WorldWideScience

Sample records for super-tight blood sugar

  1. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) ...

  2. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  3. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  4. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  6. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  7. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  8. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  9. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  10. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  11. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  12. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  13. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. If you like to keep track of your results on a computer or you email your doctor or diabetes health care team your blood sugar readings regularly, a glucose meter that syncs with ...

  14. Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — And how to control ... factors. By Mayo Clinic Staff Keeping your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your doctor ...

  15. Low Blood Sugar in Newborns Tied to Brain Problems Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167671.html Low Blood Sugar in Newborns Tied to Brain Problems Later These ... TUESDAY, Aug. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low blood sugar affects about one in six newborns, and new ...

  16. For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar New product much easier to use than rescue ... News) -- For many people with diabetes, low blood sugar levels are a serious health risk, but researchers ...

  17. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  18. Pharmacist's Intervention in the Control of Blood Sugar Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass ... with intervention by the pharmacists through counselling on lifestyle modification, ... to these patients and hence reduce mortality resulting from the disease.

  19. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  20. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you feel good and keeps you healthy. Most kids with diabetes check their blood sugar levels before breakfast, before ... Diabetes When You're Sick Meal Plans: What Kids With Diabetes Need to Know Diabetes Control: Why It's Important ...

  1. CASE REPORT OF NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME WITH RISING BLOOD SUGAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-xing; LV Qiu-lin; WANG Zu-cheng; HUANG Ji-zhong; XU He-ding; WEN Hui; CHEN Jun; QIAO Song; NI Xiao-dong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To report one case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with raising blood sugar. Methods The patient was studied clinically with biochemistry, white blood cells, psychiatric symptoms,and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) observations. Results The male patient with a history of taking antipsychotics more 30 years and his age of onset was about 20 years. He had severe muscular rigidity, altered consciousness and autonomic disturbance associated with elevation of serum CPK levels ( max 3755 U/L) and leucocytosis ( max 13.3 × 109/L ) , especially granular leukocytosis( max 90% ) and lymphocytopenia (min 8% ). In addition, high blood sugar emerged along with the variation of white blood cells ( max 9. 0 mmol/L). Conclusion The manifestations of the patient was in conformity with those of the NMS. The patient had catatonic signs such as mutism,drinking difficulty, etc. and excess of saliva. Developmental observation with CPK and white blood cells is able to reveal the severity level of NMS. Raising blood sugar should be also monitoring item.

  2. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  3. High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163211.html High-Tech Blood Sugar Monitors May Help People With Type 1 Diabetes ... need insulin shots every day manage their blood sugar levels safely, two new studies suggest. Also known ...

  4. Regulative Function of Low Molecular Chitosan on Blood Sugar in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Bing YANG; Yong WU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Chitosan has good action on reducing blood sugar with low poisonous side-effect. Low molecular chitosan(LMC) is the oxide of high molecular chitosan, which has water-solubility and the function of lowering blood sugar of diabetic rats. In this experiment, STZ was adopted to duplicate the model rats of Type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus, the regulative function of LMC on Type Ⅱ diabetic blood sugar was observed for further inquiry into its functionary mechanism.

  5. Effect of Xiaoke Granule(消渴冲剂)on Blood Sugar and Blood Rheological Property in Experimental Diabetic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓梅; 刘根尚; 齐昉; 郑虎占; 佘靖; 龚慕辛; 孙军; 章红英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacological effect of Xiaoke Granule (XKG, 消渴冲剂) on blood sugar and blood rheological property in the diabetic animals.Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic mice or rats were grouped randomly. The effects of XKG on blood sugar, appetite, capacity of drinking, glucose tolerance, blood lipid and blood rheological property were observed and compared among groups.Results:XKG showed a trend in reducing the appetite and capacity of drinking, increasing the body weight, and significantly inhibiting the increase of blood sugar coused by ectogenic glucose in mice, and could improve the blood lipid and blood rheological property in rats.Conclusion:XKG is effective in reducing serum total cholesterol, lowering the blood viscosity, improving the blood rheological property of alloxan induced diabetic animals. Therefore, it might effective in treating and preventing the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the complications of blood stasis.

  6. Blood sugar control in the intensive care unit: time to relook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood sugar control in the intensive care unit: time to relook. ... No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and without an increase in hospital cost, and thus change existing blood sugar control protocols in the ICU?

  7. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF AGE, BREED AND SEX ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OF DISEASED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the dogs with moderate to serious illness coming for treatment at the Dog Ward of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, India, to find out possible correlation between fasting blood sugar level with breed, sex and age of dogs. The study result implicated that the blood sugar level was not having any general tendency to increase with advancement of age of ailing dogs. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs was higher in small breeds of dogs, particularly in 0 to <4 year age group. The large breeds showed highest level of sugar in blood in disease condition at above the age 12 years or more. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs had a gender bias, as it was found more in females than males in all breeds and age groups.

  8. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P intake

  9. Doctor Reports New Way to Measure Blood Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林徽英

    2000-01-01

    对“糖尿病”及其危害,本文有一简略说明: Diabetes occurs when blood sugar,or glucose,a source of body fuel,is toohigh and the body is not able to burn it.The disease can lead to blindness,organdiseases,stroke and death. 句中的一个动词burn令我们过目难忘。此外,此疾引起的后果也令人生畏:blindness,organ diseases,stroke and death. 要测得患者的血糖含量,就得验血,就得像本文所讲的那样“pricking(刺;戳)the skin and drawing a tiny amount of blood”。 美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学的研究人员研制了a hand—held ultrasound(超声波)machine,验血者可免受皮肉之苦,而又可测量到准确的血糖含量。 文章末尾有一条信息:美国人中糖尿病患者约占总人口的6%。

  10. Regulative Function of Low Molecular Chitosan on Blood Sugar in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionChitosan has good action on reducing blood sugar with low poisonous side-effect. Low molecular chitosan(LMC) is the oxide of high molecular chitosan, which has water-solubility and the function of lowering blood sugar of diabetic rats.In this experiment, STZ was adopted to duplicate the model rats of Type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus, the regulative function of LMC on Type Ⅱ diabetic blood sugar was observed for further inquiry into its functionary mechanism.2 Materials and Methods2.1 Animals Normal ma...

  11. A Spoonful of Bran Helps the Blood Sugar Go Down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne; Rostler; 许宫献

    2000-01-01

    国人在形容生活的贫困时,曾经有一句流行语:糠莱半年粮。糠者,从稻、 麦等谷物上脱下的皮、壳也。国人还有“糠包”一说,其含义是“草包,没有本领的人”。糠(bran),在人们心目中的地位,由此可见一斑。然而,本文却有意要为“糠”平反。当今世界,糖尿病已经成为一种时疫(epidemic)。此消息便格外引人注目。昔有An apple a day keeps the doctor away之民谚,今有A spoonful of brana day keeps the diabetes away之新说! 食不厌精的国人应该从本文的一些观点中获取教益。如: Refined grains result in more than double the amount of sugar in the blood andcause more insulin(胰岛素)to be secreted(分泌)than whole grain products.What’s more,whole grains contain vitamins and nutrients that may be importantin modifying the risk of the disease. 句中出现了两次的whole grain是相对refined grains而言的。上句是否可译为: 精加工的谷物和粗加工的谷物相比,前者导致血糖增加一倍以上,并会导致更多的胰岛素分泌。另外,粗加工的谷物含有降低此种疾病的风险的维生素和营养物。

  12. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar is often too high or too low. Work with your health care team and decide what changes you need to make to reach your blood sugar goals.
 Download a copy of the NDEP’s Managing and Monitoring Diabetes to learn more about managing ...

  13. Standing or 'Easy' Walks May Help Type 2 Diabetics Control Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time with indoor cycling. The sit less and exercise programs were designed to burn similar amounts of energy, the researchers said. Significant improvements in blood sugar control occurred when the patients did the sit less program or the exercise ...

  14. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  15. Relationship between reported carbohydrate intake and fasting blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Elevated fasting blood glucose ranges from normal glucose tolerance (under 100 mg/dL) to impaired glucose tolerance (100-125 mg/dL) to diabetes mellitus (above 126 mg/dL). Dietary intake may have a direct influence on glucose metabolism. Objective: We hypothesized that dietary carbohydra...

  16. Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... return to normal levels of both lactate and blood glucose may be better predictors of mortality and .... score at admission was 7.455 (standard deviation = 0.83, 44). It .... for risk stratification[11] but does not reflect the adequacy.

  17. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  18. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  19. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  20. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children

  1. The effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Handajani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is a condition when blood sugar level is higher than normal. Hyperglycemia is also one of diabetes mellitus (DM symptoms. Hyperglycemia has a correlation with the occurrence of periodontal disease. Curcuma zedoaria oil is known to decrease concentration of serum glucose. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis in rats. Method: This study used twenty-five male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, fifteen rats were divided into three subgroups (each of which was induced with 10 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml and 50 μl/ml of Curcuma zedoaria oil. The control group was consisted often rats, divided into two subgroups, as the positive control group (induced with 10 mg/kg of Glibenclamide and the negative control group (induced with propylene glycol. Streptozotocin (STZ (Naclai tesque, Kyoto Japan with a dose of 40 mg/kg was used to create hyperglycemia condition in those rats. Gingivitis was then made by using silk ligature in those hyperglycemia rats. Silk ligature was twisted at the margin of gingiva anterior mandibular incisors for seven days. After the rats had gingivitis, Curcuma zedoaria oil, glibenclamide and propylene glycol were orally administered for seven days. Their gingivitis condition was observed, and their blood sugar level was measured before and after the induction of STZ and during the treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by using Manova. Result: There were significant differences of blood sugar levels between the treatment group before and after the administration of Curcuma zedoaria oil and the positive control group (p<0.05. Healthy gingiva was then found in the treatment group and the positive control group. Conclusion: Curcuma zedoaria oil can decrease blood sugar level and gingivitis.

  2. Effects of Soybean Fibers on Blood Sugar, Lipid Levels and Hepatic_Nephritic Histomorphology in Mice With Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of soybean fibers on blood sugar, blood_lipid metabolism, and histomorphology in mice models with diabetes mellitus (DM). Method After normal mice and mice with Streptozocin (STZ)_induced DM were fed with forage containing a certain amount of soybean fiber (SF) for 5 weeks, blood sugar and blood lipid were determined, and morphological changes of hepatic and nephritic tissues were observated. Result The results of 5_week experiment had shown: 1. In normal mice fed with SF, the blood sugar level was decreased (P<0.05). There were no obvious changes in serum total cholesterol (TC) and the triglyceride (TG). The high_density_lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL_C) level was increased significantly (P<0.05); 2. Among DM mice, blood sugar was decreased considerably (P<0.001), TC and TG also decreased noticeably (P<0.05), HDL_C increased clearly (P<0.05); 3. SF has a protective role to the liver and kidney of DM mice. Conclusion It is suggested that SF has the function of decreasing blood sugar, blood_lipid and improving their metabolism, and of protecting liver and kidney of DM mice.

  3. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, A; Verma, S K; Srivastava, K C

    1997-05-01

    In a placebo-controlled study the effect of ginger and fenugreek was examined on blood lipids, blood sugar, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity. The subjects included in this study were healthy individuals, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who either had CAD or were without CAD. In patients with CAD powdered ginger administered in a dose of 4 g daily for 3 months did not affect ADP- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Also, no change in the fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen level was observed. However, a single dose of 10 g powdered ginger administered to CAD patients produced a significant reduction in platelet aggregation induced by the two agonists. Ginger did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar. Fenugreek given in a dose of 2.5 g twice daily for 3 months to healthy individuals did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). However, administered in the same daily dose for the same duration to CAD patients also with NIDDM, fenugreek decreased significantly the blood lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) without affecting the HDL-c. When administered in the same daily dose to NIDDM (non-CAD) patients (mild cases), fenugreek reduced significantly the blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). In severe NIDDM cases, blood sugar (both fasting and post prandial) was only slightly reduced. The changes were not significant. Fenugreek administration did not affect platelet aggregation, fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen.

  4. 关注你的血糖%Watching Your Blood Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂梅

    2003-01-01

    @@ Some 16 million Americans have diabetes mellitus, a serious,chronic disease that impairs the body' s ability to convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy. 1 Persons with diabetes cannot either produce or respond to insulin, a hormone instrumental in glucose metabolism. 2 Because all human body tissues3must have a steady supply of glucose, diabetes can affect every organ.In particular, it can lead to heart disease, kidney failure, 4 blindness and nerve problems. Diabetes is the leading cause of amputations5 in the U. S. and the fourth leading cause of death, both of which can often be prevented by early, effective treatment.

  5. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-12-01

    Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.

  6. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  7. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of 0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  8. A Study on Anthropometric Measurements, Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar and Food Intakes Among Different Social Status and Ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome is a disorder that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate some risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and food intakes among people who lived in Ahvaz City, Iran. Methods It was a filed study that was conducted on 211 subjects who participated in health exhibition. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity were asked by a general questionnaire. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC and WC to hip circumference ratio (WHR were obtained. Blood sugar was measured by a glucometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed by a brief instrument. Results There was a significant difference in weight, height, WC, WHR and systolic blood pressure among different jobs. Workers had more intakes of cake and sweets. Arab subjects had more intakes of bread and fishes and Persians more intakes of vegetables. Soda, chocolate and candy were more consumed by Kurd ethnicity. Conclusions Job may be accounted as an important effective socioeconomic factor related to metabolic syndrome risk factors; also different cultures due to different ethnicities may have an influence on lifestyle and dietary intakes.

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Fasting Blood Sugar, Triglyceride, and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Azizi Soleiman; Shima Jazayeri; Shahriyar Eghtesadi; Mohammadreza Vafa; Mahmoodreza Gohari; Amirkamran Nikoosokhan; Assadolah Rajab; Iraj Heidari; Naseh Pahlavani

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that consumption of fish oil results in reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk factor such as triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic patients. It is not clear which component of fish oil(EPA or DHA) is more important. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study designed as a tripl...

  10. Open Photoacoustic Cell for Blood Sugar Measurement: Numerical Calculation of Frequency Response

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Teschner, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose concentration in human epidermis has been suggested recently. This method is based on photoacoustic (PA) analysis of human interstitial fluid. The measurement can be performed in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the blood sugar level for diabetes patients. It requires a windowless PA cell with an additional opening that is pressed onto the human skin. Since signals are weak, advantage is taken of acoustic resonances of the cell. Recently, a numerical approach based on the Finite Element (FE) Method has been successfully used for the calculation of the frequency response function of closed PA cells. This method has now been adapted to obtain the frequency response of the open cell. Despite the fact that loss due to sound radiation at the opening is not included, fairly good accordance with measurement is achieved.

  11. Diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navicharern, Rungrawee

    2012-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a negative impact on quality of life and diabetes self-management of the condition is a key component of diabetes treatment. However no study has yet been conducted to determine the relationship between diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers in Thailand. To examine the relationship between diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life (QOL) among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers who received the diabetes treatment in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study of 80 participants with type 2 diabetes who had foot ulcers in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Participants with diabetic foot ulcers were given a questionnaire regarding demographic data, fasting blood sugar, diabetes self-management and quality of life. Self-management was assessed by evaluating dietary intake, exercise, medication, self-monitoring, hygienic and foot care. WHOQOL-BREF-THAI, comprising of 26 items, was used to investigate quality of life. A purposive sampling technique was used for selecting patients from two outpatient departments, surgical and rehabilitation. Data were collected between September 2009 and October 2010. Simple descriptive statistics were used to provide the basic information and Pearson's product moment was applied. The majority (51.3%) of study participants were males and in the age group of > 60 years (50%). Over half (61.5%) of the participants had a severity of foot ulcer at the first level. The analysis revealed that there was a negative significant association between fasting blood sugar and quality of life (r = -0.30, p sugar control in type 2 diabetes patients with foot ulcers. Therefore, these patients should be encouraged to perform self-management for controlling their blood sugar and improving their quality of life.

  12. The Comparison of Eucalyptus Aqueous Extract and Insulin on Blood Sugar and Liver Enzymes in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahraki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since eucalyptus is a traditional plant which has been consumed as antidiabetic in herbal medicines, the aim of this survey was to compare the effect of eucalyptus aqueous extract and insulin on serum blood sugar and liver enzymes in streptozotocin (STZ diabetic male rats. Material & Methods: The experiment was performed on four groups of rats: sham control (A, diabetic control (B, diabetic (C which received insulin and diabetic group (D which consumed Eucalyptus aqueous extract in drinking water for 4 weeks (n=8. Sham control and B group did not receive any agents. At the end, animals were deep anesthetized by diethyl ether, sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Blood sugar, serum lipids and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical difference of p<0.05 was recognized significant. Results: Results showed that blood sugar in group C significantly decreased compared with that of group B but ALT, AST and ALP activity value significantly increased compared with those of other groups. Conclusion: These results indicated that Eucalyptus aqueous extract caused decreased blood sugar but increased liver enzymes activity in STZ diabetic male rats

  13. Effects of hazelnuts consumption on fasting blood sugar and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Darvish Damavandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that nuts consumption have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic or normolipidemic subjects. However, similar studies in diabetes field are quite rare. So, we aimed to investigate the effects of hazelnut consumption on fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 Diabetes. Materials and Methods: An 8-week controlled randomized parallel study in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty eligible volunteers were assigned to either the control or intervention groups. 10% of total daily calorie intake was replaced with hazelnuts in intervention group. Blood samples were collected from fasting patients at the start and at the end of the study. Results: After 8 weeks, there were significant differences in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations between two groups, using analyses of covariance ( P = 0.009, which was due to the larger HDL-C reduction in control group ( P = 0.003. Although, Hazelnut group achieved greater reduction in triglyceride (TG concentrations than control group, these changes were not statistically significant. Neither between-group changes nor within-group changes were significant for FBS, total cholesterol (TC, TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that incorporation of hazelnuts into diet can prevent reduction of HDL-C concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes, but had no effect on FBS or other lipid profile indices.

  14. UPASHAYATMAKA EFFECT OF RASON (ALLIUM SATIVAM LINN. IN MADHUMEHA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Satyendrakumar R. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Upshayatmaka effect of Rason on Madhumeha was seen by taking two groups; Study group (Group A and Control group (Group B each having 20 patients. Group A patients were given Rason Capsule (500 mg BD along with previously prescribed Antidiabetic drug (Metformin 500 mg BD whereas Group B patients were given only Antidiabetic drug till one month orally and follow up were taken after every 10th day. The result has been drawn by statistical analysis and it has been found that in study group the fasting Blood Sugar Level (BSL was lowered by 32.35% as compared to control group 17.64% and Post Prandial BSL was lowered by 26.41% as compared to control group 12.50% and out of Six, 3 symptoms Bahumutrata, Trushna and Hasta-pada-tala Daha shows Uttam Upashay whereas 3 symptoms Alasya, Atinidra and Mukha madhurya shows Madhyam Upashay. No Adverse effect of Rason was noted in this study.

  15. [Influence of vasoactive substances on blood sugar and serum insulin in normal and diabetic carbohydrate metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, H; Schirop, T; Fichte, K

    1977-01-21

    The effect of the following vasoactive substances, which are used in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases, was investigated in a randomized study in 36 patients with normal and 52 patients with diabetic carbohydrate metabolism by intravenous infusion on the behaviour of blood sugar and serum insulin (IMI) during simultaneous oral glucose tolerance tests (100 g oligosaccharides). The substances used and the doses given were as follows: protein-free calf-blood extract (Actihaemyl, 0,5 ml per kg body weight), bencyclane (Fludilat, 200 mg), naftidrofuryl (Dusodril, 200 mg, pentoxifyllin (Trenal, 200 mg). The results obtained with the simultaneous treatment and oral glucose tolerance test were compared with a second OGTT carried out at an interval of 3-4 days under the same conditions but without administration of the substances (in a cross-over procedure) and the results of these experiments were compared with those obtained from an untreated control group. In subjects with a diabetic metabolic state, Actihaemyl led to a significant reduction of the blood sugar after oral glucose load (p less than 0,05) without producing any change in serum insulin. The same behaviour was exhibited by Fludilat for the total area integral and by Trental for the first 60 min after the oral glucose load. The change in the blood sugar behaviour was only significantly different from the untreated controls with Actihaemyl (p less than 0,05). In subjects with a normal metabolic state neither blood sugar nor serum insulin (IMI) were altered by any of the substances investigated.

  16. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  17. [原著]Suppressive Effect of Kuroawabitake on Blood Sugar in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    SHINJO, Sumie; Wang, Yuei-Hui; Asato, Liu; Uezu, Kayoko; Miyagi, Hisashige; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus Nishihara, Okinawa; Okinawa Developing Center for Functional Food, Naha, Okinawa

    1992-01-01

    Kuroawabitake(Pleurotus abalonus) is a kind of mushroom, originally found in Taiwan and Okinawa It is currently considered as a dietary supplement if any favorable effects, for instance, lowering effect of blood sugar, could be observed, since some mushrooms have such effects. Five percent of kuroawabitake was mixed in a diet. Cellulose powder was used as a reference diet in place of kuroawabitake. These diets were given to diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin in order to measure which die...

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Fasting Blood Sugar, Triglyceride, and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Azizi Soleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that consumption of fish oil results in reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk factor such as triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic patients. It is not clear which component of fish oil(EPA or DHA is more important. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study designed as a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 60 diabetic men and women, aged 30-65 years, were randomly assigned to consume 1g/d EPA, DHA, and canola oil for 12 week. Fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and blood pressure were measured before and after the study. Results were analyzed through repeated measure test. Results:. After 12 weeks of intervention, 23 women and 22 men with a mean ± SD age of 54.9± 8.2 completed the study. In comparison with the changes from baseline, FBS and triglyceride levels didn't differ between groups (P>0.05. SBP and DBP reduced in three groups (P= 0.0015 and P= 0.000 respectively but they didn't differ between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Consumption of 1g/d EPA or DHA doesn't have any effect on FBS, triglyceride, SBP and DBP. This study is the first one which has compared fish oil components effects in diabetic patients.

  19. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Effect of Honey Vinegar Syrup on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25709798

  1. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females. PMID:24409428

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  3. Alternate Immersion in an External Glucose Solution Differentially Affects Blood Sugar Values in Older Versus Younger Zebrafish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Victoria P; Baker, Cassandra; Fonde, Lauren; Gerardi, Emily; Slack, Carly

    2016-04-01

    Recently, zebrafish have been used to examine hyperglycemia-induced complications (retinopathy and neuropathy), as would occur in individuals with diabetes. Current models to induce hyperglycemia in zebrafish include glucose immersion and streptozotocin injections. Both are effective, although neither is reported to elevate blood sugar values for more than 1 month. In this article, we report differences in hyperglycemia induction and maintenance in young (4-11 months) versus old (1-3 years) zebrafish adults. In particular, older fish immersed in an alternating constant external glucose solution (2%) for 2 months displayed elevated blood glucose levels for the entire experimental duration. In contrast, younger adults displayed only transient hyperglycemia, suggesting the fish were acclimating to the glucose exposure protocol. However, modifying the immersion protocol to include a stepwise increasing glucose concentration (from 1% → 2%→3%) resulted in maintained hyperglycemia in younger zebrafish adults for up to 2 months. Glucose-exposed younger fish collected after 8 weeks of exposure also displayed a significant decrease in wet weight. Taken together, these data suggest different susceptibilities to hyperglycemia in older and younger fish and that stepwise increasing glucose concentrations of 1% are required for maintenance of hyperglycemia in younger adults, with higher concentrations of glucose resulting in greater increases in blood sugar values.

  4. Lacto-Vegetarian Diet and Correlation of Fasting Blood Sugar with Lipids in Population Practicing Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ardhendu Bhusan; Goenka, Ramesh Kumar; Dixit, Sujata; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2017-09-11

    Rising burden of diabetes in India requires quick intervention that integrates policies and programs for effective prevention and control of disease. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to observe effect of diet in two Indian communities practicing sedentary lifestyle. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood sugar, glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1C), and lipid profile. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements were recorded. Diabetes incidence was lower in lacto-vegetarian (1.7%) than in non-vegetarian group (5.3%) despite similar lipid profiles and BMI/WC between the groups. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) was positively correlated with LDL and VLDL levels and negatively correlated with HDL, only in lacto-vegetarian group. Study suggests: (1) Indian lacto-vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on diabetes incidence irrespective of high body weight and sedentary lifestyle; (2) intervention to reduce body lipids, such as lipid-lowering drugs and exercise, may have greater effect in reducing FBS levels in this lacto-vegetarian group.

  5. [The relationship between rhGH and blood sugar on different ages of severe degree burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiong; Xia, Shi-chun; Xie, Bing; Tang, Zhi-jian; Su, Guo-liang; Shi, Jian-wu; Lu, Xue-mian

    2009-08-01

    Probe the effects of rhGH on severe degree burned patients' blood sugar in different age of years. Elected 210 patients hospitalized in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College from January 2005 to December 2008, who were burned in 48 h, older than 18 years, ever had no diabetes and tumor history and placidly pull through shock stage. Among the patients there were 132 males and 78 females. The age was from 18 to 65 years old, average (40.7 +/- 7.2) years old. The extent of burn were form TBSA 25% to TBSA 86%, average TBSA (40.4 +/- 12.5)%. The depths of burn were from superficial second degree to third degree. All of the total divided into A (18 - 44 years old) and B (> 45 years old)groups. Each group had 105 patients. Two groups were randomly divided into A(1), A(2), A(0) and B(1), B(2), B(0) groups. Each group had 35 patients. The A(1) and B(1) groups were used 0.15 U/(kg.d) growth hormone (Somatropin, S19990021), A(2) and B(2) groups were used 0.2 U/(kg.d) growth hormone, A(0) and B(0) groups were used NS as control. Observed and analyzed the change of blood sugar and insulin amount used in 210 patients. Of all the patients in 6 groups, there were 190 patients finished the experimentation in four weeks. The insulin amount of A(1), A(2), A(0) groups used were (2123.3 +/- 152.3), (2885.6 +/- 148.5), (724.1 +/- 31.1) U, B(1), B(2), B(0) group were (2715.1 +/- 95.3), (3652.2 +/- 198.1), (801.8 +/- 22.2) U. The consequence showed that the number need insulin to control blood sugar in B group was more than A group, as well as using 0.2 U/(kg.d) does to 0.15 U/(kg.d) does, and using growth hormone to no using(P 0.05). The blood sugar's alteration has positive correlation with the age of years and the does of rhGH. As long as normative using rhGH it doesn't induce diabetes.

