病的诊断上是一个重要的诊断抗原.为了建立有效的诊断方法,基因编码的截头(NcSAG1t)缺失一个信使缩氨酸和C-末端的疏水性区域的基因,象谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)的融合蛋白一样被克隆和表达在escherichia coli.纯化的GST-NcSAG1t作为ELISA诊断抗原被用在改良绒山羊N caninum抗体的检测中.经过对 207 份改良绒山羊血清样品进行检测,检出N caninum抗体阳性 16 份,阳性率为 7.73%.结果初步说明青海省的改良绒山羊羊群中存在N caninum.

  11. Linkage between PTK Signaling Pathway “Crosstalking” and Caspase-3/ CPP32-1ike Proteases Activation in Signaling Transduction of CD4+ T Lymphocytes Apoptosis Induced by Superantigen SEB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊世勤; 朱锡华

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of naive murine CD4+ T lymphocytes to superantigen such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induces a strong proliferative response. Prolonged exposure or subsequent restimulation of the responding T cell population with SEB leads to the apoptotic events of activation-induced cell death (AICD). The signaling mechanism responsible for the AICD is a target of intensive investigation. However, the precise downstream signahng pathways of SEB-induced AICD remains unclear. Our results here show that the sequential activation of caspase-1/ICE-hke and caspase-3/CPP32-hke cysteine proteases probably plays a role in the signaling transduction of SEB-induced AICD, but caspase-3/CPP32-hke proteases activation does not depend on caspase-1-like proteases activation. Herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of protein tyresine kinases,inhibit caspase-3/CPP32-1ike cysteine proteases activation. However, it does not prevent DNA fragmentation of CD4+ Tcells apoptosis induced by SEB. These results indicate that protein tyrosine kinases pathway is probably involved in the signaling transduction of CD4+ T cells apoptosis induced by SEB and “crosstalks” with the pathway of caspase-3/CPP32-1ike proteases activation.

  12. Ultraviolet B-exposed major histocompatibility complex class II positive keratinocytes and antigen-presenting cells demonstrate a differential capacity to activate T cells in the presence of staphylococcal superantigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, L.; Baadsgaard, O. [Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Dermatology

    1996-05-01

    In this study we tested the capacity of ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II{sup +} keratinocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. We demonstrated that UVB irradiation of MHC class II{sup +} keratinocytes does not change their capacity to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. In contrast, UVB irradiation of antigen-presenting cells decreases their capacity to activate T cells. The differential capacity to activate T cells after UVB irradiation was not due to factors released from UVB-irradiated cells. The interferon-{gamma} induced upregulation of HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on keratinocytes does not seem to be the only explanation, since UVB irradiation decreased the accessory cell function of interferon-{gamma} pretreated monocytes. Differential requirements for and UVB regulation of costimulatory molecules may be involved, since blocking of the B7/CD28 pathway affects the capacity of dendritic cells but not keratinocytes to activate T cells in the presence of Staphylococcus enterotoxin B. Thus, MHC class II{sup +} keratinocytes in the presence of superantigens released from staphylococci may activate T cells and maintain inflammation despite UVB treatment. (Author).

  13. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre plantas dentro de surco y entre surcos, respectivamente. Para el análisis de los datos cuantitativos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas (medidas de tendencia central, de variación y de desviación. La planta adulta alcanzó una altura entre 50 y 75 cm y un rendimiento de rizoma fresco entre 1.46 y 1.94 kg/planta. El índice de cosecha varió entre 0.06 y 0.60; el rendimiento de almidón por el rizoma fresco varió entre 7.2% y 8.1%; la composición proximal (en % del rizoma fue: 22.3, 7.4, 3.62, 1.02, 6.98 y 80.9 para MS, PC, FC, EE, ceniza y ELN, respectivamente. Las pruebas de antimetabolitos mostraron ausencia de estos compuestos en el forraje fresco, con 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% de MS, PC, FC, ceniza, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulosa y hemicelulosa, respectivamente. El valor relativo como forraje fue de 103.7. Se realizó el análisis granulométrico: el módulo de fineza, módulo de uniformidad y el tamaño de la partícula. El rendimiento de almidón de rizomas fue de 10.57 ± 1.35%, el gasto de agua de 50.45 l/kg de almidón rendido. El gránulo fue elipsoidal de 8 µm de diámetro y compuesto por 20.54% de amilosa y 79.46% de amilopectina, que genera una pasta opaca y resistente a la retrogradación. La temperatura final de gelificación fue de 73 °C, la viscosidad máxima de la pasta fue de 220 Unidades Brabender (U.B., con un pico de viscosidad definido, y posterior conservación de la trayectoria, con

  14. Auto-presentation of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A by mouse CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The currently accepted model for superantigen (SAg )induced T cell activation suggests that SAg, without being processed, cross links both MHC class II, from Antigen Presenting Cells (APC), and V-beta, from T-cell receptor (TCR), initiating nonspecific T-cell activation. This T-cell proliferation in...

  15. Focused fluid flow in the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea: implications for the source of gas in hydrate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Duanxin; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong; MI Lijun; FU Shaoying; SHI Hesheng

    2013-01-01

    The origin and migration of natural gas and the accumulation of gas hydrates within the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the northern South China Sea are poorly understood.Based on high-resolution 2D/3D seismic data,three environments of focused fluid flow:gas chinmeys,mud diapirs and active faults have been identified.Widespread gas chimneys that act as important conduits for fluid flow are located below bottom simulating reflections and above basal uplifts.The occurrence and evolution of gas chimneys can be divided into a violent eruptive stage and a quiet seepage stage.For most gas chimneys,the strong eruptions are deduced to have happened during the Dongsha Movement in the latest Miocene,which are observed below Pliocene strata and few active faults develop above the top of the Miocene.The formation pressures of the Baiyun Sag currently are considered to be normal,based on these terms:1) Borehole pressure tests with pressure coefficients of 1.043-1.047; 2) The distribution of gas chimneys is limited to strata older than the Pliocene; 3) Disseminated methane hydrates,rather than fractured hydrates,are found in the hydrate samples; 4) The gas hydrate is mainly charged with biogenic gas rather than thermogenic gas based on the chemical tests from gas hydrates cores.However,periods of quiet focused fluid flow also enable the establishment of good conduits for the migration of abundant biogenic gas and lesser volumes of thermogenic gas.A geological model governing fluid flow has been proposed to interpret the release of overpressure,the migration of fluids and the formation of gas hydrates,in an integrated manner.This model suggests that gas chimneys positioned above basal uplifts were caused by the Dongsha Movement at about 5.5 Ma.Biogenic gas occupies the strata above the base of the middle Miocene and migrates slowly into the gas chimney columns.Some of the biogenic gas and small volumes of thermogenic gas eventually contribute to the formation of the gas

  16. Experimental schistosomiasis in the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus Esquistossomose experimental no Sagüi Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luna de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate Callithrix jacchus as an animal model for mansoni schistosomiasis, a group of 10 male animals were once percutaneously exposed to 250 cercariae of the Schistosoma mansoni SLM (São Lourenço da Mata strain. Animals were periodically bled for measuring serum level of enzymes and proteins and for blood cell counting. When comparing pre-infection to post-infection values, a significant increase was found for alkaline phosphatase at 15 to 120 days p.i., differential counts of eosinophil at 45 and 60 days, and total protein and global eosinophil counts at 120 days. No Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in stools. Adult worms of small size were recovered from five animals. At day 120, the number of Schistosoma mansoni eggs/g of tissue was 0-289.7 (liver, 0-30.1 (large intestine and 0-171.4 (small intestine. These findings lead us to classify Callithrix jacchus as a non-permissive host to the SLM strain of Schistosoma mansoni.Com o objetivo de avaliar o Callithrix jacchus (sagüi como modelo experimental para a esquistossomose, um grupo de 10 animais, machos, adultos jovens, foram expostos a 250 cercárias da cepa SLM (São Lourenço da Mata do Schistosoma mansoni, pela via percutânea. A intervalos de 15 dias até 120 dias apos infecção foram dosados os níveis de proteínas totais e enzimas séricas, além de realizados exames parasitológico e hematológico. Aumento significativo foi observado para: fosfatase alcalina a partir do 150 dia; contagem global de eosinófilos aos 120 dias, e diferencial de eosinófilos aos 45 e 60 dias p.i. Nao se observou ovos de Schistosoma nas fezes. Á perfusão cinco animais apresentaram vermes adultos. Todos os vermes encontrados eram diminutos. O número de ovos foi 0-289,7 ovos/g de tecido no fígado, 0-30,1 no intestino grosso, 0-171,4 no intestino delgado. Esta observaçoes levam-nos a concluir que o Callithrix jacchus seja não-permissivo ao Schistosoma.

  17. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  18. Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Bart J; Wiermer, Marcel; Bhat, Riyaz A; Moisan, Lisa J; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Neu, Christina; Cabral, Adriana; Parker, Jane E

    2005-09-01

    Plant innate immunity against invasive biotrophic pathogens depends on the intracellular defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). We show here that Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1 interacts in vivo with another protein, SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), discovered through a proteomic approach to identify new EDS1 pathway components. Together with PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), a known EDS1 interactor, SAG101 contributes intrinsic and indispensable signaling activity to EDS1-dependent resistance. The combined activities of SAG101 and PAD4 are necessary for programmed cell death triggered by the Toll-Interleukin-1 Receptor type of nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat immune receptor in response to avirulent pathogen isolates and in restricting the growth of normally virulent pathogens. We further demonstrate by a combination of cell fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments the existence of an EDS1-SAG101 complex inside the nucleus that is molecularly and spatially distinct from EDS1-PAD4 associations in the nucleus and cytoplasm. By contrast, EDS1 homomeric interactions were detected in the cytoplasm but not inside the nucleus. These data, combined with evidence for coregulation between individual EDS1 complexes, suggest that dynamic interactions of EDS1 and its signaling partners in multiple cell compartments are important for plant defense signal relay.

  19. 金黄色葡萄球菌分离株致病基因研究%Study of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳丽琴; 王俊怡; 徐小静; 李向梅; 耿文静; 吴德静; 沈叙庄

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study virulence genes of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from Chinese pediatric patients. Methods A total of 60 clinical S. aureus isolates were collected from pediatric patients with pneumonia and were tested by PCR for 19 superantigen genes, 3 adhesin and 2 toxin genes. Results Among the 60 clinical isolates, sek (50%, 30/60) was the most common superantigen gene, followed by seq (29%, 48/60), sea (38%, 23/60) and seb (37%, 22/60), but sed, etd, and sep genes were not detected. Three adhesin genes, bbp, sdrE and cna were found in 87%, 65% and 40% of clinical isolates, respectively. Conclusions The sek was the most common superantigen gene of S. aureus isolated from pediatric patients with pneumonia. There is regional difference in the distribution of 3 adhesin genes. The role of virulence genes requires further study.%目的 研究金黄色葡萄球菌致病基因在金黄色葡萄球菌分离株中的分布.方法 用PCR方法对分离自肺炎患儿的60株金黄色葡萄球菌进行19种超抗原基因、2种剥脱毒素基因和3种黏附基因进行检测.结果 60株金黄色葡萄球菌,最常见的为sek (50%,30/60),其次为seq (48%,29/60)、sea (38%,23/60)、seb (37%,22/60).未检测到sed、etd、sep.3种黏附基因bbp、sdrE、cna分别存在于87%、65%、40%的菌株中.结论 分离自肺炎患儿的金黄色葡萄球菌sek超抗原基因有较高的流行性,3种黏附基因的携带率不同于其他地区,致病基因的作用尚需进一步的研究.

  20. Fuzzy Bang-Bang Control Scheme of USSC for Voltage Sag Mitigation Due to Short Circuits and Induction Motor Starting in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unified series shunt compensator (USSC has been widely used to mitigate various power quality disturbances in distribution network. The USSC is almost similar to the UPFC, but the only differences are that the UPFC inverters are in shunt series connection and used in transmission systems whereas the USSC inverters are in series-shunt connection and used in distribution systems. USSC, it is possible to compensate a different power quality problem as compared to DSTATCOM and DVR. It is noted that, mitigated load voltage by the DVR is lower than mitigated value obtained by USSC. In other words the USSC can mitigate voltage sag better in compared to DVR and D-STATCOM. Also in case of voltage flicker, unbalance and harmonics elimination it is much effective.  Similarly, D-STATCOM is unable to control power flow.  It is seen that the proposed USSC can mitigate variety of power quality (PQ problems. Hence due to multi capability of USSC in power quality improvement, this paper presents the scheme based on fuzzy bang-bang control for USSC. Using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC based on bang-bang control; the USSC will contribute to improve voltage sag without deteriorating the effect of the other compensating devices.

  1. The control of syndepositional faulting on the Eogene sedimentary basin fills of the Dongying and Zhanhua sags,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Changsong; ZHENG Herong; REN Jianye; LIU Jingyan; Qiu Yigang

    2004-01-01

    The Dongying and Zhanhua sags are the major hydrocarbon exploration and production subbasins in the Bohai Bay Basin. Integrated analysis of the sedimentary basin fills has shown that the syndepositional faults and their arrangement styles exerted an important influence on the development and distribution of the Eogene depositional systems. The sedimentary filling evolution of the subbasins reflects the general control of the episodic rifting process. The major long-term active normal faults formed a series of paleogeomorphic accident or slopebreak zones that commonly delineated the subsidiary palaeostructural units and the depositional facies tracts and constrained the general distribution of sedimentary facies zones. The central sag boundary fault slopebreak zones usually determined the distribution of the depocenters of terrestrial clastic depositional systems, particularly the Iowstand fans or deltaic depositional systems, and have proven to be the economically important targets for the exploration of subtle sandstone reservoirs. A variety of syndepositional fault arrangement patterns, including the parallel, en echelon, combo-like, broom-like fault systems and the fault overlap or transfer zones,have been recognized in the subbasins. They generated distinctive geomorphic features and exerted a direct influence on sediment dispersal and sandbody distribution during the Eogene synrift stage. It is the key for the prediction of depositional systems tracts and reservoir sandstones to investigate the activity and distribution of the fault slopebreak zones and reconstruct the structural paleogeomorphy in different basin filling stages of the basin evolution.

  2. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  3. (Sags)behandlede rettigheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Lars; Nielsen, Steffen Bohni

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen ser på, hvorfor socialarbejdernes forhold til jura kan betegnes som et had/kærlighedsforhold. Undersøgelser viser, at sagsbehandlernes idealer om samarbejdet med klienten stemmer overens med lovens intentioner. Problemet er bare, at intentionerne og idealerne ikke slår igennem i det soci...

  4. Stop Sagging Doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Bob

    2000-01-01

    Explains how continuous geared hinges can help prevent doors from pulling away from their frames and can last as long as 20 years with little maintenance. Descriptions of three main applications for continuous geared hinges are described. (GR)

  5. The Sagging Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Taylor

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which can be used to investigate heat expansion in a solid. Included are background, materials, procedures, and suggested discussion questions. A diagram of the apparatus is provided. (CW)

  6. 低压脱扣器电压暂降敏感性试验研究%Experimental Research on Sensitivity of Low Voltage Releaser to Voltage Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳森; 刘平; 吴彤彤; 杨家豪; 曾江

    2015-01-01

    Using test method the low voltage releaser is researched and its action area, no action area and fuzzy area under the composite actions of the amplitude, the duration and the phase of voltage sag are obtained. On the basis of researching Chinese National Standard GB/T17626.11—2008 in depth, the detailed analysis on related research materials home and abroad are carried out, and a test scheme for sensitivity of low voltage releaser to voltage sag is constructed. Based on this test scheme, twelve types of low voltage releasers, which belong to the mainstream in the present market, are taken as the specimens to bear different amplitudes, durations and phases of voltage sags, while the action situations of low voltage releasers are observed and recorded. On the same voltage amplitude-duration plane the voltage tolerance curves of these low voltage releasers under different phase are plotted to form the family of voltage tolerance curves and then the upper and lower envelopes of the curve family are drawn. Through synthesizing and lumping the envelops of voltage tolerance curves belonging to different types of low voltage releasers, the three-region action characteristics of low voltage releaser under voltage sag, namely the explicit action region, the explicit no action region and the fuzzy action region, which can provide data support for the optimized design and manufacture of low voltage releasers and offer theoretical foundation for economic evaluation of voltage sag, are formed.%采用试验方法对低压脱扣器进行研究,得出其在电压暂降幅值、持续时间、相位组合作用下的动作区域、不动作区域、模糊区域。在深入研究国标GB/T 17626.11—2008的基础上,详细分析国内外相关研究资料,构建了低压脱扣器电压暂降敏感性试验方案。基于试验方案,对目前市场上主流的12种型号低压脱扣器进行试验,使其承受不同电压暂降幅值、持续时间及相位,观察并

  7. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Mediated Toxicity Inhibited by Neutralizing Antibodies Late in the Course of Continual in Vivo and in Vitro Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Stich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome (TSS results from the host’s overwhelming inflammatory response and cytokine storm mainly due to superantigens (SAgs. There is no effective specific therapy. Application of immunoglobulins has been shown to improve the outcome of the disease and to neutralize SAgs both in vivo and in vitro. However, in most experiments that have been performed, antiserum was either pre-incubated with SAg, or both were applied simultaneously. To mirror more closely the clinical situation, we applied a multiple dose (over five days lethal challenge in a rabbit model. Treatment with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 neutralizing antibody was fully protective, even when administered late in the course of the challenge. Kinetic studies on the effect of superantigen toxins are scarce. We performed in vitro kinetic studies by neutralizing the toxin with antibodies at well-defined time points. T-cell activation was determined by assessing T-cell proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation, determination of IL-2 release in the cell supernatant (ELISA, and IL-2 gene activation (real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Here we show that T-cell activation occurs continuously. The application of TSST-1 neutralizing antiserum reduced IL-2 and TNFα release into the cell supernatant, even if added at later time points. Interference with the prolonged stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines is likely to be in vivo relevant, as postexposure treatment protected rabbits against the multiple dose lethal SAg challenge. Our results shed new light on the treatment of TSS by specific antibodies even at late stages of exposure.

  8. Distribution Characteristics of Effective Source Rocks and Their Control on Hydrocarbon Accumulation:A Case Study from the Dongying Sag, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; JIN Qiang; ZHANG Shuichang; DAI Jinxing; ZHANG Linye; LI Jian

    2004-01-01

    The exploration conducted in the Bohai Bay basin, eastern China has demonstrated that the abundant petroleum resources have close affinities to the hydrocarbon kitchen with rich organic matter. A number of oil-generating associations with various characteristics of organic geochemistry and assemblages of multiple reservoir facies are developed due to the multi-center sedimentation, multi-source supply and multi-cycle evolution of filling, which have resulted in the formation of multiple oil and gas accumulation zones of various layers and trap styles. Among them the Paleogene Shahejie Formation is the most important hydrocarbon accumulation combination in the Dongying sag.Heretofore, its proved reserve has reached nearly 1.8×109 t, which accounts for more than 90% of the total proved reserves of the Dongying sag. Based on previous studies, more than 600 source rock samples and 186 crude oil samples of the Shahejie Formation, collected from 30 oilfields, have been treated with organic geochemical testing. By combining the sedimentary sequence characteristics and geochemical analysis results, the source rocks of the Shahejie Formation can be divided into three genetic types, i.e. the saline lake facies (the upper Es4), brackish water deep lake facies (the lower Es3)and fresh-water lake facies (the middle Es3), which correspond to the under-filling, balanced-filling and over-filling lake types respectively and represent the three most essential genetic models for source rocks of non-marine fault basins in China. Based on a thorough oil-source correlation, the source rocks of the saline lake and brackish deep lake facies are determined to be the most contributive source rocks in the Dongying sag. Furthermore, by probing into the accumulation of organic matter and hydrocarbon migration pattern, it can be inferred that the hydrocarbons, generated from source rocks of the saline lake facies with relatively low maturity, have mainly accumulated in the uplifted parts of

  9. Investigation of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of hard brittle shales from the Shahejie Formation in the Nanpu Sag, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjun, Liu; Jian, Xiong; Lixi, Liang; Yi, Ding

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for energy and advances in exploration and development technologies, more attention is being devoted to exploration and development of deep oil and gas reservoirs. The Nanpu Sag contains huge reserves in deep oil and gas reservoirs and is a promising area. In this paper, the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of hard brittle shales from the Shahejie Formation in the Nanpu Sag in the Bohai Bay Basin of northern China were investigated using a variety of methods, including x-ray diffraction analysis, cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope observations, immersion experiments, ultrasonic testing and mechanical testing. The effects of the physico-chemical properties of the shales on wellbore instability were observed, and the effects of hydration of the shales on wellbore instability were also examined. The results show that the major mineral constituents of the investigated shales are quartz and clay minerals. The clay mineral contents range from 25.33% to 52.03%, and the quartz contents range from 20.03% to 46.45%. The clay minerals do not include montmorillonite, but large amounts of mixed-layer illite/smectite were observed. The CEC values of the shales range from 90 to 210 mmol kg-1, indicating that the shales are partly hydrated. The wettability of the shales is strongly water-wetted, indicating that water would enter the shales due to the capillary effect. Hydration of hard brittle shales can generate cracks, leading to changes in microstructure and increases in the acoustic value, which could generate damage in the shales and reduce their strength. With increasing hydration time, the shale hydration effect gradually becomes stronger, causing an increase in the range of the acoustic travel time and decreases in the ranges of cohesion and internal friction angles. For the hard brittle shales of the Nanpu Sag, drilling fluid systems should aim to enhance sealing ability

  10. 一种基于二分类的电压暂降源定位方法%A two-class classification based method for voltage sag source location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕干云; 孙维蒙

    2012-01-01

    电压暂降源定位实质是根据暂降源位置敏感的物理量,来确定暂降源位于监测点的上游或下游位置,模式识别上属于二分类问题.提出了一种基于智能分类的电压暂降源定位方法.分析回顾了现有的几种典型暂降源定位方法及其判据,通过判据研究提取源位置敏感的多个定位特征量,并采用支持向量机智能算法对已有故障诊断结果进行学习,从而在该多维特征空间构建判别上下游的最优分类面,利用此最优分类面(即为二分类支持向量机)实现基于二分类的暂降源定位.测试数据表明,该方法能够有效实现电压暂降源定位,定位准确率高且所需计算时间短.%Voltage sag source location is to determine that the sag source is located upstream or downstream relative to the monitoring points based on the physical quantity sensitive to voltage sag location. From the view of pattern recognition, it is a problem of two-class classification. A new method is developed to locate the sag source based on thought of smart classification. Several typical existing sag source location methods and their criterions are reviewed first. Many features sensitive to source location are extracted according to the above criteria. Using support vector machine (SVM) intelligent algorithm, the obtained fault diagnosis results are trained and an optimal hyper-plane is constructed in the space of multi-features to distinguish upstream from downstream. Finally, the optimal hyper-plane, that is the trained SVM, is used for two-class classification based voltage sag source location. The testing results show that the proposed method can locate the origin of voltage sag effectively, and shows a high accuracy of location and short calculating time.