  6. Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vanessa; Jayalath, Viranda H; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; de Souza, Russell J; Sievenpiper, John L

    2013-08-01

    Excessive fructose intake from high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sucrose has been implicated as a driving force behind the increasing prevalence of obesity and its downstream cardiometabolic complications including hypertension, gout, dyslidpidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most of the evidence to support these relationships draws heavily on ecological studies, animal models, and select human trials of fructose overfeeding. There are a number of biological mechanisms derived from animal models to explain these relationships, including increases in de novo lipogenesis and uric acid-mediated hypertension. Differences between animal and human physiology, along with the supraphysiologic level at which fructose is fed in these models, limit their translation to humans. Although higher level evidence from large prospective cohorts studies has shown significant positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), these associations do not hold true at moderate levels of intake or when modeling total sugars and are subject to collinearity effects from related dietary and lifestyle factors. The highest level of evidence from controlled feeding trials has shown a lack of cardiometabolic harm of fructose and SSBs under energy-matched conditions at moderate levels of intake. It is only when fructose-containing sugars or SSBs are consumed at high doses or supplement diets with excess energy that a consistent signal for harm is seen. The available evidence suggests that confounding by excess energy is an important consideration in assessing the role of fructose-containing sugars and SSBs in the epidemics of hypertension and other cardiometabolic diseases.

  7. The Effect Of Juice Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia Mangostana L. To Blood Sugar Levels And Histological Of Pancreatic Rats With The Induction Of Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Kurniawati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels as a result of insufficiency of insulin function. Xanton a bioactive compound in the mangosteen rind is convinced to possess antidiabetic effects. There for, in this study effect of juice mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L. on blood sugar levels, and histological features of pancreatic rats with the induction of streptozotocin was investigated. This research using experimental rats species of Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain male. Rats were divided into 3 groups, the first group was the control without any treatments, group II was sick rat group, and group III was therapy rat group treated with juice mangosteen rind (a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight by sonde for 2 consecutive weeks. Then,blood sugar levels of all rat groups were measured along with observation of their pancreatic histological. The results showed that the blood sugar level in therapy rat group (104.7 ± 10.9 mg/dL is not significantly different with that of rat control group (108.5 ± 19.5 mg/dL, revealing effectiveness of therapy. Conservely, blood sugar level remained high in sick rat group (163.8 ± 16.2 mg/dL. Juice mangosteen rind can improve conditions of the pancreatic histology rat with the induction of streptozotocin.

  8. 窒息新生儿225例血糖分析%Analysis of the blood sugar in asphyxial neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴起武

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨窒息新生儿血糖的变化.方法 对225例窒息新生儿和43例对照组新生儿进行血糖检测和分析.结果 窒息组和对照组血糖水平比较差异无统计学意义[(3.85±2.01)与(4.37±1.01),P>0.05],重度窒息组血糖水平和高血糖发生率均显著高于轻度窒息组(均P 0.05]. The quantity of blood sugar and the incidence rate of hyperglycosemia in seriously asphyxial group were more greater than slightly asphyxial group(P <0.01). The quantity of blood sugar in slighdy asphyxial group was less than the control group (P < 0.05). The quantiy of blood sugar in asphyxial premature infants was significantly less than asphyxial full-term infants(P < 0.05). Conclusions The blood sugar level in asphyxial neonates is relative to the degree of asphyxia and gestational age. The blood sugar in highly asphyxial neonates rise whereas in slightly as-phyxial neonates and asphyxial premature infants reduce.

  9. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and Other Sugar Nucleotides in the Blood Stages of Plasmodium falciparum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-l-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions. PMID:23615908

  10. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and other sugar nucleotides in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-06-07

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions.

  11. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  12. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  13. The Application and Significance of Timing Blood Sugar Monitoring in Blood Sugar Management of Critically Ill Patients in RICU.%定时血糖监测在RICU危重症患者血糖管理中的应用及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱贻芬

    2013-01-01

    RICU病房中危重症患者的血糖管理已经成为临床医务工作者的重点。本文通过对危重患者血糖的定时监测,总结出的血糖管理方法,临床护理人员在血糖管理中有着非常重要的作用。定期监测患者的血糖,纠正血糖异常将患者的血糖控制在理想的范围内能有效改善危重患者病情,对促进疾病恢复,减少并发症,降低病死率有着重要意义。%The blood sugar management of critically ill patients in RICU had become the emphasis of medical workers. Through the timing of blood sugar monitoring of the critically ill patients, we summed up the methods of blood sugar management, and found medical workers was very important role in the blood sugar management. It could effectively improve the critically ill patient's condition, promote the disease recovery, reducing complicate, drop the mortality by timing blood sugar monitoring and correcting the abnormality of blood sugar.

  14. [The normalisation of blood sugar using a non-miniaturised artifical pancreas. Application for 24 hours in 7 insulin-dependent diabetics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, G; Klein, J C; Tardieu, M C; Tchobroutsky, G

    1977-06-25

    Seven insulin-dependent diabetic were treated for 24 to 36 hours by intravenous injections of insulin adapted to variations in blood glucose using a fairly voluminous automatic regulation device. This artificial pancreas consists of a modified Technicon blood sugar apparatus which provides continuous estimation of blood glucose using non-haemolysed whole blood by a glucose oxidase method with an inertia time of 6 minutes, a table calculator and a newly developed interpretation and command electronic unit (GlucostatR). Normalisation of blood glucose was obtained for at least 24 hours, during and between meals, during a period following an oral glucose load and throughout the night.

  15. Glycoinsulins: dendritic sialyloligosaccharide-displaying insulins showing a prolonged blood-sugar-lowering activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Furuike, Tetsuya; Sadamoto, Reiko; Fujitani, Naoki; Nakahara, Taku; Niikura, Kenichi; Monde, Kenji; Kondo, Hirosato; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2004-11-03

    Mono-, di-, and trisialyloligosaccharides were introduced to mutant insulins through enzymatic reactions. Sugar chains were sialylated by alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (alpha2,6-SiaT) via an accessible glutamine residue at the N-terminus of the B-chain attached by transglutaminase (TGase). Sia2,6-di-LacNAc-Ins(B-F1Q) and Sia2,6-tri-LacNAc-Ins(B-F1Q), displaying two and three sialyl-N-acetyllactosamines, respectively, were administered to hyperglycemic mice. Both branched glycoinsulins showed prolonged glucose-lowering effects compared to native or lactose-carrying insulins, showing that sialic acid is important in obtaining a prolonged effect. Sia2,6-tri-LacNAc-Ins(B-F1Q), in particular, induced a significant delay in the recovery of glucose levels.

  16. Influence of some anticoagulants on dynamics of sugar concentration in the goats’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Zapryanova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the content in the goats’ blood (at the instant the sample was taken, and then after 3, 6 and 24 hours under influence of 4 anticoagulants (sodium fluoride, sodium citrate, heparin and complexon III were studied. Long term storage of the blood samples resulted in the glucose level decrease. It was mostly pronounced under the sodium citrate treatment.

  17. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected withTrypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect ofTrypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected withT. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected withT. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serialNo.GN:10023338). Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05) was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions:T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  18. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  19. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  20. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001. Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01. Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2. Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  1. The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein a-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (22 in ginger group and 19 in control group), received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in ginger group in comparison to baseline, as well as control group, while it increased the level of apolipoprotein A-I (pginger powder supplement can improves fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may have a role in alleviating the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  2. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  3. Dietary Interventions of High Blood Sugar Levels with Tumors Patients%肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 杨荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study dietary intervention ef ect of high blood sugar levels on the tumor patients. Methods 120 patients with tumor combined high blood sugar were was divided into the treatment group and the control group (n=60), both groups choose aspart 30 subcutaneous injection treatment, give low-glycemic load diet intervention treatment group at the same time, the control group was given conventional diet intervention. Results After the intervention, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose of two groups were significantly lower than before the intervention ( <0.05), and after the intervention treatment group at the same time of fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose significantly lower than the control group ( <0.05). The hypoglycemia of two groups during the intervention is no happen, and there is no obvious blood sugar related complications. Conclusion Tumor patients with high blood sugar level of diet intervention can ef ectively reduce the blood sugar, and can avoid the happening of hypoglycemia.%目的探讨肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预效果。方法肿瘤合并高血糖患者120例,分治疗组与对照组各60例,两组都选择诺和锐30皮下注射治疗,同时治疗组给予低糖饮食干预,对照组给予常规饮食干预。结果两组干预后空腹血糖与餐后2h血糖明显低于干预前(<0.05),同时干预后治疗组的空腹血糖与餐后2h血糖明显低于对照组(<0.05)。两组在干预期间都无出现低血糖情况,也无明显血糖相关并发症发生。结论肿瘤患者高血糖水平的饮食干预能有效降低血糖,且能避免低血糖的发生。

  4. A C-type lectin isolated from the skin of Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) binds a remarkably broad range of sugars and induces blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Dotsuta, Yuma; Ono, Ayaka; Suzuki, Masanari; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological role of skin lectins of the Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus). A skin extract was subjected to affinity chromatography using seven different sugars as ligands. Molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated elution of the same protein by each of the seven respective cognate ligands from sugar affinity columns. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA of this protein [designated as H. japonicus C-type-lectin (HjCL)] identified it as a novel fish subgroup VII C-type lectin evolutionarily related to snake venom lectins. HjCL was predicted to bind to mannose because of the presence of a Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) motif; however, haemagglutination inhibition assays and glycoconjugate microarray analysis demonstrated its binding to numerous structurally diverse sugars. Competitive sugar-binding assays using affinity chromatography indicated that HjCL bound multiple sugars via a common carbohydrate-recognition domain. The mRNA encoding HjCL was specifically detected in the skin, and immunohistochemical analysis detected its expression in uncharacterized large cells in the epidermis. HjCL agglutinated the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and promoted immediate clotting of shark blood, indicating that HjCL is involved in host defence on the skin surface especially when the shark is injured and bleeds.

  5. Short–Term Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Mobile Phone Jammers Decreases the Fasting Blood Sugar in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohi Shooli F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF above certain levels can affect human health through triggering some biological responses. According to WHO, short-term exposure to EMF at the levels present in the home/environment do not cause any apparent detrimental effects in healthy individuals. However, now, there is a debate on whether long-term exposure to low level EMF can evoke detrimental biological responses. Although based on the Communications Act of 1934, selling, advertising, using, or importing mobile jammers which block cell phone calls and text messages are illegal acts, in some countries these devices are being used for security purpose and for prevention of cheating during examinations. Methods: In this study 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The control group received no radiation. The sham exposure group was exposed to a switched-off jammer device. After fasting for 12 hours, the exposure group was exposed to EMFs at a distance of 50 cm from the jammer. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein after 24, 48 and72 hours and fasting blood sugar was measured by using a common blood glucose monitor (BIONIME GM110, Taiwan. The significance level was considered 5% and SPSS Ver. 21 was used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between blood sugar level in the control and exposure groups after 24, 48 and 72 hours of continuous irradiation (p values were <0.001, <0.001 and 0.002, respectively. No significant difference was found between the level of fasting blood sugar in control and sham groups. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone jammer can reduce blood sugar level in adult male rats. These findings, in contrast with our previous results, lead us to this conclusion that the use of these signal

  6. Nursing experience of the dynamic blood sugar monitoring%动态血糖监测的护理干预体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东霞

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: LeiLan dynamic glucose monitoring system (CGMS) monitor blood sugar with the changing rule in order to guide the doctor and provide evidence for reasonable and individualized treatment plan.Methods: Choosing 85 cases of diabetic patients apply to LeiLan dynamic blood sugar monitoring system in nursing intervention in October 2012 to July 2013 to our department in the hospital for monitoring blood sugar.Results: In addition to the needles out in 2 cases and the alarm make 6 times,the patients were successful y completed dynamic blood sugar monitoring, data consistent with il ness can be guided clinical treatment.Conclusion: The application and importance of dynamic blood sugar monitoring,we strengthen the application of dynamic nursing intervention in patients with blood glucose monitoring system, is to guarantee the smooth completion of dynamic glucose monitoring in patients with important factors, is to provide guarantee for clinicians better diagnosis and treatment of diseases.%目的:通过雷兰动态血糖监测(CGMS)系统监测血糖了解血糖变化规律,为指导医生制定合理化、个体化的治疗方案提供依据。方法:选择2012年10月至2013年7月来我科住院的85例糖尿病病人进行雷兰动态血糖监测系统监测血糖护理干预。结果:除针头脱出2例,报警6次外,患者均顺利完成动态血糖监测,数据与病情相符,能指导临床治疗;结论:动态血糖监测仪的应用及其重要,加强对应用动态血糖监测系统患者的护理干预,是保证患者顺利完成动态血糖监测的重要因素,为临床医生更好的诊治疾病提供保证。

  7. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P < .001), whereas the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose and after the intake of savory test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  8. EFFECTS OF ACUPUNCTURE ON THE HIGH HEMAGGLUTINATION STATE, BLOOD-SUGAR-RAISING HORMONE AND IMMUNOCYTE FACTOR LEVELS IN TYPE-Ⅱ DIABETES PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianfei; Ma Yalin; Cai Shaohua; Liang Haorong; Shen Jing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of acupuncture on high hemagglutination state, blood-sugar-raising hormone and immunocyte facto r levels In type-Ⅱ diabetes patients. Methods: A total of 120 inpatients and outpatients were randomly divided into acupuncture plus medication group (n = 52) and medication group (n= 50). In addition, 18 type-Ⅱ diabetes patients formed acupuncture group for comparing their therapeutic effects. Main acupoints used were Pishu (BL 20), Geshu (BL 17), Yishu, Shenshu (BL 23), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc.. combined with other acupoints according to different sydroms. These acupoints were stimulated by manipulaing the filiform needles with uniform reinforcing and reducing method for 15 min and then stimulated electrically for 15 min with an electroacupuncture therapeutic apparatus. Western medicines used were Glipizide, Dimethyldiguanide Hydrochloride,etc.. The treatment was given once daily, with 10 sessions being a therapeutic course, 2~3 courses altogether. Indexes of external thrombosis length (ETL), platelet agglutination rate (PAgR), fibrinogen (FG), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), prothrombin time (PT), adrenocoticortropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CS), growth hormone (GH), glucagon (GL), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), insulin (INS) and C-peptide (C-P) were determined using radioimmunoassay. Results: After 2~ 3 courses of treatment, both acupuncture group and medication plus acupuncture group could significantly improve high hemagglutination state, lower blood-sugar-raising hormone level, regulate immunocyte factor level and raise the sensitivity of insulin, which were apparently superior to those of medication group (P<0.05~0.01 ). Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy can effectively regulate plasma blood-sugar-raising hormone, immunocyte factor levels, increase the sensitivity of insulin to target cells, resist blood coagulation and improve

  9. Effects of a diet high in salt, fat, and sugar on telemetric blood pressure measurements in conscious, unrestrained adult Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both).

  10. High blood sugar levels significantly impact the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients through down-regulation of microRNA-16 by targeting Myb and VEGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I-Ping; Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Huang, Ching-Wen; Lu, Chien-Yu; Miao, Zhi-Feng; Chang, Se-Fen; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2016-04-05

    The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in colorectal cancer patients is a crucial public health issue worldwide. The deregulation of microRNAs has been shown to be associated with the progression of CRC; however, the effects of high blood sugar levels on miR deregulation and, in turn, CRC remain unexplored. In this study, 520 CRC patients were classified into two groups according to their blood sugar levels (≧110 or <110 mg/dL). Clinicopathologic features, clinical outcomes, and serum miR-16 levels of the two groups were then analyzed, while cell cycles, cell proliferation, migration, and cellular miR-16 expression were investigated via D-(+)-glucose administration. Additionally, the target genes of miR-16 were identified. Through multivariate analysis, both the disease-free survival and overall survival of the CRC patients were found to be associated with the UICC stage, perineural invasion, and blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). Serum miR-16 levels were significantly lower in the high blood glucose patients than in the normal blood glucose patients (P = 0.0329). With D-(+)-glucose administration, the proliferation and migration of CRC cells in vitro increased remarkably (P < 0.05), while their accumulation in the G1 phase decreased significantly. Cellular miR-16 expression was suppressed by D-(+)-glucose administration. The expression levels of two target genes, Myb and VEGFR2, were affected significantly by miR-16, while glucose administration inhibited miR-16 expression and enhanced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Hyperglycemia can impact the clinical outcomes of CRC patients, likely by inhibiting miR-16 expression and the expression of its downstream genes Myb and VEGFR2.

  11. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks. You may also have heard them called "artificial sweeteners" or "non-caloric sweeteners." They can be used ... of nutrition for your body.What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA?The following sugar ...

  12. [Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youping; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Ke; Qian, Jingjing; Nie, Liuwang

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass, blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students. Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior. The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape, physical function and exercise capacity. The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects. The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE. Exercise with each time was 60 min, exercise frequency was 5 times perweek, energy metabolism was 500-600 kcal at a time. The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks. Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks, before and after the experiment in the males and females group. The weight, BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT%), waist and hip circumference ratio (WHR), body surface area (BS), fat indexes, the density of body for overweight and obesity the male and female students were significantly decreased (P exercise prescription was safe and sure, and could improve weight, BMI, FAT%, FM, WHR, BS, fat indexes, the density of body, blood sugar, plasma resistin in obesity without the diet control.

  13. Exploring the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi: comparative analysis of expression profiles of sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van-My

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sandflies, the blood meal is responsible for the induction of several physiologic processes that culminate in egg development and maturation. During blood feeding, infected sandflies are also able to transmit the parasite Leishmania to a suitable host. Many blood-induced molecules play significant roles during Leishmania development in the sandfly midgut, including parasite killing within the endoperitrophic space. In this work, we randomly sequenced transcripts from three distinct high quality full-length female Phlebotomus papatasi midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies. Furthermore, we compared the transcript expression profiles from the three different cDNA libraries by customized bioinformatics analysis and validated these findings by semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. Results Transcriptome analysis of 4010 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of the most abundant P. papatasi midgut-specific transcripts. The identified molecules included those with putative roles in digestion and peritrophic matrix formation, among others. Moreover, we identified sandfly midgut transcripts that are expressed only after a blood meal, such as microvilli associated-like protein (PpMVP1, PpMVP2 and PpMVP3, a peritrophin (PpPer1, trypsin 4 (PpTryp4, chymotrypsin PpChym2, and two unknown proteins. Of interest, many of these overabundant transcripts such as PpChym2, PpMVP1, PpMVP2, PpPer1 and PpPer2 were of lower abundance when the sandfly was given a blood meal in the presence of L. major. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides a comprehensive look at the repertoire of transcripts present in the midgut of the sandfly P. papatasi. Furthermore, the customized bioinformatic analysis allowed us to compare and identify the overall transcript abundance from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania-infected sandflies. The suggested upregulation of specific

  14. Differential gene expression in abdomens of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, after sugar feeding, blood feeding and Plasmodium berghei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romans Patricia A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale sequencing of cDNA libraries can provide profiles of genes expressed in an organism under defined biological and environmental circumstances. We have analyzed sequences of 4541 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from 3 different cDNA libraries created from abdomens from Plasmodium infection-susceptible adult female Anopheles gambiae. These libraries were made from sugar fed (S, rat blood fed (RB, and P. berghei-infected (IRB mosquitoes at 30 hours after the blood meal, when most parasites would be transforming ookinetes or very early oocysts. Results The S, RB and IRB libraries contained 1727, 1145 and 1669 high quality ESTs, respectively, averaging 455 nucleotides (nt in length. They assembled into 1975 consensus sequences – 567 contigs and 1408 singletons. Functional annotation was performed to annotate probable molecular functions of the gene products and the biological processes in which they function. Genes represented at high frequency in one or more of the libraries were subjected to digital Northern analysis and results on expression of 5 verified by qRT-PCR. Conclusion 13% of the 1965 ESTs showing identity to the A. gambiae genome sequence represent novel genes. These, together with untranslated regions (UTR present on many of the ESTs, will inform further genome annotation. We have identified 23 genes encoding products likely to be involved in regulating the cellular oxidative environment and 25 insect immunity genes. We also identified 25 genes as being up or down regulated following blood feeding and/or feeding with P. berghei infected blood relative to their expression levels in sugar fed females.

  15. 青少年肥胖相关指标探讨%Study of cholesterol, triacrlglycerol and blood sugar in overweighted youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玥; 何泳; 王永刚; 康熙雄

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨肥胖青少年与正常青少年在血脂,血糖方面的差异,为成年期疾病的早期预防提供依据.方法:根据筛查出来我院体检的年龄在12至15岁的363名肥胖学生和278名正常学生,对他们进行空腹血检测胆固醇,甘油三酯,血糖.结果:肥胖青少年与正常青少年在血脂,血糖方面的差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05),而且在肥胖青少年中不同性别之间甘油三酯的差别也具有统计学意义(P<0.05)男性水平高于女性水平.结论:肥胖青少年会出现血脂,血糖代谢水平异常,因此,加强肥胖儿童血脂的检测,及早采取综合干预措施,将会降低成年期心血管疾病、糖尿病的发病率和死亡率,提高生命质量.%Objective:This paper is to study the difference of cholesterol and triacrlglycerol among normal youth and overweighted youth, thus to provide evidence for prevention of adult diseases in early stage. Methods: According to the "BMI Screening Rules for Overweight and Obesity Students in China", we examine the fasting blood cholesterol, triacrlglycerol and blood sugar concentration in 363 overweight students and 278 normal students in ages of 12 thru 15 in our hospital. Results: Cholesterol, triacrlglycerol and blood sugar concentration of overweight students are statistically significantly differed with those of normal students, and overweight boy's triacrlglycerol is statistically significantly higher than overweight girls'. Conclusion: Abnormal cholesterol and triacrlglycerol level and blood sugar level can be examined in overweight youth. Thus by monitoring the cholesterol and triacrlglycerol level of overweight youth, proactive measures can be taken in early stage to reduce the morbidity and fatality of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult stage.

  16. The Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Protein and L-Carnitine on Blood Sugar and Lipids of the New GIFT Strain of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain of Nile tilapia is a popular cultivated fish in Asia, but intensive aquaculture using nutritionally imbalanced feed has led to disorder of lipid metabolisms. An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in order to assess the effects of different levels of L-carnitine (0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg and dietary protein (22, 25, and 28% on blood sugar and blood lipid contents of the new juvenile GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. Results showed that dietary protein and L-carnitine had significant influences on glucose (GLU, high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C in the blood serum. The contents of GLU and HDL-C increased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels, while the contents of TC, LDL-C, and TG decreased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels. The interactive effect of both dietary protein and L-carnitine was most significant on GLU (p = 0.0001, followed by TG (p = 0.001, TC (p = 0.005, HDL-C (p = 0.056, and LDL-C (p = 0.109. These results suggested that high levels of dietary protein and L-carnitine supplementation reduce blood lipids and the burden of the fish liver.

  17. Study on New Dosage Forms of Medicines with Reducing Blood Sugar%降糖药物新剂型开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺娅; 邬伟魁; 杨启悦; 张海燕; 郑琴; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    Literatures about new dosage forms of medicines with reducing blood sugar were analyzed. Diabetes and complications exert a serious threat on humans, dosage forms play a critical role in efficiency, while commonlj used medicines with reducing blood sugar have some shortages, so it is necessary to develop new dosage forms of medicines. This paper mainly reviewed common dosage forms ( tablet, granule, capsule, pills, aerosol, spray, powder inhalation and collunarium) ,new technology and new dosage forms (sustained-release and controlled-release, targeted and pulse-automatic regulated drug delivery system, transdermal drug delivery system and new intellectual drug) of treating diabetes, also discussed bioequivalence. In concluding, presentlythe medicines with reducing blood sugar showed some side effects after administration of long term. Therefore, development of safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine preparation which was combined with the theory of components compatibility and pharmaceutics, pharmacology and pharmaceutical chemistry may bring new hopes for curing diabetes.%对降糖药物新剂型开发研究进行文献整理和分析.主要对治疗糖尿病的常规剂型(片剂、颗粒剂、胶囊、滴丸、气雾剂、喷雾剂、粉雾剂、滴鼻剂)、新技术(缓控释给药系统、靶向给药系统、脉冲自动调控式给药系统、经皮给药的药物传输系统及新型“智能”降糖药)的文献报道进行介绍,并对其生物等效性问题进行了探讨.分析发现,目前国内外使用的降糖药的疗效仍不够理想,长期服用存在较大的毒副作用.结合中药组方配伍理论及药剂、药理、药化等多学科开发出安全有效的中药制剂,将为糖尿病临床防治带来新的希望.