  11. Design of voltage sag generator based on dual DSP and FPGA controller%基于双DSP和FPGA控制器的大功率电压暂降仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华赢; 李翔; 朱正国; 姚森敬; 史帅彬; 黄力鹏; 欧阳森; 曾江

    2015-01-01

    The voltage sag generator is designed based on dual digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable logic gate array (FPGA) controller. Firstly, the main circuit of the voltage sag generator is designed. Then, the design of core unit (namely the controller) of the voltage sag generator is introduced in detail, the controller is composed of dual DSP and FPGA, and combine hardware system and software system to realize multi-function, intelligent control of voltage sag generator. Finally, the physical circuit of the voltage sag generator is set up according to the above theory, and the feasibility of the method is verified by the testing of HONKI3196.%设计了基于双数字信号处理器(DSP)和现场可编程逻辑门阵列(FPGA)架构控制器的电压暂降仪。首先,进行了电压暂降仪的主电路拓扑设计;然后对电压暂降仪的核心单元即控制器的设计进行了详细介绍,控制器采用双DSP和FPGA架构,硬件系统与软件系统相结合,实现对电压暂降仪多功能、智能化的控制;最后,按照理论设计,搭建了电压暂降仪实物电路,经过日置HONKI3196的测试,验证了本文设计的电压暂降仪的可行性。

  12. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Bozena; Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  13. Intersection patterns of normal faults in the Lufeng Sag of Pearl River Mouth Basin, China: Insights from 4D physical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fusheng; Koyi, Hemin; Zhang, Xiangtao

    2016-12-01

    Interpretation of seismic data from the Lufeng Sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) in the northern part of South China Sea shows that different intersection patterns developed in the cover units above basement normal faults. A series of analogue models are used to investigate the intersection patterns and deformation in the sedimentary cover sequences above a basement horst bounded by two non-parallel faults. Modelling results show that during their upward propagation, the basement faults may intersect within the cover sequences and form a graben above the basement horst. Length and width of the graben increase with cover thickness. The strike and dip intersection points are controlled directly by the thickness of the cover sequences, dip and strike of the basement faults, and width of the basement horst. The intersection point migrates along the axis of the graben toward the wide end of the basement horst, when the cover sequence thickens. In contrast, it migrates toward the narrow end of the basement horst, where both fault dip and angle of strike difference increase. The intersection point moves upward with increasing width of the basement horst crest. Model profiles also indicate that in the presence of a ductile layer between the cover and basement such intersection patterns do not form. Interpretation of seismic data and model results show that the intersection pattern developed in the Lufeng Sag is a result of propagation of basement faults into cover units during different extension stages of the basin. Results of this study can be applied to many other sedimentary basins where such fault intersection patterns are likely to form when non-parallel conjugate basement faults are active during sedimentation.

  14. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Hilário Bezerra, Francisco; Adolfo Fuck, Reinhardt; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2) Seismic data indicate that 120-200 km wide and up to 300 km long rift zones occur in other parts of the basins. These rift zones mark the early stage of the 3.5 km thick sag basin. (3) The rifting phase occurred in the early Paleozoic and had a subsidence rate of 47 m Myr-1. (4) This rifting phase was followed by a long period of sag basin subsidence at a rate of 9.5 m Myr-1 between the Silurian and the late Cretaceous, during which rift faults propagated and influenced deposition. These data interpretations support the following succession of events: (1) after the Brasiliano orogeny (740-580 Ma), brittle reactivation of ductile basement shear zones led to normal and dextral oblique-slip faulting concentrated along the Transbrasiliano Lineament, a continental-scale shear zone that marks the boundary between basement crustal blocks. (2) The post-orogenic tectonic brittle reactivation of the ductile basement shear zones led to normal faulting associated with dextral oblique-slip crustal extension. In the west, pure-shear extension induced the formation of rift zones that crosscut metamorphic foliations and shear zones within the Parnaíba block. (3) The rift faults experienced multiple reactivation phases. (4) Similar processes may have occurred in coeval basins in the Laurentia and Central African blocks of Gondwana.

  15. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudo, A; Rassenti, L; Havlir, D; Richman, D; Feigal, E; Kipps, T J

    1998-08-15

    We examined the IgM VH gene subgroup use-distribution in serial blood samples of 37 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and a group of HIV-seronegative healthy adults. The IgM VH gene repertoires of healthy adults were relatively similar to one another and were stable over time. In contrast, individuals infected with HIV had IgM VH gene repertoires that were significantly more heterogeneous and unstable. Persons at early stages of HIV infection generally had abnormal expression levels of Ig VH3 genes and frequently displayed marked fluctuations in the relative expression levels of this VH gene subgroup over time. In contrast, persons with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a significantly lower incidence of abnormalities in Ig VH3 expression levels, although continued to display abnormalities and instability in the expression levels of the smaller Ig VH gene subgroups. Moreover, the skewing and/or fluctuations in the expressed-IgM VH gene repertoire appeared greatest for persons at earlier stages of HIV infection. These studies show that persons infected with HIV have aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes suggestive of a high degree humoral immune dysregulation and ongoing humoral immune responses to HIV-associated antigens and superantigens.

  16. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles – Improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.

  17. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2014-04-07

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  18. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzinger, Stefan W; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  19. Performance Characteristics ofAC Contactor During Voltage Sag%晃电故障下交流接触器的工作特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林抒毅; 许志红

    2011-01-01

    电磁式交流接触器是一种应用广泛的低压电器产品,当晃电故障发生时,交流接触器可能因为不稳定电压而频繁接通或分断,对系统造成很大的影响。论文以CJ20.63A交流接触器为研究对象,建立考虑触头运动情况的电磁机构吸合过程、吸持阶段以及释放过程的磁路动态计算方程,并通过实验验证了模型的正确性。针对不同的合闸相角和工作状态进行仿真,分析了发生晃电故障时电压下降幅度、晃电故障持续时间、晃电故障发生时刻及电压相角变化对接触器工作特性的影响。结果表明,吸合阶段的晃电影响与吸合时问有直接关系,吸合以后的晃电故障影响存在临界%Electromagnetic contactor is a kind of widely used electric product. When the voltage drops suddenly, the contactor will be open or closed frequently, and the circuit will be influenced seriously. Based on the research of CJ20-63A contactor dynamic equations were established during closing, cIosed and opening processes; the movement process of the moving contact and the bounce of the contacts were considered at the meantime. The experimental data shows the model is correct. Simulations were carried out with respect to different working states and various closing phase angles. Influences of the range, duration and occurrence time of voltage drop, and the variation of voltage phases on performance characteristics of contactors were analyzed; the result indicates that the influences of voltage sag on the contactor are related to the closing time directly in the closing process; and a critical time value should be considered after the contactor is closed. This research provides the basic for the further study on the intelligent AC contactor with anti-voltage sag.

  20. Astronomical forcing of sedimentary cycles of Late Eocene Liushagang Formation in the Bailian Sag, Fushan Depression, Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海洋; 金思丁; 孙鸣; 王华

    2016-01-01

    Sediments in the Liushagang Formation of Late Eocene form a group of key hydrocarbon play fairways in the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. As an important reservoir-forming combination, the Liushagang Formation consists of deltaic siliciclastic and show clear sedimentary cyclicity. According to paleontology research and stratigraphic correlation, the boundary between Liushagang Formation (Els) and Weizhou Formation (Ewz) is regarded as the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The oxygen isotope dating for well cores from the top of the first Member of Liushagang Formation (Els1) and the bottom of the third Member of Weizhou Formation (Ewz3) give an isochron age of 35.2 Ma. Here, we use GR logging data as a paleoenvironmental proxy to conduct a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of the Els1 in the Bailian Sag, Fushan Depression. Power spectra, evolutionary fast Fourier transformation and wavelet analysis all reveal significant sedimentary cycles in Els1. The ratios of cycle wavelengths in these stratigraphic units are 21׃5׃2.8׃1.2׃1, and are interpreted as Milankovitch cycles of 400 ka and 96 ka eccentricity, 52 ka obliquity, 22 ka and 19 ka precession cycles, respectively. An astronomical time scale is established by tuning filtered 96 ka eccentricity cycles to a target curve of Well L2 in the Bailian Sag. Based on regional stratigraphic framework, combined with seismic, cores and logging data, the HST of the first member of the Liushagang Formation (Els1) delta in Well L2 was divided into six parasequence sets named Ps1-Ps6. According to the spectrum analysis by Simple Lomb periodogram from PAST program packages, the sediment accumulation rate of each parasequence sets first increased and then decreased as time went by. The sediment accumulation rate of Ps4 reached the maximum (0.127 m/ka) during the most prosperous period of delta prograding. Finally, the duration of each period of parasequence sets and more accurate geological age were calculated on the basis of

  1. Precisely modulated pathogenicity island interference with late phage gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Geeta; Chen, John; Ross, Hope F; Novick, Richard P

    2014-10-07

    Having gone to great evolutionary lengths to develop resistance to bacteriophages, bacteria have come up with resistance mechanisms directed at every aspect of the bacteriophage life cycle. Most genes involved in phage resistance are carried by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages and their relatives. A very special case of phage resistance is exhibited by the highly mobile phage satellites, staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), which carry and disseminate superantigen and other virulence genes. Unlike the usual phage-resistance mechanisms, the SaPI-encoded interference mechanisms are carefully crafted to ensure that a phage-infected, SaPI-containing cell will lyse, releasing the requisite crop of SaPI particles as well as a greatly diminished crop of phage particles. Previously described SaPI interference genes target phage functions that are not required for SaPI particle production and release. Here we describe a SaPI-mediated interference system that affects expression of late phage gene transcription and consequently is required for SaPI and phage. Although when cloned separately, a single SaPI gene totally blocks phage production, its activity in situ is modulated accurately by a second gene, achieving the required level of interference. The advantage for the host bacteria is that the SaPIs curb excessive phage growth while enhancing their gene transfer activity. This activity is in contrast to that of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which totally block phage growth at the cost of phage-mediated gene transfer. In staphylococci the SaPI strategy seems to have prevailed during evolution: The great majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains carry one or more SaPIs, whereas CRISPRs are extremely rare.

  2. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  3. Formation of abnormal high pressure and its application in the study of oil-bearing property of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShanWen; ZHANG LinYe; ZHANG ShouChun; LIU Qing; ZHU RiFang; BAO YouShu

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denu-dation are the main factors influencing oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative re-lations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.

  4. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  5. Characteristics of rare earth elements of lacustrine exhalative rock in the Xiagou Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Qingxi sag, Jiuxi basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Huaguo; ZHENG Rongcai; GENG Wei; FAN Mingtao; WANG Manfu

    2007-01-01

    The exhalative rock occurring in the Xiagou Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Qingxi sag, Jiuxi basin is a sort of a rare lacustrine white smoke type, rich in ferrodolo-mites and albites. This paper introduces the geological back-ground, mineral association, and lithology of the exhalative rock, and discusses its REE geochemical characteristics and connection with hydrothermal environment. It is shown that the exhalative rock has basal characteristics of hydrothermal depositional formation of LREE>HREE, with positive δCe and negative δEu, which is different from the character-istics of marine exhalative rock. Since the REE pattern and exceptional distribution of δEu and δCe are highly similar to the characteristics of alkalescent tholeiitic basalt in the same layer, the exhalative rock of Xiagou Formation isconsidered to be closely related to the origin of basalt in the same horizon. The fact that the amount of REE of exhala-tive rock decreases outwards indicates that exhalative rock in the Xiagou Formation may be connected with lacustrine hydrothermal convection circulation.

  6. Diagnostic value of a Rec-ELISA using Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1, and GRA1 proteins in murine models infected orally with tissue cysts and oocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Döşkaya

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns resulting with fetal anomalies. Determining the initiation time of infection is very important for pregnant women and current serological assays have drawbacks in distinguishing the recently acute toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of recently acute infection may be improved by using stage specific antigens in serological assays. In the present study, the diagnostic value of sporozoite specific SporoSAG, bradyzoite specific BAG1 proteins and GRA1 protein expressed by all forms of the parasite have been evaluated ELISA using sera systematically collected from mice administered orally with tissue cyst and oocysts. The anti-SporoSAG IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 1, 10, and 15 (P<0.01. The anti-BAG1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly at days 15, 40, and 120 (P<0.05. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 2, 10, and 40 (P<0.01. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly only at day 40 (P<0.05. The anti-SporoSAG, anti-BAG1, and anti-GRA1 IgG titers of mice showed significant increases at day 40 (P<0.05 and decrement started for only anti-GRA1 IgG at day 120. The presence of anti-SporoSAG IgM and IgG antibodies can be interpreted as recently acute infection between days 10-40 because IgM decreases at day 40. Similarly, presence of anti-BAG1 IgM and absence of IgG can be evaluated as a recently acute infection that occurred 40 days before because IgG peaks at day 40. A peak in anti-GRA1 antibody level at first testing and reduction in consecutive sample can be considered as an infection approximately around day 40 or prior. Overall, recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1 and GRA1 proteins can be accepted as valuable diagnostic markers of recently acute toxoplasmosis.

  7. Molecular Screening of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Gene in Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB in food poisoning is well known,however its role in other diseases remains to be explored. The aim of this study is the molecularscreening and characterization of the SEB gene in clinically isolated strains.Materials and Methods: In this experimentally study, 300 Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus strains isolated from clinical samples were assayed. The isolated strains wereconfirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCRwas used to determine the enterotoxin B (ent B gene. Assessment of toxin productionin all strains that contained the ent B gene was then performed. Finally, using specificantibody against SEB, a Western-blot was applied to confirm detection of enterotoxin Bproduction.Results: Results indicated that only 5% of the 300 clinically isolated S. aureus containedthe ent B gene. All strains which contained the ent B gene produced a proteinous enterotoxinB. The results of sequence determination of the PCR product were compared withthe gene bank database and 98% similarity was achieved. The results of the Western-blotconfirmed that enterotoxin B was produced in strains that contained the ent B gene.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that 5% of clinically isolated S. aureusstrains produce enterotoxin B. Considering that the enterotoxin B is an important superantigen,it is possible that a delay in diagnosis and lack of early proper treatment can causean incidence of late complications, particularly in staphylococcal chronic infections. Forthis reason, it is suggested that in addition to detecting bacteria, an enterotoxin B detectiontest should be performed to control its toxigenicity.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal superantigenic toxin genes in human Staphylococcus aureus isolates%人体表金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原毒素基因型系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔京春; 郭海勇; 张献; 王振乾; 邢效瑞; 张兴利; 何煜波; 胡东良; 胡文忠

    2013-01-01

    采用以4组反应管同时检测18种金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原毒素的多重PCR检测方法,对人体表面分离的金黄色葡萄球菌进行超抗原毒素基因系统分型.结果表明,在人体皮肤、头发及鼻腔中采集的682份样品中共分离到16株金黄色葡萄球菌,鼻腔中检出率最高,为4.35% (10/230);分离株超抗原毒素基因携带率高达81.25%,多数菌株同时携带1种以上基因;肠毒素基因携带率为56.25%,所有携带肠毒素基因的菌株都携带至少1种传统肠毒素,其中sea携带率最高,其次为sec,而see未检出.

  9. Soja convencional e transgênica: percepção de atores do SAG da soja sobre esta coexistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelliane da Consolação Fuscaldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento da variedade de soja transgênica gerou uma exter­nalidade negativa aos produtores convencionais, uma vez que o reconhecimento e a certificação da soja como um produto livre de transgênico passou a implicar custos elevados para que possa ser feita a segregação ao longo das etapas do processo produtivo. Contudo, mesmo havendo possibilidade de contaminação e prejuízos para os produtores não transgênicos, normas de coexistência para estes produtos são praticamente inexistentes. Diante disso, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar parâmetros legais que deveriam constar no marco jurídico brasileiro para regulamentar a matéria. Trata­se de uma pesquisa exploratório­descritiva, em que a coleta de dados foi realizada junto aos representantes de segmentos do Sistema Agroindustrial da Soja (SAG. Para tanto, foi utilizado um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado composto por questões abertas e dicotômicas. A análise dos conteúdos verbalizados pelos participantes foi feita através do software Alceste, e posteriormente, via análise manual de conteúdo, foi possível validar o exame eletrônico. Algumas categorias de análise emergiram a partir da verbalização dos participantes e os resultados foram organizados e interpretados à luz do quadro referencial da teoria da Nova Economia Institucional, indicando necessidade de regulamentação de parâmetros específicos para se garantir a coexistência dos grãos de soja transgênica e convencional.

  10. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lara M; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P R B; de Mendonça, Carla L; Mamizuka, Elsa M

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  11. Calculation of denudation amount with Milankovitch cycle method: a case study in Biyang Sag%米氏旋回剥蚀量计算方法在泌阳凹陷的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚益民; 徐旭辉; 刘翠荣; 谈彩萍; 罗家群; 朱景修

    2011-01-01

    The denudation thickness of Paleogene-Neogene unconformity in the Biyang Sag has been calculated with the Milankovitch cycle method. The calculation process has been divided into 2 steps. 1) Put the strata classification and logging curves of all formations as well as sections and sub-sections into "studies system of cyclostratigraphy" (version 1. 0) so as to find the 0. 405 Ma period. In this way? The maximum dominant cycle and the sedimentary time for available strata can be calculated. 2) Transform the denudation time besides of the above-mentioned sedimentary time for available strata into erosion thickness according to the 0. 405 Ma period. It has been concluded that in the center of the sag, onlyLiaozhuang Formation is denuded. In Anpeng area which locates in the southeast of the sag, the denudation thickness is less than 100 m and increases gradually to the west, northwest and northern margin of the sag, and finally exceeds 650 m around the missing boundary of Liaozhuang Formation. Hetaoyuan Formation is also denuded near to the sag boundary, mainly 4. 1 - 666. 5 m thick, and the total denudation thickness is over 1 000 m. The known oilfields in the sag mainly locate in the area with denudation thickness larger than 200 m.%利用米氏旋回地层学方法对泌阳凹陷古近系与新近系之间区域不整合面的剥蚀量进行了计算.泌阳凹陷古近系\\新近系剥蚀量计算可以分为2段:(1)各井各组(段和亚段)选定现有地层的分层和测井曲线数据进入“旋回地层学研究系统”(Version1.0),寻找0.405 Ma周期,求最大优势旋回,计算出现有沉积时间;(2)把现有地层沉积时间以外的剥蚀掉的时间,用0.405 Ma周期转化为剥蚀厚度.计算结果表明在凹陷的核心地区,仅廖庄组遭到剥蚀,凹陷东南部安棚一带剥蚀量小于100m,向凹陷西、西北以及北部边缘方向逐渐增大,至廖庄组缺失线附近,剥蚀厚度在650m以上.凹陷边缘附近,核桃园组也遭

  12. Development and evaluation of a rapid strategy to determine enterotoxin gene content in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adrien; Francois, Patrice; Holtfreter, Silva; Broeker, Barbara; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    Enterotoxins of S. aureus are important molecules displaying superantigenic properties. To date no less than 18 enterotoxins have been identified in S. aureus and their role has been documented in very diverse diseases. Using available nucleotide sequence information, we developed a rapid and automated PCR-based approach to evaluate enterotoxin content in S aureus. We studied a collection of S. aureus strains previously analyzed for enterotoxins gene content and report a perfect correlation between simplex and multiplex PCR assays for the presence of all enterotoxin genes described so far. The determination of enterotoxin content relies on 4 multiplex PCR tubes whose amplification products are resolved by a rapid microcapillary electrophoresis. Automated analysis of the PCR profiles evaluates for the presence of the 18 enterotoxin genes in less than 3 h and at moderate cost. Finally, the use of enterotoxin gene content for genotyping purpose was compared to multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat assay and spa genotyping. Analysis revealed an important homogeneity of the genetic backgrounds for strains harboring the egc cluster as well as a large diversity for strains harboring other enterotoxins but lacking the egc cluster. A combined genotyping method that includes rapid enterotoxin content determination appears informative for various epidemiological survey purposes.

  13. 北部湾盆地涠西南凹陷油气运聚成藏特征%Characteristics of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Weixinan sag of Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颂; 杨小晏

    2012-01-01

    Weixinan sag in Beibuwan Basin is a faulted lake basin in type. In hydrocarbon migration and accumulation process, the faults can connect the source rocks with reservoirs. The unconformities result in contact and connection between the different formations which provide hydrocarbon lateral migration paths for the adjacent traps to form accumulations. The distribution characteristics of hydrocarbon in Weixinan sag can be described as "rift connecting the source rocks, hdrocarbon migrating along the ridge, source rocks from both sides, multiple accumulations in a single structure and oil-bearing in full sag" , and formed a hydrocarbon accumulation zone of multiple reservoirs and accumulations with same source.%北部湾盆地涠西南凹陷是个断陷湖盆,在油气运聚体系中,断裂可以起到沟通烃源岩的作用,将烃源岩和储层连通在一起;不整合面造成不同层系的接触与连通,从而为其附近发育的各种圈闭提供油气侧向运移的通道,并形成油气藏.涠西南凹陷已发现的油气分布特征总体上呈“断裂沟源、断脊运移、两面控藏、复式聚集、满凹含油”的油气分布格局,形成了一个“一源多储、复式聚集、连片含油”的油气聚集区.