  18. 血尿酸浓度与慢性心力衰竭患者的血糖血脂血压相关性研究%Analysis on the relationships between serum uric acid concentration and blood -sugar, blood -lipid, and blood- pressure in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships between serum uric acid(SUA) concentration and blood - sugar, blood lipid, and blood - pressure in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods Eighty -four patients suffering from chronic heart failure were used as the observation group and another 84 healthy people with normal heart function as the control group. The SUA, blood -pressure, fasting blood- glucose, blood- lipid including cholesterol, three acids glyceride, high -density lipo- protein, and low- density lipo- protein were determined in two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the patients with chronic heart failure have higher incidence in high SUA, high choles-terol, high blood - pressure, and abnormality in blood - sugar and blood - lipid. ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusions High SUA is relative to blood - sugar, blood - lipid, and blood - pressure in patients with chronic heart failure.%目的 探讨血尿酸浓度与慢性心力衰竭患者血糖、血脂、血压的关系.方法 选择84例慢性心力衰竭患者为观察组,另选84例心功能正常者为对照组,测定血尿酸、血压、空腹血糖、血脂,包括血浆总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白.结果 慢性心力衰竭组中高尿酸、高血压、血糖和血脂异常的发生率较高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高尿酸血症与慢性心力衰竭患者的血糖、血脂、血压水平密切相关.

  19. 高龄老年人脉压差、血脂、血糖关系分析%Analysis of the Correlation between Pulse Pressure,Blood Lipid,Blood Sugar in the Elderly People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翊; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Removed the age factor, to probe into the correlation between blood pressure,blood lipid,blood sugar and arteriosclerosis in the elderly people. Methods:Analyzed the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and Diabetes mellitus,Hypertension in 279 examination of the elderly. analyzed the changes of blood glucose,blood lipid at the different levels of Pulse Pressure. In order to know the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and blood glucose,blood lipid, blood pressure. Results:There was a correlation between arteriosclerosis and arterial compliance in the elderly people and hyperglycemia,the disorder of lipid metabolism and high systolic blood pressure. Conclusions:Strengthened the blood glucose management and the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, strengthened the control of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension, these measures had a positive effect on prevention and treatment of senile arteriosclerosis.%目的:探讨老年动脉硬化除去年龄因素以外与血压、血糖、血脂的关系。方法:体检的老年人279例,分析脉压、平均动脉压与糖尿病、高血压病的关系及不同脉压水平下血糖、血脂的变化,进一步了解脉压、平均动脉压与血糖、血脂、血压之间的关系。结果:高龄老年人动脉硬化、血管顺应性减低与血糖增高、血脂代谢紊乱、收缩压增高有关。结论:加强糖尿病患者的血糖管理及血脂紊乱的治疗、加强高血压病患者血压控制对老年动脉硬化的防治有积极作用。

  20. Response of growth hormone (GH), FFA, blood sugar and insulin to exercise in obese patients and normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Haar, D.J. ter; Riet, H.G. van; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1969-01-01

    Ergometer tests with a constant workload of 600 Kg./min. during 30 minutes were done on eight normal subjects, eight severely obese patients, and two women who had formerly been obese. Arterial blood was sampled three times before, four times during and three times after exercise. The incidence and

  1. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  2. Research Review on the Mechanism of Berberine in Reducing Blood Sugar of Type 2 Diabetes%黄连素降低2型糖尿病血糖机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐偲; 张嬿; 涂翔; 谢春光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨黄连素降低血糖的机制,为黄连素的研究提供参考.方法:搜集、整理、总结、归纳近年来关于黄连素降低2型糖尿病患者血糖机制的相关文献.结果:黄连素主要通过改善胰岛素抵抗、抑制糖异生、促进糖酵解、非胰岛素依赖途径的激活等途径降血糖.结论:黄连素降血糖作用具有多途径、多靶点的特性.%Objective:To review the mechanism of berberine in reducing blood sugar,and provide a reference for the study of berberine. Methods: Relevant literatures on the mechanism of berberine in reducing blood sugar of type 2 diabetes in recent years were collected, analyzed, summarized and concluded. Results:Berberine reduced the blood sugar mainly by improving insulin resistance,inhibiting glu-coneogenesis,increasing energy consumption and activating AMPK. Conclusion: Berberine has the characteristics of multi-channel and multi-target in the aspect of reducing blood sugar.

  3. Comparative evaluation of two different Opuntia ficus-indica extracts for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Veronika; Semlin, Lydia; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2011-03-01

    Stems of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) are traditionally used in Mexico to treat diabetes mellitus. Less research data are available for combinations of stem and fruit preparations. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the cladodes and a proprietary stem/fruit skin-blend (stem/fruit skin ratio 75/25) of OFI on blood glucose and plasma insulin in normal rats. A dose finding study with the traditional cladode OFI extract revealed that maximum effects on blood glucose and insulin were observed after oral administration in a dose range of 6-176 mg/kg. The proprietary OFI blend significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test to a similar extent (p < 0.05 vs control) as the traditional aqueous cladode extract when administered in a dose of 6 mg/kg. In contrast to the aqueous extract, the proprietary blend significantly increased basal plasma insulin levels (p < 0.01 vs control) indicating a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results suggest that both OFI extracts exert hypoglycemic activities in rats in doses as low as 6 mg/kg but that the effects of the proprietary stem/fruit blend were more pronounced in our model.

  4. T2DM 患者夜间低氧与血糖的关系及无创通气治疗对 OWD 患者昼夜血糖的影响%The relationship between nocturnal oxygen desaturation and blood sugar level and noninvasive ventilation therapy effect on the blood sugar level of OWD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠明; 陈龙; 石娟; 阿力旦毛达汗; 雷清生; 韩芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者夜间低氧与血糖的关系及无创通气治疗对2型糖尿病合并睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OWD)患者昼夜血糖的影响。方法对750例 T2DM 打鼾患者进行夜间脉搏-氧饱和度监测,根据夜间出现低氧情况分为夜间低氧组(484例)与无夜间低氧组(266例),对两组患者年龄、体质指数(BMI)、颈围、腹围、空腹血糖(FBG)进行分析,并对7例 OWD 患者进行睡眠监测、脉搏血氧监测及96 h 动态血糖监测(CGMS),呼吸机无创通气治疗48 h 前后,比较 OWD 患者昼夜血糖变化。结果夜间低氧组和夜间无低氧组 BMI 分别为(27.2±4.8)、(25.5±3.0)kg/m2,颈围分别为(36.7±3.8)、(35.7±3.0)cm,腰围分别为(94.3±11.5)、(89.1±11.1)cm,空腹血糖分别为(6.9±2.4)、(6.5±2.0)mol/L,组间差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。7例 OWD 患者无创通气治疗前后,昼夜动态动态血糖水平差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论T2DM 患者空腹血糖与夜间低氧相关,无创通气治疗可以降低 OWD 患者昼夜血糖水平。%Objective To study the relationship of nocturnal oxygen desaturation and blood sugar level,and the effects noninvasive ventilation(NIV)therapy on the blood sugar level of OWD.Methods 750 snoring patients were received the nocturnal oxygen desaturation test.According the test results,the 750 patients were divided into:the normal and the low nocturnal oxygen desaturation group,to compare the BMI,neck circumference,abdominal circumference and the blood sugar.The blood sugar level were measured and compared before and after the nocturnal NIV therapy.Results The results showed:(1)There were sig-nificant differences between the normal and the low nocturnal oxygen desaturation group on the body mass [(27.2±4.8)kg/m2 vs.(25.5±3.9)kg/m2 ],neck circumference [(36.7

  5. Can the management of blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes mellitus cases be an indicator of maternal and fetal outcomes? The results of a prospective cohort study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is emerging as an important public health problem in India owing to its increasing prevalence since the last decade. The issue addressed in the study was whether the management of blood sugar levels in GDM cases can predict maternal and fetal outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was done for 1 year from October 1, 2013, to September 31, 2014, at 652 diabetic screening units as a part of the Gestational Diabetes Prevention and Control Project approved by the Indian Government in the district of Kanpur, state of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 57,108 pregnant women were screened during their 24–28th weeks of pregnancy by impaired oral glucose test. All types of maternal and perinatal outcomes were followed up in both GDM and non-GDM categories in the 2nd year (2013–2014 after blood sugar levels were controlled. Results: It was seen that for all kinds of maternal and fetal outcomes, the differences between GDM cases and non-GDM cases were highly significant (P 1 in every case. Moreover, perinatal mortality also increased significantly from 5.7% to 8.9% when blood sugar levels increased from 199 mg/dl and above. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in GDM cases were also significantly related to the control of blood sugar levels (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Blood sugar levels can be an indicator of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in GDM cases, provided unified diagnostic criteria are used by Indian laboratories. However, to get an accurate picture on this issue, all factors need further study.

  6. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain a lot of added sugar. ... vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy and sweet desserts such as ...

  7. 沧州地区城镇居民高血压患者糖代谢异常调查分析%Investigation and analysis on bleed sugar metabolism disorder of high blood pressure patients in Cangzhou residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘植蕊; 姚淑红; 尹雪梅; 许峰; 顾玉发

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is to investigate the sugar metabolism disorder rates of hypertension patients in Cangzhou residents and observe the related risk factors. Methods According to random sampling stratification investigation method, all urban dweller in Cangzhou area were selected to survey. The sugar metabolism anomalies statuses of patients with high blood pressure were analyzed. According to blood pressure, gender, age groups, blood pressure and sugar metabolism disorders distribution characteristics and associated risk factors were analyzed in different blood pressure level, age and gender. Results Total incidence rate of sugar metabolism disorders in investigation was 17. 69% . The incidence rate of diabetes mellitus in hypertension patients was 17.15% , and of pre-diabetes ( including IFG and IGT ) was 20. 79% ; according to the age group, it was higher in women than men of more than 70 years old group, other age group was higher in men than women. Sugar metabolism disorders incidence rate was increased with blood pressure level increased, men sugar metabolism disorder rates of each group was higher than women. Sugar metabolism disorders were increased with age, obesity. Conclusion Cangzhou regional urban residents, diabetes and pre-diabetes rates are higher in high blood pressure crowds. High blood pressure and sugar metabolism disorders are closely related, sugar metabolism disorders risk factors: high blood pressure, age, obesity. To prevent diabetes should actively control variable risk factor.%目的 了解沧州地区城镇居民高血压患者糖代谢异常患病率及相关危险因素.方法 以沧州地区城镇居民为调查对象,按随机分层抽样调查方法,对范围内所有原发性高血压患者糖代谢异常情况进行分析.按血压、性别、年龄分组,分析不同血压、年龄、男女患者血压和糖代谢异常分布特点及相关危险因素.结果 调查组糖代谢异常总患病率17.69%.高血

  8. The Change Characteristics of Blood Sugar and Blood Fat in Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Pregnancies and Normal Pregnancy Women%正常妊娠妇女和妊娠期高血压疾病患者血脂、血糖代谢的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the change characteristics of blood sugar and blood fat between pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH) pregnancies and normal pregnancy women. Method:A total of 60 pregnancy-induced hypertension women and 60 normal pregnancy women were selected. The change characteristics of blood sugar and blood fat were compared. Result:The level of blood fat in group PIH were significantly higher than those in normal labor group(P0.05)。结论:妊娠期高血压疾病患者可能伴有血脂、血糖代谢的紊乱,临床应加强孕期及围生期监测。

  9. 喹诺酮类药物致血糖异常107例分析%The analysis of unconventional blood sugar induced by quinolones in 107 clinical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国忠; 虞晓红

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解喹诺酮类药物引起血糖异常的特点和规律,以促进临床合理用药.方法 检索1995年至2008年中国医院数字图书馆CHKD期刊数据网收载的医药卫生期刊,对其报道的喹诺酮类药物引起的血糖异常个案进行统计和分析.结果 引起血糖异常涉及9种喹诺酮类药物,共107例,致低血糖70例(其中因低血糖昏迷致死3例),致血糖升高37例.结论 加强喹诺酮类药物的合理使用,对于老年患者、肾功能不全的糖尿病患者使用该类药物时应监测患者血糖变化情况,以确保用药安全.%Objective To survey the unconventional blood sugar level induced by quinolones and promote the rational drug use in clinical. Methods Collecting and analysis the unconventional blood sugar level induced by quinolones reported during the period of 1995 ~ 2008 using CHKD net. Results 107 cases of unconventional blood sugar level were reported by using 9 kinds of quinolones and among them 70 cases with hypoglycemia and 3 cases died of hypoglycemic coma. Another 37 cases were found with hyperglycemia. Conclusion Should reinforce the supervi-sion of rational use of quinolones and monitor the blood sugar level when the elderly and the diabetic of renal insuffi-ciency in clinical use.

  10. The effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in women with a body mass index more than 25 kg/m2: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Obesity is a major health problem all around the world. On the other hand, few people, especially women, are physically active to the levels recommended by Healthy People 2010 web site managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The objective of this study was to compare the potential effects of intermittent and continuous exercise programs combined with concurrent calorie restriction diets on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in overweight and obese females."n"nMethods : Forty-five women with a sedentary life style and a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (15 subjects in each group: a 40 minutes of medium-intensity intermittent exercise (64-76% of maximal heart rate, 3 bouts per day for 5 days a week, b a single bout of a 40-minute continuous exercise per day for 5 days a week, C the non-exercising control group. A self-monitored calorie restricted diet was recommended to all participants by a dietitian. The lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure of all participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention period."n"nResults : After the intervention, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of lipid profile [cholesterol (P=0.94, triglyceride (P=0.62] fasting blood sugar (P=0.054, systolic blood pressure (P=0.84 or diastolic blood pressure (P=0.30."n"nConclusion: There seems to be no significant differences between short term continuous and intermittent aerobic

  11. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  12. Rregulation Effect of Fresh Mangosteen Saponins on Blood Sugar%鲜罗汉果皂苷对小鼠血糖的调节作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超文; 姚美村; 夏星; 朱晓韵; 何伟平

    2012-01-01

    以正常动物小鼠为实验对象,分别在给药第1d后30 min及连续给药7d后30 min灌胃服用淀粉、蔗糖和葡萄糖;分别测定不同糖原对血糖生成指数、胰岛素水平和对α-葡萄糖苷酶活性的抑制率,对鲜罗汉果皂苷调节血糖药效学进行了研究.结果表明:一次性服用鲜罗汉果皂苷对多糖类食物淀粉和蔗糖的血糖生成有显著的抑制作用;但单次给药对葡萄糖的血糖生成没有明显影响;连续7d服用鲜罗汉果皂苷后,淀粉及葡萄糖的血糖生成均受抑制,血糖峰值或血糖生成指数(GI)显著下降;进食鲜罗汉果皂苷在餐后血糖升高时的胰岛素水平显著增加,对α-葡萄糖苷酶活性抑制作用随浓度增加而增强.故鲜罗汉果皂苷对正常小鼠餐后血糖生成有显著的抑制作用,通过抑制食物葡萄糖转化和提高胰岛素水平是调节降低血糖的主要原因;与干罗汉果皂苷对比,提高餐后胰岛素水平作用鲜罗汉果皂苷比干罗汉果皂苷更显著,而对α-葡萄糖苷酶活性抑制作用干罗汉果皂苷要比鲜罗汉果皂苷强.%To study blood sugar regulation effect of Fresh Mangosteen Saponins (FMS), normal mice were orally administrated with FMS for one day or seven days. At 30 min after, intragastric administration with starch, sucrose or glucose respectively, Glycemic index (GI), insulin concentration and inhibition rate of a-glucosidase were determined. Result showed that single dosage of FMS inhibited GI of tarch and sucrose significantly, but had no effect on GI of glucose. After 7 days administration of FMS, GI of both tarch and glucose were inhibited, GI and the peak value of blood glucose are reduced. FMS administration increased postprandial insulin concentration significantly, and FMS dose-dependently inhibited a-glucosidase activity. It was concluded that FMS produced significant inhibition of postprandial blood glucose in normal mice, this effect is mediated

  13. EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON BLOOD-SUGAR CONTROL IN THE ELDERLY WITH DIABETES MELLITUS%健康教育对老年糖尿病血糖控制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红华; 郝秀仙; 魏华; 王卫红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of health education on blood sugar control in the aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study consisted of 78 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were randomly divided into experiment group (38 cases), and control group (40 cases). Those in the experiment group received health education on diabetes in addition to therapeutic regimen of diabetes for both groups, no health education was provided in the control group. Fasting blood sugar, blood sugar at 2 h after meals, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured in both groups. Results The levels of above items in the experiment group stably dropped out, compared with the controls, the differences were significant (t = 4.370-39.891, P<0. 05).Conclusion Health education on diabetes in senior patients can help them understand the basic knowledge about diabetes, raise their ability of self-management and markedly reduce the level of blood sugar.%目的 观察健康教育对老年糖尿病病人血糖控制的影响.方法 选取2型糖尿病病人78例.随机分为实验组38例,对照组40例,在原有糖尿病治疗方案不变的基础上对实验组实施系统糖尿病健康教育,对照组不进行系统糖尿病健康教育,观察两组空腹血糖(FBG)、餐后2 h血糖(PBG2h)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)的变化.结果 实验组教育后各观察指标稳定下降,与对照组比较差异有显著性(t=4.370~39.891,P<0.05).结论 糖尿病健康教育能使老年病人掌握糖尿病的基本常识.提高自我管理能力,显著降低血糖水平.

  14. 全胃切除消化道重建术对胃癌合并Ⅱ型糖尿病血糖的影响%Total gastrectomy reconstruction procedures on blood sugar of gastric cancer concomitance T2DM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪启斌; 董荣坤; 张笃; 马芷琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究全胃切除加消化道重建术对胃癌合并Ⅱ型糖尿病(T2DM)术后血糖的影响.方法 将胃底贲门癌合并T2DM患者25例行全胃切除加Roux-Y吻合术(A组);选取同期的远端胃癌合并T2DM患者25例行毕Ⅱ式手术(B组)作为对照组;比较两组术后第一个月及丰年的血糖、C肽、糖化血红蛋白变化,采用t检验.结果 ①A组手术前后血糖、糖化血红蛋白及C肽改善无显著性差异(P>0.05),B组手术前后血糖、糖化血红蛋白及C肽的变化有显著性差异(P<0.05).②两组间术后对比差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 ①全胃切除加Roux-Y吻合术对术后近期血糖无明星影响.②毕Ⅱ式术后近期血糖有明显改善,该术式对糖尿病有治疗作用.③胃与术后糖尿病改善有密切关系.④迷走神经肝支可能影响肠-胰岛轴.%Objective To explore the effect of total gastrectomy adding reconstruction procedures on blood sugar of gastric cancer concomitance T2DM. Methods 25 cases were operated total gastrectomy and Roux-Y on gastric bottom and cardia cancer consolidation type 2 diabetes mellitus (A group),at the same time,25 cases gastric sinuses cancer were performed Billioth 1KB group) ,to be collating group. To compare preoperative and postoperative the blood sugar. HbAlc and C peptide among A and B, using t test to analyze. Results 1. The difference was no significant that A group preoperative and postoperative the biood sugar, HbAlc and C peptide. The difference was significant that B group preoperative and postoperative the blood sugar, HbAlc and C peptide. 2. The postoperative difference was significant among A group and B. Conclusion The operation total gastrectomy adding Roux-Y don't evidently produce an effect on postoperative blood sugar in the near future. The operation Billroth II do evidently affect on postoperative blood sugar in the near future, it show that the operation can treat T2DM. 3. The relation of stomach and

  15. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . They ... foods and drinks without adding extra calories. Using artificial sweeteners in place of sugar can also help prevent ...

  16. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  17. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  18. 邢台某医院职工血糖与生活方式的相关性分析%The Analysis of relativity between Blood Sugar and Life Style in One Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高妍; 李立彬; 尹爱蕊; 苏胜偶

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨医院全体在职职工各年龄段的血糖分布情况,并通过相关性研究,探讨与血糖相关的危险因素。方法:首先利用自我设计的《生活行为调查问卷》,进行问卷调查。然后抽血化验,测量身高、体重、腰围、臀围。最后对影响血糖的生活方式进行相关性分析,找出危险因素和保护因素。结果:随着年龄的增长,空腹血糖增高的检出率分别为28.3%、33.6%、49.5%、52.4%;超重及肥胖的检出率分别为20.3%、41.3%、58.5%、71.8%。Logistic回归分析的结果中显示:每天吃肉量、食用蛋数量、主要出行方式、增龄和喜欢甜食的 P<0.05并且β>0,O R>1;食用煎炸食品数量的 P<0.05并且β<0,O R<1;性别、饮酒史、吸烟史、文化程度、工作强度的 P>0.05。结论:高血糖、肥胖的检出率随着年龄的增长而增高;每天吃肉量、食用蛋数量、增龄、开车或坐出租上班、喜欢甜食是医务工作者血糖增高的危险因素。建议医务工作者更应该加强锻炼,减少热能的摄入。%Objective :To discuss the blood sugar distribution in all the on-the-job staffs according to their age groups . Then to explore the risk factors related to blood sugar by relativity analysis .Methods :To conduct questionnaire first by asking the working staff to fill in“lifestyle investigation questionnaire” ,this is designed by author .Then make chemical examination ,and measuring height ,weight ,waistline and hip line .Finally to analyses the relativity between lifestyle and blood sugar and find out the risk factors and protection factors .Results:As the growth of the age ,fasting glucose increase the detection rate of 28 .3% ,33 .6% ,49 .5% and 52 .4% respectively ;rate of overweight and obesity were 20.3% ,41 .3% ,58 .5% and 41 .3% respectively .Logistic regression analysis results show that :the amount of meat ev

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  20. 小麦饲粮中添加木聚糖酶对肉鹅血糖和血清总蛋白水平的影响%Effect of Wheat Based Diet Supplemented with Xylanase on Blood Sugar and Total Protein in Serum of Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳丽; 史东辉; 杨桂芹

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The effects of wheat based diet supplemented with xylarmse on blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese were studied. [Method] By using the randomized design of single factor, the 1-day-old healthy goslings were divided into 6 groups and fed with corn based diet, wheat based diet and wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase at different concentrations respectively, the contents of blood sugar and total protein in serum were determined. [Result] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could increase the blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese and wheat based diet supplemented with 0.2% xylanase generated the best effect, which was higher than those of corn based diet group. As for the concentration of protein in senun, wheat based diet supplemented with O. 2% xylarmse was significantly different from corn based diet and wheat based diet. [Conclusion] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could enhance geese production.

  1. 妊娠期糖尿病危险因素及血糖干预对妊娠结局的影响分析%Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy Outcome Affected by Blood Sugar Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文香; 汪能素; 康克蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of gestational diabetes mel itus (GDM), and study the ef ect of blood sugar intervention af ecting pregnancy outcome. Methods With case-control study method, 140cases of GDM patients as case group and 140 cases without this disease as control group were col ected. GDM cases were divided into good blood sugar control group (83 cases) and not good control group (57 cases) according to blood sugar control condition. The risk factors of GDM were analyzed and pregnancy outcome and complications were compared between good and not good control groups. Results Multiple factors Logistic Regression analysis result showed that overweight or obesity (OR=3.019), gestational age (OR=1.568), hyperhemoglobinemia (OR=1.519), menstrual cycle disorder (OR=2. 018), adverse pregnancy history (OR=2.815), history of diabetes mel itus (OR=4.948). The complications incidence rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, hydramnios, ketoacidosis, postpartum hemorrhage, uterine-incision delivery, premature delivery, large for date infant, neonatal asphyxia, hypoglycemia of newborn and hyperbilirubinemia in not good control group were much higher than not good control group ( <0.05). Conclusion We should think highly of the risk factors of GDM, early discovering, early diagnosing and early treating GDM, especial y control ing blood sugar level, thus cut down the ef ect of GDM to pregnancy outcome.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)发病的危险因素及血糖控制对母婴妊娠结局的影响。方法收集确诊的140例GDM患者作为病例组和140例正常孕妇为对照组,根据血糖控制情况将GDM病例分为血糖控制良好组(83例)和控制不良组(57例);分析影响GDM发病的危险因素,比较血糖控制良好组和不良组母婴妊娠结局及并发症发生情况。结果多因素分析结果显示,超重或肥胖(=3.019)、妊娠年龄(=1.568)、高血红蛋白血症(=1.519)、月经周期紊乱(=2.018)

  2. 燕麦可溶性膳食纤维降糖机理的初步探讨%Primary Discussion on Blood Sugar Reducing Machanism of Soluble Dietary Fiber(SDF) in Oats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瞩; 姚惠源; 郭贯新

    2001-01-01

    对裸燕麦麸皮中的可溶性膳食纤维的降糖机理作了初步探讨,用SDF对猪胰淀粉酶活力的影响进行了研究,得出在消化道内SDF的粘度是造成葡萄糖缓释作用的原因之一。%The blood sugar reducing machnism of soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in the bran of naked oats was primarily discussed. The effects of SDF on the amylase activities of pig's insulin were studied. It showed that one of the reasons for slow release of glucose was the viscidity of SDF in gut.