  14. OIL DISTRIBUTION LAWS AND THEIR CONTROLLING FACTORS OF DAMOGUAIHE FORMATION IN URXUN SAG%乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组油分布规律及控制因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪宇

    2012-01-01

    虽然在海拉尔盆地乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组的油气勘探获得了工业油流,但对其油气分布规律及成藏的主控因素尚存在争议.通过对海拉尔盆地乌尔逊凹陷大磨拐河组地层的构造演化特征研究和系统的油藏解剖,对其油气分布规律及成藏主控因素进行了探讨.分析反转构造、断裂系统以及砂体展布等主控因素认为,油主要分布在反转构造带上,纵向上乌尔逊凹陷北部油主要分布在大磨拐河组一段下部,乌南油主要分布在大磨拐河组二段中部.%In recent years, the hydrocarbon exploration of Damoguaihe Formation in Urxun Sag of Hailar Basin has obtained commercial oil flow, but the hydrocarbon distribution laws and main controlling factors of the reservoir formation have been the foci of the attention and discussion. Through the researches of the tectonic evolution and sys-tematc anatomy of the oil reservoir, the hydrocarbon distribution laws and their main controlling factors are discussed. The analyses of the following main controlling factors such as reverse structure, fault system, sand-body spread and so on show that the oil is generally distributed on the top of the structural belt; the oil in North Urxun Sag is principally accumulated vertically in Lower Member-1 of Damoguaihe Formation; the oil in the south of the sag is mainly enriched in Middle Member-2 of the formation.

  15. 含风电接入配电系统电压跌落传播特性分析%Analyzing Voltage Sag Propagation Characteristics of Distribution Systems with Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宾; 董新洲; 潘贞存; 薄志谦

    2011-01-01

    The low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability is one of the most important problems in the large-scale wjnd generators connecting to the distribution grid. Since the most voltage sags in the system are caused by faults in feeders, the voltage sags propagation characteristics is key to the design of control strategy of LVRT for wind turbines. In order to enhance the LVRT capacity of wind farm by shortening fault duration from the point of the feeder protection, the profiles of line voltage variations at the fault point are presented with different un-balance fault situations. The extreme voltage aberration and the occurrence conditions in different earthing resistance and residual situations are quantified. The uncommon extreme sags with phase-phase faults is discovered, which may cause the mis-operation of relay. It is also found that the main factors causing extreme sags with phase-ground fault is the value of residual degree factor.%大容量风电并网面临的主要问题之一是风力发电机的低电压穿越问题.为从馈线保护的角度提高风电场的低电压穿越能力,分析了风力发电机并网点感受到的电压跌落特性,探讨了不同过渡电阻和接地程度系数下故障点电压相量的变化特性,量化分析了风力发电机并网点电压跌落畸变极值及产生条件,指出相间短路故障时存在超越状态,对保护的动作特性影响较大,接地故障时电压跌落的畸变极值受接地程度系数的影响严重.

  16. 基于MCMC法进行电压跌落随机预估方法的研究%Research on stochastic estimation of voltage sag based on MCMC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓弘; 张思齐; 陈伟; 肖骏; 王维洲; 马宇

    2013-01-01

      针对电压跌落随机预估中蒙特卡洛法(MC法)静态性、计算效率低、耗时长的缺陷,提出基于马尔可夫链蒙特卡罗法(Markov chain Monte Carlo,MCMC)对电压跌落进行随机预估。研究建立了电压跌落故障状态变量的数学模型,并利用Matlab建立了IEEE-9节点测试系统模型,使用Gibbs抽样法得到故障模型的状态变量。通过分析电压跌落幅值的概率分布,并用MCMC法和MC法分别对电压跌落指标进行仿真计算。仿真结果表明,该方法较蒙特卡罗法稳定性好,收敛速度快,计算时间短。%The Monte Carlo (MC) method in the stochastic assessment of voltage sags suffers from low computing efficiency, static characteristic and long time consuming. According to those defects, the paper presents a stochastic assessment based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. A mathematical model of state variables of voltage sags fault is built up, an IEEE nine nodes testing system model is put up in Matlab, and state variables of the fault model are obtained by Gibbs sampling method. The paper analyzes the probability distribution of the amplitude of voltage sags, simulates the indicator of voltage sags by MCMC and MC method respectively, and verifies the feasibility of the MCMC method. The simulation results show that, this method has better stability, faster convergence rate and shorter calculation time compared with MC method. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51267012).

  17. 电压暂降对珠澳电网影响的仿真研究%Simulation Research on Influence on Zhuhai-Macao Power Grid by Voltage Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔江静; 廖辰川; 彭显刚; 裴星宇; 吴熳红; 杨锐雄

    2016-01-01

    利用 PSD-BPA(power system department-Bonneville power administration,PSD-BPA)短路故障暂态仿真软件,以珠澳电网主网系统为研究对象,对珠澳电网不同站点发生三相短路故障引起的电压暂降进行仿真计算,并通过 ArcGIS (Arc Geographic Information System,ArcGIS)工具实现对电压暂降分布的可视化处理。仿真结果表明,珠海电网短路故障将对澳门电网产生较大的影响,其中输电通道发生短路故障对珠澳电网电压暂降的影响最严重且范围广,最后,结合珠澳电网整体情况对影响电压暂降因素进行分析并提出电网安全稳定运行的相关建议。%Taking the main network system of Zhuhai-Macao power grid as research object,power system department-Bon-neville power administration (PSD-BPA)short-circuit fault transient simulation software is used for simulating calculation on voltage sags caused by three-phase short-circuit faults of different sites of Zhuhai-Macao power grid,and ArcGIS tool is used to realize visualized process on distribution of voltage sags. Simulation results indicate that short-circuit faults of Zhuhai-Ma-cao power grid may cause great influence on Macao power grid and thereinto,short-circuit fault of power transmission chan-nel may have the most serious and a wide range of influence on voltage sags of Zhuhai-Macao power grid. Finally,this paper analyzes factors influencing voltage sags by combining the whole situation of Zhuhai-Macao power grid and proposes related suggestions about safe and stable operation of the power grid.

  18. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  19. Formation mechanisms and distribution of high quality reservoirs in deep strata in Palaeogene in northern steep slope zone of Bonan sag, Jiyang depression, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奔奔; 操应长; 贾艳聪; 王艳忠

    2015-01-01

    Petrographic analysis combined with various techniques, such as thin section identification, petro-physical property testing, mercury penetration, oil testing results, was used to assess basic reservoir characteristics of deep strata in Palaeogene in the northern steep slope zone of the Bonan sag, China. The formation mechanisms of high quality reservoirs in deep strata were discussed according to evolution characteristics of paleopressures and paleofluids in geological period. The deep reservoirs have poor physical properties and mainly develop extra-low porosity, extra-low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs. Reservoir spaces mainly consist of secondary pores and overpressure fractures. Early overpressure, early hydrocarbon filling and dissolution by early organic acids are the major formation mechanisms of high quality reservoirs. The conglomerate in inner fan which had a poor primary physical property mainly experienced strong compaction and calcareous matrix recrystallization. The physical properties of the inner fan were poor with weak dissolution because of poor mobility of fluid. The reservoirs mainly are type IV reservoirs and the distribution extends with the burial depth. The braided channel reservoirs in the middle fan had relative good primary physical properties and strong ability to resist compaction which favored the preservation of primary pores. Large amounts of the secondary porosities were created due to dissolution by early organic acids. A series of micro-fractures generated by early overpressures would be important migration pathways for hydrocarbon and organic acids. Furthermore, early overpressures had retarded maturation of organic matters and organic acids which had flowed into reservoirs already and could keep in acid environment for a long time. This process would contribute significantly to reinforcing the dissolution and enhancing the reservoir quality. The braided channel reservoirs were charged with high oil saturation

  20. Evolution of the rapidly mutating human salivary agglutinin gene (DMBT1) and population subsistence strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Shamik; Louzada, Sandra; Forni, Diego; Sironi, Manuela; Balaskas, Theodosius; Hains, David S; Yang, Fengtang; Hollox, Edward J

    2015-04-21

    The dietary change resulting from the domestication of plant and animal species and development of agriculture at different locations across the world was one of the most significant changes in human evolution. An increase in dietary carbohydrates caused an increase in dental caries following the development of agriculture, mediated by the cariogenic oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Salivary agglutinin [SAG, encoded by the deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) gene] is an innate immune receptor glycoprotein that binds a variety of bacteria and viruses, and mediates attachment of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite on the surface of the tooth. In this study we show that multiallelic copy number variation (CNV) within DMBT1 is extensive across all populations and is predicted to result in between 7-20 scavenger-receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains within each SAG molecule. Direct observation of de novo mutation in multigeneration families suggests these CNVs have a very high mutation rate for a protein-coding locus, with a mutation rate of up to 5% per gamete. Given that the SRCR domains bind S. mutans and hydroxyapatite in the tooth, we investigated the association of sequence diversity at the SAG-binding gene of S. mutans, and DMBT1 CNV. Furthermore, we show that DMBT1 CNV is also associated with a history of agriculture across global populations, suggesting that dietary change as a result of agriculture has shaped the pattern of CNV at DMBT1, and that the DMBT1-S. mutans interaction is a promising model of host-pathogen-culture coevolution in humans.

  1. Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes Strains Involved in an Outbreak of Scarlet Fever in China, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Yuan Hai; ZHANG Bing Hua; ZHOU Hao; XIAO Di; JIN Lian Mei; FENG Zi Jian; LUO Feng Ji; ZHANG Jian Zhong; SONG Yan Yang; YAN Xiao Mei; WANG Hai Bin; ZHANG Meng Han; TAO Xiao Xia; LI Lei Lei; ZHANG Yu Xin; JIANG Xi Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate molecular characterization of streptococcus pyogenes isolates involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China in 2011. Methods Seventy-four Streptococcal pyogenes involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever were isolated from pediatric patients in the areas with high incidence in China from May to August of 2011. Emm genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were analyzed for these isolates. Results A total of 4 different emm types were identified. Emm12 was the most prevalent type which contained four predominating PFGE patterns corresponding to four different virulence and superantigen profiles. Emm12 (79.7%) and emml (14.90 accounted for approximately 94} of all the isolates. The speA gene was all negative in emm12 isolates and positive in emml isolates. All strains were resistant to erythromycin, and 89.4% of them were resistant to erythromycin, tracycline, and clindamycin simultaneously. Conclusion Several highly diversified clones with a high macrolide resistance rate comprise a predominant proportion of circulating strains, though no new emm type was found in this outbreak. The data provide a baseline for further surveillance of scarlet fever, which may contribute to the explanation of the outbreak and development of a GAS vaccine in China.

  2. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection.

  3. The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission.

  4. Gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the Neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene BAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Narabu, S; Yanai, Y; Hatano, Y; Ito, A; Imai, S; Ike, K

    2013-06-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. The aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the N. caninum orthologue (NcBAG1) of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein TgBAG1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. Isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with TgBAG1. NcBAG1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to TgBAG1. A putative signal peptide sequence and an invariant GVL motif characteristic of small heat-shock proteins were identified in the predicted N. caninum amino acid sequence. We expressed the NcBAG1 gene as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (rNcBAG1) in Escherichia coli and used the purified 60 kDa protein to obtain a monoclonal antibody (Mab). rNcBAG1 reacted to Mabs specific for NcBAG1 and TgBAG1. No reaction between the NcBAG1 Mab and N. caninum tachyzoites was observed. Although the predicted molecular mass of NcBAG1 is 25 kDa, Western blot analysis of parasite lysates using the NcBAG1 Mab revealed a cross-reactive protein of approximately 30 kDa. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays using the tachyzoite-specific Mab for NcSAG1 and the bradyzoite-specific Mab for TgBAG1 or NcSAG4 revealed NcBAG1-specific expression in bradyzoites in cultures exposed to sodium nitroprusside, a reagent that increases the frequency of bradyzoites. Interestingly, the NcBAG1 protein was identified in the cytoplasm of the bradyzoite-stage parasites. This preliminary analysis of the NcBAG1 gene will assist investigations into the role of this protein in N. caninum .

  5. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  6. Análisis multirresolución del motor trifásico de inducción sometido a huecos de tensión Triphasic induction motor multiresolution analysis on voltage sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G Macri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta los resultados del estudio realizado de la descomposición wavelet multinivel 1D de las señales perturbadas del par electromagnético y de la velocidad del eje del motor trifásico de inducción, cuando este es sometido a diferentes tipologías de huecos de tensión según la caracterización ABC, Bollen (2000. Los huecos de tensión trifásicos (3 variables son analizados indirectamente en el efecto producido en una variable perturbada (el par electromagnético o la velocidad del eje que contiene indirectamente información del tipo de hueco de tensión trifásico producido en el estator. El estudio analiza el efecto de los siete diferentes tipos de huecos de tensión, considerando también la influencia de la duración y tensión retenida. Para cada caso se obtiene un vector cuyos elementos son los niveles de energía wavelet en los distintos niveles de descomposición de la variable analizada, mostrando que la forma en que se distribuye la energía de la señal 1D en los distintos niveles de descomposición establece una firma única para cada caso. Esta forma de descripción de los huecos de tensión producidos en el estator, basada en la descomposición multinivel de una variable perturbada, reduce la cantidad de variables a analizar y permite posteriormente la clasificación de las perturbaciones empleando técnicas de inteligencia artificial; es ventajosa pues el almacenamiento de los vectores de niveles de energía de aproximación en las bases de datos emplea menor cantidad de espacio que la necesaria para una señal temporal, y empleando una DWT reversible es posible, además, reconstruir la variable de estado temporal.This document presents the study results of the wavelet 1D multi-level decomposition of perturbed electromagnetic torque and shaft speed signals, of the three-phase induction motor, when it is subjected to different types of voltage sags, as characterization ABC, Bollen (2000. The three

  7. Research on virulence genes and associated mobile genetic elements in Staphylococcus aureus causing pediatric infections%儿童金黄色葡萄球菌感染分离株致病基因和相关可移动遗传元件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向梅; 尚云晓; 赵长安; 杨永弘; 沈叙庄; 吴德静; 耿文静; 刘颖超; 王传清; 邓秋莲; 郑跃杰; 刘岚; 李昌崇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the presence of virulence genes and associated mobile genetic elements in Staphylococ-cus aureus causing pediatric infections. Methods A total of 109 Staphylococcus aureus strains collected between June 2005 and July 2009 were detected for the presence of 19 superantigen genes, 2 exfoliative toxin genes and 3 adhesingenes by polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of virulence genes was analyzed between strains collected from different infections. Results 60 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from children with pneumonia, 49 from children with skin and soft tissue infections. Of the strains, 90.8% harbored superantigen genes, with sek and seq as the most frequent genes (57.8%) .followed by seb (45.9% ) and sea (40.4% ). The sed and etd genes were not found in any of the strains tested. Thirty-seven superantigen genotypes were observed, of which the genotypes seb-sek-seq ( 20.2% ) were the majority. About 78.4% (29/37) of the superantigen genotypes could beconsidered combinations of the superantigenic toxin gene-encoding profiles of mobile genetic elements, sek-seq without seb was found in 12 strains, Seb-seq without sek and seb-sek without seq was respectively found in 1 strain. 10 of the tst-1 -positive strains harbored seb. 4 of the sej-positive strains harbored ser.3 adhesin genes bbp、sdrE and can were present in 91.7% 、 77.1%, 30.3% of the strains, respectively. Seb,seq,bbp,sdrE were significantly associated with skin and soft tissue infections (P < 0.05). Seg, sei, sen, seo and can were significantly associated with pneumonia (P < 0.05). Conclusion The distribution of superantigen genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with pneumonia and skin and soft tissue infections implies the existence of new types or variants of mobile genetic elements in these strains. The frequencies of carriage of the 3 adhesin genes differ from other geographic areas. The roles of virulence genes in these two kinds of infections need

  8. Depositional and Stratigraphic Architecture evolution of Deltaic Successions in Different Tectonic Stages: Palaeogene Kongdian and Shahejie Formations, Baxian Sag, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaopeng, Li; Hua, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Predicting the distribution of favorable reservoir and evolution of ancient deltaic successions requires the evaluation of the depositional processes and its vertical architecture based on sedimentary facies analysis. This has been applied to a core-based subsurface facies analysis of a deltaic succession in the early to late Palaeogene of Baxian Sag, Bohaiwan Basin, East China. Evolution of three genetically successions with a total thickness of 1000-4000m comprising three depositional systems including fan delta, braid delta and shallow water delta record initial rift phase, rapid rift phase and post rift phase. The initial rift phase consist of several coarsening upward successions, which are mainly conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and coarse sandstone that deposited from root segment, middle segment to front segment of fan delta. The rapid rift phase consist of several fining upward successions developed individual or associated with coarsening upward successions, the former one mainly developed as fluvial-dominated channel fills in deltaic plain and delta front, and the latter one mainly developed in the intersection of distributary channel fill and mouth bar, mainly dominated by wave and influenced by fluvial, with the feature of fine grained sandstone. The post rift phase consist of fining upward successions, interpreted as fluvial-dominated coarse-grained distributary channel fills, and coarsening upward successions, interpreted as wave dominated, fluvial influenced fine-grained sandstone in mouth bar. Delta plain occupied more than 70% of the development area of delta, with features of large-scale cross-bedding, massive bedding. The fan-deltaic to braid-deltaic evolution is represented by an overall upward increase in the distance of progradation, decrease in grain size and increase in wave influence. The following evolution to shallow water delta is represented by an overall upward increase in aggradational succession developed, decrease in paleoslope angle

  9. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre plantas dentro de surco y entre surcos, respectivamente. Para el análisis de los datos cuantitativos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas (medidas de tendencia central, de variación y de desviación. La planta adulta alcanzó una altura entre 50 y 75 cm y un rendimiento de rizoma fresco entre 1.46 y 1.94 kg/planta. El índice de cosecha varió entre 0.06 y 0.60; el rendimiento de almidón por el rizoma fresco varió entre 7.2% y 8.1%; la composición proximal (en % del rizoma fue: 22.3, 7.4, 3.62, 1.02, 6.98 y 80.9 para MS, PC, FC, EE, ceniza y ELN, respectivamente. Las pruebas de antimetabolitos mostraron ausencia de estos compuestos en el forraje fresco, con 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% de MS, PC, FC, ceniza, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulosa y hemicelulosa, respectivamente. El valor relativo como forraje fue de 103.7. Se realizó el análisis granulométrico: el módulo de fineza, módulo de uniformidad y el tamaño de la partícula. El rendimiento de almidón de rizomas fue de 10.57 ± 1.35%, el gasto de agua de 50.45 l/kg de almidón rendido. El gránulo fue elipsoidal de 8 µm de diámetro y compuesto por 20.54% de amilosa y 79.46% de amilopectina, que genera una pasta opaca y resistente a la retrogradación. La temperatura final de gelificación fue de 73 °C, la viscosidad máxima de la pasta fue de 220 Unidades Brabender (U.B., con un pico de viscosidad definido, y posterior conservación de la trayectoria, con

  10. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sagú Maranta arundinacea es una Marantaceae cuyo rizoma es utilizado en algunas zonas de Colombia para la elaboración de productos destinados a la alimentación humana. No obstante, el conocimiento agronómico de este cultivo es limitado. En este trabajo se estudiaron varios métodos de propagación, días a cosecha de rizomas, producción de almidón nativo y el análisis químico de esta planta en las condiciones del Valle del Cauca. El cultivo fue establecido en parcelas de 0.25 m x 1 m entre plantas dentro de surco y entre surcos, respectivamente. Para el análisis de los datos cuantitativos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas (medidas de tendencia central, de variación y de desviación. La planta adulta alcanzó una altura entre 50 y 75 cm y un rendimiento de rizoma fresco entre 1.46 y 1.94 kg/planta. El índice de cosecha varió entre 0.06 y 0.60; el rendimiento de almidón por el rizoma fresco varió entre 7.2% y 8.1%; la composición proximal (en % del rizoma fue: 22.3, 7.4, 3.62, 1.02, 6.98 y 80.9 para MS, PC, FC, EE, ceniza y ELN, respectivamente. Las pruebas de antimetabolitos mostraron ausencia de estos compuestos en el forraje fresco, con 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% de MS, PC, FC, ceniza, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulosa y hemicelulosa, respectivamente. El valor relativo como forraje fue de 103.7. Se realizó el análisis granulométrico: el módulo de fineza, módulo de uniformidad y el tamaño de la partícula. El rendimiento de almidón de rizomas fue de 10.57 ± 1.35%, el gasto de agua de 50.45 l/kg de almidón rendido. El gránulo fue elipsoidal de 8 µm de diámetro y compuesto por 20.54% de amilosa y 79.46% de amilopectina, que genera una pasta opaca y resistente a la retrogradación. La temperatura final de gelificación fue de 73 °C, la viscosidad máxima de la pasta fue de 220 Unidades Brabender (U.B., con un pico de viscosidad definido, y posterior conservación de la

  11. 电压跌落对风力机叶片振动影响分析%Investigation of voltage sag impact on wind turbine blade vibrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹尧杰; 廖明夫; 吕品; 刘展翅; 王四季

    2016-01-01

    风力机单机容量不断增大,装机容量不断增长,风力机与电网之间的耦合效应越发突出。电网的干扰以及故障会对风力机机械部件产生冲击。为了获得叶片在电网电压跌落时的动态响应,把叶片简化为悬臂梁,用3D Timo-shenko 梁进行离散化建模,建立了叶片运动的动力学方程,基于某1.5 MW 风力机低电压穿越测试得到的转速,变桨曲线,获得叶片所受时变载荷的基础上,运用 Newmark 法对叶片在电压三相对称跌落与不对称跌落下的动态响应进行了计算。结果表明电压的跌落会对叶片产生冲击效应,在叶片拍打方向振动幅值比挥舞方向更大。叶片振动变化的总体特征随着风机载荷和电压跌落的幅值增大而增大的。同等工况和跌落幅度下,三相对称跌落时振动的变化要大于不对称跌落的振动变化。%Recently the size and the capacity of wind turbines increase rapidly,the interactions between the wind turbines and the electric grid becomes more obvious.The disturbances from the grid and the faults of the grid will have impact on mechanical components of wind turbines.In order to obtain the dynamic responses of the blade under voltage sag,the blade was modeled as a cantilever and discretized by applying 3D Timoshenko beam element,considering the centrifugal stiffening of the rotating blade.The structural dynamic equation of the blade was established and the time-varying loads acting on the blade were calculated based on the data from a 1.5 MW wind turbine LVRT(low voltage ride through)test.The dynamic responses of the blade under the three-phase symmetrical voltage dip and three-phase asymmetry dip were calculated by applying Newmark method.The results show that,the voltage dip produces the transient loads and excites the vibrations of the blade.The amplitude of vibration in the flap wise is bigger than that in the edgewise.The vibration increases with the

  12. Ensaio terapêutico com glucantime em sagüis (Callithrix jacchus infectados com uma cepa de Leishmania donovani aparentemente resistente ao tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dietze

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o resultado de um ensaio terapêutico em sagüis com uma cepa de Leishmania donovani isolada de um caso humano fatal de calazar, clinicamente resistente aos antimoniais (Glucantime e Pentostam, Anfotericina B ePentamidina. Os testes cutâneos realizados no paciente para avaliação da imunidade celular foram negativos à exceção do DNCB a 2%. Quatro sangüis adultos (Callithrix jacchus foram inoculados por via intraperitoneal com uma suspensão deformas amastigotas de L. donovani. Duzentos e dez dias após, todos os animais mostravam formas amastigotas do protozoário, evidenciadas através de punção hepática por aspiração. Iniciou-se então um esquema terapêutico com glucantime (28 mgSb v/kg/dia em três séries de 10 dias com cinco dias de intervalo entre elas em três dosprimatas,ficando o quarto animal como controle. Nos três animais tratados houve curaparasitológica da doença, o mesmo não ocorrehdo com o controle. O fato de a amostra de L. donovani ter sido, no paciente, resistente aos vários tratamentos e ter sido sensível em modelo experimental à terapêutica com glucantime, sugere a possibilidade de que fatores imunológicos do paciente possam ter contribuído para a evolução fatal da doença.The authors describe a therapeutic study in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus of a strain of Leishmania donovani isolated from a fatal human case of Kala-azar. The patient failed to respond to antimoniais (Glucantime and Pentostam, Amphotericin B and pentamidine therapy. Skin tests for the evaluation of cellular immunity were negative with the exception of 2% dinitrochlobenzene. Four adult marmosets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a suspension of amastigotes of L. donovani isolated from the hamster liver and spleen. Two hundred and ten days later all the animals had amastigotes in aspirates obtained by liver puncture. Glucantime treatment 28 mg/kilogram body weightper day for 3 series of 10 days was begun in

  13. Research on Voltage Sag Protection Based on DC Power Supply Technology%基于直流供电技术的电压暂降保护系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江龙; 王丽; 陈文波

    2015-01-01

    The inverter is widely used for its obvious advantages in soft start, variable frequency speed control, optimal design, economic operation and so on. During voltage sag, the inverter will be tripped because of low voltage protection, which would cause the important motor driven by inverter to stop working. This will result in non planned outage in the continuous production enterprises, leading to huge economic losses and even personal safety accidents and environment problems. According to the characteristics of inverter’s AC-DC-AC structure and combining power electronics technology two kinds of voltage sag protection (VSP) systems are researched and developed based on DC power supply technology which take network residual voltage and batteries as energy source respectively. And through Boost DC/DC converter, the VSP system outputs a constant DC voltage, supporting inverter’s DC bus. Experimental data and field applications show that the two kinds of VSP system can ensure the normal operation of inverter during voltage sag which greatly improves the reliability on demand side and saves a lot of economic loss for users.%变频器在软启动、变频调速、优化设计、经济运行等方面具有明显优势,得到广泛应用。在电压暂降期间,变频器会因低压保护而跳闸,造成连续性生产企业非计划停运,带来巨大的经济损失和事故。根据变频器交-直-交的特性,结合电力电子技术,研究开发了两种基于直流供电技术的电压暂降保护系统。两种保护系统分别利用电网残压和蓄电池组作为能量来源,通过Boost DC/DC变换器,输出恒定的直流电压,为变频器直流母线提供恒定的直流电。实验数据和现场应用表明,该两种电压暂降保护系统可以确保变频器在电压暂降期间正常运行,大大提高了供电可靠性,为用户避免了大量的经济损失。

  14. Voltage Sag Assessment Considering the Uncertainty of Wind Power Output%考虑风电场出力不确定性的电压暂降评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡珊珊; 肖先勇

    2014-01-01

    为评估风电场的接入对电压暂降的影响,提出一种考虑风电场固有不确定性的电压暂降评估方法。基于尾流效应的影响,以风速作为机群划分指标,建立风电场的等值模型。利用风电场出力的概率模型,将风电场的出力划分为几种场景,在此基础上得到风电场出力的不确定性对电压暂降影响的评估结果。基于PSCAD对IEEE 30节点进行仿真,仿真结果与未考虑风电场不确定性的结果进行比较,发现所提评估方法得出的暂降评估结果更结合实际,更能满足工程实际需要。%In order to evaluate the effects of wind farm on voltage sag, a voltage sag assessment method was presented, which considers the inherent uncertainty of wind farm. Based on the influence of wake effect, the wind farm equivalent model was established, regarding the wind speed as the cluster classification index. Using the probability model of wind farm output, the output of the wind farm was divided into several scenarios, the evaluation result of voltage sag was received considering the uncertainty output of wind power. Based on PSCAD software, this paper simulated on the IEEE 30-bus system, compared the simulation result with the result without considering the uncertainty of wind power. The simulation results show that this method is more practical and it meets the needs of the engineering practice better.

  15. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes group A isolates from a tertiary hospital in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaky, Nathalie M; Araj, George F; Tokajian, Sima T

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A Streptococcus (GAS)] is one of the most important human pathogens, responsible for numerous diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. As the epidemiology of GAS infections evolves, a rapid and reliable characterization of the isolates remains essential for epidemiological analysis and infection control. This study investigated the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of 150 GAS isolates from a tertiary hospital in Lebanon by emm typing, superantigens (SAgs) detection, PFGE and antibiotic profiling. The results revealed 41 distinct emm types, the most prevalent of which were emm89 (16 %), emm12 (10 %), emm2 (9 %) and emm1 (8 %). Testing for the presence of superantigens showed that speB (87 %), ssa (36 %) and speG (30 %) were predominant. PFGE detected 39 pulsotypes when a similarity cut-off value of 80 % was implemented. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing against seven different classes of antibiotics showed that 9 % of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, 23 % were resistant to erythromycin and 4 % showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype. The emergence of tetracycline-resistant strains (37 %) was high when compared with previous reports from Lebanon. This study provided comprehensive evidence of the epidemiology of GAS in Lebanon, highlighting the association between emm types and toxin genes, and providing valuable information about the origin and dissemination of this pathogen.

  16. Late multiple organ surge in interferon-regulated target genes characterizes staphylococcal enterotoxin B lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A Ferreyra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial superantigens are virulence factors that cause toxic shock syndrome. Here, the genome-wide, temporal response of mice to lethal intranasal staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB challenge was investigated in six tissues. RESULTS: The earliest responses and largest number of affected genes occurred in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, spleen, and lung tissues with the highest content of both T-cells and monocyte/macrophages, the direct cellular targets of SEB. In contrast, the response of liver, kidney, and heart was delayed and involved fewer genes, but revealed a dominant genetic program that was seen in all 6 tissues. Many of the 85 uniquely annotated transcripts participating in this shared genomic response have not been previously linked to SEB. Nine of the 85 genes were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in every tissue/organ at 24 h. These 85 transcripts, up-regulated in all tissues, annotated to the interferon (IFN/antiviral-response and included genes belonging to the DNA/RNA sensing system, DNA damage repair, the immunoproteasome, and the ER/metabolic stress-response and apoptosis pathways. Overall, this shared program was identified as a type I and II interferon (IFN-response and the promoters of these genes were highly enriched for IFN regulatory matrices. Several genes whose secreted products induce the IFN pathway were up-regulated at early time points in PBMCs, spleen, and/or lung. Furthermore, IFN regulatory factors including Irf1, Irf7 and Irf8, and Zbp1, a DNA sensor/transcription factor that can directly elicit an IFN innate immune response, participated in this host-wide SEB signature. CONCLUSION: Global gene-expression changes across multiple organs implicated a host-wide IFN-response in SEB-induced death. Therapies aimed at IFN-associated innate immunity may improve outcome in toxic shock syndromes.

  17. Expression of 1A6 gene and its correlation with intestinal gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Qiang Liu; Hong Zhao; Tao Ning; Yang Ke; Ji-You Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of 1A6 gene in the lesionsduring the development of intestinal gastric carcinoma.METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six cases of intestinalmetaplasia (IM) from surgical resections and biopsy wereclassified by mucous staining. Expression of 1A6 in all caseswas detected using immunohistochemical S-P method.RESULTS: The positive rates of 1A6in normal and superficialgastritis (SG), severe atrophic gastritis (SAG), type Ⅰ, Ⅱ, ⅢIM, dysplasia (Dys) and intestinal gastric carcinoma (IGC)were 12.2 %, 16.7 %, 7.1%, 22.6 %, 47.8 %, 46.9 % and60.8 %, respectively. A significant difference among typeⅢ IM and SG, SAG, type I and Ⅱ IM was found (P<0.01),the difference between type Ⅲ and Dys, IGC being notsignificant.CONCLUSION: As a new tumor-related gene, expression of1A6 may be an effective parameter to predict the malignanttransformation of precancerous lesion to gastric carcinoma.

  18. Unique genomic arrangements in an invasive serotype M23 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes identify genes that induce hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-12-01

    The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors.

  19. Application of Improved Sage-Husa Kalman Filter in Voltage Sag Detection%改进型Sage-Husa卡尔曼滤波器在电压暂降检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵伟; 周志宇; 周振华

    2013-01-01

    电压暂降是电网中的一个关键电能质量问题.用于电压暂降检测的Sage-Husa型卡尔曼滤波器具有形式简单、计算量小、响应速度快的优点,但在系统阶次较高时容易出现滤波发散的问题.为避免滤波发散,同时进一步提高该滤波器的实时响应速度,改进Sage-Husa型卡尔曼滤波器中的噪声矩阵估计器,给出基于改进后Sage-Husa卡尔曼滤波器的电压暂降快速检测方法,并通过仿真和实验证明了该方法的有效性.与传统的Sage-Husa型卡尔曼滤波器相比,改进后Sage-Husa卡尔曼滤波器避免了滤波发散的现象,同时提高了的响应速度.%Voltage sag is one of severe problems in power quality. The Sage-Husa Kalman filter applied in the detection of voltage sag possesses such advantages as high response speed, low calculation burden and simple structure, however the filter divergence occurs easily when the system order is high. To avoid the filter divergence and speed up real-time response of Sage-Husa Kalman filter, the estimator of noise covariance matrices in Sage-Husa Kalman filter is improved, and based on the improved filter a fast detection method of voltage sage is given. The effectiveness of the proposed detection method is verified by simulation and experiments.

  20. 瘤内注射90Y-SAg治疗小鼠肝癌移植瘤的实验研究%Experimental study of intratumor injection of 90Y-SAg for the treatment of liver cancer in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟培源; 陈靖; 王建晨; 何千舸; 蒋小良; 金美娟; 李芳

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨瘤内注射放射性核素钇-90(90Y)与超抗原(SAg)混悬液90Y-SAg治疗小鼠肝癌移植瘤的效果.方法:30只荷瘤小鼠随机分为三组,每组10只,分别瘤内注射0.1 ml SAg和0.1 ml (100 μci)90Y(A组)、0.1 ml (100 μci)90Y(B组)、0.1 ml SAg(C组). 结果:注射后2周:B组、C组肿瘤生长率分别为0.18±0.12和0.21±0.17,两组差异不显著(P>0.05);A组呈负生长,生长率为-0.28±0.23,与B组和C组比较均有显著性差异(P<0.01);A、B、C三组肿瘤坏死率分别为0.36±0.18、0.11±0.09、0.10±0.06, B组和C组均为轻度坏死,两组间差异不显著(P>0.05),A组为中度坏死,与B组和C组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01). 结论:瘤内注射90Y-SAg疗效优于单一的 90Y或SAg注射,是一种有效的治疗小鼠肝癌移植瘤方法.

  1. Formation Mechanism and Distribution of Buried Fault Zones in the Jinhu Sag%金湖凹陷隐性断裂带形成机制及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟锋; 周维维; 周杰; 李少龙

    2014-01-01

    There are many NE-trending faults and NW-trending faults in the Jinhu sag.NW-trending basement faults are weak with a little influence on the sedimentary cover,while there are NW-trending buried fault zones in the cover.NE-trending basement faults are strong with important influence on the sedimentary cover.The Yangcun fault zone and a lot of NE-trending buried fault zones formed in the sedimentary cover.The Shigang major fault zone divids the Jinhu sag into the western slope belt and the eastern sag belt.The eastern sag belt was influenced by “buried”activity of the NW-trending basement faults presenting as segments from tht north to the south.There are a great quantity of nearly parallel third or fourth-order normal faults in the cover in the Jinhu sag.This fault belts include Bao-Ying parallel-echelon fault belt,Tang-Gang echelon fault belt,Bian-Min-Yang parallel-echelon fault belt, western slope parallel fault belt, Chajian-Nipei parallel-echelon fault belt, contributing to several enriched zone of oil and gas,and this hydrocarbon reservoirs are influenced by NE-trending basement faults and NW-trending basement faults,presenting as NE-,NW-,NS-trending stripe or string.On the basis of regional geological data,gravity and magnetic data,10 NE-trending buried fault zones,5 NW-trending buried fault zones,6 NS-trending buried fault zones are identified.The buried fault zones control the distribution of the sandbody,and improve the reservoir physical property.They make the buried reservoir as zonal distribution,which are favorable zones for hydrocarbon accumulation.%金湖凹陷基底存在北东、北西向两组断裂。北西向基底断裂活动较弱,对盖层变形影响较小,在盖层中多以隐性断裂带显现;北东向基底断裂活动强烈,对凹陷盖层变形影响较大,不仅形成了凹陷东部边界杨村断裂在内的多条显性断裂,而且形成了多条隐性断裂带。凹陷中部的北东向石港显性断裂带将凹

  2. 珠江口盆地惠州凹陷北部边界断裂复合联接和转换%Complex Linkage and Transformation of Boundary Faults of Northern Huizhou Sag in Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巍; 何敏; 杨亚娟; 刘海伦; 袁勋; 吴森; 朱定伟; 梅廉夫

    2015-01-01

    边界断裂控制断陷盆地的形成和构造格局,不同边界断裂联接模式对不同类型盆地演化具有差异性。基于井控高精度3D 地震资料,通过对边界断裂几何学特征描述和“四级小层”刻画,结合裂陷 I 幕边界断裂不同区段的活动差异性以及与沉积中心迁移的空间匹配关系,剖析珠江口盆地惠州凹陷北部边界断裂的形成和演化。惠州凹陷北部边界断裂始新世早期分段孤立发育,逐渐以纵向和横向双向联接的模式发展。纵向联接为断层软联接和硬联接复合联接和转换,形成转换斜坡和横向背斜,控制凹(洼)陷的结构与演化,制约沉积中心及层序的迁移。横向联接表现为转换斜坡内横向断层的多阶段联接,联接过程可划分为孤立正断层、同向叠置及硬联接3个阶段,控制转换斜坡带内沉积体系的发育和展布。研究给出了一个裂陷盆地边界断裂时空演化、复合联接和转换模式的独特案例,对丰富裂陷盆地边界断裂及其与沉积层序、凹陷演化和区域动力学机制的响应关系的研究具有积极的意义和价值。%The formation and tectonic framework of a faulted basin are controlled by boundary fault,which have different types of basin evolution under different boundary connection modes.The purpose of this study is to recognize the linkage model of boundary faults of northern Huizhou sag in Zhu I depression,Pearl River Mouth basin (PRMB),the South China Sea,which is a representative of global passive continental margin basins.Based on well controlling high-precision 3D seismic survey,the geometry of boundary faults and the framework of “four-order sequences”are determined in PRMB.The fault activities of dif-ferent boundary fault sections and the spatial change of depocenters during rift episode I are analyzed.An evolution model of boundary fault system in northern Huizhou sag,PRMB is established in this

  3. 基于节点阻抗矩阵和电压暂降的故障定位新方法%New Method for Fault Positioning Based on Nodal Impedance Matrix and Voltage Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简孔斌; 王玲; 徐柏榆

    2014-01-01

    Faults of lines of power distribution network may cause power outages and directly affect power supply continuity and reliability.Timely and correct fault positioning plays important roles in removing faults,shortening power outage time and improving power supply quality.When fault happening to the line,voltage sag was occurred in the system which might cause loss in sensitive load in the system.In addition,it was able to recognize fault types and adjust fault position by using this feature and therefore,a new method for realizing fault positioning of the power distribution network based on nodal im-pedance matrix and by using voltage sag data was proposed.Combining network parameters and off-line simulation analysis, node voltage data base with different fault types was established.When detecting fault,it was able to carry out search and match for collected voltage sag data in the node voltage data base in order to confirm fault intervals and fault points.This method directly used search results to confirm fault position instead of increasing other algorithm or transformation which was provided with advantages of simple principle and rapid calculation.By means of power system computer aided design simulation software and practical circuit in lab,accuracy and reliability of this method was proved and verified.%配电网线路发生故障时,将导致用户停电,直接影响供电连续性和可靠性,及时准确的故障定位对及时排除故障,缩短停电时间,提高供电质量有重要意义。当线路发生故障时,一方面将在全系统内引起电压暂降,给系统内的敏感负荷带来损失;另一方面,利用该特征可识别故障类型并判断故障位置,为此提出利用电压暂降数据识别故障类型,基于节点阻抗矩阵实现配电网故障定位的新方法,并结合网络参数和离线仿真分析,建立不同故障类型和故障情况下的节点电压数据库,当检测到故障后,将采集到的电压暂降数据

  4. Ghd2, a CONSTANS-like gene, confers drought sensitivity through regulation of senescence in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhong; Shen, Jianqiang; Xu, Yan; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2016-01-01

    CONSTANS (CO)-like genes have been intensively investigated for their roles in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering, but very limited information has been reported on their functions in other biological processes. Here, we found that a CO-like gene, Ghd2 (Grain number, plant height, and heading date2), which can increase the yield potential under normal growth condition just like its homologue Ghd7, is involved in the regulation of leaf senescence and drought resistance. Ghd2 is expressed mainly in the rice (Oryza sativa) leaf with the highest level detected at the grain-filling stage, and it is down-regulated by drought stress conditions. Overexpression of Ghd2 resulted in significantly reduced drought resistance, while its knockout mutant showed the opposite phenotype. The earlier senescence symptoms and the transcript up-regulation of many senescence-associated genes (SAGs) in Ghd2-overexpressing transgenic rice plants under drought stress conditions indicate that Ghd2 plays essential roles in accelerating drought-induced leaf senescence in rice. Moreover, developmental and dark-induced leaf senescence was accelerated in the Ghd2-overexpressing rice and delayed in the ghd2 mutant. Several SAGs were confirmed to be regulated by Ghd2 using a transient expression system in rice protoplasts. Ghd2 interacted with several regulatory proteins, including OsARID3, OsPURα, and three 14-3-3 proteins. OsARID3 and OsPURα showed expression patterns similar to Ghd2 in rice leaves, with the highest levels at the grain-filling stage, whereas OsARID3 and the 14-3-3 genes responded differently to drought stress conditions. These results indicate that Ghd2 functions as a regulator by integrating environmental signals with the senescence process into a developmental programme through interaction with different proteins. PMID:27638689

  5. Advance on gene vaccine reseach of Toxoplasma gondii%弓形虫复合基因疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵盛; 张奇雪; 张保德; 王圆圆; 苑文英

    2014-01-01

    弓形虫疫苗包括全虫疫苗、虫体特异组分疫苗、DNA疫苗、基因工程疫苗,现阶段研究较多的是后两种,由原来的单一疫苗向复合疫苗发展,复合疫苗有多种联合方式:表面抗原联合、表面抗原与分泌抗原联合、其他类型抗原联合,疫苗免疫效力低下的缺点可采用有效免疫方式或使用佐剂提高效果。%Toxoplasma gondii vaccine include whole organism vaccine, ingredient vaccine, DNA vaccine, genetic engineering vaccine, The more researches about these were the last two, development from single vaccine to complex gene vaccine, complex gene vaccine has many modes: union between SAGs, ingredient vaccine, DNA vaccine, genetic engineering vaccine, union of SAG and secret antigen, union of other antigen, the shortcomings of the lower immunity about gene vaccine can be improved with effective immunity method or adjuvant.

  6. Application of autologous centrifugation fat in sagging upper eyelid%纯化自体脂肪颗粒在上睑凹陷矫治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 冯幼平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical effect and experience of autologous centrifugation fat in sagging upper eyelid. Methods 24 patients,40 eyes,centrifugal fat before liposuction from inner thigh,and then filling fat into orbital septum. Compare the balanced on eyelid and secondary filling ratio,in order to evaluate centrifugation fat efficient and patient satisfaction. Results 24 patients,20 cases were one-time inject,and efficient rate is 83.33%,4 cases were a second injection with satisfaction,efficient rate is 16.67%. No one was infected,hematoma and fat liquefaction. Conclusion It is a good way to cure sagging upper eyelid for the advantage of rich source,none scar,little injection on centrifugation fat.%目的:探讨离心纯化脂肪颗粒在上睑凹陷患者的临床应用及治疗体会.方法:24例患者,40只眼,在大腿内侧吸脂及脂肪离心后,行眶隔内脂肪充填.进行治疗前后上睑饱满度对比及术后二次充填比例,评估离心纯化脂肪颗粒充填有效率及患者满意度.结果:24例患者,20例一次性注射,效果满意,有效率为83.33%;4例二次注射,补注后效果满意,有效率为16.67%.无一例发生感染、血肿、脂肪液化等并发症.结论:离心纯化脂肪颗粒因其来源丰富、不留瘢痕、注射量少、无排斥等优点,是治疗上睑凹陷的一种较好方法.

  7. Identification of genes associated with cotyledon senescence in upland cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Fafu; YU Shuxun; XIE Qingen; HAN Xiulan; FAN Shuli

    2006-01-01

    In order to unravel the biochemical pathways and understand the molecular mechanisms involved in leaf senescence, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to generate a cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially expressed in developmental senescence cotyledons of upland cotton. After differential screening by membranebased hybridization and subsequent confirmation by reverse Northern blot analysis, selected 678 clones were sequenced and analyzed. Sequencing of these cDNA fragments reveals that 216 of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented unique genes. Of these 216 cDNAs, 151 clones (69.9%) show significant homologies to previously known genes, while the remaining 65 do not match any known sequences.151 unique ESTs are assigned to twelve different categories based on their putative functions generated by BLAST analysis. These SAG-encoded proteins are likely to participate in macromolecule degradation, nutrient recycling, detoxification of oxidative metabolites, and signaling and regulatory events.The expression pattern of selection of genes was confirmed using northern hybridization. Northern hybridization confirmed several distinct patterns,from expression at a very early stage to the terminal phase of the senescence syndrome. Clones encoding proteases and proteins involved in macromolecule degradation and gluconeogenesis, as well as stress-related genes, are up regulated in senescence cotyledons.