  3. 桂皮提取物对糖尿病大鼠血糖和血脂含量的影响%Effects of cinnamon on blood sugar and lipid levels in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈常秀; 李永洙

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was conducted on the effects of cinnamon on blood sugar and lipid levels in diabetic rats.【Method】 The diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan to establish diabetic model.The rats were divided into control group(Ⅰ),model group(Ⅱ),low dose cinnamon treating group(Ⅲ) and high dose cinnamon treating group(Ⅳ).The diabetic rats of group Ⅲ and Ⅳ were orally administered with 100 and 200 mg/(kg·d) cinnamon extract respectively,for 30 days.The rats of group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were orally administered with saline respectively by the same way and the same dose.The daily feed consume,water intake and urine excretion were recorded.The blood sugar,TC,TG,LDL-C,HDL-C level and the body weight were estimated at 0 and 30 d.【Result】 Compared with the rats of group Ⅰ,the body weight of all the diabetic rats of group(Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ) decreased significantly(P0.05),and the blood sugar level increased significantly(P0.05) at 0 d.Compared with the rats of groupⅡ,the blood sugar,TC,TG,LDL-C level of the diabetic rats in group Ⅳdecreased significantly(P0.05),the body weight and HDL-C level increased significantly(P0.05) at 30 d.Compared with the rats of group Ⅰ,there were no differences in body weight,blood sugar,TC,TG,LDL-C and HDL-C level of the diabetic rats in group Ⅳ at 30 d(P0.05).【Conclusion】 The cinnamon extract(200 mg/(kg ·d)) decreased the blood sugar,TC,TG and LDL-C level of the diabetic rats induced by alloxan,increased the body weight and enhanced HDL-C level.Enrichment of cinnamon with cinnamate can provide a functional food spice that could potentially benefit human health.%【目的】探讨桂皮提取物对糖尿病大鼠血糖和血脂含量的影响。【方法】给大鼠腹腔注射200mg/kg的四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病模型。试验共分4组:正常对照组(Ⅰ)、糖尿病模型组(Ⅱ)、低剂量桂皮提取

  4. 黄连温胆汤对2型糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响%Study of Huanglian Wendan Tang to T2MD Mouse Blood Sugar Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫华; 刘华东; 刘舟; 黄仕文

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study Huanglian Wendan Tang to the obese diabetes mouse empty stomach blood sugar and Sugar tolerance influence. Method: The mouse feeds the high thermal feed 4 weeks later, Abdominal cavity injection STZ, Divides into five groups stochastically, Gives two armor biguanide 250mg/kg of Masculine control group, Huanglian Wendan Tang Low, middle and high monitoring group, Gives separately Huanglian Wendan Tang 5,l0,20g/kg. Gives the medicine 3 weeks continuously. Result:Huanglian Wendan Tang Obviously reduces diabetes mouse FBG, AUC of Huanglian Wendan Tang high monitoring group is lower than the model group obviously 25.6%. Conclusion: Huanglian Wendan Tang has obviously falls the blood sugar function of STZ induction T2MD mouse.%目的:研究黄连温胆汤对2型糖尿病小鼠空腹血糖、糖耐量的影响.方法:小鼠喂养高糖、高脂、高热量饲料4周后,腹腔注射链脲佐菌素( STZ) 100mg/kg,制备糖尿病小鼠模型,随机分为二甲双胍阳性对照组,模型对照组,黄连温胆汤低、中、高剂量组.黄连温胆汤低、中、高剂量组,分别给黄连温胆汤5、10、20g/kg(按生药量计).阳性药组给予二甲双胍250mg/kg.连续给药3周.结果:黄连温胆汤显著降低糖尿病小鼠FBG,黄连温胆汤(20g,/kg)的抑制率为33.1%;口服葡萄糖溶液(29/kg)模型组小鼠的血糖值均较空白组高,与模型组相比,黄连温胆汤( 20g/kg)能显著降低小鼠的血糖水平(P<0.05);黄连温胆汤高剂量组糖耐量曲线下面积(AUC)明显低于模型组25.6%.结论:黄连温胆汤对于STZ诱导的2型糖尿病小鼠具有显著的降血糖作用.

  5. 首次入院精神分裂症患者血糖变化及其相关因素分析%Analysis of blood sugar changes and related factors in first hospitalized schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐; 薛永; 张亚东; 郝苏怡; 沈冲; 戴江红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore blood sugar levels changes in the first time for hospitalized schizophrenia patients with different gender,age,clinical types,medication,and so forth.Methods To compare the fasting glucose at the end of 4 w,before and after treatment in 422 cases of patients with first-episode schizophrenia,and analyze the changes in different gender,age,clinical subtypes,medication.Results After treatment of 4 w antipsychotic drugs in 422 patients mean blood glucose was significantly lower than before treatment,the difference was statistically significant.Blood sugar levels in different age groups taken made pp with olanzapine was statistically difference Influence on blood sugar levels of below or over 20 years old age group with different types of drugs were obvious difference.Before and after different types of drugs treatment in male and female patients with no statistically significant difference were ob-served in the changes of blood sugar levels.The blood glucose levels in mixed schizophrenia patients after taking made pp and risperidone treatment was significantly lower than before.The tendency of blood glu-cose levels reduced to 0.30 mmol/L in mixed patients after taking risperidone,whereas increased to 0.09 mmol/L in paranoid patients after taking risperidone,the difference was statistically significant.The ris-peridone effects on blood sugar levels ware statistically significant.in different clinical subtypes.Conclusion It is necessary to combat psychiatric medications in patients with glucose metabolism index monitoring, avoiding or reducing the drug adverse reactions,improving patient′s quality of life.%目的:探讨首次入院精神分裂症患者服用抗精神病药物后血糖水平的变化及其相关影响因素。方法比较422例首发精神分裂症患者用药前和用药后第4 w末的空腹血糖,并分析性别、年龄、临床亚型、服药情况对首发精神分裂症患者血糖的影响。结果(1)422例

  6. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  7. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  11. 魔芋低聚糖对小鼠血糖含量和抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of Konjac oligosaccharide on blood sugar and antioxidant ability of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳燕; 李小明; 李顺意; 高尚; 倪红

    2001-01-01

    Object To study the effect of konjac oligosaccharide on the bloodsugar and antioxidant ability of mice. Methods D ifferent groups of mice were given (ig) separately with either 5% or 15% konjac oligosaccharide solutions, and their biochemical laboratory results compared wit h the controls receiving the same concentration of glucose solutions. Re sults High concentrations of glucose solutions could increase mice bloo d sugar levels, but the same concentration of konjac oliogosaccharide solutions s howed no obvious effects, but instead, significantly increased the superoxide di smutase with simultaneous lowering of lipid peroxidation levels. Conclu sion Konjac oligosaccharide does not effect mice blood sugar level, but could enhance the antioxidant ability of the body.%目的研究魔芋低聚糖对小鼠血糖含量及抗氧化能力的影响。方法分别用5%、15%的葡萄糖溶液和同样浓度的魔芋低聚糖溶液为小鼠ig,取血样测定多项生化指标。结果高浓度葡萄糖可使小鼠血糖含量增高,而同样浓度的魔芋低聚糖未使血糖含量发生明显变化,却使小鼠体内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性明显升高,同时降低了过氧化脂质(LPO)水平。结论魔芋低聚糖不升高血糖,且能提高机体抗氧化能力。

  12. 全自动生化仪与快速血糖仪测定血糖浓度的比较%Comparison between automatic biochemical analyzer and rapid blood sugar meter for determining glucose blood concen-tration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 成平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度与快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度的相关性及差异。方法采集该院200名住院患者的血液标本,同一患者同时采集静脉促凝血清标本与静脉抗凝全血标本,采用全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度,同时采用快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,比较2组血糖浓度测定结果。结果191名患者的静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显大于其静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,差异范围在0.50~1.50 mmol/L ,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显高于快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本的血糖浓度。%Objective To investigate the correlation and difference between the automatic biochemical analyzer for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant serum specimens and the fast blood glucose meter for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant whole blood specimens .Methods The blood specimens of 200 inpatients in the Geleshan Branch Hospital were collected ,venous coagulant serum specimens and the venous coagulant whole blood specimens in the same patient were simultaneously collected .The automatic bi‐ochemical analyzer was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens ,and at the same time the rapid blood glucose meter was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagu‐lant whole blood specimens .The blood glucose detection results were compared between the two detection methods . Results In 191 patients ,the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens was significantly grea‐ter than that of the venous coagulant whole blood specimens ,the difference range was 0 .50 -1 .50 mmol/L ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05

  13. Synthesis of rutin and chrome and its auxiliary function of the blood sugar reduction%芦丁铬的合成及其辅助降血糖作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建东; 王建中; 孟阿会; 赵珊; 刘洁媛; 陈思玉; 马国刚

    2011-01-01

    The optimum process parameters were added anhydrous sodium carbonate, after rutin dissolved in ethanol, after 80min added chromium chloride,The reaction time was 240min,temperature was 70℃, stirring speed was 2100r/min. The synthetic technology of chromium and rutin was optimized by orthogonal experimental design method. It was verified by infrared spectroscopy that had generated a combination of chromium and rutin. The combination of rutin and chromium was detected in X-ray diffraction spectroscopy,found that contains a lot of NaCl,and then purified it. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer(ICP-AES)measurement of chromium content to know the purity of the purified chromium turin increased 6 times. ICP-AES method measured the mass fraction of chromium that was 3.8% ,the combination of rutin and chromium on streptozotocin(STZ) -induced Wistar rat model of high blood sugar had a supplementary role in lowering blood sugar,through animal experiments.%通过正交实验优化了芦丁铬的合成工艺,得到的最佳工艺参数为:芦丁溶于无水乙醇后加入无水碳酸钠反应80min,加入三氯化铬继续反应240min,温度70℃,搅拌速度2100r/min.采用红外光谱验证了有芦丁铬生成,X-衍射光谱法对合成的芦丁铬进行了检测,发现含有大量NaCl,然后进行了纯化,经电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱仪(ICP-AES)测铬的质量分数可知,纯化后芦丁铬纯度提高了6倍以上.ICP-AES法测得铬的质量分数为3.8%,通过动物实验发现芦丁铬对链脲霉素(STZ)诱导的Wistar大鼠高血糖模型有一定的辅助降血糖作用.

  14. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  15. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  16. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  17. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  18. 妊娠期控制血糖治疗对母婴结局的影响%Control blood sugar treatment during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左守霞; 王燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the pregnancy to control blood sugar treatment on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods To study cases of 50 cases, in accordance with glycemic control patients were divided into control satisfied group(A, 29 cases) and are not satisfied with the control group(B, 21 cases), select at the same normal blood glucose testing maternal health as a group(C, 30 cases), three groups were compared maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Compared with group B, the other two groups the incidence of maternal and child adverse outcomes is lower(P 0.05). Conclusion Gestational diabetes, glycemic control should be strengthened, can significantly reduce the occurrence of adverse maternal.%目的:探讨妊娠期控制血糖治疗对母婴结局的影响。方法研究病例共50例,按照血糖控制情况分为控制满意组(A,29例)与控制不满意组(B,21例),同期选择血糖检查正常产妇作为健康组(C,30例),比较三组母婴结局。结果与B组相比,其余两组母婴不良结局的发生率较低(P 0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病应加强血糖控制,可显著减少母婴不良结局的发生。

  19. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  1. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  2. Sugar Coated Taro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Taro is smooth and sticky in texture and rich in fat,protein and sugar.According to Chinese traditional medicine, taro nourishes the spine and stomach and helps energy. Ingredients:500 grams taro (peeled and chopped into diamond-shaped cubes), 15 grams sugar. 250 grams vegetable oil. Method: 1. Heat oil in a wok and add taro cubes. Fry unti they turn golden brown. 2. Take out the taro with a sieve and pour the oil into a container for later use. Add sugar and one tablespoon oil.Stir continuously to prevent burning. When the

  3. Relationship of Department-entrance Blood Sugar Level and Progression of Disease and Prognosis of Patients with Maxillo-facial Spacial Infection%颌面间隙感染患者入科时血糖水平与病情发展及预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克春; 杨明蓉; 鲜芝香; 李秀琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of blood glucose increase on the prognosis of patients with maxillo-facial spacial infection,and discuss the importance of department entrance blood sugar level in maxillo-facial spacial infection risk assessment.Methods By convenience sampling,1 1 2 patients with max-illo-facial spacial infection were selected and divided into three groups based on department entrance blood sugar index:group A,the blood sugar tendency of 4.0~9.9 mmol/L;group B,the blood sugar tendency of 10.0~15.9 mmol/L;group C,blood sugar level ≥16.0 mmol/L,the incidence of complications and the difference between prognosis index were analyzed restropectively.Results The department entrance blood sugar levels of three groups were positively correlated with modified early warning score and systemic in-flammatory response syndrome score (r=0.68,0.72,all P<0.01).The incidence of complications and prognosis between three groups had significant difference (P<0.01).Conclusion It is necessary to pay highly intention to the department entrance blood sugar level of patients with maxillo-facial spacial infec-tion,which helpful for nursing staffs to identify the condition and prognosis and implement grading nursing.%目的:观察血糖升高对颌面间隙感染患者预后的影响,探讨患者入科时血糖水平在颌面间隙感染危险评估中的重要性.方法便利抽样选取2008年1月至2012年1月收住乐山市人民医院颌面外科的颌面感染患者112例,根据入科时血糖值将病例分为三组:血糖4.0~9.9 mmol/L为 A组;10.0~15.9 mmol/L为 B组;≥16.0 mmol/L为 C组,回顾性分析三组患者并发症发生率及预后指标之间的差异.结果三组入科血糖水平与改良早期预警评分(modafied early warning score, MEWS)和全身炎症反应综合征评分(systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS)成正相关(r=0.68、0.72,均P<0.01),且三组间的并发症发生率和预后指标

  4. Why hypoglycemia and not low blood sugar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth

    , the PIL must be translated using language that is clear and understandable, which could be termed “plain language”. This is thus related to the linguistic complexity of PILs. Examples could be the use of complex syntax such as nominalisation or the use of long compound nouns. Second, PIL translations must...... and implications for general, literary and Bible translation. Acta Theologica, 22(1), 70-106. Nord, C. (1997). Translating as a purposeful activity: functionalist approaches explained. Manchester: St. Jerome. van Hoof, H. (1998). The Language of Medicine: A Comparative Ministudy of English and French. In H...... Leaflet (PIL), which informs about dosage, side effects etc. for medication, is one such genre, which in the EU is translated into all 24 EU languages, and which legally must be easy to understand for patients (European Parliament and of the Council, 2001). However, despite this legal requirement, a study...

  5. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 47. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2016. Diabetes Care . 2016;39:S52-S59. PMID: ...

  6. Why hypoglycemia and not low blood sugar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth

    interlingual and intralingual translation knowledge. This suggest that, in order to improve the comprehensibility of translated PILs, the regulations governing the genre and the agents involved in this process need to be further educated on the intricacies of translation – both from a intralingual......The last two decades have seen an increased focus on providing patients with lay-friendly, easily understood information, with the purpose of involving patients in their own health, and enabling them to make informed decisions. Producing health information suitable for lay people can be a difficult...

  7. Automated sugar analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides MARQUES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (<0.3%. Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment.

  8. 护理干预对妊娠期糖尿病孕妇血糖的影响分析%Analysis on the Effect of Pre-pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Blood Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘陆娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the analysis of gestational diabetes melitus nursing intervention on blood glucose level in pregnant women control effect.Methods According to our hospital received 84 cases of gestational diabetes research and analysis, in which 42 cases were taken routine care, as the control group, the other 42 patients received routine nursing care and nursing intervention, compared to glucose and nursing before and after the two groups of pregnant women, postpartum complications of than probability and newborns.ResultsThe study group fasting after nursing intervention of blood glucose, postprandial 2 H blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin were significantly lower than those before intervention; pregnant women in study group appears in the postpartum hypertension and related complications were significantly lower than the control group, the yield of macrosomia, premature neonatal research group were lower than that of control group.Conclusion Nursing interventions are effective to control blood sugar levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes melitus and maternal control of complications.%目的 研究分析妊娠期糖尿病护理干预对孕妇血糖水平控制的效果.方法 根据我院接收的84例妊娠期糖尿病孕妇进行研究分析,其中42例采取了常规的护理,将其作为对照组,另外42例患者接受常规护理和护理干预,对两组孕妇的护理前后血糖情况进行比较,对比产后并发症几率以及新生儿情况.结果 研究组在护理干预后空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、糖化血红蛋白均显著低于干预前;研究组孕妇在产后出现高血压及相关并发症均明显低于对照组,研究组新生儿的巨大儿、早产儿产率均低于对照组.结论 护理干预对于妊娠期糖尿病孕妇的血糖水平控制以及母婴并发症控制都有较好的效果,不仅能够让患者的血糖稳定,还能够给新生儿的健康和顺利分娩提供帮助,应用价值非常高,值得推广使用.

  9. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  10. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  11. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  13. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  14. Everybody loves sugar: first report of plant feeding in triatomines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Albiter, Hector Manuel; Ferreira, Tainá Neves; Costa, Samara Graciane; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno; Gumiel, Marcia; Cavalcante, Danilo Rufino; Pavan, Márcio Galvão; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; de Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Dillon, Viv Maureen; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Garcia, Eloi de Souza; Lima, Marli Maria; de Castro, Daniele Pereira; Dillon, Rod James; de Azambuja, Patricia; Genta, Fernando Ariel

    2016-02-29

    Triatomines, which are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, have been considered to be exclusive blood feeders for more than 100 years, since the discovery of Chagas disease. We offered artificial sugar meals to the laboratory model-insect Rhodnius prolixus, which is considered a strict haematophagous insect. We registered feeding by adding colorant to sugar meals. To assess putative phytophagy, fruits of the tomato Solanum lycopersicum were offered to R. prolixus and the presence of tomato DNA was assessed in the insects using PCR. We also assessed longevity, blood feeding and urine production of fruit-exposed triatomines and control insects. All instars of R. prolixus ingested sugar from artificial sugar meals in laboratory conditions. First instar R. prolixus ingested plant tissue from S. lycopersicum fruits, and this increased the amount of blood ingested and urine excreted. Decreased mortality was also observed after blood feeding. Exposure to S. lycopersicum increased longevity and reduced weight loss caused by desiccation. We describe here the first report of sugar feeding and phytophagy in a species that was considered to be a strict blood-feeder for over a century. We suggest that local plants might be not merely shelters for insects and vertebrate hosts as previously described, but may have a nutritional role for the maintenance of the triatomine vectors. The description of sugar and plant meals in triatomines opens new perspectives for the study and control of Chagas Disease.

  15. Pitavastatin effect and its effect on the treatment of diabetic's blood sugar%匹伐他汀的降糖效果及其治疗糖尿病高胆固醇血症的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严兆丹; 肖金华; 张令晖; 刘梦江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of pitavastatin and its effect on blood glucose in diabetic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Methods 106 cases of diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia were selected from our hospital between January 2012 and March 2012 during clinic treatment. All of these patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group,53 cases in each group. All patients took metformin hypoglycemic agents and diet therapy at the same time. The control group received oral atorvastatin therapy. Observation group were giv-en pitavastatin medication. The blood sugar effects and efficacy were compared and analyzed in the two drugs for the treatment of. Results Com-pared with before treatment,FBS and HbA1c in observation group were significantly lower( P 0. 05). After treatment observation group had significant difference in FBS and HbA1c compared with control group( P 0. 05). Two groups of pa-tients,the differences of before and after treatment the TC,TG,LDL-C and HDL-C were significant( P 0. 05). But HDL-C of the observation group raised by 9. 12%. The HDL-C of the control group raised by 6. 31%. The observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Difference between groups was statistically significant( P 0. 05). Conclusion Pitavastatin can increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels,but also reduce and control of fasting blood glu-cose fluctuations in blood sugar levels than atorvastatin. It is a safe and effective treatment for diabetes,hypercholesterolemia drug,worthy of wider application.%目的:观察匹伐他汀的降糖效果及其治疗糖尿病高胆固醇血症的疗效。方法选取2012年1月至2013年3月就诊治疗的106例糖尿病高胆固醇血症患者作为研究对象,随机分为对照组和观察组各53例。所有患者在服用二甲双胍降糖药和控制饮食治疗的同时,对照组给予口服阿托伐他汀药物治疗,观察组给予匹伐他汀药物治疗,比

  16. 2型糖尿病血糖及血脂变化情况对甲状腺癌发生的影响研究%Effects of type 2 diabetes blood sugar and blood lipid changes occurring thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜虹; 王尚农

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the blood sugar,the relationship between the incidence of type 2 diabetes and blood lipid levels in thyroid carcinoma (PTC).Methods in our hospital between January 2010 to December 2012 admitted to inpatient and outpatient tracked 160 patients with type 2 diabetes as an object of study,according to the severity of dia-betes cases are divided into mild and severe groups each group 80 cases,select the same period 80 healthy volunteers as a control group.Three groups of blood glucose and lipid levels and the incidence of thyroid cancer were analyzed.Results The difference between the three groups GLU,TC,TG,LDL-C,HDL-C,were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion Type 2 dia-betes blood sugar,blood lipid levels between thyroid cancer and is closely correlated with the incidence of thyroid cancer in blood glucose,the degree of abnormal lipid levels increased,but its mechanism needs further study.%目的:研究2型糖尿病患者血糖、血脂水平变化与甲状腺癌(PTC)发病之间的关系。方法选取我院2010年1月至2012年12月之间收治住院及门诊追踪的160例2型糖尿病患者作为研究对象,按照糖尿病病情轻重情况划分为轻症组和重症组各80例,选取同期80例健康体检者作为对照组。对三组血糖、血脂水平及甲状腺癌发病情况进行对比分析。结果三组间 GLU、TC、TG、LDL-C、HDL-C的差异,均具有统计学意义(P 值均<0.05);轻症组和重症组 FT3的水平均低于对照组(P值均<0.05),TSH 水平均高于对照组(P值均<0.05);轻症组出现3例甲状腺癌,发病率为3.75%;重症组出现5例甲状腺癌,发病率为6.25%;对照组出现1例,发病率为1.25%,三组对比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论2型糖尿病患者血糖、血脂水平与甲状腺癌发生之间存在密切相关性,甲状腺癌的发病率随血糖、血脂水平异常程度升高,但对其作

  17. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  18. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  19. The Maple Sugar Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  20. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2014-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotyp...

  1. 围手术期护理对胃癌合并糖尿病患者血糖及并发症的影响%Effect of perioperative nursing on blood sugar and complication of patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翠明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of perioperative nursing on blood sugar and complication of patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus. Methods 59 patients of gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus were divided into the observation group (30 cases) and the control group(29 cases).The control group was given routine nursing,and the observation group was given perioperative nursing in addition.The level of blood sugar and the rate of complication were observed and compared after operation. Results The levels of blood sugar after operation and 24 hours after operation in the observation group were lower than those of the control group.The rate of complication in the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Conclusions Enhancing perioperative nursing in patients of gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus could reduce the blood sugar fluctuation and the rate of complication,which is worthy of clinic application.%目的 探讨围手术期护理对胃癌合并糖尿病患者血糖及并发症的影响.方法 随机将59例胃癌合并糖尿病患者分为观察组30例和对照组29例.对照组给予胃癌常规护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上加强围手术期护理.观察并比较2组患者术后血糖及并发症发生率.结果 观察组术后即刻血糖及术后24 h血糖测定结果均显著低于对照组.观察组术后并发症发生率显著低于对照组.结论 加强对胃癌合并糖尿病患者围手术期心理、饮食指导、预防并发症等护理,可减轻患者血糖波动,降低并发症发生率,值得临床应用.

  2. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.%Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.

  3. 延续性护理对2型糖尿病患者血糖控制及生活质量的影响%Impact of Continued Care on Blood Sugar Control and Life Quality of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继兰; 候玉香

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨延续性护理对2型糖尿病患者血糖控制及生活质量的影响。方法将376例2型糖尿病患者随机均分为观察组与对照组,对照组给予常规出院指导,观察组给予延续性护理干预。观察两组患者出院后血糖控制及生活质量情况。结果观察组患者出院6个月时空腹血糖及HbAlc水平均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),且生活质量评分明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论延续性护理可改善2型糖尿病患者出院后的血糖控制水平,提高生活质量。%Objective To discuss the impact of continued care on blood sugar control and life quality of type 2 diabetes patients. Methods 376 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly and equally divided into the observation group and the control group. The control group was given the traditional discharge guidance. The observation group was provided with the intervention of continued care. The post-discharge blood sugar control and life quality among both groups were observed. Results The fasting blood sugar and HbAlc levels of the observation group 6 months after leaving the hospital were considerably lower than those of the control group(P<0.05). The life quality score of the observation group 6 months after leaving the hospital was substantially higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Continued care can improve the level of blood sugar control and the life quality of the type 2 diabetes patients after leaving the hospital.

  4. Organic Selenium Chromium to High Fat Diet Plus Chain with Urea,Diabetic Mice Induced by Bacteria Fall Blood Sugar Role%有机硒铬对高脂饮食加链脲佐菌素诱导的糖尿病小鼠的降血糖作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润荷; 张淑坤; 盛晓英; 王鹏华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the research is to explore the influence of the organic selenium chromium on weight ,blood sugar ,triglyceride model (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) of diabetic mice induced by high‐fat diets and streptozotocin (STZ) .Methods:36 male kunming mice are divided into 3 groups at random :control group ,high fat diet in diabetes (HFD+STZ) ,high fat diet diabetes+organic selenium chromium whole egg powder (OSCWEP) (HFD+STZ+OSCWEP) .Three weeks later ,weight and blood sugar of the mice are tested .Four weeks later ,the serum TG and TC are tested .Results:The weight ,blood sugar and TG of the mice induced by HFD+STZ can be reduced by OSC‐WEP .Conclusion:Organic selenium chromium has a remarkable effect on lowering the blood sugar and TG of the dia‐betic mice .%目的:探讨有机硒铬对高脂饮食加链脲佐菌素(Streptozotocin ,STZ)诱导的糖尿病小鼠模型体重、血糖、甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(TC)的影响。方法:36只雄性昆明小鼠,随机分为3组:对照(Control)组、高脂饮食糖尿病(High fat diet in diabetes ,HFD+STZ)组、高脂饮食糖尿病+有机硒铬全蛋粉(Organic selenium chromium whole egg pow‐der ,OSCWEP)(HFD+STZ+OSCWEP)组。3周后测小鼠体重、血糖。4周时测定血清 TG和TC。结果:OSCWEP能降低HFD+STZ诱导的糖尿病小鼠的体重、血糖和TG水平。结论:有机硒铬有明显降低糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的作用。

  5. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from...

  6. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  7. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  8. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  9. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength...... factors and events. DESIGN: The article search was performed in August 2013. Two independent researchers performed the article search and selection, data extraction and quality assessment. Eligible studies reported the intake of SSB and one of the following outcomes: change in blood pressure, blood lipid...... or blood sugar, or CVD events such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Only intervention and longitudinal studies were included. SUBJECTS: Only studies in adults (aged 18+ years old) were considered. RESULTS: Two of four prospective studies found clear direct associations between SSB consumption and CHD...