  8. 渤海湾盆地歧口凹陷古近系沙一段物源—沉积体系重建%Reconstruction of Provenance-Sedimentary System of the First Member of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation in the Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕琳; 焦养泉; 吴立群; 鲁超; 荣辉; 汪小妹

    2012-01-01

    采用布格重力异常手段宏观地区分物源区和沉积区,根据重矿物特征分析物源区位置及影响范围,依据地震反射特征识别物源运移方向,通过砂分散体系精细分析和表征物源—沉积体系特征,并利用岩石地球化学资料进一步佐证物源—沉积体系分析。综合研究表明,渤海湾盆地歧口凹陷沙一段时期存在五个物源区,分别为葛沽物源、小站物源、增福台物源、钱圈物源和北大港潜山物源。葛沽物源为板桥次凹提供沉积物,且沉积物主体呈两支向歧口主凹进一步推进;小站物源、增福台物源和钱圈物源影响范围较小,均呈两支进入板桥次凹;北大港潜山物源为歧北次凹提供沉积物,向马棚口和高尘头地区推进时物源频繁分叉。综合岩芯、录井、测井和古生物等沉积成因标志,认为板桥次凹发育扇三角洲沉积体系,歧口主凹和歧北次凹发育深湖浊流体系。%Accoding to the characteristics of the Bouguer gravity anomalies,the source and deposition areas were macroscopically distinguished in this paper.Based on the characteristics of heavy mineral,the location and extent of the source areas were described.In addition,the direction of the sources were determined on the basis of seismic reflection characteristics.Furthermore,the characteristics of provenance-sedimentary system were finely pictured by the distribution of sandbody,and could be further verified through geochemical characteristics.Different ways exerted respective superiority,and various means revised each other,the provenance-sedimentary system of the first member of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation in the Qikou sag of the Bohai bay basin was reconstructed by these ways.The results suggested that,there were five sources in the first member of Shahejie Formation in the Qikou sag,that were Gegu source,Xiaozhan source,Zengfutai source,Qianquan source and Beidagang buried hill source.The Gegu source was

  9. Pore Fluid Evolution Influenced by Volcanic Activities and Related Diagenetic Processes in a Rift Basin: Evidence from the Paleogene Medium-Deep Reservoirs of Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic activities exert a significant influence on pore fluid property and related diagenetic processes that substantially controlled reservoirs quality. Analysis of Paleogene medium-deep sandstones on the Huanghekou Sag provides insight into relating the diagenetic processes to pore fluid property evolution influenced by volcanic activities. Three distinct types of pore fluids were identified on the basis of an integrated and systematic analysis including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, and trace element. Alkaline aqueous medium environment occurred in E2s1+2 where volcanic activities have insignificant influence on pore fluids, evidenced by typical alkaline diagenetic events such as K-feldspar albitization, quartz dissolution, feldspar dissolution, and carbonate cementation. During the deposition of E3d3, influx of terrestrial freshwater and alteration of ferromagnesian-rich pore water result in the formation of mixing aqueous medium environment through volcanic eruption dormancy causing zeolite dissolution, clay mineral transformation, and K-feldspar albitization. Ferromagnesian-rich aqueous medium environment developed resulting from the intensive hydrolysis of the unstable ferromagnesian minerals formed due to intense volcanic activities during E3d1+2 and corresponding predominant diagenetic processes were characterized by the precipitation and dissolution of low-silica zeolites. Therefore, the differential properties of pore fluids caused various diagenetic processes controlling reservoir quality.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding T- and B-cell epitopes of SAG1, GRA2, GRA7 and ROP16 elicits protection against acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aiping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xun; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Qunli; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2015-11-27

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate, intracellular, protozoan parasite that infects large variety of warm-blooded animals including humans, livestock, and marine mammals, and causes the disease toxoplasmosis. Although T. gondii infection rates differ significantly from country to country, it still has a high morbidity and mortality. In these circumstances, developing an effective vaccine against T. gondii is urgently needed for preventing and treating toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to construct a multi-epitopes DNA vaccine and evaluate the immune protective efficacy against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. Therefore, twelve T- and B-cell epitopes from SAG1, GRA2, GRA7 and ROP16 of T. gondii were predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and then a multi-epitopes DNA vaccine was constructed. Mice immunized with the multi-epitopes DNA vaccine gained higher levels of IgG titers and IgG2a subclass titers, significant production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), percentage of T lymphocyte subsets, and longer survival times against the acute infection of T. gondii compared with those of mice administered with empty plasmid and those in control groups. Furthermore, a genetic adjuvant pEGFP-RANTES (pRANTES) could enhance the efficacy of the multi-epitopes DNA vaccine associating with humoral and cellular (Th1, CD8(+) T cell) immune responses. Above all, the DNA vaccine and the genetic adjuvant revealed in this study might be new candidates for further vaccine development against T. gondii infection.

  11. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area Other Fact Sheets What are genes? Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions ...

  12. Comparison of different PCR methods for the detection of Neospora caninum target gene%犬新孢子虫不同靶基因PCR检测方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭焕平; 贾立军; 焦石; 张守发

    2012-01-01

    To find a PCR method which is more specific and sensitive to Neospora caninum,MAG1 gene,SAG1 gene and Nc5 gene of N.caninum were used as target genes and the sensitivity,specificity and detection rate of PCR of clinical samples were compared.The results showed that PCR method based on the Nc5 gene had the highest sensitivity,with minimum detectable amount as 17.8 fg/μL.While the MAG1 gene had the lowest sensitivity,with the minimum detectable amount of MAG1 gene as 17.8 pg/μL.The genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii,Theileria sergenti and Eperythrozoon suis could not be amplified by the three PCR methods,which indicated they had good specificity.Test on 28 tissue samples of BALB/c mouse that had been challenged by N.caninum standard strain showed that,75.0%(21/28) was identified by PCR based on the Nc5 gene,which was significantly higher than that of PCR based on the SAG1 gene 67.9%(19/28) and the MAG1 gene 53.6%(15/28).This study provided a more sensitive and specific detection approach for neosporosis and epidemiological investigation.%为筛选出检测犬新孢子虫更为特异、敏感的PCR方法,分别以MAG1、SAG1和Nc5为靶基因进行PCR检测,并从敏感性、特异性和临床样本检出率等方面进行了比较。结果显示,以Nc5为靶基因的PCR方法敏感性最高,最小检测DNA量为17.8fg/μL;以MAG1为靶基因的PCR方法敏感性最低,最小检测DNA量为17.8pg/μL;而以SAG1为靶基因的PCR方法的最低检测量为178fg/μL;3种靶基因引物均扩增不出刚地弓形虫、牛瑟氏泰勒虫、猪附红细胞体等基因片段,具有较好的特异性;对28份已攻犬新孢子虫标准株的BALB/c小鼠组织样本的检测结果表明,以Nc5基因设计的引物检出率最高,为75.0%(21/28),明显高于SAG1基因的67.9%(19/28)和MAG1基因的53.6%(15/28)。本试验为新孢子虫病的诊断及流行病学调查提供了更为敏感、特异的检测技术。

  13. Immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

  14. Palaeogene Fault System and Hydrocarbon Accumulation in East Wushi Sag%乌石凹陷东区古近系断裂系统与油气成藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德胜; 邓勇; 张建新; 左倩媚; 何卫军

    2016-01-01

    乌石凹陷东区古近系复杂的断裂系统一直是制约油气勘探成败的关键因素,通过对研究区内断裂体系的期次、组合方式、成因及演化的系统分析,认为凹陷东区的演化经历了3个阶段、形成3套断裂系统:即古新世早始新世的弱裂陷、始新世中晚期的强裂陷以及渐新世的走滑弱伸展3个阶段。3套断裂系统:断开长流组流三段(T100 T86)的早期断裂体系、断开流二段涠洲组(T83 T60)的晚期断裂体系以及断开整个古近系地层的(T100 T60)继承性断裂体系,并识别出伸展构造、走滑及反转等构造样式。同时分析了断裂体系对烃源岩的展布、沉积体系的充填演化、圈闭的形成、分布以及油气的运聚等方面的控制作用,从各成藏要素的时空配置上分析认为中央隆起带和北部掀斜断块是有利的勘探区。研究成果对研究区下一步油气勘探、目标评价优选与地质研究等具有一定的指导和参考意义。%Paleogene complex fault system has always been a key factor in the success of oil and gas exploration in East Wushi Sag. In this article the time of faults movement,their classification and the structural evolution are studied. The results show that the evolution of East Wushi sag can be divided into weak rifting stage in Paleocene-Early Eocene,strong rifting stage in Middle-Late Eocene and strike-slip weak stretching stage in Oligocene. Besides,3 sets of fault systems can be recognized:the early fault system formed in Changliu Formation to Liushagang Section 3 Formation sedimentary stage(T100 T86),the late fault system formed during Liushagang Section 2 Formation to Weizhou Formation sedimentary stage(T83 T60)and succession fault system formed in all the Palaeogene time(T100 T86). In addition,stretching structure,strike-slip structure and inversion structure have been found in study area. While the tectonic controls on the distribution of source

  15. 山东省东营凹陷沙四上亚段咸化机制特征%Characteristics of Salinization Mechanism on the Upper Part of Fourth Member of Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴靖; 姜在兴; 钱侃; 徐丹

    2014-01-01

    关于东营凹陷古近系咸化机制的争论已持续近三十年,其中沙四上亚段是该区最为重要的烃源岩之一,查明其咸化机制及沉积特征是重要且必要的。本文从沉积物、古生物、地球化学三方面着手,分析咸化机制中最重要的两个问题:盐源与成盐机制。结果表明:通过分析本区的沉积物(白云岩、海绿石及岩相组合)、古生物(中华直管藻等)、地球化学三方面特征,证明东营凹陷在古近系确实遭受过海水影响,并将时间具体到沙四上亚段的早期。海水是由地震引发的四期海啸所带来。在此基础上,分析得出研究区早期盐源以海水侵入为主,中后期以母岩风化造成的古盐释放、火山或岩浆活动、深层卤水上涌三种盐源为主,具有多种盐源分段控制的特点。成盐机制有机械成因、化学成因、生物成因及复合成因四种,具有海陆相盐类并存,成因复杂的特点。针对此特殊现象,本文提出从地球化学及阴极发光等方面对共存的海陆相碳酸盐岩进行区分,以期引起同行的关注与讨论。%The debate on the salty mechanism has been going on for nearly three decades in Dongying Sag, the upper part of fourth member of Shahejie formation, as the area's most important source rocks, its salty mechanism and sedimentary characteristics are important and necessary to be researched. Based on the research of sediment, palaeontology and geochemistry, the two most important aspects of the salty mechanism-salt source and halogenesis are analysised. The results showed that sedimentary (dolomite, glauconite, and lithofacies sets), paleontologists(ortonella), geochemical characteristics proved Dongying Sag was suffered from sea water on the upper part of Es4.The sea water were brought by four periods of tsunami that induced by earthquake. Based on these, the early salt source mainly is intrusion of sea water, in the middle

  16. 带弧垂特高压交流输电线路的电磁剂量学分析%Analysis of electromagnetic dosimetry by ultra high voltage AC transmission line with belt sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利航; 逯迈; 陈小强; 侯立伟

    2016-01-01

    采用Comsol仿真软件和人体模型计算分析倒三角较贴近实际的带弧垂特高压交流输电线路对人体产生的电场效应,并与理想直导线的结果进行对比。结果表明,人体以及人体附近电场和感应电流分布不均匀,体外电场最大值集中于人体头部表面上方,关节连接处和端部的电场、感应电流密度较大。带弧垂特高压输电线路在人体各组织产生的电场和感应电流密度均较理想笔直导线线路下高约17%~19%;与国际非电离辐射防护委员会(International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection, ICNIRP)导则限值相比较,电场强度无论是对专业人员还是普通民众均在 ICNIRP 导则限值范围内;而感应电流密度除人体腿部下部、头皮与颈部连接处附近的略高于ICNIRP导则中普通民众的限值外,其他均在ICNIRP导则限值范围内。两种类型特高压输电线路所产生的电磁辐射对专业人员是安全的,对普通民众应注意适当的防护。%The aim is to investigate the electric field effect produced by the ultra high voltage (UHV) AC transmission lines with belt sag on the human body. A simulation software named Comsol and a human body model were used to calculate and analyze the electric field effect caused by the nabla UHV AC transmission lines closely to the reality, and then the result was compared with the one produced by ideal straight lines. The results indicated that in the human and the near-field region, the distribution of electric field and induced current was nonuniform. The maximum electric field focused on the above region of human head surface. The value of electric field intensity and  induced current density in the joints of the body were high. Below the actual and ideal straight UHV transmission lines, the electric field intensity and induced current density produced by the belt sag wire in all tissues including central nervous system of human was 17

  17. Structural Characteristics and Origin of Boundary Fault Belts of the Gaoyou Sag in the Subei Basin%苏北盆地高邮凹陷边界断裂带构造特征及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 陈清华; 朱文斌; 马婷婷; 王晓蕾; 刘寅

    2013-01-01

    真武、吴堡断裂带是高邮凹陷的边界断裂带,具有复杂的结构和演化特征.通过三维地震资料解释以及断层平均活动速率的计算,分析了两断裂带在晚白垩世-新生代时期的几何学和运动学特征,将两断裂带作为一个整体,建立了凹陷边界主断裂发育的时空关系,对比探讨了两断裂带内各级断层的发育顺序和模式,并探讨了断层发育的成因.研究表明:一级断裂真①、吴①断层形成于泰州组沉积时期,阜四段沉积时期达到活动顶峰.二级断裂真②、吴②断层形成于阜四段沉积时期,戴南组沉积时期达到活动的顶峰.二级断裂主要形成于一级断裂沿走向的转折处,其延伸方向受控于区域早期NW-SE向伸展应力以及曲折边界条件;两断裂带内部断层发育模式有很大不同,认为其分别形成于伸展机制与斜滑机制下,与区域后期EW向挤压导致的郯庐断裂带右旋走滑作用有关.%As the boundary of the Gaoyou Sag, the Zhenwu and Wubao Fault Belts show complicated geometry and e-volution history. Based on 3D seismic interpretation and calculation of mean fault active rate, we analyze the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the two fault belts during Late Cretaceous-Quaternary and establish the temporal-spatial relationship of development of the main faults as a whole. We also investigate the development patterns and the formation processes of the two fault belts respectively. Our results show that the main boundary faults of the Gaoyou Sag were formed during the deposition of the Funing and Dainan Formations and might have been related to the NW-trending subduction of the paleo-Pacific Plate, which caused the NW-SE trending regional extension in East China. In particular, the trends and the formation patterns of the Zhen②Wu② and Ji3 Faults are related to the boundary conditions. We also infer that the Zhenwu and Wubao Fault Belts are formed through different

  18. Palaeoecological Analysis of Paleogene Shahejie Formation in North Central Raoyang Sag of Central Hebei Depression%冀中坳陷饶阳凹陷中北部古近纪沙河街组古生态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袭著纲; 国景星; 赵晓颖

    2011-01-01

    According to the identification of sporopollen fossils from the 42 wells in north central Raoyang Sag, Central Hebei Depression, the palaeoecological classification of palynoflora in Shahejie Formation was discussed; one palynological assemblage with high proportion of QuercoiditesUlmi pollenites was recognized, and five sub-assemblages were established, including Ephedripites-Ulmoideipites sub-assemblages, Pinacear-Ephedripites-Podocarpidites sub-assemblages, Ephedripites-Pinaceae-Labitricolpiles sub-assemblages, Pinaceae-Podocarpidites sub-assemblages and Piceaepollenites-Ephedripites-Cedripites sub-assemblages. Contrast to the palynological assemblage of offshore Shahejie Formation in Huanghua Depression, the palaeoecological change of Shahejie Formation in north central Raoyang Sag was discussed according to the different characteristics of palynological assemblage during various periods. The results showed that the proportion of mesic sporopollen was stable, with an average of 70% or higher, while there was a little change for the proportion of xerophilous and hygrophilous sporopollen; vegetation pattern during the late member 4 of Shahejie Formation was mainly evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in semi-arid warm temperate climate; vegetation pattern during the member 3 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous forest, and secondly broad-leaved forest in sub-humid sub-tropical climate; vegetation pattern during the member 2 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous and broad-leaf forest in semi-arid sub-tropical climate; vegetation pattern during the member 1 of Shahejie Formation was mainly coniferous and broad-leaf forest with an increase of hygrophilous herbaceous vegetation in humid sub-tropical climate.%基于对冀中坳陷饶阳凹陷中北部42口井孢粉化石的鉴定,讨论了该区沙河街组孢粉植物群的古生态分类,建立了一个Quercoidites-Ulmipollenites高比例组合和5

  19. PETROLEUM ACCUMULATION LAWS IN PUTAOHUA RESERVOIRS IN SOUTH GULONG SAG OF SONGLIAO BASIN%松辽盆地古龙凹陷南部葡萄花油层油气富集规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆石

    2011-01-01

    Due to many influencing factors such as multiple material sources, the physical properties of the reservoir , the buried depth of structures and so forth, Putaohua oil reservoirs in South Gulong Sag possess the following characteristics: low porosity, low permeability, low oil saturation, various oil reservoir types and complicated oil-water distribution relation. Through the fine and deep analyses of the distribution of petroleum reservoir formation, oil and water distribution and those discovered petroleum reservoirs, 3 types of petroleum reservoir-forming models are established; structural-lithological, fault-lithological complex and lithological models. The results show that the petroleum accumulation in the study area is mainly controlled by sedimentary facieses and belts, structural positions , physical properties of reservoirs and so on; the nose-like structure developed along the edges of the sag for quite a long time is the oriented region of large-scale oil and gas migrations, so it becomes the place where the petroleum is most favorably accumulated and formed; the oil and gas on the slope are generally enriched in the sedimentary bells developed in sand bars and sand sheets, the lithological petroleum reservoirs with updip pinchout and fault-lithological petroleum reservoirs {the faults mainly play a role of barrier) can be principally found out; the hydrocarbon in the anticline area is generally accumulated in the sedimentary facieses and belts developed in distributary channel sand and sand bars, high-productivity and "Sweet Point" type accumulated lens-like lithological oil reservoirs and fault-lithological complex oil reservoirs can be mainly searched out.%由于受多物源、储层物性、构造埋深等多因素影响,松辽盆地古龙凹陷南部葡萄花油层具有低孔渗、低含油饱和度、油藏类型多样和油水分布关系复杂的特点.通过深入分析该区油气成藏分布、油水分布和已发现油气藏的精细

  20. 北部湾盆地迈陈凹陷东部构造物理模拟研究%Structural physical simulation research of eastern Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长征; 陈伟; 吴峰; 成为; 周进峰

    2014-01-01

    The fault system of the Maichen Sag in the Beibuwan Basin is very complex. In order to reveal its ge-netic mechanism, sandbox modelling technologies were applied in this paper to make a systemic analysis on the formation mechanism of the eastern fault system based on the structural analysis of 3D seismic data. The results show that the faults in the Maichen Sag can be divided into the upper and the lower fault systems. The lower fault system was formed by the NW-SE oriented regional tensile stress during the Changliu and Liushagang periods, and the upper fault system was formed by the NW-SE oriented regional tensile stress and right-lateral strike-slip stress during the Weizhou period. The lower fault system was greatly influenced by basement faults, and their di-rection, orientation and fault combination were consistent. The upper fault system was less affected by basement faults, which was mainly new faults or inherited transform faults. Fault direction was directly affected by strike-slip degree during the Weizhou period. The experimental results under the condition of weak strike-slip are con-sistent with the actual geological characteristics, and the development of secondary faults is conducive to the for-mation of structural traps, which play a guiding role in 3D seismic fine structure interpretation.%北部湾盆地迈陈凹陷断裂系统十分复杂,为了明确其成因机制,在三维地震资料构造解析的基础上,应用砂箱模拟实验,对迈陈凹陷东部断裂系统形成进行分析。结果表明,迈陈凹陷东部可划分为上、下2套断裂系统,下部断裂系统是受长流-流沙港期NW-SE向区域拉张应力形成,上部断裂系统是受涠洲期NW-SE向区域拉张及右旋走滑应力形成。并且下部断裂体系受基底先存断裂影响较大,走向、倾向、断层组合都与其保持一致;上部断裂体系受基底断层影响较小,多为新生型断层或继承改造型断层。涠洲期走

  1. Reservoir characteristics of detrital sandstones in Zhuhai formation of Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin%珠江口盆地白云凹陷珠海组碎屑岩储层特征及成因机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕成福; 陈国俊; 张功成; 杜贵超; 王琪; 李超; 李伟; 陈吉

    2011-01-01

    通过岩石铸体薄片、粒度分析和压汞分析等手段,分析白云凹陷珠海组储层的岩石学特征和物性演化特征,研究沉积环境和成岩演化过程对储层特征的影响机制.研究结果表明:储层主要以长石质石英砂岩和长石岩屑质石英砂岩为主,颗粒支撑并以碳酸盐、自生石英和黏土矿物接触式胶结.储层物性总体具有中低孔中低渗特征,以粒间溶蚀扩大孔为主,其次为珠海组底部黏土膜保护的原生孔隙,分选好的中-粗喉型喉道使孔隙连通性良好;在凹陷西斜坡,珠海组上部和底部分别发育钙质砂岩夹层和铁泥质砂岩夹层.三角洲前缘环境是珠海组储层物性良好的先决条件;酸性流体的溶蚀溶解作用和绿泥石黏土膜保护是储层物性较好的根本原因,压实作用是粒间孔隙损失的主要原因,而部分储层渗透率较低是因为自生石英和黏土矿物充填喉道;钙质砂岩夹层物性差是胶结作用所致,而铁泥质砂岩夹层物性差是压实和胶结共同作用的结果.%Based on analyses of casting thin sections and particle size, mercury porosity measurements of the reservoir sandstones from Zhuhai formation of Baiyun sag, the petrography, pore types, pore-throat structure, reservoir quality evolution, diagenetic stage and diagenesis and their effects on reservoir quality were studied. The results show that reservoir sandstones mainly consist of feldspathic quartz sandstone and feldspar lithic quartz sandstone. Detrital grains are grain-supported and cemented by carbonate cements, authigenic quartz and clay minerals. Reservoir properties in general have medium-low porosity and permeability, pores are mainly intergranular dissolved pores and the next is residual primary pores protect by clay film preserved in the bottom Zhuhai formation. Due to pore-throats which are good sorted, pores show good connectivity. In the western slope of the sag, calcareous sandstone and

  2. Recovery enhancement at the later stage of supercritical condensate gas reservoir development via CO2 injection: A case study on Lian 4 fault block in the Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lian 4 fault block is located in the northwest of Fushan sag, Beibuwan Basin. It is a high-saturated condensate gas reservoir with rich condensate oil held by three faults. In order to seek an enhanced condensate oil recovery technology that is suitable for this condensate gas reservoir at its later development stage, it is necessary to analyze its reserve producing degree and remaining development potential after depletion production, depending on the supercritical fluid phase behavior and depletion production performance characteristics. The supercritical fluid theories and multiple reservoir engineering dynamic analysis methods were adopted comprehensively, such as dynamic reserves, production decline, liquid-carrying capacity of a production well, and remaining development potential analysis. It is shown that, at its early development stage, the condensate in Lian 4 fault block presented the features of supercritical fluid, and the reservoir pressure was lower than the dew point pressure, so retrograde condensate loss was significant. Owing to the retrograde condensate effect and the fast release of elastic energy, the reserve producing degree of depletion production is low in Lian 4 fault block, and 80% of condensate oil still remains in the reservoir. So, the remaining development potential is great. The supercritical condensate in Lian 4 fault block is of high density. Based on the optimization design by numerical simulation of compositional model, it is proposed to inject CO2 at the top and build up pressure by alternating production and injection, so that the secondary gas cap is formed while the gravity-stable miscible displacement is realized. In this way, the recovery factor of condensate reservoirs can be improved by means of the secondary development technology.

  3. Characterization of Phototransduction Gene Knockouts Revealed Important Signaling Networks in the Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Krishnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular pathways mediating neuronal function in retinas can be greatly facilitated by the identification of genes regulated in the retinas of different mutants under various light conditions. We attempted to conduct a gene chip analysis study on the genes regulated during rhodopsin kinase (Rhok-/- and arrestin (Sag-/- knockout and double knockouts in mice retina. Hence, mice were exposed to constant illumination of 450 lux or 6,000 lux on dilated pupils for indicated periods. The retinas were removed after the exposure and processed for microarray analysis. Double knockout was associated with immense changes in gene expression regulating a number of apoptosis inducing transcription factors. Subsequently, network analysis revealed that during early exposure the transcription factors, p53, c-MYC, c-FOS, JUN, and, in late phase, NF-B, appeared to be essential for the initiation of light-induced retinal rod loss, and some other classical pro- and antipoptotic genes appeared to be significantly important as well.

  4. A study on superantigen production by staphylococcus aureus colonizing in skin lesion and its clinical significance in the patients with atopic dermatitis and eczema%金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原与特应性皮炎及湿疹关系的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文琦; 张美华; 毕志刚; 梅亚宁; 林麟; 郝飞; 曾凡钦; 赵辨

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨皮损部位金黄色葡萄球菌(金葡菌)超抗原(SAg)与特应性皮炎(AD)及湿疹(EC)的关系.方法:反向被动乳胶凝集法测定来自91例AD和174例EC患者皮损共123株金葡菌SAg的产生情况,结合患者的严重度指数(EASI)评分、6种不同皮疹的评分以及血清学指标进行分析.结果:AD组皮损处SAg总阳性率(55.4%)及中毒休克综合征毒素(TSST)-1阳性率(21.4%)均高于EC组(37.3%、4.5%).AD组内金葡菌肠毒素B(SEB)阳性组EASI评分高于SEB阴性组和金葡菌阴性组.EC组SAg产生与EASI评分无关,但SAg阳性组其皲裂评分较高.AD患者血清白介素(IL)-4、γ干扰素(IFN-γ)及总IgE水平与SAg无关,EC患者SAg阳性组血清总IgE水平高于金葡菌阴性组,IL-4和IFN-γ水平与SAg无关.结论:与EC相比,AD与金葡菌SAg的关系更为密切,某些型别SAg分型与AD临床严重度可能有一定联系.

  5. Induction of injury to endothelium of pulmonary artery due to entero-superantigen by up-regulation of lymphocyte chemokine receptor 5%T淋巴细胞趋化因子受体5表达上调介导了肠毒素超抗原对肺动脉内皮的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴礼襄; 萧正伦; 孔天翰

    2011-01-01

    pulmonary artery endothelial cell (HPAEC) and explore its possible mechanism. Methods HPAEC was cocultured with SEB-activated T cells supernatant, and the secretion of chemotactic factors from HPAEC was examined. The Transwell inserts was used in chemoattraction assays. After HPAECs were cocultured with T cells and 10 ng/ml SEB for 3 days, HPAEC damage was monitored by microscopy and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results Three kinds of tested chemokines showed a time-dependent increase in all supernatant of HPAEC incubated with different concentrations of T cells. After 72 hours, the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1,ng/ml) in 1 × 10-2, 1 × 10-1 , 1× 100 T cell supernatant groups was 1. 240± 0. 103, 4. 200± 0. 305, 6. 500±0. 500, respectively, macrophage inflammatory protein-1a (MIP-1α, ng/ml) was 0. 210 ± 0. 015, 0. 287 ±0. 012, 0. 531 ± 0. 037, respectively, and Rantes (ng/ml) was 1. 420 ± 0. 074, 7. 634 ± 0. 630, 15. 700 ±1. 300, respectively. Rantes presented a two-phase secretion mode : in early 6 hours it increased swiftly, but relatively slow at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours. T cell adherent to polycarbonate membrane increased after SEB stimulation in superantigen group compared with control group without SEB stimulation (86. 38± 14. 50 vs.16. 50± 2. 50, P< 0. 01 ). When 10 ng/ml SEB activated T cell was cocultured with HPAEC, more of originally suspended cultured T cells adhered to HPAEC monolayer [(15. 50±1.08)% vs. (1.60±0. 22)%,P<0.01], whereas the cell adhesion ratio decreased markedly in 1 μg/ml Met-Rantes group [(4. 39±0. 66)%, P < 0. 01 ). FACs test of HPAEC-adherent T cell showed lymphocyte chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)/CD4 and CCR5/CD8 increased over 2. 5 folds and 2.8 folds compared with 100 ng/ml SEB activated T cell. Cell death rate of HPAEC was increased when cocultured with SEB-activated T cell in superantigen group compared with HPAEC normal incubation group [(32. 50±4

  6. 辽河盆地东部凹陷火成岩储层特征及成藏模式%Igneous reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon accumulation model in eastern sag of Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庚琪

    2016-01-01

    按照成岩方式—化学成分—结构+矿物等岩性三级分类原则,识别出5大类23种岩性;根据火成岩的结构、构造和特征岩性,将岩相划分为6相16亚相;按成因将火成岩储集空间分为7种类型9种亚类。通过研究认为岩性、岩相是影响火成岩储层储集性能乃至含油气性的主要因素。火成岩油气成藏的主控因素为烃源岩、储层、构造运动;成藏模式有构造成藏模式、岩性成藏模式、构造—岩性成藏模式3种。通过对火成岩岩性、岩相、储层、成藏的研究,为辽河盆地东部凹陷今后的勘探部署奠定了良好的基础。%Based on the principle of three -level classification of lithology such as diagenetic model ,chemical composi-tion,and structure and mineral ,etc.,the igneous rocks was identified as 5 main classes and 23 types of lithology .Accord-ing to the texture ,structure and characteristic lithology ,the igneous rocks were divided into 6 lithofacies and 16 subfacies . The reservoir spaces were divided into 7 categories and 9 subclasses by the genesis of the igneous rocks .It is considered that the lithology and the lithofacies were main facors controlling reservoir performance and oil -bearing properties .Hydro-carbon accumulation in igneous rocks was mainly controlled by source rock ,reservoir and tectonic movement .Three types of reservoir-forming patterns mainly consist of structural ,lithological ,and structural-lithological patterns .The studies on li-thology ,lithofacies ,reservoir ,and accumulation of igneous rocks have laid a good foundation for future exploration in east -ern Sag of Liaohe Basin .

  7. 白云凹陷珠江组深水扇砂质碎屑流沉积学特征%Depositional Features of Sandy Debris Flow of Submarine Fan in Zhujiang Formation,Baiyun Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣才; 李云; 戴朝成; 高博禹; 胡晓庆; 王昌勇

    2012-01-01

    珠江口盆地白云凹陷深海水域的珠江组为油气勘探开发新领域,但珠江组厚层块状砂岩储层的成因仍存在很大争议.通过对砂岩储层的物质组分、沉积构造、粒度分布、古地形和古构造背景及地震与测井等资料的综合分析;确定白云凹陷珠江组属于深水扇沉积体系,扇体中广泛发育的厚层块状砂岩为深水扇沉积体系中内—中扇水道的砂质碎屑流沉积充填物.在详细描述砂质碎屑流沉积学特征和识别标志的基础上,确定砂质碎屑流与低位期陆架边缘三角洲前缘砂体与海平面大幅度下降期的某种触发机制作用下发生的重力滑塌和砂崩有关,具备“源-渠-汇”耦合关系的深水扇沉积模式.%The deep-water Zhujiang Formation in Baiyun sag of Pearl River Mouth basin has been a new area for hydrocarbon exploration and development, but there is still much controversy about the genesis of massive sandstone reservoirs. Based on comprehensive analysis of composition, sedimentary structures, grain size distribution, ancient topography as well as seismic and logging data, the Zhujiang Formation was deposited by submarine fan system, and a wide range of thick massive sandstoneswere products of sandy debris flow filling withininner-middle fan channels. According to detailed features and identification signs, the sandy debris flow was related to gravitational slump and sand collapse of sandbodies from the shelf edge delta front triggered by certainmechanism duringsignificant sea-level falling, and then the "Source-Drainage-Sink" coupling model of sandy debris flow deposits in submarine fan was set up.

  8. Selective Production of 9R-Hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-Octadecatrienoic Acid from α-Linolenic Acid in Perilla Seed Oil Hydrolyzate by a Lipoxygenase from Nostoc Sp. SAG 25.82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; An, Jung-Ung; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been known as versatile bioactive molecules. However, its practical production from omega-3 or omega-3 rich oil has not been well established. In the present study, the stereo-selective enzymatic production of 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (9R-HOTE) from α-linolenic acid (ALA) in perilla seed oil (PO) hydrolyzate was achieved using purified recombinant 9R-lipoxygenase (9R-LOX) from Nostoc sp. SAG 25.82. The specific activity of the enzyme followed the order linoleic acid (LA) > ALA > γ-linolenic acid (GLA). A total of 75% fatty acids (ALA and LA) were used as a substrate for 9R-LOX from commercial PO by hydrolysis of Candida rugosa lipase. The optimal reaction conditions for the production of 9R-HOTE from ALA using 9R-LOX were pH 8.5, 15°C, 5% (v/v) acetone, 0.2% (w/v) Tween 80, 40 g/L ALA, and 1 g/L enzyme. Under these conditions, 9R-LOX produced 37.6 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA for 1 h, with a conversion yield of 94% and a productivity of 37.6 g/L/h; and the enzyme produced 34 g/L 9R-HOTE from 40 g/L ALA in PO hydrolyzate for 1 h, with a conversion yields of 85% and a productivity of 34 g/L/h. The enzyme also converted 9R-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HODE) from 40 g/L LA for 1.0 h, with a conversion yield of 95% and a productivity of 38.4 g/L. This is the highest productivity of HFA from both ALA and ALA-rich vegetable oil using LOX ever reported. Therefore, our result suggests an efficient method for the production of 9R-HFAs from LA and ALA in vegetable oil using recombinant LOX in biotechnology.

  9. 敏感设备电压暂降严重程度可信性评价测度与方法%Credibility measure and assessment method of sensitive equipment voltage sag severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭娜; 肖先勇; 徐方维; 魏晓天; 杨景岗

    2013-01-01

    In order to accurately describe the equipments’ severity caused by voltage sag, the credibility measure which meets the conditions of non-additive is proposed based on their physical properties of responses. This assessment measure can avoid the deficiencies that classical probability measure needs a large number of samples and the non-duality of fuzzy measure. The membership function of sensitive equipment voltage tolerance capability corresponding to the characteristic quantities in the status uncertain area is determined by fuzzy statistical method and polynomial fitting method. Then the joint credibility distribution function is deduced based on uncertainty theory. Hence, the assessment model of severity of equipments failure is constructed. Based on practical samples, the PCs are simulated using the proposed method. Comparing the simulation results with those of methods using classical probability measure and possibility measure, it proves that the proposed method is proper and credible and can reflect practical condition more objectively. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50877049).%  为准确刻画电压暂降对敏感设备的严重程度,从设备响应的物理属性出发提出了满足设备响应状态不可加性时评价暂降严重程度的可信性测度,弥补经典概率测度和模糊测度需要大量样本、具有非对偶性等问题。利用模糊统计和多项式拟合法构造设备响应状态不确定区域内各暂降特征对应的设备耐受能力隶属函数,基于不确定性理论得到联合可信性分布函数,以此建立设备电压暂降严重程度评估模型。以实测样本为依据,对个人计算机(personal computers,PC)进行仿真,并与经典概率测度和可能性测度评估结果进行比较,证明了可信性测度的正确性和可信性,评估结果更符合实际。

  10. 黄河口凹陷渤中34区明化镇组下段油气输导体系%Hydrocarbon migration of Bozhong34 in Lower Minghuazhcn Formation, Huanghekou sag, offshore Bohai sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新涛; 牛成民; 黄江波; 曾萱; 涂丹凤

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of migration system and its relationship with the distribution of middle shallow hydrocarbon reservoir in the Bozhong34 block of the Huanghekou sag in the offshore Bohai Bay Basin show that, the faults and sandbodies dominate the hydrocarbon migration system in the block. The distribution of sandbodies and faults are not the only factor that controls hydrocarbon enrichment in the study area. The spatial and temporal configurations of faults and sandbodies also control the effectiveness of migration system, thus determine the formation and occurrence of the oil reservoirs in the middle shallow layers. Through the static model of faults and sandbodies, the contact area of faults and sandbodies is important parameter controlling oil-gas filling degree, reserves abundance, and oil column height. Moreover, it guides the well position of Bozhong34-B and reservoir prediction. Quantitative study about configurations of faults and sandbodies with petroleum accumulation model has important value in theory and field application for expanding exploration space and locating the potential reservoir.%通过对渤海湾盆地黄河口凹陷渤中34区输导体系特征及其与中浅层油气成藏规律关系的研究表明,对油气运移起重要作用的输导体系主要有断层和砂体,油气的富集受控于断层和砂体的分布,且断层与砂体耦合接触关系既决定了输导体系的有效性,也决定了浅层明化镇组下段(明下段)油气藏的形成与分布.通过建立断层与砂体耦合接触半定量静态模型,证实断层与砂体的接触面积是影响油气充满度、储量丰度和油柱高度的重要参数,指导了渤中34-B构造的井位部署,渤中34-B-3D井砂体的含油气性预测结果与实钻吻合较好.实践证实,断层与砂体耦合接触关系半定量描述方法对成熟探区开拓勘探空间、寻找潜在油气藏具有重要的理论和应用价值.

  11. Reservoir characteristics and controlling factors of Shangsi Formation in Dushan, South Guizhou sag%黔南拗陷独山上司组储层特征及主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文楷; 侯明才; 林良彪; 李刚

    2011-01-01

    The reservoir rocks in Shangsi Formation of Lower Carboniferous in Jiadaozhai of South Guizhou sag are marlstones and crystal powder dolomites, followed by bioclast limestones and dolomitic limestones. The sedimentary environment of Shangsi Formation is from the mixed continental shelf to the open carbonate platform. Based on the slice observation and physical properties of the reservoir in Shangsi Formation, this article indicates that the main reservoir spaces are fractures, followed by intergranular (intragranular) dissolved pores and intercrystalline (dissolved) pores. It is a fractured-porous reservoir with low porosity and low permeability. The development of the reservoir is determined by diagenesis. The cementation , compaction and recrystallization have destroied most original pores, and late-stage dolomitization, dissolution and tectonic disruption have formed many secondary pores and fractures. Because of these, the performance of the reservoir is promoted immensely.%通过大量的铸体薄片、物性测试、扫描电镜等资料,对黔南拗陷独山甲刀寨下石炭统上司组储层特征和主控因素进行深入分析.认为上司组储集岩以泥微晶灰岩、粉晶白云岩为主,次为亮晶生物碎屑灰岩及云质灰岩.上司组经历了由混积陆棚向开阔碳酸盐台地演化的环境转变.通过对上司组储层的物性资料分析和薄片观察发现,其储集空间类型以裂缝为主,次为粒间(内)溶孔、晶间(溶)孔,属低孔低渗储层.成岩作用对储层的发育起着决定性的作用,经过压实作用、胶结作用及重结晶作用以后,上司组储层原生孔隙已破坏殆尽,而后期白云石化作用、溶蚀作用及构造破裂作用形成的次生孔、缝,使储层的储集性能得到了极大的改善.

  12. Diagenetic evolution and its effect on reservoir-quality of fan delta sandstones during progressive burial:Evidence from the upper part of the fourth member of Shahejie formation, Bonan sag, Jiyang depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奔奔; 张少敏; 操应长; 贾艳聪; 王艳忠

    2015-01-01

    Petrographic analysis combined with various techniques, such as thin section identification, fluid inclusions, isotopic data, petro-physical property testing and oil testing results, was used to study diagenetic evolution and its effect on reservoir-quality of fan delta reservoirs of Es4s in the Bonan sag. The diagenesis is principally characterized by strong compaction, undercompaction, multi-phase of dissolution and cementation. Compaction played a more important role than cementation in destroying the primary porosity of the sandstones. The reservoirs have experienced complicated diagenetic environment evolution of “weak alkaline− acid−alkalinity−acid−weak alkalinity” and two-stage of hydrocarbon filling. The diagenetic sequences are summarized as “early compaction/early pyrite/gypsum/calcite/dolomite cementation→feldspar dissolution/the first stage of quartz overgrowth→ early hydrocarbon filling→quartz dissolution/anhydrite/Fe-carbonate cementation→Fe-carbonate dissolution/feldspar dissolution/ the second stage of quartz overgrowth→later hydrocarbon filling→later pyrite cementation. In the same diagenetic context, the diagenetic evolution processes that occurred in different sub/micro-facies during progressive burial have resulted in heterogeneous reservoir properties and oiliness. The braided channel reservoirs in fan delta plain are poorly sorted with high matrix contents. The physical properties decrease continually due to the principally strong compaction and weak dissolution. The present properties of braided channel reservoirs are extremely poor, which is evidenced by few oil layers developed in relatively shallow strata while dry layers entirely in deep. The reservoirs both in the underwater distributary channels and mouth bars are well sorted and have a strong ability to resist compaction. Abundant pores are developed in medium-deep strata because of modifications by two-stage of acidic dissolution and hydrocarbon filling. The

  13. 电网电压跌落时风机变流器功率平衡控制策略%Power Balance Control of Wind Turbine Converter Under Voltage Sag in Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少林; 李庆; 谭理华; 邵文昌; 王瑞明

    2011-01-01

    风机变流器是风电机组实现低电压穿越的关键部件,其控制性能的提升有利于提高风电机组的低电压穿越能力.基于变流器功率平衡控制思想,提出了网侧变流器改进型负载前馈控制策略,提升了网侧变流器的稳压与能量转移能力,缓和了电网故障期间的系统能量失衡,改善了风机变流器及风电机组的低电压穿越能力.控制系统的小信号模型分析结果表明,上述控制策略的稳压与能量转移能力优于传统控制策略.永磁同步风力发电机组系统仿真进一步证明了上述理论分析的正确性.%Wind turbine converter (WTC) is a key component of wind turbine generation system (WTGS) to implement low voltage tide through (LVRT), so the improvement of its control performance is favorable to enhance LVRT ability of WTGS Based on the thinking of power balance control of convener, an improved load feed-forward control strategy for grid-side converter is proposed to enhance voltage stabilization and energy transfer ability of grid-side converter as well as to mitigate the energy unbalance of power grid during voltage sag and improve LVRT ability of WTC and WTGS. Analysis results of small-signal model for control system show that the ability of voltage stabilization and energy transfer of the proposed control strategy is better than traditional control strategy. The correctness of above-mentioned theoretical analysis is proved by simulation results of diect-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind power system.