  10. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  11. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation is further improved by two-dimensional HPLC, which involves a combination of reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. Moreover, a two-dimensional HPLC map is also useful for structural analysis. I describe a simple procedure for preparing homogeneous pyridylamino sugar chains that is less laborious than existing techniques and can be used for functional analysis (e.g., sugar-protein interaction). This novel approach was applied and some of the results are described: i) a glucosyl-serine type sugar chain found in blood coagulation factors; ii) discovery of endo-β-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.152) and a new type plant α1,2-l-fucosidase; and iii) novel substrate specificity of a cytosolic α-mannosidase. Moreover, using homogeneous sugar chains of a size similar to in vivo substrates we were able to analyze interactions between sugar chains and proteins such as enzymes and lectins in detail. Interestingly, our studies reveal that some enzymes recognize a wider region of the substrate than anticipated. PMID:20431262

  12. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood sugar and serum insulin in type Ⅱ diabetes mice%有氧运动对2型糖尿病小鼠血糖及血清胰岛素影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱裕华; 彭长凌; 胡安康; 朱孝荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨不同有氧运动方式对2型糖尿病小鼠血糖和血清胰岛素的影响.方法 将40只C57BL/6J小鼠分为4组:正常组(A组),糖尿病游泳1组(B组),糖尿病游泳2组(C组),糖尿病非运动组(D组),每组10只.高脂饲料饲养小鼠4周,B组、C组和D组小鼠一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ),获得糖尿病模型小鼠.B组每日游泳1次,连续游泳90min;C组每日游泳2次,每次45min;B组、C组游泳时间为6周,A组和D组不做游泳运动.血糖仪检测血糖浓度,碘[125I]胰岛素放射免疫分析血清胰岛素的变化.结果 C组血糖浓度明显低于B组和D组[(14.64±2.69)mmol/L,(19.22±3.28)mmol/L,(27.35±2.88)mmol/L,P<0.05];C组血清胰岛素明显低于D组[(36.95±14.66)mU/L,(55.24±18.42) mU/L,P<0.05].结论 每日2次各45 min的有氧运动对改善2型糖尿病小鼠血糖及胰岛素水平具有一定疗效.%Objective To compare with the effect of different aerobic exercise on the blood sugar and serum insulin of type II diabetes mice. Methods 40 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each) : the normal group(group A) ,the swimming group 1 of type II diabetes mice (group B) , the swimming group 2 of type II diabetes mice ( group C) , the no swimming group of Vype II diabetes mice (D). The diabetes mice were fed with high - sugar and high - fat diets for 4 weeks, and each one was injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin( STZ) once to get the type II diabetes mice. The mice of group B were made to swim for 90 min once every day, while the group C to swim for 45 min twice a day, and the blood sugar and serum insulin were measured after 6 weeks. Results Blood sugar of group C was lower than group B and C obviously[ ( 14.64 ±2.69)mmol/L, (19.22 ±3.28) mmol/L, (27.35±2.88) mmol/L, P< 0.05]. Serum insulin of group C was lower than group D apparently[(36. 95 ± 14. 66) Mu/L, (55. 24 ± 18. 42) Mu/L,P<0.05]. Conclusion Swimming for 45 min twice a day is good for

  14. Study on low blood sugar dietary patterns to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus%低血糖膳食模式对降低妊娠期糖尿病孕妇不良妊娠结局的尝试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秋燕; 伍晓容; 谢艳红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of low blood sugar dietary patterns on blood sugar and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.Methods 100 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,50 cases in each group.Control group received traditional treatment method of impaired glucose tolerance insulin therapy and dietary guidance; experimental group received impaired glucose tolerance dietary patterns intervention on the basis of conventional guide,including:1,the establishment of maternal personal files,2,diversified training and education,3,the establishment of impaired glucose tolerance dietary patterns for each pregnant women,4,tracking management on each impaired glucose tolerance case.Results 10 weeks after intervention,fasting blood-glucose,2 hour postprandial blood glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin in experimental group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05); the rates of pregnancy induced hypertension,premature,low birth weight infant,macrosomia,neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in experimental group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Low blood sugar dietary patterns is helpful to the recovery of blood sugar in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus,which can prevent and reduce complications in mothers and children.%目的 探讨采用低血糖膳食模式对妊娠期糖尿病孕妇血糖及妊娠结局的影响.方法 以100例妊娠期糖尿病孕妇为研究对象,随机分为实验组和对照组各50例,对照组按糖耐量异常传统的治疗方法胰岛素治疗及饮食指导,实验组在常规指导的基础上进行糖耐量异常膳食模式干预,措施包括:1、建立孕妇个人档案,2、采用多样化形式进行培训及教育,3、帮助孕妇制定糖耐量异常膳食计划,4、进行糖耐量异常个案追踪管理.结果 实验组孕妇在接

  15. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all...

  16. Do Fructose-Containing Sugars Lead to Adverse Health Consequences? Results of Recent Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses123

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Choo, Vivian LW; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; de Souza, Russell J; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Sugars have replaced fat as the dominant public health nutrition concern. A fructose-centric view of cardiometabolic disease has emerged whereby fructose-containing sugars are thought to have deleterious effects on body weight, fasting and postprandial blood lipids, glycemia, blood pressure, uric acid, and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Long-term prospective cohort studies have not supported these associations when assessing the relation between total fructose-containing sugars ...

  17. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  18. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodas and other products made with non-nutritive (artificial) sweeteners contain zero calories from added sugars, does that ... is “sugar free” or made with non-nutritive (artificial) sweeteners doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s healthy. Last ...

  20. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  1. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  2. 西瓜感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒后糖的变化与倒瓤关系的研究%The relation between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立梅; 吴元华; 赵秀香; 王文航; 王林; 蔡明

    2011-01-01

    By high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC), the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, and the sweetness were analyzed in watermelon inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The relationship between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon was determined. The results indicated that the content of glucose was apparently increased compared to that of the control before maturity (within 28 days after pollination), but reduced to 24.8% of the control after maturity (at 35 days after pollination). The content of fructose was higher than that of the control within 14 days after pollination, and then decreased with a significant difference. In all cases, the content of sucrose increased with the growth of watermelon. However, compared with the control, the sucrose content of watermelon inoculated with CGMMV was lower. The ratios of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the total sugar were abnormal. Coincidence with the changes of the total sugar, the fruit sweetness before maturity was higher than that of the control, whereas decreased sharply after maturity ( lower than that of the control). The inner pulp of the mature fruit appeared to be water-soaked and dirty red with no edibility. In a word, after inoculation with CGMMV, the changes of sugars and sweetness affected the watermelon quality.%@@ 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物上的重要病毒,2006年12月被农业部列为全国检疫性有害生物,2007年5月又被列为中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物.西瓜感染该病毒后,果肉出现油渍状深色病变,种子周围形成暗紫红色空洞,变色组织软化溶解呈丝状纤维化,俗称血瓤或倒瓤,果味异样,丧失食用价值[1].

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  4. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  5. 社区早期糖尿病肾病患者强化血糖控制研究*%Study of the intensified blood sugar control for the patients with the diabetic nephropathy in their early stage in the community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓燕; 薛慧娟; 郁静华; 祝捷

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨强化血糖控制对社区早期糖尿病肾病患者的干预效果。方法:将160例社区早期糖尿病肾病患者随机分为强化组和对照组,强化组糖化血红蛋白控制在≤6.0%,对照组糖化血红蛋白≤7.0%,观察两组患者干预前后空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白、血脂、血压及尿微量白蛋白/肌酐比值的变化。结果:两组经干预后血脂、血压均有所改善;空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白、尿微量白蛋白/肌酐比值下降,强化组尿微量白蛋白/肌酐下降较对照组明显(P<0.05)。结论:控制早期糖尿病肾病患者饮食、血糖、血压及血脂水平能够降低尿微量白蛋白/肌酐比值,严格的血糖控制有利于延缓早期糖尿病肾病的发生发展。%Objective:To explore the intervention effect of the intensified blood sugar control of the patients with of diabetic nephropathy in their early stage in the community. Method:One hundred and sixty patients with diabetic nephropathy were randomly divided into the intensified group and control group. The glycosylated hemoglobin was controlled ≤ 6.0%in the intensified group, and≤7.0%in the control group. The changes of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood fat, blood pressure, urine microalbumin/creatinine were compared in the patients in the two groups before and after intervention. Result:Both blood fat and blood pressures were improved in the two groups after intervention. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, the rate of urine microalbumin/creatinine decreased. Urine microalbumin/creatinine decreased more obviously in the intensified group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Control of diet, blood sugar, blood pressure and blood fat of the nephropathy patients in their early stage is capable of decreasing the rate of urine microalbumin/creatinine. Strictly controlling the glycosylated hemoglobin is of benefit to prolonging the early occurrence and development of

  6. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  7. 附子理中汤对脾阳虚证大鼠血糖、甘油三酯及总胆固醇的影响%Influences of Fuzi Lizhong decoction on Blood Sugar, Triglyceride and Total Cholesterol in Rats with Spleen Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐汉庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore influences of Fuzi Lizhong decoction on blood sugar, triglyceride and total cholesterol in rats with spleen yang deficiency syndrome. Method; The rats 'were randomly divided into four groups, 16 cases each group ①control group: fed with ordinary food and water. ②yang deficiency syndrome group; the same as the control group' except removing brown adipose tissue. ③spleen yang deficiency syndrome group; the same as the yang deficiency syndrome group except that fed with high fatty diet (including 83 % ordinary diet, 15% triglycerides, 2% cholesterol) and placed in circumstance of .19 ℃. ④Chinese herbal decoction group; the same as the spleen yang deficiency syndrome group' except ig 4 g · kg-1 each day with Fuzi Lizhong decoction. On the first day after 4 weeks blood from left common carotid artery was collected in all the rats in the four groups and then to test the content of blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol. Result:① Content of blood sugar; compared with control group (5. 41 ±0. 080) mmol · L-1, content of blood sugar was lower than that in yang deficiency syndrome group (1.40 ±0.071) mmol · L-1 ( P < 0. 0.1 ) ; compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, content of blood sugar in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group (5. 81 ±0. 081) mmol · L-1 was higher ( P < 0. 01 ) ; compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, content of blood sugar in Chinese herbal decoction group (5.01 ±0. 080 ) was higher ( P < 0. 01 ). ② Content of triglyceride; compared with control group (0.487 ±0.076) mmol · L-1, content of triglyceride was lower than that in yang deficiency syndrome group (0. 284 ±0. 11) mmol · L -1 (P <0. 01); compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, content of triglyceride in spleen yang deficiency syndrome group (0. 62 ±0. 184) mmol · L-1 was higher (P <0. 01) ; compared with yang deficiency syndrome group, content of triglyceride in Chinese herbal decoction group ( 0. 462 ±0. 111) mmol · L -1

  8. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  9. Effects of preemptive analgesia with flurbiprofen on the blood sugar and interleukin-6 of patients after radical excision of breast cancer%氟比洛芬酯超前镇痛对乳腺癌患者术后血糖及白细胞介素6水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双飞; 张运龙; 姜蔚; 吴锡英; 代乐; 陈龙; 方向明

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of preemptive analgesia with flurbiprofen on the blood sugar and Interleukin-6 of patients after radical excision of breast cancer.Methods A total of 60 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients scheduled for radicul excision of breast cancer were randomly assigned to three groups:group A,B and C(n=20 each),patients of group A and C received intravenous flurbiprofen 100 mg before or at the end of surgery respectively.Blood samples were collected from the patients before anaesthesia induction and 1,6,24 h after surgery for the determination of blood sugar and serum interleukin-6 concentration.Analgesic efficacy was assessed after surgery based on visual analog scales(VAS).Results The blood sugar and serum interleukin-6 concertration of the patients in three groups at different time points after surgery were significantly higher than those before surgery,and increased gradually in group B,and there were very significant difference between the time point of 1 h and 24 h after surgery(P<0.01),but there were no increasing trend for those of group A and C.The blood sugar and serunl interleukin-6 concentration of the patient of group A weresignificantly lower than those of group B and C(P<0.01 or 0.05).The highest VAS of group A and C at different time points after surgery were significantly lower than that of group B(P<0.05).Conclusion Preemptive analgesia with flurbiprofen 100 mg can effectively suppress the elevation of blood sugar and serum interleukin-6 concentration after radical excision of breast cancer,and is better than postoperation analgesia.%目的 探讨氟比洛芬酯超前镇痛对乳腺癌患者术后患者血糖及白细胞介素6(IL-6)水平的影响,并评价其镇痛效果.方法 拟行乳腺癌根治术患者60例,随机分为3组:超前镇痛组(A组)、空白对照组(B组)和术后镇痛对照组(C组),每组各20例,分别在麻醉诱导前或术毕时对A、C组患者缓慢静脉注射氟比洛芬酯100 mg

  10. The relationship between serum resistin level and blood sugar, blood lipids and thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism%甲状腺功能亢进症患者血清抵抗素水平与血糖、血脂及甲状腺激素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉莹; 孙玉倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To undertake a controlled, prospective study to investigate the relationship between serum resistin level and blood sugar, blood lipids and thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods Clinical data of 50 patients with hyperthyriodism were collected from 2008 to 2009 in department of endocrinology the Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University. All patients were newly diagnosed cases that received no medication. At the same time, 40 healthy persons underwent physical examination in the hospital were taken as control group. Diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol were excluded from the two groups. Serum resistin level was determined using ELISA method. Chemiluminescence was used to check the levels of fasting insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Glucose oxidase method determination-peroxidase-anti-peroxidase(GOD-PAP) was used to check the levels of fasting blood-glucose.Cholesterol oxidase method was used to check the levels of total cholesterol(T-CH). Glycerol-phosphate oxidase was used to check the levels of triglyceride(TG). Enzymes colorimetric method was used to check high density level of lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and low density level of lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the height, weight,waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Groups were compared using t test and correlation analysis using Pearson correlation test, and the relationship between serum resistin level and blood sugar, blood lipids and thyroid hormone were analyzed using multiple linear stepwise regression analysis method. Results Serum glucose[(5.2 ± 0.7)mmol/L],resistin concentrations[(132.1 ± 41.3)μg/L], FT3[(19.8 ± 8.7) pmol/L], FT4[(54.1± 29.6)pmol/L], fasting insulin levels[(7.9 ± 2.8)mU/L] and HOMA-IR(2.3 ± 1.0) were significantly higher compared with controls group [(4.7 ± 0

  11. Effects of kugua jiangtang capsule on blood sugar and lipid in patients with type 2 diabetes%苦瓜降糖胶囊对老年2型糖尿病患者血糖、血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施云星; 杨延莉; 黄小琴; 曹尉尉; 吴玲

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The extract of Momordica charantia plant has been verified to act on reducing sugar,but it is required the further study on whether it acts on regulating lipid. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the function of kugua jiangtang capsule(Capsule) on reducing sugar and regulating lipid in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN:Controlled trial design. SETTING,PARTICIPANTS and METHODS:A total of 35 male patients with diabetes II,aged varied from 70 to 86 years,at the average of( 77± 5) years were collected in March 2003.All the patients were the retired military officers and diagnosed definitely as type 2 diabetes according to the 85' WHO Diagnosis Standard of Type 2 diabetes.All the patients had not used insulin and taken drugs for lowing sugar orally.The severe physical disorders,mental disorders,family mental disorders and severe intelligent or recognition disturbance were excluded.The Capsule prepared by the Hospital was prescribed for 35 patients.Each patients checked fasting plasma glucose(FPG),2 hours plasma glucose(PG),and blood lipid immediately before and after treating course.Blood sugar was tested by enzyme reagent method,glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1C) by Micro Adsorption Column,total cholesterol(Tch),triglycerinum(TG) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C) by enzyme reagent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Changes in blood sugar and lipid before and after medication. RESULTS:After treated with the Capsule,the results of FPG,2 hours PG and HbA1C[(5.02± 1.67) mmol/L,(9.70± 3.44)mmol/L,(5.79± 1.18)% ] were all remarkably reduced compared with the results[(7.59± 1.83) mmol/L,(12.63± 3.65)mmol/L,(6.33± 1.28)% ] before treatment( t=14.496, 8.493, 4.644, P< 0.01) . Total effective rates were 94% (33/35),80% (28/35),80% (28/35) respectively.After treatment,cholesterol and TG were remarkably reduced( t=12.400, 7.487, P < 0.01) and HDL-C remarkably increased( t=6.312, P< 0.01) .Total effective rates were 71% (25/35), 77%( 27/35), 66%( 23/35) successively

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...

  13. Isotopic estimates of sugar intake are related to chronic disease risk factors but not obesity in an Alaska Native (Yup’ik) study population

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Choy, Kyungcheol; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar intake may be causally associated with chronic disease risk, either directly or by contributing to obesity. However, evidence from observational studies is mixed, in part due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported measures of sugar intake. Objective biomarkers may clarify the relationship between sugar intake and chronic disease risk. We have recently validated a biomarker of sugar intake in an Alaska Native (Yup’ik) study population that incorporates red blood cell ...

  14. 74例急性脑卒中合并糖代谢异常患者治疗及预后的前瞻性研究%The Prospective Study on Treatment and Prognosis of 74 Cases of Patients with Acute Stroke and Blood Sugar Metabolism Anomalies Complication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳巧; 严莉; 刘尊敬; 任丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic method for patients with acute stroke and blood sugar metabolism anomalies and its effect on prognosis. Methods: From March 2011 to January 2012, 74 cases of patients with acute stroke and secondary glucose metabolism abnormal in our hospital were selected as the object of study. According to the inhospital time order, all patients were divided into the control group and the experimental group. 34 patients in the control group were given conventional treatments, and 40 patients in the experimental group were given the novolin, Xueshuantong injection and ozagrel combination therapy. After 1 to 2 months of follow-up for all patients, we compared the clinical curative effect and the fasting blood sugar changes of the two groups. Results: Before treatment, the fasting blood sugar value showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05); After treatment, the fasting blood sugar value of the experimental group (5.76 ± 1.09) was lower than those of the control group (9.36 ± 1.66), with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Between the two groups, the total effective rate of the experimental group was 97.5%, which was higher than those in the control group (88.2%); the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of the experimental group, the neural function defect score (NDS) was 39.4± 2.4, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 9.2± 1.6 and daily life activities (ADL) was 5.4± 1.2, all of which were higher than those in the control group(27.7± 1.4, 6.4± 1.2, 3.8± 1.3 respectively); the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The novolin, Xueshuantong injection and ozagrel combination therapy for acute stroke combined with glucose metabolism abnormal can effectively improve the blood sugar metabolism change and brain function.%目的:探讨急性脑卒中患者血糖代谢异常的治疗方法及其对预后的影响.方法:抽取我院于2010年1月-2011年10

  15. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  16. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  17. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  18. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  19. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  20. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transpor...

  1. Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Hou, Bi-Huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Kim, Jung-Gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F; Somerville, Shauna C; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-11-25

    Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the single copy human protein, mediate glucose transport. Arabidopsis SWEET8 is essential for pollen viability, and the rice homologues SWEET11 and SWEET14 are specifically exploited by bacterial pathogens for virulence by means of direct binding of a bacterial effector to the SWEET promoter. Bacterial symbionts and fungal and bacterial pathogens induce the expression of different SWEET genes, indicating that the sugar efflux function of SWEET transporters is probably targeted by pathogens and symbionts for nutritional gain. The metazoan homologues may be involved in sugar efflux from intestinal, liver, epididymis and mammary cells.

  2. 恶性肿瘤化疗后血糖增高与细胞因子的相关性研究%Relations between increasing of blood sugar and cytorines after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏淑青; 裴毅; 马小军

    2008-01-01

    目的 探索恶性肿瘤化疗后血糖增高与细胞因子的相关性.方法 对155例恶性肿瘤患者化疗后血糖正常组、糖耐量异常组、糖尿病组细胞因子的变化情况,进行回顾性分析.结果 糖耐量异常组、糖尿病组化疗后白细胞介素-6(IL-6),肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)水平较化疗前明显增高,与血糖正常组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),化疗后白细胞介素-10(IL-10)较化疗前增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 恶性肿瘤患者化疗后血糖增高与细胞因子有密切的相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation between the increasing of blood glucose and cytokines in malignant tumor patients after chemotherapy.Methods According to the blood glucose after chemotherapy,155 cases of malignant tumor patient were divided into 3 groups:euglycemia group,IGT(impaired glucose tolerance)group and DM(diabetes mellitus)group.The variance of cytokines in the 3 groups were analyzed.Results Compared with pre-chemotherapy,IL-6,TNF-αincreased greatly in IGT group and DM group,while IL-10 decreased greatly.The statistical difference were obvious compared with euglycemia group.Conclusion There are close correlation between the increasing of blood glucose and cytokines in malignant tumor patients after chemotherapy.

  3. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  4. 不同麻醉方法对老年结直肠癌手术患者白细胞糖代谢的影响%EffectsofDifferentMethodsofAnesthesiaMetabolism inPatientswithRectalCancerOperationWhiteBlood CellsofElderlyPatientswithSugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢先卿

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨不同麻醉方法对老年结直肠癌手术患者白细胞糖代谢的影响。方法抽取我院68例老年结直肠癌患者,随机均分对照组和观察组,分别在手术时采取七氟醚吸入麻醉和七氟醚吸入联合硬膜外阻滞麻醉。结果麻醉后两组患者白细胞计数、白细胞内PK以及G6PD活性均明显升高(P<0.05),且观察组较对照组高(P<0.05)。结论以上两种麻醉方式对白细胞内PK、G6PD活性的影响有明显差别,联合麻醉法影响最大。%Objective The effect of different methods of anesthesia metabolism in patients with rectal cancer operation white blood cells of elderly patients with sugar. Method Selected in our hospital 68 cases of elderly patients with colorectal cancer, were randomly and equally divided into control group and observation group, take the sevolfurane inhaled anesthesia and sevolfurane inhalation combined with epidural anesthesia in the operation. Result After anesthesia, white blood cell count, two groups of patients in white blood cells of PK and G6PD activity were signiifcantly increased (P<0.05), and the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion There are obvious differences between the above two kinds of anesthesia methods on intracellular PK, G6PD activity, combined anesthesia effect.