  14. Staphylococcal Superantigens in Synovial Fluid of 62 Patients With Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining the etiologic causes of septic arthritis is of the most importance. Goal of this study was to investigate presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C and Toxic Shock Staphylococcal toxin-1 in the synovial fluid of patients with arthritis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Pediatric and Orthopedic Wards of Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2008- 2010. Gram stains, conventional cultures, direct detection of soluble bacterial antigens were used to detect H. influenza, S. pneumonia, group B streptococci, and N. meningitidis while Latex particle agglutination test was used for staphylococcal supper antigens (by enzyme immunoassays upon synovial fluid tapping of 62 individuals (5 mo to 16 yrs, mean=113.8 yrs. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Positive SF cultures (n=11: 5 positive cases of S. aureus; 5 S. pneumonia; 1 H. influenza, and 1 Klebsiella. Positive gram stains: 10%; and positive LPA: 4%. Staphylococcal arthritis was diagnosed in 7 (39% cases upon positive culture or positive gram stain. The most common type was TSST-1 (47% and the least common was enterotoxin B (18%. Isolation of S. aureus (positive culture was correlated to presence of enterotoxin A in synovial fluid but not to enterotoxins B, C or TSST-1. Conclusion: Staph. aureus had a prominent role in arthritis. 47% of cases with negative culture for S. aureus had at least one type of staphylococcal super antigens in the synovial fluid. Searching for antigens of usual organisms or staphylococcal supper antigens could be helpful for diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

  15. FDA approved Immunosuppressants Targeting Staphylococcal Superantigens: Mechanisms and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 91 . Solinas G, Karin M. JNKl and IKK.beta: molecular links between obesity and metabolic ...is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED Introduction Staphylococcal endotoxin B (SEB) and the distantly related toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) are common...etiological agents that cause toxic shock syndrome [1, 2]. The disease is characterized by fever, hypotension, desquamation of skin, and multiple

  16. Application of 4-Methyl Steranes in Oil-Source Correlation:A case study from northern steep slope zone of Bonan Sag%4-甲基甾烷在油源对比中的应用——以渤南洼陷北部陡坡带为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝灵; 张枝焕; 王顺华; 邢辉; 李文浩; 刘祎楠; 席伟军

    2012-01-01

    同一洼陷不同次洼的烃源岩及生成的原油,由于古气候、古沉积环境较为相似,其常规生物标志化合物和同位素特征差别非常小,给油源分析带来困难。通过GC—MS分析提取原油和烃源岩中分子化石信息,主要依据4-甲基甾烷的相对含量和不同构型的4-甲基甾烷的分布特征来进行油源对比,为类似地区的油源分析提供了一种新思路。渤南洼陷发育Es4s和Es3x两套主力烃源岩,中部次洼、西部次洼和渤南深洼Es3x烃源岩的4-甲基甾烷/C29甾烷值分别为4.51、2.79、1.27,是由于烃源岩中沟鞭藻有机质占总有机质的比例不同所造成。不同地区原油C20、C21、C23三环萜烷和ααα20RC27、C28、C29规则甾烷等特征非常相似,成熟度相当,中、西、东三个地区原油的4-甲基甾烷/C29甾烷值分别为2.89,2.39和2.06,区别明显,各个地区4-甲基甾烷的构型也不同。对比结果表明,渤南洼陷北部陡坡带Es4s和Es3x油气均为近源成藏,主要来源于其临近次洼的Es3x烃源岩。%Because of the samilar paleoclimate and palosedimentary environment,regular biomarkers and isotope distinction of the source rocks and generated petroleum in the sub-sag belong to the same sag is tiny,which bring difficulties to oil-source correlation.By extracting molecular fossils information using GC-MS technology,according to the relative content of 4-methyl steranes and distribution characteristics of 4-methyl steranes isomers,oil-source correlation work are performed,which provides a new method for oil-source correlation in similar area.Es4s and Es3x two sets of source rocks are developed in the study area,they are characterized by high organic matter abundance,mature to over mature thermal evolution degrees.Organic matter of Es4s are formed in brackish-saline water with reductive environment,organic matter of Es3x are formed in fresh-saline water with reductive environment,organic matter input of both

  17. En sag for hele Folkets Dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndborg, Britta

    2005-01-01

    Gipsafstøbninger har siden deres storhedstid som museumsgenstand i 1800-tallet indgået i forskellige udstillingskontekster. Eksempelvis har afstøbningernes status ændret sig gennem tid. Fra storhedstiden hvor store samlinger blev akkumuleret for at kunne fremvise og demonstrere skulpturens histor...

  18. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

  19. 渤海莱州湾走滑拉分凹陷的构造研究及其石油勘探意义%STRIKE-SLIP AND PULL-APART STRUCTURE STUDY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO PE TROLEUM EXPLORATION ON LAIZHOUWAN SAG,BOHAI AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东升; 罗毓晖; 姚长华

    2001-01-01

    This paper points out distinctly for the first time t hat Laizhouwan Sag is a pull-apart sub-basin that is related to the strike-sl ipping of Yingkou-Weifang fault in the Cenozoic.Yingkou-Weifang fault is a seg ment of Tan-Lu fault system,we estimate its wrench displacement in the Cenozoic is about 40km.Utilizing balance cross section technique,we calculated the pull -apart extensional length in Laizhouwan Sag is about 5~7km,extensional rate is about 20%.Further more,based on the analyses of the characteristics of fault dev elopment and the subsidence history,we find that Laizhouwan Sag had been experie nced three structural evolution stages-those were the initial strong rifting sta g during Eocene,the tender rifting but stronger down-warp subsidence stag durin g Oligocene and the tectonic rejuvenation stage under the background of thermal subsidence during Neogene.Finally,the continental pull-apart extension model i n the study area has been disussed.And also points out that the strike-slip bel ts on the eastern and western sides of the sag and the central structure belt in the sag are the good oil and gas potential exploration zones.%首次明确提出莱州湾凹陷为走滑拉分成因。估算郯—庐断裂营(口)—潍(坊)段新生代在莱州湾地区的右旋走滑量约为40km。利用平衡剖面计算其拉分伸展量达5~7km,伸展率达20%左右。根据凹陷断裂发育特征及沉降史分析结果指出:莱州湾凹陷经历了始新世的强断陷初始沉降阶段,渐新世的弱断陷、强拗陷—热沉降作用为主的断拗阶段和晚第三纪以来的区域热沉降背景上新的断裂作用(构造事件)叠加活化阶段,与一般的裂陷盆地有显著不同。探讨了其陆壳拉分伸展变形模式及其油气勘探意义,并指出其东、西两侧的走滑构造带与凹陷中央构造带是该凹陷最有前景的油气勘探区带。

  20. Sequence Stratigraphy Characteristics and Filling Evolution Models of Paleogene in Baiju Sag, Subei Basin%苏北盆地白驹凹陷古近系层序地层特征及充填演化模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏祥峰; 张廷山; 黄静; 梁兴; 姚秋昌; 汤兴友

    2011-01-01

    根据陆相断陷盆地层序界面在电测曲线和地震剖面上的识别标志、岩石类型组合特点以及古生物资料等方面的特征,在苏北盆地白驹凹陷古近系共识别出6个层序界面,划分出1个超层序组、2个超层序、5个三级层序,其中SQ1、SQ2~SQ4分别为断陷Ⅰ幕初始断陷、断陷-坳陷转化阶段的湖泊层序,SQ5为断陷Ⅲ幕断陷收敛阶段的河流层序.根据盆地幕式构造演化、气候条件以及物源供给的条件不同,建立了初始断陷阶段、断陷-坳陷转换阶段和断陷收敛阶段3种层序地层充填模式,认为不同构造演化阶段的充填序列、体系域构成和砂体发育存在显著的差异.初步分析了不同层序充填演化模式与油气的关系,认为断陷Ⅰ幕的断陷-坳陷转换阶段的充填层序低位体系域和高位体系域砂体与湖侵体系域优质烃源岩配置关系最好,成藏条件最优越.%Based on the identification features of stratigraphic sequences of the continental faulted basin along electric logging curves and seismic profiles as well as the characteristics of lithologic combination and palaeontological data, the authors identified six Paleogene sequence boundaries in Baiju sag of Subei basin and divided the Paleogene into one super sequence group, two super sequences, and five sequences. SQ1 and SQ2-SQ4 are lacustrine sequences developed in the initial faulting phase and faulting-depression stage of faulting episode I, while SQ5 is the fluvial sequence developed in the faulting convergence stage of faulting episode III. Based on the episodic tectonic evolution, different climate conditions and suppy of sediments for the basin in each evolution phase, the authors established three kinds of sequence stratigraphy filling evolution models composed of initial faulting phase, faulting-depression stage and faulting convergence stage. It is thought that differenttectono-evolutionary stages have significantly different

  1. Formation mechanism and enrichment conditions of Lucaogou Formation shale oil from Malang sag, Santanghu Basin%马朗凹陷芦草沟组页岩油形成机理与富集条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁世君; 黄志龙; 柳波; 燕列灿; 李华明; 马剑

    2012-01-01

    Tight reservoirs were found in the Permian Lucaogou Formation of Malang sag in Santanghu Basin, which is a great challenge to the conventional oil gas exploration theory. Based on the core observation and thin section identification, then combined with geological conditions, analytical data and testing for oil. we investigated in detail the formation mechanism and enrichment condition of Lucaogou Formation shale oil. The research result showed that Lucaogou Formation shale oil is a kind of low-maturity oil generated at the low-maturity to early-mature stage of source rocks and retained in-situ. The oil was characterized by high density, high viscosity, low saturated/aromatic hydrocarbon ratio and high non-hydrocarbon/asphalt ratio. There are two main forms for the occurrence of the shale oil in source rocks, one is an absorbed slate on kerogen surface and the other is a free state in matrix pores, in-terlayers between laminae and flat seams, and microfissures. Besides, the shale oil is continuously distributed in a large scale in source rocks, with no obvious oil-water boundary and being poor in oil/water differentiation. The oil-water ratio in production depends on the thermal maturity of source rocks and wells cannot get the deliverability without artificial transformation. The yield of a single well is low but stable for a long lime. There are two controlling factors for the shale oil enrichment, one is good conditions for generating and entrapping large amounts of oils, and the other is favorable preservation conditions of oils in source rocks due to undeveloped faults for oil expulsion.%三塘湖盆地马朗凹陷二叠系芦草沟组源内页岩油的发现对常规油藏勘探理论提出了巨大的挑战.在大量岩心观察、薄片鉴定的基础上,结合地质条件、分析化验、试油情况,深入研究了本区页岩油形成机制与富集条件.研究结果表明,芦草沟组页岩油主要是烃源岩在低熟—成熟早期演化阶段生

  2. PERIOD AND TIMES OF PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FORMATION AND MIGRATION MODE IN WANGJI-XINZHUANG REGION OF MIYANG SAG%泌阳凹陷王集—新庄油气成藏期次及运聚模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱景修; 熊超; 刘桂兰; 蒲红斌; 严移胜

    2011-01-01

    According to the homogenization temperature of the brine inclusions generated with hydrocarbon fluid enclosures and integrating with the buried and heat histories of the typical wells, the period & times and time of reservoir formation in Wangji-Xinzhuang region are determined: early petroleum reservoir mainly formed in the sedimentary periods from late period of He No. 1 Interval to Liaozhuang Formation; late one principally happened in the rising period of late period of Liaozhuang Formation-the key reservoir forming period of the current oilfield. The main migration period of the oil and gas should be earlier than the forming period of the key fractures in Wangji-' Xinzhuang region. The fracture generation results in the damage and redistribution of the primary oil reservoirs and furthermore provides the migration channels and enrichment space for the petroleum generated in He No. 3 Upper Interval. At the same time, shallow secondary oil reservoirs are generated in He No. 2 Interval. According to the petroleum trace of nitrogen-bearing compound and the background of regional geology, the migration path is from the mature source rock located in the southern deep sag to Wangji, faults (sandbodies) and Xinzhuang region, finally the petroleum reservoir formed whenever it encountered with the trap.%根据与烃类流体包裹体相伴生的盐水包裹体的均一化温度,结合典型井的埋藏史、热史确定了王集—新庄地区成藏期次和时间:早期油气成藏期主要发生在核一段末期—廖庄组沉积期;晚期油气成藏期主要发生在廖庄末抬升期,是形成现今油田的主要成藏期.油气主要运移期应早于王集—新庄地区主要断裂的形成期.断层的形成导致原生油藏的破坏和再分配,也为核三上段生成的油气提供了运移通道和聚集场所,在核二段形成浅层次生油藏.根据含氮化合物油气示踪及区域地质背景认为,油气运移路径为南侧深凹成熟烃源

  3. Quantitative analysis for diagenetic evolution of clastic reservoirs in the second member of Funing Formation in Jinhu Sag%金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层成岩演化定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雯泉; 刘喜欢; 徐焕友

    2013-01-01

    Multiple data including original porosity,current porosity,amounts of cement,replacement,interstitial mate-rial,and corrosion,and the stage and temperature of diagenesis,etc.were calculated by means of reservoir physical proper-ties in combination with analysis of microscopic flack images and fluid inclusions.And facial porosities were converted into porosities by the statistical analytical method.According to the diagenesis and diagenetic stage,we made a quantitative study on the diagenetic evolution of the clastic reservoir in the second member of Funing Formation in Jinhu Sag.Results show that the diagenetic process of the reservoir was complex and had strong cementation.An average 25 .2 percent of po-rosity loss was caused by the cementations of the early and late stages,an approximate 15 percent of the porosity loss was caused by compaction,and a 15.2 percent of porosity was increased by dissolution.The diagenetic stage of the reservoir in-tegrally entered the stage A of middle diagenesis phase,and partly went into the stage B of middle diagenesis phase.After entering the stage A,the reservoir evolution was divided into two directions:one branch of the reservoir was mainly devel-oped under the cementation and became poor reservoir;another branch of the reservoir was developed under the dissolu-tion,the compaction,and the late stage cementation,however,it still became favorable low-permeability reservoir.%通过微观薄片图像分析、流体包裹体分析与储层物性实验相结合的手段,获取原始孔隙度、现今孔隙度、胶结物量、交代物量、填隙物量、溶蚀量、成岩期次、成岩温度等多种数据,并运用数据统计分析将面孔率转化为孔隙度,结合成岩作用与成岩阶段分析,定量研究了金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层的成岩演化过程。研究认为金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层成岩过程较为复杂,胶结作用强烈,早晚两期胶结共造成了平均25.2%的孔隙

  4. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  5. Genomic landscapes of endogenous retroviruses unveil intricate genetics of conventional and genetically-engineered laboratory mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Chiu, Sophia; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory strains of mice, both conventional and genetically engineered, have been introduced as critical components of a broad range of studies investigating normal and disease biology. Currently, the genetic identity of laboratory mice is primarily confirmed by surveying polymorphisms in selected sets of "conventional" genes and/or microsatellites in the absence of a single completely sequenced mouse genome. First, we examined variations in the genomic landscapes of transposable repetitive elements, named the TREome, in conventional and genetically engineered mouse strains using murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs) as a probe. A survey of the genomes from 56 conventional strains revealed strain-specific TREome landscapes, and certain families (e.g., C57BL) of strains were discernible with defined patterns. Interestingly, the TREome landscapes of C3H/HeJ (toll-like receptor-4 [TLR4] mutant) inbred mice were different from its control C3H/HeOuJ (TLR4 wild-type) strain. In addition, a CD14 knock-out strain had a distinct TREome landscape compared to its control/backcross C57BL/6J strain. Second, an examination of superantigen (SAg, a "TREome gene") coding sequences of mouse mammary tumor virus-type ERVs in the genomes of the 46 conventional strains revealed a high diversity, suggesting a potential role of SAgs in strain-specific immune phenotypes. The findings from this study indicate that unexplored and intricate genomic variations exist in laboratory mouse strains, both conventional and genetically engineered. The TREome-based high-resolution genetics surveillance system for laboratory mice would contribute to efficient study design with quality control and accurate data interpretation. This genetics system can be easily adapted to other species ranging from plants to humans.

  6. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-like DNA sequences in the breast tumors of father, mother, and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernik Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of late onset breast cancer in a father, mother, and daughter living in the same house for decades suggested the possibility of an environmental agent as a common etiological factor. Both molecular and epidemiological data have indicated a possible role for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, the etiological agent of breast cancer in mice, in a certain percentage of human breast tumors. The aim of this study was to determine if MMTV might be involved in the breast cancer of this cluster of three family members. Results MMTV-like envelope (env and long terminal repeat (LTR sequences containing the MMTV superantigen gene (sag were detected in the malignant tissues of all three family members. The amplified env gene sequences were 98.0%–99.6% homologous to the MMTV env sequences found in the GR, C3H, and BR6 mouse strains. The amplified LTR sequences containing sag sequences segregated to specific branches of the MMTV phylogenetic tree and did not form a distinct branch of their own. Conclusion The presence of MMTV-like DNA sequences in the malignant tissues of all three family members suggests the possibility of MMTV as an etiological agent. Phylogenetic data suggest that the MMTV-like DNA sequences are mouse and not human derived and that the ultimate reservoir of MMTV is most likely the mouse. Although the route by which these family members came to be infected with MMTV is unknown, the possibility exists that such infection may have resulted from a shared exposure to mice.

  7. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuzhe Li

    Full Text Available A biased usage of immunoglobulin (Ig genes is observed in human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs resulting probably from compensation to reduced usage of the VH3 family genes, while the other alternative suggests that this bias usage is due to antigen requirements. If the antigen structure is responsible for the preferential usage of particular Ig genes, it may have certain implications for HIV vaccine development by the targeting of particular Ig gene-encoded B cell receptors to induce neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. To address this issue, we have produced HIV-1 specific and non-HIV-1 mAbs from an infected individual and analyzed the Ig gene usage. Green-fluorescence labeled virus-like particles (VLP expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env proteins of JRFL and BaL and control VLPs (without Env were used to select single B cells for the production of 68 recombinant mAbs. Ten of these mAbs were HIV-1 Env specific with neutralizing activity against V3 and the CD4 binding site, as well as non-neutralizing mAbs to gp41. The remaining 58 mAbs were non-HIV-1 Env mAbs with undefined specificities. Analysis revealed that biased usage of Ig genes was restricted only to anti-HIV-1 but not to non-HIV-1 mAbs. The VH1 family genes were dominantly used, followed by VH3, VH4, and VH5 among anti-HIV-1 mAbs, while non-HIV-1 specific mAbs preferentially used VH3 family genes, followed by VH4, VH1 and VH5 families in a pattern identical to Abs derived from healthy individuals. This observation suggests that the biased usage of Ig genes by anti-HIV-1 mAbs is driven by structural requirements of the virus antigens rather than by compensation to any depletion of VH3 B cells due to autoreactive mechanisms, according to the gp120 superantigen hypothesis.

  8. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  9. Uncertainty Assessment on Failure Accident of Voltage-Sensitive Equipment Due to Voltage Sag by Maximum Hybrid Entropy%敏感设备电压暂降失效事件不确定性的最大混合熵评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 肖先勇; 杨达

    2012-01-01

    敏感设备电压暂降失效事件是混合不确定事件,对其评估需考虑混合不确定性.以混合熵作为评价测度,建立敏感设备电压暂降失效事件不确定性的最大混合熵评估模型,并用以逆积法为基础的多阶段改进近似规划法进行模型求解.在评估过程中,将混合不确定性分解为随机性、模糊性和两者的交叉不确定性,并用随机商、模糊熵和交叉熵进行量化.以计算机(personal computer,PC)为例,考虑到PC机在电压暂降发生前可能处于全速、空载和正常等运行状态,电压暂降发生后可能出现完全死机、运算出错和“假死”等不同严重程度的失效状态,对实测样本进行评估,并与概率法、模糊法比较,结果证明,该方法所得结果客观、可行,克服了现有方法过估计或欠估计等不足,结果更符合实际.%The failure accident of voltage-sensitive equipments due to voltage sag is a hybrid uncertainty accident. Taking hybrid entropy as assessment measure a maximum hybrid entropy-based uncertainty assessment model for failure accident of voltage-sensitive equipments due to voltage sag is established and solved by multi-stage improved approximate programming. During the assessment the hybrid uncertainty is decomposed to stochastic uncertainty, fuzzy uncertainty and the crossed certainty of the both, and these uncertainties are quantized by stochastic entropy, fuzzy entropy and crossed entropy. Taking personal computer (PC) as the case and considering possible operation conditions of PC before the occurrence of voltage sag, namely full speed running, no-load and normal operation, after the occurrence of voltage sag following failure states in different severities such as PC system halt, calculation error and false system halt may occur. The measured samples are assessed and the assessment results are compared with those assessed by probabilistic assessment and fuzzy assessment. Comparison results show that

  10. Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Barb; Takeya, Ryan; Vitelli, Francesca; Swanson, Xin

    2017-03-14

    Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available. It is anticipated that the clinical success the field observed in recent years can drive requirements for more scalable, robust, cost effective, and regulatory-compliant manufacturing processes. This review provides a brief overview of the current manufacturing technologies for viral vectors production, drawing attention to the common upstream and downstream production process platform that is applicable across various classes of viral vectors and their unique manufacturing challenges as compared to other biologics. In addition, a case study of an industry-scale cGMP production of an AAV-based gene therapy product performed at 2,000 L-scale is presented. The experience and lessons learned from this largest viral gene therapy vector production run conducted to date as discussed and highlighted in this review should contribute to future development of commercial viable scalable processes for vial gene therapies.

  11. Suppressor of Overexpression of CO 1 Negatively Regulates Dark-Induced Leaf Degreening and Senescence by Directly Repressing Pheophytinase and Other Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jun; Qiu, Kai; Li, Zhongpeng; Xie, Zuokun; Gao, Jiong; Zhou, Xin; Kuai, Benke

    2017-03-01

    Although the biochemical pathway of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation has been largely elucidated, how Chl is rapidly yet coordinately degraded during leaf senescence remains elusive. Pheophytinase (PPH) is the enzyme for catalyzing the removal of the phytol group from pheophytin a, and PPH expression is significantly induced during leaf senescence. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of PPH, we used a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) one-hybrid system to screen for its trans-regulators. SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), a key flowering pathway integrator, was initially identified as one of the putative trans-regulators of PPH After dark treatment, leaves of an SOC1 knockdown mutant (soc1-6) showed an accelerated yellowing phenotype, whereas those of SOC1-overexpressing lines exhibited a partial stay-green phenotype. SOC1 and PPH expression showed a negative correlation during leaf senescence. Substantially, SOC1 protein could bind specifically to the CArG box of the PPH promoter in vitro and in vivo, and overexpression of SOC1 significantly inhibited the transcriptional activity of the PPH promoter in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts. Importantly, soc1-6 pph-1 (a PPH knockout mutant) double mutant displayed a stay-green phenotype similar to that of pph-1 during dark treatment. These results demonstrated that SOC1 inhibits Chl degradation via negatively regulating PPH expression. In addition, measurement of the Chl content and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of soc1-6 and SOC1-OE leaves after dark treatment suggested that SOC1 also negatively regulates the general senescence process. Seven SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENES (SAGs) were thereafter identified as its potential target genes, and NONYELLOWING1 and SAG113 were experimentally confirmed. Together, we reveal that SOC1 represses dark-induced leaf Chl degradation and senescence in general in Arabidopsis.