  5. Effects in endothelial function of brachial artery in new patients with type 2 diabetes caused by medicines for reducing blood sugar%降糖药物对新发2型糖尿病患者肱动脉内皮功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春鹏; 孙海燕; 罗洪霞; 赵雅萍; 金慧佩; 吴笑英; 吴朝明

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨降糖药物对新发2型糖尿病患者肱动脉内皮功能的影响.方法:随机选取新发2型糖尿病患者87例,分为对照组46例和病例组41例.全部进行应变和应变率成像及冷加压试验,获得冷加压试验前后肱动脉的最大圆周应变和应变率,计算圆周应变和应变率储备.所有患者服用降糖药物6个月后再次计算圆周应变和应变率储备,并进行组间和组内对比分析.结果:对照组肱动脉圆周应变和应变率储备治疗后高于治疗前(P<0.05).病例组肱动脉圆周应变和应变率储备治疗前后比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).病例组肱动脉圆周应变和应变率储备在治疗前和治疗后均低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:降糖药物对不合并血管并发症的新发2型糖尿病患者肱动脉内皮功能有较好的保护作用.%Objective:To investigate the effects in endothelial function of brachial artery in new patients with type 2 diabetes caused by medicines for reducing blood sugar. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes were involved. The patients were divided into control group (46 cases) and case group (41 cases) according to the vascular complications (including macroangiopathy and microangiopathy). Strain and strain rate imaging combined with cold pressor test (CPT) were carried out in these two groups. Maximum of circumferential strain (Csmax) and circumferential strain rate (CSR-max) of brachial artery were measured, which were supplied by automatic analysis software. Reserve of circumferential strain (RCS) and circumferential strain rate (RCSR) were calculated. It took six months for each patient to take medicines of reducing blood sugar. Then RCS and RCSR of brachial artery were calculated again. Parameters were compared with in-ter-and intra-groups. Results:RCS and RCSR of brachial artery after therapy were higher than these before therapy in control group ( P 0. 05). RCS and RCSR of brachial artery in case

  6. The effect of combined applying food exchange portion and glycemic index (GI) concept on blood sugar and complications of gestational diabetes pregnant women%食物交换份法与血糖生成指数联合运用对妊娠期糖尿病病人治疗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江安; 廖念权; 唐雅宾

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察食物交换份法与血糖生成指数(GI)概念联合运用对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇孕期血糖及并发症的影响。方法:选取2012年2月~2013年1月在我院产科门诊确诊为GDM单胎孕妇80例,分为实验组42例和对照组38例。对照组采用传统的食物交换份法进行健康教育,实验组采用食物交换份与GI概念联合运用进行健康教育,制定个体化饮食计划,观察两组病人空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、妊娠期并发症。结果:两组空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、妊娠期并发症比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:联合运用食物交换份法与GI概念进行健康教育有助于控制孕期血糖与并发症的发生。%Objective To explore the effect of combined applying food exchange portion and glycemic index (GI) concept on blood sugar and complications of gestational diabetes pregnant women.Methods 80 cases of GDM patients with single fetus in our hospital during February, 2012 and January, 2013 were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. 42 cases were selected as experimental group and 38 cases were chosen as control group. Patients of control group were carried out health education by adopting traditional food exchange portion. However, patients of experimental group were given health education by applying combined food ex-change portion with GI concept. And individualized diet plans were worked out for them. Fasting blood sugar, postgrandial 2h glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and pregnancy complication were observed. Results There were statistical significant differences between two group cases in terms of fasting plasma glucose, postgrandial 2h glu-cose, glycosylated hemoglobin and pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined applying food ex-change portion with GI concept to carry out health education may help to control blood sugar and complications for pregnancy

  7. 绿茶提取物对糖尿病患者血糖控制效果影响的系统评价%Effect of green tea extract on blood sugar control in patients with diabetes:a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱; 陈晓莉; 裴大军

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用Meta分析的方法分析绿茶摄入对糖尿病患者血糖水平的影响。方法以绿茶、血糖、糖尿病为主题词及关键词检索2012年12月以前在CNKI数据库和万方数据库公开发表的相关文献,以green tea,green tea extract,glucose,diabetes为主题词和关键词检索在Pubmed、Elsevier中的相关文献。使用Cochrane系统评价员手册4.2.6的文献质量评价方法评定评价文献质量,用RevMan 5.1软件进行综合分析。结果本次研究共纳入5篇以绿茶或绿茶提取物做干预的随机对照试验,包括231例糖尿病病例。Meta 分析结果显示,8~12个月的绿茶或绿茶提取物的摄入能升高糖尿病患者空腹胰岛素水平(P<0.01),但对糖化血红蛋白及空腹血糖水平(P=0.37)的影响临床意义有待进一步研究。结论摄入绿茶可以升高糖尿病患者空腹胰岛素水平,但目前研究证据还比较有限。%Objective It is to perform a meta-analysis of the efficacy of green tea or green tea extract on blood sugar level in diabetics.Methods Chinese words such as green tea , blood sugar, diabetes were used as key words or subject headings to search the correlated literature published in CNKI and Wanfang databases before December 2012 , and English words green tea, green tea extract, glucose, diabetes were used to search the literature in Pubmed and Elsevier .Cochrane system evalua-tion 4.2.6 was used to evaluate the quality of literatures and RevMan 5.1 was used for comprehensive analysis .Results 5 ran-domized controlled trails in which green tea or green tea extract was used for the intervention of blood sugar met all inclusion criteria.There was a total of 231 subjects.Meta-analysis results showed that , green tea or green tea extract intake for 8-12 months can improve the fasting serum insulin in diabetics (P<0.01), but its effect on glycated hemoglobin levels and fasting glucose(P=0.37) need to be further

  8. Study on the Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Effect of Blood Sugar Intervention on Pregnancy Outcome%妊娠期糖尿病危险因素及血糖干预对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银河

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病( GDM)发病的危险因素及血糖控制对母婴妊娠结局的影响。方法选取2011年1月至2013年4月在湖北省新华医院行产前检查并确诊为妊娠期糖尿病的孕妇140例为研究对象,根据血糖控制情况将孕妇分为控制良好组(83例)和控制不良组(57例),分析影响GDM发病的危险因素,比较血糖控制良好组和不良组母婴妊娠结局及并发症发生情况。结果控制不良组妊娠期高血压、羊水过多、酮症酸中毒、产后出血、剖宫产手术等的发生率显著高于血糖控制组(P<0.05);控制不良组胎儿早产、巨大儿、新生儿窒息、新生儿低血糖、新生儿高胆红素血症等的发生率也显著高于控制组(P<0.05)。超重或肥胖、妊娠年龄、高血红蛋白血症、月经周期紊乱、不良孕产史、糖尿病家族史6个因素是GDM发病的危险因素。结论应重视 GDM 发病的危险因素,早发现、早诊断、早治疗 GDM,重点控制妊娠期血糖水平,以期降低 GDM 对母婴妊娠结局的影响。%Objective To explore the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) ,and study the effect of blood sugar intervention on pregnancy outcome.Methods A total of 140 pregnant women under-went prenatal examination and diagnosed as GDM patients in Hubei Xinhua Hospital from Jan .2011 to Apr. 2013 were chosen as the research objects and divided into good control group ( n =83 ) and poor control group ( n=57 ) according to the condition of blood sugar control .The risk factors of GDM were analyzed and pregnancy outcome and complications of the two groups were compared .Results The complication incidence rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome,hydramnios,ketoacidosis,postpartum hemorrhage,uterine-incision delivery of the poor control group were significantly higher than those of good control group ( P <0.05),incidence rates of premature delivery

  9. 妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重关系分析%The Analysis of the Relationship for Gestational Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Neonatal Birth Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜百灵; 张方芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To further investigate the relationship for gestational diabetes blood sugar levels in patients with neonatal birth weight. Method:124 cases of pregnant women admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to April 2012 were chosen as the research object.The clinical information of pregnant women was analyzed and studied retrospectively. Result:(1)In fasting glucose levels and neonatal birth weight,the gestational diabetes group was higher than the healthy control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).(2)In the incidence of huge children, the pregnancy diabetic group was higher than healthy control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).(3)Neonatal birth weight and maternal glucose levels of the gestational diabetes group and the healthy control group showed a positive relationship. Conclusion:Gestational diabetes blood sugar levels with birth weight shows a positive relationship,so monitoring blood sugar levels for pregnant women has important implications for the prevention of the occurrence of a huge child.%目的:进一步探讨妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重之间的相关性。方法:选取本院2009年1月-2012年4月收治的124例孕妇为研究对象,针对孕妇的临床资料进行了回顾性分析和研究。结果:(1)在空腹血糖水平和新生儿出生体重两方面,妊娠糖尿病组均高于健康对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)在巨大儿发生率方面,妊娠糖尿病组高于健康对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);(3)妊娠糖尿病组和健康对照组新生儿出生体重与孕妇血糖水平呈现出正相关的关系。结论:妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重之间呈现出正相关的关系,因此针对孕妇血糖水平进行监测,对于预防巨大儿的发生具有重要的意义。

  10. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies ), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast ric e, sugar - cane derived, policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d - α - tocopheryl hydrogen succinate , riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol ® and reduction of blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol...... hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that the food which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. High LDL...... ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived...

  12. Effects of Sugar Beet Pulp Substituted for Ground Corn on the Performance and Blood Metabolite of Dairy Cows%甜菜粕替代玉米对奶牛生产性能及血液代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 王加启; 张俊瑜; 卜登攀; 孙鹏; 周凌云; 雒秋江

    2011-01-01

    试验旨在研究用甜菜粕替代玉米作为能量饲料对中国荷斯坦奶牛生产性能及血液代谢指标的影响.选择60头(泌乳日龄为61 d±21.6 d,产奶量为31.2 kg/d±6.2 kg/d)健康的泌乳前期荷斯坦奶牛,随机分为两棚,每棚3个处理,分别为对照组、20sBP组和40SBP组,每组10头牛.各组日粮除玉米和甜菜粕外,其它成分相同.试验结果表明,各个处理间的干物质采食量、产奶量和能量校正乳都差异不显著(P>O.05).乳蛋白和乳脂等乳成分的产量和百分含量都不受甜菜粕替代玉米比例的影响(P>0.05),随着甜菜粕饲喂比例的增加,其含量有升高的趋势.血尿氮和葡萄糖浓度显著降低(P0.05).因此,在奶牛日粮中用甜菜粕替代玉米作为能量来源,基本不会影响奶牛的生产性能及血液代谢情况,同时降低了奶牛的饲养成本.%The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sugar beet pulp (SBP) substituted for ground corn on the performance and nutritional status as measured using blood metabolites as an energy source feed-stuff for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows.Sixty multifarious Holstein cows(61 ± 21.6 DIM, 31.2 kg/d± 6.2 kg/d) were randomly divided into two pens and within each pen where three groups (control, 20SBP or 40SBP) and each group comprised of 10 cows (n= 10).Besides SBP and corn, The remainder of the ration was the same for all groups.The results showed that dry matter intake, milk production,energy corrected milk (ECM) were not effected by increasing SBP substitution(P>0.05).The content and yields of milk protein, milk fat, milk lactose, total solids (TS) and solid non-fat (SNF) were unaffected by substituting SBP for ground corn (P>0.05).As the SBP level increased, the content of milk composition was a rising tendency.In blood metabolite, the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum glucose decreased when SBP was added(P<0.01 ).No significant difference in NEFA, BHBA

  13. Gestational diabetes blood sugar control effects on pregnancy outcome%妊娠期糖尿病孕妇血糖控制对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病孕妇血糖的控制对母体、围生儿并发症和妊娠结局的影响。方法:对定期产前检查的80例妊娠期糖尿病孕妇入院资料进行分析,医护人员将孕妇分为两组,每组有40例孕妇。对照组孕妇在妊娠期血糖控制不满意,试验组孕妇在妊娠期对血糖控制满意,比较两组的妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、剖宫产、巨大儿、早产等情况。结果:试验组孕妇中1例孕妇发生妊娠期高血压疾病,2例孕妇发生感染,1例孕妇产后出血,2例孕妇羊水过多,其剖宫产率为20%,均低于对照组孕妇(剖宫产率为37.5%);试验组孕妇中有2例孕妇早产儿,1例患儿胎儿窘迫,2例患儿新生儿低血糖,低于对照组孕妇。结论:临床上,医护人员要重视血糖筛查,及时诊断妊娠期糖尿病,有效控制血糖,能够有效的改善产妇妊娠结局,减轻孕妇及其新生儿围生期并发症的发生率。%Objective To investigate the maternal blood glucose control stage of diabetic pregnancy on maternal,perinatal complications and pregnancy outcome of perinatal.Methods Regular antenatal examination of pregnant women in 80 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women admitted to analyze data of pregnancy,staff will be pregnant women were divided into two groups,each group has 40 cases of pregnant women.The control group in pregnant women blood glucose control is notsatis factory,the experimental group during pregnancy on blood glucose controlwith amniotic fluid,compared with two groups of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy,excessive,cesarean section,premature delivery,fetal macrosomia etc.Results Theexperimental group 1 cases of pregnant women in pregnancy hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy,2 cases of pregnant women infected pregnant women,1 cases of postpartum hemorrhage,2 cases of pregnant women hydramnios,the cesarean section rate was

  14. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise on glucose transporter 4, blood sugar and insulin of golden hamster fed with high-fat diet%有氧运动对高脂膳食金黄地鼠葡萄糖转运蛋白4、血糖及胰岛素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伏英; 樊豪军; 崔晓莉; 马佳佳; 任士星

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of aerobic exercise on glucose transporter 4 ( GluT4 ) , blood sugar and insulin of golden hamster fed with high-fat diet. Methods Twenty healthy male golden hamsters were divided into control group ( n - 10) and exercise group(n = 10). 10% (mass fraction) high-fat diets were fed in two groups. The golden hamsters in exercise group were trained in treadmill for 10 weeks,while the golden hamsters in control group were fed in the original condition and without training in treadmill. After 10 weeks experiment, blood sugar, insulin and GluT4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were determined. Results After 10 weeks experiment, fasting blood glucose in exercise group [( 12. 89 ± 3. 35 ) mmol · L-1 ] was lower than that in control group [(19. 23 ±2. 45) mmol · L -1 ] , the difference had statistical significance(P <0. 05) ;the levels of insulin[ (20. 95 ± 6. 96) mmol · L-1 ], insulin resistance index( 2. 47 ± 0. 35) in exercise group were lower than those in control group [ (31. 70 ±6. 51 ) mmol · L-1,6. 39 ±0. 14,respectively] ,the differences had statistical significance ( P <0. 01) ;the expression of GluT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle in exercise group (0. 35 ±0. 06) was higher than that in control group(0. 10 ±0.05) ,the difference had statistical significance ( P <0.01) ,the expression of GluT4 mRNA in adipose tissues in exercise group(0.21 ±0.09) was higher than that in control group(0.09 ±0.03) also,the difference had statistical significance(P < 0. 01). The expression of GluT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle and in perirenal fat were negatively correlated with blood sugar and insulin in exercise group. Conclusion Aerobic exercise can reduce the levels of blood sugar and insulin, increase GluT4 mRNA expression and the transport to plasmalemma, improve the uptake and utilization of glucose in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissues, and improve the insulin resistance.%目的 探讨有氧运动对高脂膳食金

  16. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  17. Toxic effect of blood feeding in male mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood R Nikbakhtzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels, but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 µl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers.

  18. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  20. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  2. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. S

  3. Starches and their sugar derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P. (Societe Roquette Freres, 62 - Lestrem (France))

    1982-12-01

    After reviewing the composition of natural starches and their uses, the author deals with starch transformation processes, either by physical processing or chemical treatment. He describes particularly the various starch hydrolysis products together with their derivatives, amongst which are sought products which could replace sugar.

  4. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

  5. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar g

  6. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  8. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Monitoring Blood Sugar Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Test: Hemoglobin ... Center Word! Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test (Hemoglobin A1c) Medical ...

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that the food which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. High LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that, although no evidence was provided for an LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of any of the single food constituents in Limicol® at the proposed conditions of use or as to how the ingredients individually or in any combination could contribute to the claimed effect and despite the lack of a dose-response relationship observed in one human intervention study, three human intervention studies conducted by two independent research groups showed an effect of the combination of food ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol

  10. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  11. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  12. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...

  13. Exogenous CNT regulation research on dynamic variation of blood fat,sugar and protein in Haerbin white rabbits%外源CNT对哈白兔体内CNT和GH及瘦素动态变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永峰; 昝林森; 刘登科

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The aim of this study was to find out exogenous CNT's regulation effect on the dynamic variation law of endogenous CNT,Leptin and GH in animals.【Method】 In this study,Haerbin white rabbits were selected as object,and four different treatment groups:control group,cGMP group,cAMP group and cGMP+cAMP group,were set in the experiment.Then we exogenously injected cGMP,cAMP and cGMP+cAMP(1∶1) into rabbits'blood and took blood samples 1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36,45,55,65,75,85 and 95 h later.Finally,Radio-immunity method was used to determine the content of CNT,Leptin and GH in different treatment groups.【Result】 Injecting cGMP alone could increase endogenous cGMP significantly,and the effect was optimum after 45 h of injection.cAMP injection could also increase endogenous cAMP,and the effect was durative in 4 d or later.Both injecting CNT alone and injecting the cAMP+cGMP,cAMP level was 6% higher than injecting cGMP.Furthermore,cGMP had a little positive effect on Leptin,but cAMP had obvious negative effect.cGMP+cAMP had a middle effect between cGMP and cAMP.Leptin content deceased obviously 55 h within injecting cAMP,then it went back to normal.In addition,cGMP,cAMP,cGMP+cAMP had significant positive effect on GH,and cGMP had more obvious effect.【Conclusion】 Dynamic variation laws of cGMP,cAMP,Leptin and GH provide beneficial theoretical basis in regulating and controlling animal physiological level using exogenous CNT.%【目的】研究外源性环核苷酸(CNT)对动物血浆中内源环鸟苷酸(cGMP)和环腺苷酸(cAMP)、生长激素(GH)及瘦素动态变化规律的调控作用。【方法】以哈白兔为试验动物,设置对照组(注射生理盐水)、cGMP组、cAMP组和cGMP+cAMP组,后3个处理组分别外源注射cGMP、cAMP及其等量混合物的腹腔注射液,在注射后1,3,6,10,15,21,28,36,45,55,65,75,85,95h采集血样,分别运用放射免疫法测定动物内源cGMP、cAMP、瘦

  14. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  16. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  17. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  18. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  19. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate

  20. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2013-01-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counte...

  1. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  2. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  3. Effects of invert sugar and electrolytes injection on the blood glucose and electrolyte of patients with gastrointestinal cancer during peri-operation period%转化糖电解质注射液对胃肠道肿瘤患者围术期血糖及电解质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅军; 刘海亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of invert sugar and electrolytes injection on the blood glucose and electrolyte of patients with gastrointestinal cancer during peri-operation period.Methods One hundred and sixteen cases of patients with gastrointestinal operation were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group and then were treated with sugar and electrolytes and glucose injection in 10% of 500 ml.The glucose,electrolytes and blood uric acid levels before transfusion and after infusion in 0,1,2 h and complications in two groups were obeserved.Results The blood glucose and fluctuated K + level in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group during operation period; other indices fluctuated in different levels,but had no statistically significance (P > 0.05) ; no serious complications occured in two groups and safety were similar.Conclusion The effects of invert sugar and electrolytes injection on blood glucose and the level of potassium of patients with gastrointestinal tumor is optimistic.%目的 观察转化糖电解质注射液对于胃肠道肿瘤患者围术期血糖及电解质的影响.方法 将116例胃肠道手术患者完全随机分为观察组和对照组,各58例,分别给予转化糖电解质和10%葡萄糖注射液500 ml静脉滴注,观察2组患者给药前及给药后0、1、2h的血糖、电解质及血尿酸水平,并记录并发症发生率.结果 ①观察组患者给药后0、1h血糖[分别为(6.7±1.1)、(6.0±0.9) mmol/L]均较给药前[(4.9±0.5) mmol/L]明显升高(P<0.05);给药后2h血糖[(5.1±0.7) mmol/L]接近给药前水平(P>0.05);对照组患者给药后0、1、2h血糖[分别为(9.8±1.9)、(8.3±1.3)、(6.9±1.1) mmol/L]均较给药前[(5.0±0.5)mmol/L]明显升高(P<0.05);给药后0、1、2h,观察组血糖水平均明显低于对照组同时间点,组间差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).②观察组给药后血K+、Na+、C1ˉ、Ca2+

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  5. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.

  6. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  8. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  10. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...

  11. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  12. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  13. Clinical Observation of Blood Sugar Uncontrolled Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Treated by Probucol%普罗布考对血糖控制欠佳的非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变患者的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠平; 刘江华; 姜德咏; 张入铭; 蒋苏平

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究普罗布考对血糖控制欠佳的2型糖尿病非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变患者血脂、氧化应激指标、视功能及眼底形态的影响,为血糖控制欠佳的非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变患者探寻治疗方法.方法 纳入47例患有非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变且早期血糖控制欠佳的2型糖尿病患者91眼,随机分为对照组和治疗组:对照组进行强化降血糖、血压治疗,治疗组在强化治疗基础上加用普罗布考0.375 g,每天2次,口服,总疗程为12个月.治疗前后两组患者均进行了血脂、血清总抗氧化能力、超氧化物歧化酶、丙二醛、视力、眼底及眼底荧光血管造影检查.结果 所有47例91眼完成研究,普罗布考显著降低了患者总胆固醇、甘油三酯、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平,显著提高患者血清总抗氧化能力、超氧化物歧化酶,降低丙二醛,显著提高患者视力(P<0.01),明显改善患者眼底微血管瘤、出血及渗出,且显著降低患者眼底黄斑水肿(P<0.05),对于减少毛细血管无灌注区也有一定作用.结 论普罗布考对于血糖控制欠佳的非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变患者除了降脂作用外,还可提高患者抗氧化应激能力,改善患者视功能,降低患者视网膜的微血管病变及降低患者黄斑水肿发生率,提示对于血糖控制欠佳的非增殖型糖尿病视网膜病变患者可应用普罗布考进行治疗.%Aim To study the influence of probucol on the blood sugar uncontrolled type 2 diabetic mellitus patients with non-proliferative diabetic non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) about blood lipids, oxidative stress indicators, visual function and retinal morphology, so as to search treatment method for these patients. Methods 47 type 2 diabetes patients with 91 NPDR eyes and poor glycemic control at early stage were included. Patients were randomly divided into control and treatment groups: the control group treated

  14. Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students%减肥运动处方对超重肥胖大学生体脂、血糖与抵抗素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏友萍; 张晶; 江双双; 孙骏; 郑晨飞; 王克; 钱晶晶; 聂刘旺

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨减肥运动处方对超重肥胖大学生的体脂、血糖与抵抗素影响.方法 研究对象为单纯性超重肥胖的大一、大二学生,男性9人,女性13人,对其进行身体形态与机能检查、运动能力测试后确定功能能力(FC),根据不同对象确定减肥目标、运动项目,运动强度定为FC的60% ~70%及RPE在13 ~15级,每次运动时间为60min,运动频率为5次/周,8周后测定相关指标.结果 通过8周减肥运动处方的实施,实验前后超重肥胖的男、女大学生的体重、BMI、WHR、体脂%、体表面积等相关肥胖指标显著下降(P<0.01);实验前后的体脂重量、血糖显著降低(P<0.01);实验前后血抵抗素男性显著下降(P<0.01)、女性有所下降(P<0.05),通过Bivariate Correlation进行Pearson Correlation相关性分析,男性血抵抗素与BMI、腰臀比相关(P<0.05),女性无相关性.结论 该减肥运动处方安全、有效,在无饮食控制下实施8周能有效改善体重、BMI、体脂%、脂肪重量、WHR、体表面积及身体密度,取得较好的减肥效果,能降低血糖和血抵抗素水平.%Objective To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass,blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students.Methods Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior.The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape,physical function and exercise capacity.The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects.The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE.Exercise with each time was 60min,exercise frequency was 5 times perweek,energy metabolism was 500-600kcal at a time.The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks.Results Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks,before and after the experiment in the males and females group.The weight

  15. Can Protein, Probiotics Help with Blood Sugar Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no great harm. "Just having one container of probiotic yogurt is not going to be of consequence to anybody," he said. At the same time, Deedwania noted that in the case of the probiotic study, the participants were asked to follow an ...

  16. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  17. 围手术期护理对胃癌合并糖尿病患者血糖及并发症的影响%The Influence of Peri Operation Period Nursing to Diabetic Patients with Gastric Cancer’s Blood Sugar and Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾媛

    2012-01-01

      Objective :To investigate the diabetic patients with gastric cancer peri operation period nursing methods,analysis of nursing intervention on blood glucose and complications.Methods :80 patients in our hospital in patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes as the object of study,were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 40 cases in each group,the control group was given routine nursing,observation group on the basis of conventional nursing was performed before the operation,postoperative nursing intervention,two groups were observed in patients with postoperative blood sugar and complications rate.Results :Two groups of patients before one day glucose had no significant difference,postoperative observation group blood glucose was significantly lower than the control group,and the difference was significant(P<0.05);observation group complication rate was 10.0%,the control group the complication rate was 40.0%,the observation group complication rate was lower than that in the control group,group comparison had the difference(P<0.05). Conclusion :To strengthen in diabetic patients with gastric cancer peri operation period nursing of patients,reducing blood glucose fluctuation,to reduce the postoperative complications is essential.%  目的:探讨胃癌合并糖尿病患者围手术期护理方法,分析护理干预对患者血糖及并发症的影响.方法:选择笔者所在医院80例胃癌合并糖尿病患者为研究对象,将其随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,对照组给予常规护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上进行术前、术后的护理干预,观察两组患者术后血糖及并发症发生率.结果:两组患者术前1 d 血糖比较差异无统计学意义,术后观察组的血糖明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组并发症发生率为10.0%,对照组并发症发生率为40.0%,观察组并发症发生率明显低于对照组,差异

  18. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  19. Sugar consumption among Canadians of all ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier

    2011-09-01

    According to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, Canadians consumed an average of 110 grams (26 teaspoons) of sugar a day, approximately 20% of their total energy intake. While over 30% of this sugar came from vegetables and fruit, 35% came from the "other" foods category, which consists of items such as soft drinks, salad dressings and candy. The top ten sources of sugar accounted for approximately 85% of daily sugar intake. Beverages (milk, fruit juice, fruit drinks and regular soft drinks) represented 44% of the sugar consumed by children and adolescents, and 35% of that consumed by adults. Diabetics' average sugar intake was less than that of non-diabetics, but at 17%, exceeded the recommended 10% cut-off of total daily calories.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  1. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  2. Separation of high-class alkanols and high-class eicosanoic acids in sugar cane wax and activity of reducing blood cholesterol%蔗蜡高级烷酸和高级烷醇分离与降胆固醇的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方欣; 张玉诺; 李晓愚; 谢娟; 王敏; 刘先俊

    2007-01-01

    级烷酸高剂量组,每组11只.高级烷醇高、低剂量组实验鼠灌服5,50 mg/(kg·d)高级烷醇,高级烷酸高、低剂量组实验鼠分别给予分别给予灌服20,200 mg/kg·d高级烷酸,阴性对照组及空白组分别给予灌服等体积的0.3%羧甲基纤维素钠及蒸馏水,均为1次/d.连续给药30 d,最后1次给药16 h后,于麻醉状态下心脏采血,取血清测定三酰甘油、总胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇.主要观察指标:①分离的高级烷醇混合物、高级烷醇混合物中主要成分含量的百分比.②实验鼠用药前后血胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白和三酰甘油水平.结果:纳入实验鼠65只均进入结果分析.①通过气相色谱分析分析表明,在高级烷醇混合物中以28烷醇(C28醇)含量最多(占73.6%),其主要几种高级烷醇分别为C26醇(5.3%)、C30醇(6.2%)、C32醇(5.1%)4种高级烷醇总量为90.2%.在高级烷酸混合物中,以28碳酸(C28酸)含量最多(占46.6%),其余几种主要高级烷酸分别为C30酸(16.7%)、C32酸(6.8%)、C34酸(9.3%).4种高级烷酸总量为79.3%.②高级烷醇高、低剂量组及高级烷酸高、低剂量组实验鼠血清总胆固醇水平分别为(1.46±0.27),(1.66±0.33),(1.44±0.25),(2.16±0.52)mmol/L,低于阴性对照组[(2.52±0.83)mmol/L,P<0.01].高血高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平分别为(0.73±0.09),(0.71±0.07),(0.79±0.10),(0,70±0.08)mmol/L,高于阴性对照组[(0.58±0.13)mmol/L,P<0.05~0.01].结论:从国产甘蔗蜡中分离的高级烷醇混合物、高级烷酸混合物均有明显的降低血总胆固醇作用,对降低血三酰甘油效果不明显.%BACKGROUND:As a by-product in sugar industry, sugar cane wax has been widely used in non-medical field. Some researches indicate that sugar cane wax plays a great role in reducing blood cholesterol; however, the therapeutical effect and clinical application should be studied further.OBJECTIVE: To separate the high-class eicosanoic acid and the high-class alkanols, which are suitable

  3. Effects of invert sugar and electrolytes injection on the blood glucose and electrolyte of pa-tients with colorectal cancer during operation%转化糖电解质注射液对结直肠肿瘤患者术中电解质及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭智星; 孙莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察转化糖注射液对结直肠肿瘤患者术中电解质及血糖的影响。方法60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级择期行全麻下结直肠癌根治术的患者,随机分为两组,观察组(转化糖注射液组)和对照组(乳酸钠林格氏液组),每组30例。患者入室后开通中心静脉即开始输注:治疗组输注10%转化糖注射液250ml,对照组输注乳酸钠林格注射液250ml,输注时间30分钟。分别于输液前(T0),液体滴完0分钟(T1)、30分钟(T2)、1小时( T3)、2小时( T4)抽取动脉血,行血气分析,记录电解质,血糖结果。结果观察组在T1、T2、T3时血糖较T0明显升高(P0.05);对照组血糖在输注乳酸钠林格氏液前后无明显变化。观察组患者给药后各时点钾离子水平无明显变化,钠离子水平较给药前明显降低,但均在正常范围内。观察组患者血糖水平在T1、T2、T3时点明显高于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.05);观察组患者钾离子水平在T1、T2、T3、T4时点明显高于对照组,钠离子水平在T1、T2、T3、T4时点明显低于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.05)。结论转化糖电解质注射液能安全用于结直肠癌患者能量供给和电解质的平衡。%Objective To observe the effects of invert sugar and electrolytes injection on the blood glucose and elec-trolyte of patients with colorectal cancer during operation. Method 60 patients with colorectal cancer operation( ASAⅠ~Ⅱ) were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,30 cases in each group. Blood glu-cose and electrolytes before drops and 0 min, 30min,1 h and 2 h after drops were recorded. Result The level of blood glucose increased in observation group in T1、T2、T3 after infusion(P<0. 05), but it almost recovered to the normal level in T4 . The blood glucose of the control group were not significant change after infusion. Na+level in ob-servation group after drops were significantly lower than those before infusion and those in

  4. Global welfare effects of transgenic sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    DILLEN Koen; Demont, Matty; Tollens, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Although the EU is still in a quasi moratorium stage concerning GM crops, doors for GM crops in the sugar industry seem to open. Herbicide tolerant sugar beet could mean a boost for the sugar beet sector. The ex ante impact assessment shows a created welfare of 15 billion during 1996-2014. The rule of thumb found in ex post impact studies of a sharing out between downstream and upstream sector of 2/3 versus 1/3 is seems to be applicable to this case as well. The sugar beet sector and consumer...

  5. Host preferences of blood-feeding mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Verhulst, N.O.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes use plant sugars and vertebrate blood as nutritional resources. When searching for blood hosts, some mosquitoes express preferential behavior for selected species. Here, we review the available knowledge on host preference, as this is expected to affect the life history and transmission

  6. Influence of heroin withdrawal, detoxication and relapse on islet B cells and blood sugar concentration in rat%大鼠海洛因戒断、脱毒和复吸对胰岛B细胞及血糖浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晶; 梁文妹; 洪艳; 夏白娟; 胡赟; 李一欣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morphological and functional changes of the islet B-cells and glucose level response to heroin withdrawal induced by naloxone, methadone detoxification treatment, and relapse. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normal control group (NCG) and an experiment group (EG). The EG was further divided into a heroin withdrawal group (HWG), a methadone detoxication group (MDG), and a heroin relapse group (HRG). Pancreas was drawn from each group. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to detect the expression of insulin. Radioimmu-noassay (RIA) were used to measure insulin level in the blood. Fast glucose was tested by glucose meter. Results: Immuno-histochemical staining results revealed that less insulin expressed in B cells of islets from heroin withdrawal, detoxification, and relapse rats than that in controls. Compared with controls, the insulin levels were significantly decreased in detoxification and relapse rats. Blood glucose was significantly increased response to heroin withdrawal induced by naloxone, and no differences were found during detoxification treatment and relapse compared to controls. Conclusion: During heroin abstinence, detoxification, and relapse, B cells participate in maintaining the body's blood sugar homeostasis via changing synthesis and secretion insulia%目的:探讨在大鼠海洛因戒断、脱毒治疗和复吸期间,胰岛B细胞发生的形态和功能变化以及血中葡萄糖浓度的改变.方法:正常雄性SD大鼠,随机分为正常对照组和实验组,实验组分别建立海洛因依赖戒断模型、美沙酮脱毒治疗模型和海洛因复吸模型.免疫组织化学显色、图像分析观察胰岛B细胞在戒断、脱毒和复吸期间的形态改变;放射免疫检测血清胰岛素水平的变化.血糖仪测各组空腹血糖水平的变化.结果:光镜下,戒断、脱毒和复吸期间胰岛B细胞免疫反应显色均变浅.放射免疫检测血中胰岛

  7. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

  8. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  9. Sweetened beverage intake in association to energy and sugar consumption and cardiometabolic markers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferidi, P; Millett, C; Laverty, A A

    2017-01-23

    Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are promoted as healthy alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce sugar intake, but their effects on weight control and glycaemia have been debated. This study examines associations of SSBs and ASBs with energy and sugar intake and cardiometabolic measures. One thousand six hundred eighty-seven children aged 4-18 participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008/9-2011/12) in the UK. Linear regression was used to examine associations between SSBs and ASBs and energy and sugar, overall and from solid foods and beverages, and body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and blood analytes. Fixed effects linear regression examined within-person associations with energy and sugar. Compared with non-consumption, SSB consumption was associated with higher sugar intake overall (6.1%; 4.2, 8.1) and ASB consumption with higher sugar intake from solid foods (1.7%; 0.5, 2.9) but not overall, mainly among boys. On SSB consumption days, energy and sugar intakes were higher (216 kcal; 163, 269 and 7.0%; 6.2, 7.8), and on ASB consumption days, sugar intake was lower (-1.0%; -1.8, -0.1) compared with those on non-consumption days. SSB and ASB intakes were associated with higher levels of blood glucose (SSB: 0.30 mmol L(-1) ; 0.11, 0.49 and ASB: 0.24 mmol L(-1) ; 0.06, 0.43) and SSB intake with higher triglycerides (0.29 mmol L(-1) ; 0.13, 0.46). No associations were found with other outcomes. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with higher sugar intake and both SSBs and ASBs with a less healthy cardiometabolic profile. These findings add to evidence that health policy should discourage all sweetened beverage consumption. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Effect of Orthodontic Treatment on Blood Sugar Lever of Periodontitis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%糖尿病患者牙周病的正畸治疗对牙周状况及血糖水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ivestigate the effect of the orthodontic treatment on blood sugar level of the periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 12 patints with diabetes and periodontitis were selected from patients of our hospital after supragingival and subgingival scaling. After initial periodontal treatment, the severity degree of gingivitis, tooth mobility, probing depth, alveolarbone loss, and glycosylated hemoglobin level of the 12 pateints were assessed. Result: The bleeding on probing, probing depth and gly cosy lated hemoglobin level were reduced in all the patients after treatment. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment on periodontal disease can basically achieve the individual normal occlusion, masticatory function. It can improve metabolism to some extent in patients with diabetes mellitus, but the effect may relate to the control of the inflammation of the periodontal.%目的:探讨牙周病的正畸治疗对糖尿病患者的牙周炎症控制与血糖水平的影响.方法:选择12例患有2型糖尿病的牙周炎患者先行牙周洁、刮治术,待牙周组织炎症消除后再行正畸治疗,并对牙龈炎的严重度、牙齿松动度、牙周袋探诊深度、牙槽骨吸收度及糖化血红蛋白水平进行评价.结果:通过正畸治疗,探诊出血、探诊深度明显减少.糖化血红蛋白从(7.87±1.12)%降低为(7.02±0.97)%.结论:糖尿病患者的牙周炎症通过正畸治疗显著好转,基本达到个别(牙合)正常、恢复咀嚼功能,并能在一定程度上改善糖代谢水平,且改善的效果可能与牙周炎症控制有关.

  11. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  13. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the int

  14. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  15. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the grow

  16. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  17. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  18. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  19. Blood group change in acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Rakul K.; Prakash, N. P.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood group antigens are either sugars or proteins found attached to the red blood cell membrane. ABO blood group antigens are the most clinically important antigens because they are the most immunogenic. As red blood cell antigens are inherited traits, they are usually not altered throughout the life of an individual. There have been occasional case reports of ABO blood group antigen change in malignant conditions. We report two such cases of ABO antigen alteration associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These patients had suppression of their blood group antigens during their leukemic phase, and the antigens were reexpressed when the patients attained remission.

  20. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  1. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  2. A single amino acid change converts the sugar sensor SGLT3 into a sugar transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3 does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For this reason SGLT3 was suggested to be a sugar sensor rather than a transporter. Despite 70% amino acid identity between hSGLT3 and hSGLT1, their sugar transport, apparent sugar affinities, and sugar specificity differ greatly. Residue 457 is important for the function of SGLT1 and mutation at this position in hSGLT1 causes glucose-galactose malabsorption. Moreover, the crystal structure of vibrio SGLT reveals that the residue corresponding to 457 interacts directly with the sugar molecule. We thus wondered if this residue could account for some of the functional differences between SGLT1 and SGLT3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mutated the glutamate at position 457 in hSGLT3 to glutamine, the amino acid present in all SGLT1 proteins, and characterized the mutant. Surprisingly, we found that E457Q-hSGLT3 transported sugar, had the same stoichiometry as SGLT1, and that the sugar specificity and apparent affinities for most sugars were similar to hSGLT1. We also show that SGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in a living organism. We expressed hSGLT3 and E457Q-hSGLT3 in C. elegans sensory neurons and found that animals sensed glucose in an hSGLT3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrate that hSGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in vivo and that mutating a single amino acid converts this sugar sensor into a sugar transporter similar to SGLT1.

  3. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  4. Your Guide To Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing ingredients. ● Choose fruit or vegetables, instead of salty snack foods. Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood ... fat-free, no sugar added Totals Substitution To Reduce Sodium to 1,500 mg 220 3 / 4 cup ...

  5. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  6. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  7. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  8. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  9. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Kanisek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya don’̉t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EU aiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – Srijem County on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is produced per hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

  10. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  11. Look at the picture “dialogue”blood sugar levels in patients with incipient type 2 diabetes%“看图对话”对初发2型糖尿病患者血糖水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯宗萍; 李雪峰; 胡海霞; 曾玉琴; 蒲卉明

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究“看图对话”对初发2型糖尿病患者血糖水平的影响。方法将160例初发2型糖尿病患者按照随机分组法分成实验组和对照组,每组各80例。实验组采用国际糖尿病联盟推出的4幅“看图对话”进行健康教育,对照组采用传统的多媒体和发放健康教育资料进行健康教育。安排8位患者为一组,每周进行1次,每次60 min,连续治疗8周后进行评定,观察干预前后患者空腹血糖、餐后2 h 血糖、糖化血红蛋白以及患者对治疗依从性的影响。结果健康教育前,2组患者 FPG、2 hPG、HbA1c 比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。健康教育后,实验组 FBG 为(6.2±2.4)mmol/L,2hPG 为(7.8±2.1)mmol/L,HbA1c 为(6.3±1.5)%,对照组80例患者实施教育后 FBG 为(8.3±3.2) mmol/L,2hPG 为(10.1±3.9) mmol/L,HbA1c 为(7.5±1.8)%,实验组明显优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01)。健康教育前,2组患者饮食、运动、按时服药、自我监测和定期复查的依从性差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。健康教育后,试验组饮食、运动、按时服药、自我监测和定期复查的依从性明显提高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论“看图对话”对初发2型糖尿病患者血糖水平有明显的改善,且能提高患者对治疗的依从性。%Objective Study the picture “dialogue” blood sugar levels in patients with incipient type 2 diabe-tes.Methods 160 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients were divided into groups according to randomized experimental group and control group,80 cases in each group.The experimental group the International Diabetes Federation launched four “plug dialogue”health education control group using traditional multimedia health education materials and disseminate health education.Arrange eight

  12. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  14. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many processed foods and other products, including chocolate, candy, frozen desserts, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash, baked ... sugar substitutes, generally don't offer the same health benefits as do whole foods, such as fruits and ...

  15. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  16. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  17. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Avena; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed....

  18. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  19. Difference thresholds for added sugar in chocolate-flavoured milk: Recommendations for gradual sugar reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denize; Reis, Felipe; Deliza, Rosires; Rosenthal, Amauri; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2016-11-01

    Reducing the concentration of added sugar in processed foods is one of the most realistic strategies to reduce the intake of this nutrient in the short-term. In order to be effective, gradual sugar reduction strategies need to determine the maximum sugar reduction that can be unnoticed by consumers. In this context, the present work aimed at providing recommendations for gradual sugar reduction in chocolate-flavoured milk by determining difference thresholds for added sugar and evaluating consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of reduced-sugar products. Five studies were conducted with 50 consumers to determine five sequential difference thresholds. In each study consumers completed six paired-comparison tests. Each pair was composed of a reference chocolate-flavoured milk and a sample that was reduced in added sugar from the reference. Difference thresholds, corresponding to the smallest reduction in sugar concentration that is noticed by consumers, were determined using survival analysis. Then, a study was carried to with 100 consumers to evaluate their sensory and hedonic perception of chocolate-flavoured milk samples with different added sugar concentrations. Results suggested that sequential sugar reductions can be set at 6.7% without affecting consumers' sensory and hedonic perception. Sugar reduction in chocolate-flavoured milk without affecting consumers' perception seems feasible and easy to implement. The approach of the present work could be extended to design recommendations for gradual reduction of the added sugar concentration of other industrialized products, contributing to the development of more healthful products that meet current nutritional recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water an...

  1. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  2. Transfer characteristics of elements related to blood sugar from cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja to simulated gastric fluid by ICP- MS%青钱柳叶血糖相关元素向人工胃液迁移的ICP-MS法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李品

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To discuss the dissolution content and transfer ratio of the elements related to blood sugar (ERBS) from Cyclocarya paliurus( Batal. ) Iljinskaja in simulated gastric fluid, and provide the basis for research and resource development of the plants. Methods: The ERBS elements were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP - MS) after extracted by simulated gastric fluid water, taking standard reference materials ( GBW -07602 and SRM - 1515) as a control. Results: Compared with standard reference values, the recovery of the measured 8 ERBS elements in standard reference materials was 92.3% ~ 108%. The transfer contents and ratio of 8 kinds of ERBS from the plant leaves in simulated gastric fluid were higher than which in the water despite in boiled water or microwave condition ( except Lithium). The transfer ratio of element of Vanadium, iron and Lithium was 6.31%, 11.2% and 23.0%, respectively. The transfer ratios of other elements were from 42.0% to 76.7%, which was much higher than their dissolution in water (less than 20% ). Conclusion: The current method was accurate and reliable determination. The ERBS from Cyclocarya paliurus( Batal. ) Iljinskaja has a good dissolution results in simulated gastric fluid. The plants leaves could be prepared the form of solid for people with diabetes as supplement ERBS elements.%目的:探讨胡桃科植物青钱柳的嫩叶中血糖相关微量元素(ERBS)在人工胃液中的溶出特性,为其降血糖物质基础研究和资源开发提供依据.方法:采用人工模拟胃液和水作为萃取介质,微波消解样品,电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定8种ERBS元素含量.以标准参考物质(GBW-07602和SRM-1515)作对照,确认待测元素的同位素信号.结果:与标准参考值比较,所测标准参考物质中8种ERBS元素的回收率在92.3%~108%之间.人工胃液中ERBS元素的溶出量和溶出率均比以水为溶媒的微波萃取液和

  3. Effects of low-fat diet on body mass, blood lipids and sugar control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱华; 尚艳菲; 辛波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low-fat diet on body mass,blood lipids and sugar in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). Methods 120 obese patients with T2DM were randomized to the two groups, research groups60 obese patients with T2MD got routine treatment of low-fat associated with biguanides diet,control group:60 obese patients with T2MD were advised on the treatment of the routine diabetic diet. Outcome measures of body mass, HbA1 c, blood pressure and blood lipids were obtained before and after treatment. Results After one year of treatment,body mass and HbA, c in research group reduced by (6. 6± 1. 4) kg and (2.8±0. 3) % ,and those in control group reduced by (3. 4±1. 2) kg,(l. 0±0. 2)%( P <0. 05). Before treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (4.44±0. 82) mmol/L and (2. 56±0. 61) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 38±0. 84) mmoI/L and (2. 54± 0. 70) mmol/L. After treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (3.90±0. 73) mmol/L,(2. 04±0.62) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 26 ± 0. 72) mmol/L, (2. 48 ± 0. 65) mmol/L, and two groups showed statistical significance after treatment P <0. 05). Conclusion Low-fat diet can improve body mass, HbA,c,TC and LDL-C of T2DM patients and curative effect is better than the conventional control group, and it is an effective way in the treatment of obese patients with T2DM.%目的 观察低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂和血糖的影响.方法 120例肥胖2型糖尿病患者随机分配至低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(实验组)和常规糖尿病饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(对照组),各60倒.在治疗前及治疗1年后检测两组患者的体质量(BM)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血压和血脂.结果 治疗1年后,实验组与对照组BM分别下降(6.6±1.4)kg和(3.4±1.2)kg,HbA1c分别下降(2.8±0.3)%和(1.0±0.2)%(P<0.05);实验组治疗前总胆固醇(TC)为(4.44±0.82) mmol/L、低密度

  4. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  5. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  6. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  7. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  8. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  9. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  10. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  11. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  12. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  13. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  14. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  16. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  17. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  18. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  19. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  20. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  1. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  2. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  3. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-10-11

    The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages diminishes weight gain. We conducted an 18-month trial involving 641 primarily normal-weight children from 4 years 10 months to 11 years 11 months of age. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 250 ml (8 oz) per day of a sugar-free, artificially sweetened beverage (sugar-free group) or a similar sugar-containing beverage that provided 104 kcal (sugar group). Beverages were distributed through schools. At 18 months, 26% of the children had stopped consuming the beverages; the data from children who did not complete the study were imputed. The z score for the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) increased on average by 0.02 SD units in the sugar-free group and by 0.15 SD units in the sugar group; the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference was -0.21 to -0.05. Weight increased by 6.35 kg in the sugar-free group as compared with 7.37 kg in the sugar group (95% CI for the difference, -1.54 to -0.48). The skinfold-thickness measurements, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass also increased significantly less in the sugar-free group. Adverse events were minor. When we combined measurements at 18 months in 136 children who had discontinued the study with those in 477 children who completed the study, the BMI z score increased by 0.06 SD units in the sugar-free group and by 0.12 SD units in the sugar group (P=0.06). Masked replacement of sugar-containing beverages with noncaloric beverages reduced weight gain and fat accumulation in normal-weight children. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and others; DRINK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00893529.).

  4. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  5. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols for use as a substitute for sugar in human food consumption, or to be refined and re...

  6. Process innovation in the sugar industry : Chromatographic sugar separation using SMB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, P.; Vroon, R.; Timmer, J.; Boon, F.; Bruijn, J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The chromatographic separation of sugar from raw juice was identified as a promising alternative for the current juice purification. Simulated moving bed technology (SMB) was chosen as the most suitable technology on the basis of the purification, limited degree of dilution and increased sugar

  7. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  8. Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Guillem, Karine; Vandaele, Youna

    2013-07-01

    To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories. The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

  9. Sugar transporters in efficient utilization of mixed sugar substrates: current knowledge and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Omumasaba, Crispinus A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in production of transportation fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, most desirably through biological fermentation. Considerable effort has been expended to develop efficient biocatalysts that convert sugars derived from lignocellulose directly to value-added products. Glucose, the building block of cellulose, is the most suitable fermentation substrate for industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Other sugars including xylose, arabinose, mannose, and galactose that comprise hemicellulose are generally less efficient substrates in terms of productivity and yield. Although metabolic engineering including introduction of functional pentose-metabolizing pathways into pentose-incompetent microorganisms has provided steady progress in pentose utilization, further improvements in sugar mixture utilization by microorganisms is necessary. Among a variety of issues on utilization of sugar mixtures by the microorganisms, recent studies have started to reveal the importance of sugar transporters in microbial fermentation performance. In this article, we review current knowledge on diversity and functions of sugar transporters, especially those associated with pentose uptake in microorganisms. Subsequently, we review and discuss recent studies on engineering of sugar transport as a driving force for efficient bioconversion of sugar mixtures derived from lignocellulose.

  10. REPEATABILITY OF THE SUGAR ABSORPTION TEST, USING LACTULOSE AND MANNITOL, FOR MEASURING INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY FOR SUGARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; KOKKE, FTM; MULDER, AM; VANDEBROEK, WGM; MULDER, CJJ; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Differential sugar-absorption tests for measuring intestinal permeability for sugars have been studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. Their use in general practice has been hampered by a lack of data on reference values and repeatability of the test and the laboratory assay. In this stud

  11. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  12. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created fro

  13. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  14. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  15. Searching and optimizing structure ensembles for complex flexible sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junchao; Margulis, Claudio J; Case, David A

    2011-10-05

    NMR restrictions are suitable to specify the geometry of a molecule when a single well-defined global free energy minimum exists that is significantly lower than other local minima. Carbohydrates are quite flexible, and therefore, NMR observables do not always correlate with a single conformer but instead with an ensemble of low free energy conformers that can be accessed by thermal fluctuations. In this communication, we describe a novel procedure to identify and weight the contribution to the ensemble of local minima conformers based on comparison to residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) or other NMR observables, such as scalar couplings. A genetic algorithm is implemented to globally minimize the R factor comparing calculated RDCs to experiment. This is done by optimizing the weights of different conformers derived from the exhaustive local minima conformational search program, fast sugar structure prediction software (FSPS). We apply this framework to six human milk sugars, LND-1, LNF-1, LNF-2, LNF-3, LNnT, and LNT, and are able to determine corresponding population weights for the ensemble of conformers. Interestingly, our results indicate that in all cases the RDCs can be well represented by only a few most important conformers. This confirms that several, but not all of the glycosidic linkages in histo-blood group "epitopes" are quite rigid.

  16. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  17. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  18. Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume.

  19. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H; Savage, Jessica A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2013-06-06

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency.

  20. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  1. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  2. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  3. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers consumption should be established in infancy, with the aim of preventing negative health effects in later...... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  4. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers consumption should be established in infancy, with the aim of preventing negative health effects in later...... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  5. Adiposopathy: sick fat causes high blood sugar, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2005-01-01

    Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity) and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The most common term for the metabolic consequences of adiposopathy is currently 'the metabolic syndrome'. Drug usage to treat the metabolic syndrome has focused on the safety and efficacy of treatments directed towards individual components of the metabolic syndrome, and not so much upon adiposopathy itself. However, enough is known about the pathophysiology of adiposopathy to propose diagnostic criteria. Regulatory issues are important obstacles to the research and development of new drug treatments for the metabolic syndrome. It is hoped that these obstacles can, to some extent, be addressed and overcome by clearly defining and increasing our understanding of adiposopathy.

  6. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  7. Sugar Addiction: The State of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Westwater, Margaret L.; Fletcher, Paul C; Ziauddeen, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1229-6 Purpose As obesity rates continue to climb, the notion that overconsumption reflects an underlying ‘food addiction’ (FA) has become increasingly influential. An increasingly popular theory is that sugar acts as an addictive agent, eliciting neurobiological changes similar to those seen in drug addiction. In this paper, we review the evidence in support of sugar addi...

  8. Functional analysis of anomeric sugar kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Louis P; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-09-02

    Anomeric sugar kinases perform fundamental roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Under- or overexpression of these enzymes, or mutations causing functional impairments can give rise to diseases such as galactosaemia and so the study of this class of kinase is of critical importance. In addition, anomeric sugar kinases which are naturally promiscuous, or have been artificially made so, may find application in the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates (for example, antibiotics), and natural or unnatural oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological functions of these enzymes, the tools which have been developed to investigate them, and the current frontiers in their study.

  9. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis, and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, we discuss the current understanding...... are given on some of the open questions of this research field....

  10. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  11. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...

  12. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  13. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  14. Sugars and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain a large variety of organic compounds of prebiotic interest, which include amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, and sugar derivatives. The presence of these compounds strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. Among the sugar derivatives reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites, only one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) was found, together with a variety of sugar alcohols and sugar acids containing up to 6 carbon atoms, including sugar acid derivatives of the biological sugars ribose and glucose. On the other hand, laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature have been routinely carried out in the past 15 years. These studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics, supporting a scenario in which molecules of prebiotic interest can form in extra-terrestrial environments.

  15. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  16. Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cigarette blend sugar and acetaldehyde formed in its smoke is a matter of current regulatory interest. This paper provides a re-analysis of data from 83 European commercial cigarettes studied in the 1970s and more modern data on sugar levels and acetaldehyde yields from a series of 97 European commercial cigarettes containing both inherent sugar and in other cases inherent and added sugar. It also provides data from 65 experimental cigarette products made from single curing grades of tobacco, having a wide range of inherent sugar levels but no added sugar.