  12. 济阳坳陷车镇凹陷沙河街组旋回地层学研究%Study on cyclostratigraphy of Shahejie Formation in Chezhen Sag,Jiyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎旭娟; 余继峰; 付文钊; 李卿; 陈鹏

    2012-01-01

    选定车镇凹陷沙河街组车古29等7口井测井资料依次从西南向东北方向进行旋回地层学研究。借助Matlab软件平台及其小波变换工具箱,基于前期建立的米氏周期识别方法——米氏周期最佳匹配分析方法,对7口井测井资料中识别出来的周期进行剔除和选择,进而确定地层中记录的优势米氏周期。通过沉积速率计算及沉积厚度变化的分析,揭示了该区地层中米氏旋回发育规律及三角洲、湖盆发育特征,标定了不同层段年龄。研究发现:车镇凹陷沙河街组地层中广泛发育米氏旋回层,高频信息比较多;该区三角洲、湖盆从西南向东北大体上呈推进(扩张)—萎缩—推进(扩张)的差异性;周期比较长的米氏旋回(偏心率长周期)易于在沉积速率小的层段保存,周期比较短的米氏旋回(岁差、黄赤交角)易于在沉积速率大的层段保存;根据计算结果,推断车镇凹陷沙一段顶界年龄在31.5~32.5 Ma,沙二段顶界年龄在32.7~33.2 Ma,其中车古29、车35、车古203、大古63井的沙一段顶界年龄分别为32.4,32.4,32.1,32.5 Ma。%Chegu29 wells which distributed from southwest to northeast were selected for the study of Milankovitch cy- cle. With the help of Matlab software and Wavelet transform toolbox and on the basis of the previously constructed rec- ognition method of Milankovitch cycle, cycles identified from logging data of seven wells were selected and then the dominant Milankovitch cycles recorded in strata were determined. The development regularity of Milankovitch cycle and the development characteristic of delta and basin were revealed, the age of strata was calibrated by the analysis of sedimentary rate and depositional thickness. It is found that Milankovitch cycles are widely developed in Chezhen Sag. The development of the low-frequency informations is inferior to the high-frequency ones. The delta and basin exhibit difference

  13. 查干凹陷巴音戈壁组沉积演化及有利砂体分布预测%The sedimentation evolution and favorable sand body distribution prognosis in Chagan sag of Bayin gobi Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聪; 王德仁; 蒋飞虎; 周艳; 韩立辉; 卢宇萍

    2013-01-01

    The Chagan sag is one of the important bases of strategic energy in the Zhongyuan Oilfield,and the Bayin gobi Formation is the main thin oil exploration strata.Bayi section is the initial rift period of the lake basin,whereas Baer section is the deepening and broadening period of the lake basin.According to an analysis of the data of core observation,well logging and mud logging in the study area in combination with the study of fracture structure characteristics within the lake basin and palaeogeomorphologic signal recovery,the authors have concluded that the palaeogeomorphology of Bayi section is characterized by alternate depressions and slopes,with the development of fan delta,near-shore subaqueous fan,littoral and shallow lake-half deep lacustrine deposition.The palaeogeomorphology of Baer section was influenced by the synsedimentary and deposit faults,showed "two low-lying and two long clip slots" assuming an overall trend of "shallow in the north and deep in the south",and mainly developed fan delta,frontal fluxoturbidite facies and shore-shallow lake as well as semideep lake-deep lake.There are two chief kinds of fracture structure types:plate form and shovel type.The slump turbidite caused by the current active fault is thin and widely distributed,and is the most advantageous area of exploration.The shovel type glutenite is dominated by the secondary fracture,the monolayer is very thick,and fan-delta and coastal submerged fan are well developed,thus becoming the secondary advantageous area.The shovel type glutenite with a narrow distribution and thick monolayer and sediments,with the development of the rapidly deposited coastal submerged fan,is the worst oil reservoir stratum%查干凹陷作为中原油田重要的能源接替基地之一,巴音戈壁组是主要的稀油勘探层位.其中,巴一段为湖盆初始断陷期,巴二段为湖盆深陷扩展期.通过对研究区内岩心观察、测井、录井资料分析,结合湖盆内部断裂结构特

  14. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  15. Genes V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This fifth edition book encompasses a wide range of topics covering 1,272 pages. The book is arranged into nine parts with a total of 36 chapters. These nine parts include Introduction; DNA as a Store of Information; Translation; Constructing Cells; Control of Prokaryotypic Gene Expression; Perpetuation of DNA; Organization of the Eukaryotypic Genome; Eukaryotypic Transcription and RNA Processing; The Dynamic Genome; and Genes in Development.

  16. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsa C Venugopal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance (R protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1, non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1, phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4, senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101, and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.

  17. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Mandal, Mihir K; Zhu, Shifeng; Chandra-Shekara, A C; Xia, Ye; Hersh, Matthew; Stromberg, Arnold J; Navarre, DuRoy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2009-07-01

    Resistance (R) protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.

  18. Genetic diversity and virulence properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Imperi, Monica; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Pataracchia, Marco; Creti, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A recent increase in virulence of pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been widely proposed. Such an increase may be partly explained by the acquisition of new virulence traits by horizontal gene transfer from related streptococci such as Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS). A collection of 54 SDSE strains isolated in Italy in the years 2000-2010 from different sources (paediatric throat carriage, invasive and non-invasive diseases) was characterized by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The virulence repertoire was evaluated by PCR for the presence of GAS superantigen (spe) genes, the streptolysin S (sagA) gene, the group G fibronectin-binding protein (gfbA) gene and GAS-GBS alpha-like protein family (alp) genes; moreover, the ability to invade human epithelial cells was investigated. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was assessed. The combined use of emm typing and PFGE proved to be a reliable strategy for the epidemiological analysis of SDSE isolates. The most frequent emm types were the same as those more frequently reported in other studies, thus indicating the diffusion of a limited number of a few successful emm types fit to disseminate in humans. The speG gene was detected in SDSE strains of different genetic backgrounds. Erythromycin resistance determined by the erm(T) gene, and the unusual, foggy MLSB phenotype, observed in one and seven strains, respectively, have never previously, to our knowledge, been reported in SDSE. Moreover, a new member of the alp family was identified. The identification of new antibiotic and virulence determinants, despite the small size of the sample analysed, shows the importance of constant attention to monitoring the extent of lateral gene transfer in this emerging pathogen.

  19. DREB genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unipar

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... to AP2/ERF family, dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) genes, (CitsERF01 to ... Protein sequences of DREB subfamilies belonging to group I, .... position 37, and it was present in consensus in all protein.

  20. 致密火山岩物性影响因素分析与储层质量预测--以马朗-条湖凹陷条湖组为例%Controlling factors on physical property of tight volcanic rocks and reservoir quality prediction:a case study of the Tiaohu Formation in Marlang-Tiaohu Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟元林; 胡越; 李新宁; 胡安文; 吴晨亮; 赵紫桐; 张磊; 许丞

    2014-01-01

    Commercial oil flows were tested in the tight vitric and crystal sedimentary tuff reservoirs of the 2nd Member of Tiaohu Formation(P2t2)in Malang-Tiaohu Sag,Santanghu Basin.In order to reveal the distribution pattern of tight oil ,we studied the influences of lithofacies and diagenesis on physical properties of volcanic reservoirs .And plane distribution of four types tight reservoir of P 2 t2 were predicted through numerical modeling of diagenesis and in combination with lithofa -cies map.The results show that the quality volcanic reservoir decreases with increasing levels of diagenesis ;Pyroclastic rock and tuff are optimal reservoirs ,followed by vitric and crystal sedimentary tuffs and pyroclastic rocks ,and lavas show the worst reservoir property .The conventional reservoirs ( porosity≥9%) distribute in the southern Malang-Tiaohu Sag , and slight tight reservoirs ( 7%≤porosity <9%) and strong tight reservoirs ( ( 4%≤porosity <7%) are located in the central-northern of Malang-Tiaohu Sag .Effective traps are the main exploration targets in area with conventional reservoirs ,while the reservoirs and hydrocarbon source should be the focuses of study in area with tight reservoirs .%在三塘湖盆地马朗-条湖凹陷条湖组二段晶屑玻屑沉凝灰岩致密储层中发现了工业油流。为了研究致密油的分布规律,通过研究岩相和成岩作用对火山岩储层物性的影响,进行了成岩作用数值模拟,结合条湖组二段的岩相图,预测了4类储层在平面上的分布。结果表明,角砾岩和凝灰岩的物性最好,玻屑晶屑沉凝灰岩和火山碎屑沉积岩的物性次之,熔岩的物性最差;随成岩作用的增强,储层的物性变差,储层物性是岩性和成岩作用综合作用的结果。常规储层(孔隙度≥9%)分布在马朗-条湖凹陷的南部,低致密储层(7%≤孔隙度<9%)和高致密储层(4%≤孔隙度<7%)分布在凹陷的中北部。在

  1. 补偿约束下动态电压恢复器不对称电压暂降补偿方法%A Method to Compensate Asymmetrical Voltage Sag of Dynamic Voltage Restorer Under Constraint of Compensation Voltage Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小淤; 杨洪耕

    2011-01-01

    针对补偿电压注入约束下的不对称电压暂降补偿,提出一种新的动态电压恢复器补偿策略.首先以A相为参考相,以各相电压端点为圆心作补偿极限圆,通过旋转B、C相极限圆得到有效补偿域;然后根据有效补偿域与参考电压圆的交角来确定完全补偿弧;最后沿此弧旋转负荷电压,在弧内求取最小能量注入解.该方法简单直观,适用于补偿三相负荷完全对称时由各种故障类型引起的电压暂降.由于此方法无需先抵偿负序和零序分量,通过在有效补偿域内对源电压进行直接计算,最大故障范围内实现负荷电压的对称补偿,且求解过程无循环搜索,响应速度快,满足实际工程应用的需求.%To compensate asymmetrical voltage sag under the constraint of compensation voltage injection, a new dynamic compensation strategy for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is proposed. Firstly, taking phase A as the reference phase, compensation horocircles, whose centers are terminal points of three-phase voltage vectors, are plotted and by means of rotating the horocircles of phase B and C the active compensating area is obtained; then, according to the angle by which the active compensating area intersects to the circle of reference voltage, the complete compensation arc is determined;finally, rotating the load voltage along the arc, the least energy injection of DVR for each phase can be solved. The proposed method is simple and intuitional, so it is suitable to compensate the voltage sag caused by various faults under symmetrical three-phase load. In view of the fact that in the proposed method it is not necessary to pre-compensate the negative- and zero-sequence components, so by means of directly calculating the source voltage within active compensating area the symmetrical compensation of load voltage inside the maximum fault coverage can be implemented. The proposed method can fast respond to voltage sag and the cyclic search

  2. Endothelial Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    8217Department of Surgery, Division of Oncology , and 2Department of BRCA-l and BRCA-2 (breast cancer susceptibility genes), Pathology, University of...Suppression subtractive hybridization re- Cancer: principles and practice of oncology . Philadelphia: Lippincott- vealed an RNA sequence (GenBank accession...Lippman ME. Cancer of the breast: molecular biology angiogenesis in sarcomas and carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5: of breast cancer. In: DeVita VT

  3. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  4. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  5. 耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌毒素的主要编码基因研究%Main encoding genes of toxin of methicillin-resistant St ap hy lococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金法祥; 许文芳; 陈雪芳; 钟建平; 王华钧; 孙小军

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the toxin‐encoding genes in the methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and detect 39 kinds of toxin‐encoding genes that belong to 6 categories of toxins including adhesion tox‐ins ,cytotoxins ,invasive enzymes ,superantigen ,exotoxin ,and capsular antigen so as to provide guidance for clin‐ical treatment .METHODS A total of 20 strains of MRSA were isolated from clinical blood specimens from Jan 2011 to Dec 2012 .The polymerase‐chain‐reaction (PCR) assay was performed to detect 7 kinds of adhesion toxins (sasX ,fnbA ,clfA ,clfB ,icaA ,cna ,efb) ,9 kinds of cytotoxins (hla ,hlb ,hld ,hlg ,hlg‐2 ,pvl ,lukE ,lukM , psm‐mec) ,6 kinds of invasive enzymes (ssp ,splB ,sak ,nuc ,hysA ,lip) ,4 kinds of superantigens (sea ,seb , eta ,tst) ,11 kinds of exotoxins ,and 2 kinds of capsular antigens (cap5 ,cap8) ,involving 39 main encoding genes in 6 kinds of toxins .RESULTS At least 2 encoding genotypes belonging to 3 toxins such as adhesion toxins ,cyto‐toxins ,and exotoxin were detected positive in each of the 20 strains of MRSA ;the encoding genes of invasive en‐zymes were detected positive in 19 strains with the positive rate of 95 .0% ;the encoding genes of superantigens were detected positive in 5 strains ,with the positive rate of 25 .0% ;the encoding genes of capsular antigens were detected positive in 19 strains ,with the positive rate of 95 .0% .The sample cluster analysis of the 39 encoding genotypes showed that No .3 ,4 ,and 20 strains were in the same unit as the No .6 and 18 strains ,which may be the clone spread of the strains .CONCLUSION The patients have the MRSA colonization or body surface infection due to the contamination of the five toxins including adhesion toxins ,cytotoxins ,invasive enzymes ,exotoxin ,and capsular antigens ;the M RSA strains lead to the infection via invasion to the blood circulation system under the effect of cytotoxins and invasive enzymes .The sample cluster analysis indicates

  6. Characteristics and Its Role in Basin Controlling of Strike-slip Faults in Cenozoic Qikou Sag, Huanghua Depression%黄骅坳陷歧口凹陷新生代走滑断裂特征及控盆作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文革; 张志攀; 卢异; 付立新

    2012-01-01

    以歧口凹陷高精度大面积三维地震资料的应用为基础,结合前人研究成果,系统分析了歧口凹陷新生代走滑断裂特征及其对盆地发育演化过程的控制。认为,歧口凹陷新生代发育2组3支走滑断裂系,其中羊二庄走滑断裂系为兰聊走滑断裂在该地区的主要走滑分支,而沿岸走滑断裂带应为调节断裂带;沿岸及羊二庄走滑表现为右旋走滑性质,而海河走滑断裂则表现为左旋性质;新生代走滑表现为幕式活动特征,表现为张扭断裂的大量出现,可识别出沙一期及明化镇期2期走滑活动;走滑活动及发育与周边板块活动密不可分,2期走滑活动时限分别对应南海扩张及青藏高原的快速隆升,为太平洋板块、印度板块与欧亚板块的汇聚速度、方向变化所致;走滑断裂将歧口凹陷分割为结构构造特征不同的3个块体,受走滑活动影响歧口凹陷断陷阶段均表现为存在主沉降中心、沉积中心、断裂活动中心等的向NE方向迁移的特点,拗陷阶段表现为沉积速率、断层活动速率等的加速沉降及断层活动强度中心的NE向迁移过程,与典型伸展断陷盆地特征存在明显区别。%Based on the newly obtained high resolution 3D seismic data,we analysed the characteristics of strike-slip faults in Cenozoic Qikou sag and its controlling role in basin evolution. There develop two group strike-slip faults with three branches in Cenozoic Qikou sag, the dextral Lankao-Liaocheng strike-slip fault system coastal strike-slip fault zone and Yangerzhuang strike-slip fault zone,and the sinistral Zhangjiakou- Penglai strike-slip fault system Haihe strike-slip fault zone. Characteristics and spatial distribution of Yangerzhuang strike-slip fault zone suggested that the strike-slip fault zone should be the main branch of the dextral Lankao-Liaocheng strike-slip fault system but not the costal branch as another view. One major result of the strike

  7. Evolutionary analysis of vision genes identifies potential drivers of visual differences between giraffe and okapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ishengoma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The capacity of visually oriented species to perceive and respond to visual signal is integral to their evolutionary success. Giraffes are closely related to okapi, but the two species have broad range of phenotypic differences including their visual capacities. Vision studies rank giraffe’s visual acuity higher than all other artiodactyls despite sharing similar vision ecological determinants with many of them. The extent to which the giraffe’s unique visual capacity and its difference with okapi is reflected by changes in their vision genes is not understood. Methods The recent availability of giraffe and okapi genomes provided opportunity to identify giraffe and okapi vision genes. Multiple strategies were employed to identify thirty-six candidate mammalian vision genes in giraffe and okapi genomes. Quantification of selection pressure was performed by a combination of branch-site tests of positive selection and clade models of selection divergence through comparing giraffe and okapi vision genes and orthologous sequences from other mammals. Results Signatures of selection were identified in key genes that could potentially underlie giraffe and okapi visual adaptations. Importantly, some genes that contribute to optical transparency of the eye and those that are critical in light signaling pathway were found to show signatures of adaptive evolution or selection divergence. Comparison between giraffe and other ruminants identifies significant selection divergence in CRYAA and OPN1LW. Significant selection divergence was identified in SAG while positive selection was detected in LUM when okapi is compared with ruminants and other mammals. Sequence analysis of OPN1LW showed that at least one of the sites known to affect spectral sensitivity of the red pigment is uniquely divergent between giraffe and other ruminants. Discussion By taking a systemic approach to gene function in vision, the results provide the first molecular clues

  8. Evolutionary analysis of vision genes identifies potential drivers of visual differences between giraffe and okapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaba, Morris; Cavener, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The capacity of visually oriented species to perceive and respond to visual signal is integral to their evolutionary success. Giraffes are closely related to okapi, but the two species have broad range of phenotypic differences including their visual capacities. Vision studies rank giraffe’s visual acuity higher than all other artiodactyls despite sharing similar vision ecological determinants with many of them. The extent to which the giraffe’s unique visual capacity and its difference with okapi is reflected by changes in their vision genes is not understood. Methods The recent availability of giraffe and okapi genomes provided opportunity to identify giraffe and okapi vision genes. Multiple strategies were employed to identify thirty-six candidate mammalian vision genes in giraffe and okapi genomes. Quantification of selection pressure was performed by a combination of branch-site tests of positive selection and clade models of selection divergence through comparing giraffe and okapi vision genes and orthologous sequences from other mammals. Results Signatures of selection were identified in key genes that could potentially underlie giraffe and okapi visual adaptations. Importantly, some genes that contribute to optical transparency of the eye and those that are critical in light signaling pathway were found to show signatures of adaptive evolution or selection divergence. Comparison between giraffe and other ruminants identifies significant selection divergence in CRYAA and OPN1LW. Significant selection divergence was identified in SAG while positive selection was detected in LUM when okapi is compared with ruminants and other mammals. Sequence analysis of OPN1LW showed that at least one of the sites known to affect spectral sensitivity of the red pigment is uniquely divergent between giraffe and other ruminants. Discussion By taking a systemic approach to gene function in vision, the results provide the first molecular clues associated with

  9. T cell receptor Vβ gene bias in rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿关节炎T细胞受体Vβ基因的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓莉; 董怡; 张国柱

    2002-01-01

    目的通过对T细胞受体(TCR)的表达进行研究,探讨类风湿关节炎的发病机制.方法应用半定量的逆转录多聚酶链反应(RT-PCR)分析类风湿关节炎、骨关节炎、截肢病人滑膜和外周血中T细胞受体Vβ基因(TCR Vβ1-TCR Vβ24)的使用情况,经基因扫描分析确定其表达水平.结果类风湿关节炎、骨关节炎及截肢病人的滑膜组织与外周血表达绝大多数的Vβ基因;类风湿关节炎病人滑膜组织中Vβ基因的使用呈现更明显的不均衡状态;Vβ6、 Vβ17与Vβ22为优势亚群.其中以Vβ17增高最为显著.结论类风湿关节炎病人滑膜组织中Vβ基因的表达无限制性,但是存在明显的不均衡性.某些特定Vβ基因的选择性扩增支持类风湿关节炎为抗原或超抗原驱动的免疫过程.%Objectives To explore the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by studying the expression of T cell receptors (TCRs).Methods T cell receptor Vβ (TCR Vβ) gene usage and expression were analyzed from synovial membrane and peripheral blood of 8 RA patients, 2 osteoarthritis patients and 2 accident amputees. The complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of 25 TCR Vβ subfamily genes in unselected T cell populations were amplified semi-quantitatively by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The products were further studied by genescan for frequency of Vβ usage.Results The numbers of Vβ subfamilies expressed by T cells from RA peripheral blood and synovial membrane were not significantly restricted. More importantly, biased Vβ gene expression in RA synovium was observed and Vβ6, Vβ17, and Vβ22 genes were the predominant subfamilies. It was noteworthy that the expression of Vβ17 in RA synovium was significantly increased. Conclusion Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that several antigen or superantigen-driven processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA.

  10. GeneEd -- A Genetics Educational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Science ... The Hereditary Material of Life / GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource / Using The Genetics Home Reference Website / Understanding the ...

  11. Increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis: Reactivity, cytotoxicity, and T cell receptor V gene rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinissen, P.; Vandevyver, C.; Medaer, R. [Dr. L. Willems Institute, Diepenbeek (Belgium)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Infiltrating {gamma}{delta} T cells are potentially involved in the central nervous system demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). To further study this hypothesis, we analyzed the frequency and functional properties of {gamma}{delta} T cells in peripheral blood (PB) and paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS and control subjects, including patients with other neurologic diseases (OND) and healthy individuals. The frequency analysis was performed under limiting dilution condition using rIL-2 and PHA. After PHA stimulation, a significantly increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells was observed in PB and in CSF of MS patients as compared with PB and CSF of patients with OND. The frequency was represented equally in OND patients and normal individuals. Similarly, the IL-2-responsive {gamma}{delta} T cells occurred at a higher frequency in PB of MS than of control subjects. Forty-three percent of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones isolates from PB and CSF of MS patients responded to heat shock protein (HSP70) but not HSP65, whereas only 2 of 30 control {gamma}{delta} T cell clones reacted to the HSP. The majority of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones were able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytolysis of Daudi cells. All clones displayed a substantial reactivity to bacterial superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, irrespective of their {gamma}{delta} V gene usage. Furthermore, the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones expressed predominantly TCRDV2 and GV2 genes, whereas the clones derived from CSF of MS patients expressed either DV1 or DV2 genes. The obtained {gamma}{delta} clones, in general, represented rather heterogeneous clonal origins, even though a predominant clonal origin was found in a set of 10 {gamma}{delta} clones derived from one patient with MS. The present study provides new evidence supporting a possible role of {gamma}{delta} T cells in the secondary inflammatory processes in MS. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. 济阳坳陷惠民凹陷临盘地区始新统孔店组一段——沙河街组四段红层划分和对比%The Redbeds Division and Correlation of the 1st Member, Kongdian Formation-4th Member, Shahejie Formation, Eocene, in the Linpan Area, Huimin Sag, Jiyang Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 操应长; 王艳忠; 刘惠民

    2012-01-01

    Because of the characteristics of transience, widespread presence, periodicity and isochronisms, flood deposition that under the control of climate can be used as a key bed in stratigraphic division and correlation. By identifying event deposit and normal deposit under different scale periods and combining the theory of base-level cycle, the writers classified the 1st Member, Kongdian Formation-the lower part of 4th Member, Shahejie Formation, Eocene, in the Linpan area, Huimin Sag in Jiyang Depression, Northern Shandong, into three order cycle sequences; short-term, medium-term and long-term base level cycle sequences. Short-term base level cycle was characterized by combination of different types of sedimentary micro-facies which formed in the course of flood period and inter-flood period; medium-term cycle was characterized by an integral deposit that consist of flood deposit and inter-flood deposit; long-term cycle