  17. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  18. 顿服含缓释淀粉的肠内营养乳剂对颅脑损伤患者血糖水平的影响:120例随机对照临床研究%Influence of enteral nutrition emulsion containing slow-release starch on blood sugar level in patients with craniocerebral injury on bolus feeding: a randomized controlled trial in 120 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹群芳; 修俊刚; 刘捷; 黄春燕; 吴惠芬

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of enteral nutrition (EN) emulsion containing slowrelease starch on blood sugar level in patients with craniocerebral injury. Methods Totally 120 patients with severe craniocerebral injury complicated with hyperglycemia joined this open study and were randomized into control group and study group. Study group was given EN emulsion containing slow-release starch ( Fresubin Diabetes)and control group was given routine EN emulsion ( Fresubin), both for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG),2-hour postprandial glucose (2hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were examined before EN support and 7 days and 15 days after EN support. Results In the study group, the levels of 2hPG before EN support and on the seventh and fifteenth day after EN support were ( 12.26 ± 2. 36 )mmol/L, (9.76 ± 2.90 ) mmol/L, and (9.78 ± 1.86) mmol/L, respectively. The levels of 2hPG after EN support were both significantly lower than that before EN support (P < 0. 05). However, the levels of FBG and HbA1c in the study group were not significantly different before and after EN support ( P > 0. 05 ). In the control group, the levels of 2hPG on the seventh and fifteenth day after EN support were ( 11.70 ± 2. 80) mmol/L and ( 11.39 ± 2. 44 ) mmol/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in study group ( P = 0. 033, P = 0. 020). The levels of FBG and HbA1c werenot significantly different between the study group and the control group ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion EN emulsion containing slow-release starch may promote the control of blood sugar in patients with craniocerebral injury complicated with hyperglycemia and improve the level of postprandial blood sugar in those patients.%目的 探讨含缓释淀粉的肠内营养(EN)乳剂对颅脑损伤患者血糖水平的影响.方法 2010年1月至6月我院神经外科收治的120例重型颅脑损伤并发高血糖患者参加本研究,按随机表分别进入对照组(n=60)

  19. Impedance Spectroscopy of Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Francisco; Bernal, José J.; Sosa, Modesto A.; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2004-09-01

    The blood is one of the corporal fluids more used with analytical purposes. When the blood is extracted, immediately it is affected by agents that act on it, producing transformations in its elements. Among the effects of these transformations the hemolysis phenomenon stands out, which consists of the membrane rupture and possible death of the red blood cells. The main purpose of this investigation was the quantification of this phenomenon. A Solartron SI-1260 Impedance Spectrometer was used, which covers a frequency range of work from 1 μHz to 10 MHz, and its accuracy has been tested in the accomplishment of several applications. Measurements were performed on 3 mL human blood samples, from healthy donors. Reactive strips for sugar test of 2 μL, from Bayer, were used as electrodes, which allow gathering a portion of the sample, to be analyzed by the spectrometer. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  20. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  1. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Donating ... Red Cross, there's a 97% chance that someone you know will need a blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always ...

  2. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  3. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  4. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  5. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  6. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  7. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  8. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  9. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  10. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  11. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  12. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  13. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  14. Widespread sugar maple decline and regeneration failure in the Adirondacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry C. Jenkins; Elizabeth Moffett; Daphne Ross

    1999-01-01

    Over large areas of the Adirondacks, hardwood stands whose canopies are dominated by or contain abundant mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) have almost no sugar maple saplings or seedlings in the understory.

  15. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  16. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  17. Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes...

  18. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  19. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  20. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  1. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  2. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Mc Cutchen, Carol M.; Li; Xu; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  3. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  4. Sugar convertibility in the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, C.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of suitable sugar sources for adult parasitic wasps is an important cause of failure in biological control programs, but the metabolic constraints of sugar feeding are poorly understood. Here we investigated the suitability of 11 naturally occurring sugars as energy sources for the parasitoid C

  5. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  6. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling, classifying...

  7. Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is most likely native to western and southern Asia and is believed to have arrived in Europe via the Mediterranean countries through Egypt. The cultivation of sugar beet as an alternate source of sugar is attributed Andreas Siegmund Marggraf in the 1740s. Subsequent pro...

  8. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and si

  9. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  10. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-01

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  11. Do Soil Sugars Correspond to Plant Phenology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, C. K.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    A primary constituent of stabilized soil carbon (C) is microbial necromass, much of which is derived from plant inputs of labile soluble C, such as saccharide rich root exudates, which stimulate microbial production. The question this study addresses is how seasonal patterns of soil saccharides vary in association with plants with different phenology. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative accessibility of saccharides in the soil matrix. We conducted an observational field study of saccharide dynamics in a temperate deciduous forest soil associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) trees and Lonicera maackii (honeysuckle) shrubs, chosen due to their contrasting phenology, compared to root free soil, from April to December 2015. Reducing sugars and nutrients were measured in soil solution and extracts, as well as microbial biomass, respiration, and extracellular enzyme activities. Reducing sugar concentrations and microbial biomass did not vary significantly between soils associated with either plant and without plants. Microbial biomass peaked before leaf out, whereas reducing sugars peaked later, one week before senesce. Microbial biomass declined significantly one week after leaf out was complete, but reducing sugar concentrations did not. Soil respiration also did not differ between soils associated with and without plants, however there was a trend of higher soil respiration around L. maackii. Extracellular enzyme activities were similar between soils with either plant and without plants. Because enzyme activities were unchanged during the peak in exudation, we speculate that the microorganisms acquiring root exudates were not the same as the enzyme producers. The spatially inaccessible pool of reducing sugars was estimated using the difference between soil solution and extractable concentrations. The spatially inaccessible pool (ca. 500 μmol L-1 soil solution) was about 10 times larger than the soil solution pool, with a slight reduction over

  12. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to the manufacture of sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does...

  13. Implications of an animal model of sugar addiction, withdrawal and relapse for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, C H; Nadzam, G R; Murphy, H M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intermittent glucose administration on the circadian rhythm of body temperature was studied in rats to provide evidence of sugar addiction, withdrawal and relapse. Metabolic and behavioral phenomena were also observed. Biotelemetry transmitters recorded body temperature for the duration of the 4-week experiment. Rats were divided into an experimental and a control group, which were maintained on the same habituation conditions for the duration of the experiment, with the exception of weeks 2 and 4, when the experimental group was presented with a 25% glucose solution. Experimental animals displayed a precipitous drop in body temperature and behavioral changes associated with withdrawal during week 3, when sugar was removed. There was an increase in kilocalories (kcal) consumed during weeks 2 and 4 by experimental animals and, by the end of the experiment, these animals showed a greater percent increase in body weight. Elevated blood glucose levels were found in experimental animals. The study demonstrates that the effects of sugar addiction, withdrawal and relapse are similar to those of drugs of abuse. Implications of the rewarding and addicting effects of sugar are related to weight gain, obesity and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, pitfalls related to dieting are elucidated.

  14. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  15. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  16. Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Sugar Transporter Genes is Associated with the Difference in Sugar Accumulation between Grasses and Eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Ma, Baiquan; Owiti, Albert; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-06-30

    Sugars play a variety of roles in plants, and their accumulation in seeds and/or surrounding pericarp tissues is distinctly different between grasses and eudicots. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of genes involved in sugar accumulation in these two major groups of flowering plants. Here, we compared evolutionary rates, gene duplication, and selective patterns of genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport between grasses and eudicots using six grass species and seven eudicot species as materials. Overall, sugar transporter genes exhibit divergent evolutionary patterns, whereas, sugar metabolism genes showing similar evolutionary pattern between monocots and eudicots. Sugar transporter genes have higher frequencies of recent duplication in eudicots than in grasses and their patterns of evolutionary rate are different. Evidence for divergent selection of these two groups of flowering plants is also observed in sugar transporter genes, wherein, these genes have undergone positive selection in eudicots, but not in grasses. Taken together, these findings suggest that sugar transporter genes rather than sugar metabolism genes play important roles in sugar accumulation in plants, and that divergent evolutionary patterns of sugar transporter genes are associated with the difference of sugar accumulation in storage tissues of grasses and eudicots.

  17. Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  18. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  19. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  20. Fermentable sugars from biopolymers of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, K.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    Ethanol can replace oil as a fuel and its use would help in the conservation of the meagre oil reserves in India. The article indicates some convenient and cost-effective processes for the production of ethanol from biopolymers available in bagasse, an agricultural residue. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process produced a maximum of fermentable sugars at 35%. Calcium chloride used as a promoter enhanced production by 3.5%. Other promoters are under investigation. Agitation had a significant effect on production, complete hydrolysis being possible between 10-45 minutes depending on temperature. The fermentable sugars obtained, xylose and glucose, can then be fermented to ethanol in an integrated three-stage process. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A tool for the prediction of structures of complex sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Junchao; Margulis, Claudio [University of Iowa, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: claudio-margulis@uiowa.edu

    2008-12-15

    In two recent back to back articles(Xia et al., J Chem Theory Comput 3:1620-1628 and 1629-1643, 2007a, b) we have started to address the problem of complex oligosaccharide conformation and folding. The scheme previously presented was based on exhaustive searches in configuration space in conjunction with Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) calculations and the use of a complex rotameric library that takes branching into account. NOEs are extremely useful for structural determination but only provide information about short range interactions and ordering. Instead, the measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDC), yields information about molecular ordering or folding that is long range in nature. In this article we show the results obtained by incorporation RDC calculations into our prediction scheme. Using this new approach we are able to accurately predict the structure of six human milk sugars: LNF-1, LND-1, LNF-2, LNF-3, LNnT and LNT. Our exhaustive search in dihedral configuration space combined with RDC and NOE calculations allows for highly accurate structural predictions that, because of the non-ergodic nature of these molecules on a time scale compatible with molecular dynamics simulations, are extremely hard to obtain otherwise (Almond et al., Biochemistry 43:5853-5863, 2004). Molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent using as initial configurations the structures predicted by our algorithm show that the histo-blood group epitopes in these sugars are relatively rigid and that the whole family of oligosaccharides derives its conformational variability almost exclusively from their common linkage ({beta}-d-GlcNAc-(1{sup {yields}}3)-{beta}-d-Gal) which can exist in two distinct conformational states. A population analysis based on the conformational variability of this flexible glycosidic link indicates that the relative population of the two distinct states varies for different human milk oligosaccharides.

  2. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars prod...... smaller leaves than angiosperms, and provide a biophysical explanation for this intriguing difference between the two largest groups of plants....

  3. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  4. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  5. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  6. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  7. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  8. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  9. A comparison of sugar indicators enables a universal high-throughput sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Thorson, Jon S

    2008-06-15

    A systematic comparison of six sugar indicators for their sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and suitability in the context of crude lysates revealed para-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide (pHBH) to be best suited for application in a plate-based phosphatase-assisted universal sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase assay. The addition of a general phosphatase to nucleotidyltransferase reaction aliquots enabled the conversion of remaining sugar-1-phosphate to free sugar, the concentration of which could be rapidly assessed via the pHBH assay. The assay was validated using the model glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase from Salmonella enterica (RmlA) and compared favorably with a previously reported HPLC assay. This coupled discontinuous assay is quantitative, high throughput, and robust; relies only on commercially available enzymes and reagents; does not require chromatography, specialized detectors (e.g., mass or evaporative light scattering detectors), or radioisotopes; and is capable of detecting less than 5 nmol of sugar-1-phosphate. It is anticipated that this high-throughput assay system will greatly facilitate nucleotidyltransferase mechanistic and directed evolution/engineering studies.

  10. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  11. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield.

  12. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  13. Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Robert R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed for Anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western Kenya. The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity. Methods Groups of mosquitoes were separately given ad libitum opportunity to feed on five of the more preferred plant species (Hamelia patens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Senna didymobotrya, and Tecoma stans and one of the less preferred species (Lantana camara. The mosquitoes were monitored daily for survival. Sugar solution (glucose 6% and water were used as controls. In addition, the fecundity of mosquitoes on each plant after (i only one blood meal (number of eggs oviposited, and (ii after three consecutive blood meals (proportion of females ovipositing, number of eggs oviposited and hatchability of eggs, was determined. The composition and concentration of sugar in the fed-on parts of each plant species were determined using gas chromatography. Using SAS statistical package, tests for significant difference of the fitness values between mosquitoes exposed to different plant species were conducted. Results and Conclusion Anopheles gambiae that had fed on four of the five more preferred plant species (T. stans, S. didymobotrya, R. communis and H. patens, but not P. hysterophorus lived longer and laid more eggs after one blood meal, when compared with An. gambiae that had fed on the least preferred plant species L. camara. When given three consecutive blood-meals, the percentage of females that oviposited, but not the number of eggs laid, was significantly higher for mosquitoes that had previously fed on the four more preferred plant species. Total sugar concentration in the preferred plant parts was significantly correlated with survival and with the proportion of females that laid eggs. This effect was

  14. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  15. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for blood clots? Do You Know About Thalassemia? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... become hard, sticky, and shaped like a C. Thalassemia Red blood cell disorder that affects hemoglobin. Von ...

  16. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  17. Artifical Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goorha, Y K; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, P S; Prasad, R S

    2003-01-01

    .... The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes...

  18. Artificial Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umit Yasar; Pinar Yilgor Huri; Nurten Dikmen

    2012-01-01

    The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes...

  19. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sugar ingestion and dichotic listening: Increased perceptual capacity is more than motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Ambrose, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Participants ingested a sugar drink or a sugar-free drink and then engaged in a pair of dichotic listening tasks. Tasks presented category labels then played a series of word pairs, one in the left ear and one in the right. Participants attempted to identify pairs containing a target category member. Target category words were homonyms. For example, arms appeared as a target in the "body parts" category. Nontargets that played along with targets were related to a category-appropriate version of the target (e.g., sleeves), a category-inappropriate version (e.g., weapons), or were unrelated to either version of the target (e.g., plant). Hence, an effect of nontarget type on number of targets missed was evidence that participants processed nontargets for meaning. In the divided attention task, participants monitored both ears. In the focused attention task, participants monitored the left ear. Half the participants in each group had the divided attention task before the focused attention task; the other half had the focused attention task before the divided attention task. We set task lengths to about 12 min so working on the first task would give sufficient time for metabolizing sugar from the drink before the start of the second task. Nontarget word type significantly affected targets missed in both tasks. Drink type affected performance in the divided attention task only after sufficient time for converting sugar into blood glucose. The result supports an energy model for the effect of sugar ingestion on perceptual tasks rather than a motivational model.

  1. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  2. U.S. - MEXICO SUGAR DISPUTE: IMPACT OF NAFTA ON THE SUGAR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Heboyan, Vahe; Ames, Glenn C.W.; Gunter, Lewell F.; Houston, Jack E.

    2001-01-01

    A side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) enables Mexico to ship more duty-free sugar to the United States than under the pre-1994 restrictive country-specific, tariff-rate quota (TRQ) policy. But U.S. and Mexican negotiators disagree over the issue of exactly how much sugar Mexico can actually export to the U.S. under the NAFTA side agreement. Disagreement focuses on which version of the NAFTA side agreement governs this issue. The U.S. argues that a 1993 side lette...

  3. Porous HMX initiation studies -- Sugar as an inert simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    For several years the authors have been using magnetic particle velocity gauges to study the shock loading of porous HMX (65 and 73% TMD) of different particle sizes to determine their compaction and initiation characteristics. Because it has been difficult to separate the effects of compaction and reaction, an inert simulant was needed with properties similar to HMX. Sugar was selected as the simulant for several reasons: (1) the particle size distribution of C and H granulated sugar is similar to the coarse HMX the authors have been using (120 {micro}m average size), (2) the particle size of C and H confectioners (powdered) sugar is similar to the fine HMX in the studies (10 {micro}m average size), (3) it is an organic material, and (4) sugar was readily available. Because the densities of HMX and sugar are somewhat different, the authors chose to do the experiments on sugar compacts at 65 and 73% TMD. As expected, no reaction was observed in the sugar experiments. Compaction wave profiles were similar to those measured earlier for the HMX, i.e., the compaction waves in the coarse sugar were quite disperse while those in the fine sugar were much sharper. This indicates that the compaction wave profiles are controlled by particle size and not reaction. Also, the coarse sugar gauge signals exhibited a great deal of noise, thought to the be result of fracto-emission.

  4. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  5. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  6. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  7. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  8. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboori, Seema C; Graham, David E

    2008-04-01

    Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted alpha-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD(+) to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B.

  9. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  10. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  11. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  12. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 天然植物活性物质阿魏酸糖酯的研究进展%Research Progress on Ferulic Acid Sugar Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏颖; 王静; 袁小平

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid sugar esters showed noticeable biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, reducing blood sugar, and improving the micro environment in intestinal tract, which deserve further research. The distribution and structure of ferulic acid sugar esters were introduced in this paper. The preparation methods and nutritional values of ferulic acid sugar esters were presented. The application prospects in medicine, food, and cosmetics were analyzed.%阿魏酸糖酯具有降血糖,抗氧化,改善肠道环境等多种生物活性,由此赋予其极高的开发价值和广阔的市场前景.本文对阿魏酸糖酯的分布、结构、营养价值、制备方法等方面的研究现状进行综述.

  14. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  15. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  16. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  17. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality.

  18. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  19. Mediatorless sugar/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells based on gold nanoparticle-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Falk, Magnus; Ortiz, Roberto; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Bobacka, Johan; Ludwig, Roland; Bergelin, Mikael; Gorton, Lo; Shleev, Sergey

    2012-01-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterisation of a gold-nanoparticle (AuNP)-based mediatorless sugar/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) operating in neutral sugar-containing buffers and human physiological fluids, such as blood and plasma. First, Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CtCDH) and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOx), used as anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively, were immobilised on gold electrodes modified with 20 nm AuNPs. Detailed characterisation and optimisation of a new CDH/AuNP-based bioanode were performed and the following fundamental parameters were obtained: (i) the redox potential of the haem-containing centre of the enzyme was measured to be 75 mV vs. NHE, (ii) the surface coverage of CtCDH was found to be 0.65 pmol cm(-2) corresponding to a sub-monolayer coverage of the thiol-modified AuNPs by the enzyme, (iii) a turnover number for CtCDH immobilised on thiol-modified AuNPs was calculated to be ca. 0.5 s(-1), and (iv) the maximal current densities as high as 40 μA cm(-2) were registered in sugar-containing neutral buffers. Second, both biomodified electrodes, namely the CtCDH/AuNP-based bioanode and the MvBOx/AuNP-based biocathode, were combined into a functional BFC and the designed biodevices were carefully investigated. The following characteristics of the mediator-, separator- and membrane-less, miniature BFC were obtained: in phosphate buffer; an open-circuit voltage of 0.68 V, a maximum power density of 15 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.52 V and in human blood; an open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, a maximum power density of 3 μW cm(-2) at a cell voltage of 0.45 V, respectively. The estimated half-lives of the biodevices were found to be >12, <8, and <2 h in a sugar-containing buffer, human plasma, and blood, respectively. The basic characteristics of mediatorless sugar/oxygen BFCs were significantly improved compared with previously designed biodevices, because of the usage of three-dimensional Au

  20. Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A

    2013-02-01

    Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced Beijing to introduce stricter food safety measures. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate the susceptibility of the amine groups of melamine to glycation with D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, sugars commonly found in milk, (2) to study the rate and extent of melamine's glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde, three highly reactive metabolites of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose, and (3) to characterize, using mass spectrometry, the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) of melamine with sugars found commonly in milk and their metabolites. Incubation of D-galactose, D-glucose and lactose with melamine revealed that D-galactose was the most potent glycator of melamine, followed by D-glucose, then lactose. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and DL-glyceraldehyde glycated melamine more extensively than D-galactose, with each yielding a broader range of AGEs. The non-enzymatic modification of melamine by sugars and sugar-like compounds warrants further investigation, as this process may influence melamine's toxicity in vivo.

  1. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  2. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  3. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  4. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  5. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    OpenAIRE

    Demont, M; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty, and irreversibility. We analyse the case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet and reassess whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit perspective using a real option approach. We show that the decision was correct, if households value possible annual irreversible costs of herbicide tolerant sugar beet with about 1 E or mor...

  6. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  7. SOUFFLE WITH REDUCED AMOUNT OF SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  8. Sugar export limits size of conifer needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas; Jensen, Kaare H.

    2017-04-01

    Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars produced near the tip of long needles cannot be exported efficiently, because the pressure required to drive vascular flow would exceed the greatest available pressure (the osmotic pressure). This basic constraint leads to the formation of an inactive region of stagnant fluid near the needle tip, which does not contribute to sugar flow. Remarkably, we find that the size of the active part does not scale with needle length. We predict a single maximum needle size of 5 cm, in accord with data from 519 conifer species. This could help rationalize the recent observation that conifers have significantly smaller leaves than angiosperms, and provide a biophysical explanation for this intriguing difference between the two largest groups of plants.

  9. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  10. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction.

  11. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  12. Identification of sugar-tolerant yeasts isolated from high-sugar fermented vegetable extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Taing; Hashinaga, Fumio

    1997-02-01

    In Japan, high-sugar fermented vegetable extracts are novel functional food products for which sugar-tolerant yeasts are employed during processing. In order to understand the yeast distribution in these foods and their role in the functionality of such foods, we isolated sugar-tolerant yeasts from nine sample products, together with one sample each of fermented extract of ume (Japanese apricot) and honey. Twenty-three strains were identified as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii; one strain as Z. bailii; one strain as Torulaspora delbrueckii; and one strain as Candida bombicola. Nearly 90% of the identified strains belonged to Z. rouxii with variations in fermentation and assimilation properties. All strains grew well on 50% w/w glucose medium, and all but two strains grew on 60% w/w glucose medium. Sixteen strains belonged to the strong sugar tolerance type (poor or no growth at 1% and maximum growth at 30 or 40% w/w glucose); four strains to the moderate type (grew well at 1% and maximum growth at 10 or 20% w/w glucose); and seven strains to the weak type (maximum growth only at 1% w/w glucose). One strain of Z. rouxii, V19, grew up to 80% (w/w) glucose in liquid medium. In view of salt tolerance, only two strains belonged to the moderate type (maximum growth at 0.5 or 1 m NaCl); the remaining strains all belonged to the weak type (maximum growth only at 0 m NaCl). This suggests that sugar tolerance and salt tolerance of yeasts have different aspects.

  13. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  14. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  15. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value.

  16. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  17. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  18. Rhamnose and rhamnitol in dual sugar permeability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagon, Ignacio; Onkenhout, Willem; Klok, Margreet; van der Poel, Petrus F H; Bovill, James G; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2006-08-01

    Rhamnose is one of the sugars regularly used to conduct the dual sugar permeability test. For more than 30 years, it has been assumed that rhamnose is an inert sugar not metabolized by the human body and only fermented by some colonic bacteria into rhamnulose. While conducting an investigation on gut permeability in children undergoing cardiac surgery, increased concentrations of rhamnitol were found in the urine samples. The present report suggests that rhamnose is not an inert sugar and it is partially metabolized into rhamnitol by the human body.

  19. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  20. A Causal Model for Fluctuating Sugar Levels in Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinzang Chhogyal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Causal models of physiological systems can be immensely useful in medicine as they may be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning. Aims In this paper we investigate how an agent may use the theory of belief change to rectify simple causal models of changing blood sugar levels in diabetes patients. Method We employ the semantic approach to belief change together with a popular measure of distance called Dalal distance between different state descriptions in order to implement a simple application that simulates the effectiveness of the proposed method in helping an agent rectify a simple causal model. Results Our simulation results show that distance-based belief change can help in improving the agent’s causal knowledge. However, under the current implementation there is no guarantee that the agent will learn the complete model and the agent may at times get stuck in local optima. Conclusion Distance-based belief change can help in refining simple causal models such as the example in this paper. Future work will include larger state-action spaces, better distance measures and strategies for choosing actions.

  1. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  2. 全民健身广场舞对社区2型糖尿病患者血糖相关指标影响的研究%National Fitness Square Dance on the Impact of Community Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Blood Sugar - Related Indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国猛; 郭亚超

    2012-01-01

    :Objective: To compare the type 2 diabetic patients in the community to participate in the related indicators of changes in blood glucose before and after the National Fitness square dance to explore the role of the National Fitness square dance on the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. This paper defines the concept of National Fitness Square Dance Square dance is described in the exercise stress and rhythm changes, to participate in parts of the body, the characteristics of the choreography. Methods:Will meet the standards of the subjects were divided into the Square Dance experimental group (15) and control group (15 people) ;Experimental group five times a week, Square dance practice, one hour each time, from small to large intensity, a total of 24 weeks of interven- tion;Control group, diet and medication changed their habit, fasting blood glucose were measured before and after of FBG, 2 - hour postprandial blood glucose 2hPBG, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), body weight, BMI and other indicators. Results: 24 weeks after the intervention, the experimental group, fasting blood glucose FBG, 2 -hour postprandial blood glucose 2hPBG, glycosylated hemoglobin, HbAlc decreased (p 〈 0.05), weight and BMI did not change significantly ( p 〉 0. 05) ;The index of the control group did not change significantly ( p 〉 0. 05). Conclusion: The National Fitness Square Dance can effectively reduce the blood glucose and HbAlc levels of patients with type 2 diabetes.%目的:比较社区2型糖尿病患者参与全民健身广场舞前后血糖相关指标的变化,探讨全民健身广场舞对2型糖尿病的治疗和预防作用。对全民健身广场舞概念进行界定,阐述广场舞在运动负荷和节奏的变化、身体参与部位、编排上的特点。方法:将符合标准的受试者分为广场舞实验组(15人)和对照组(15人);实验组每周5次广场舞练习,每次1h,强度由小到大,共进行24周的干预;对照组饮食和

  3. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F; Vasselli, Joseph R; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  5. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  6. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  7. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of sugar...

  10. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  11. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  12. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  13. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  14. Blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  15. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  16. Loss of sugar detection by GLUT2 affects glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Stolarczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  18. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this

  19. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = −0.10, p = 0.02 and β = −0.78, p sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = −0.08, p consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups

  20. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  1. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m(3), increased HHVmass and HHVvolume, greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel.

  2. New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation at higher sugar concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R.; Laluce, C. (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (BR). Inst. de Quimica)

    1991-03-01

    New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian alcohol factories at the end of the sugar cane crop season. They were selected for their capacity for fermenting sugar cane syrup as well as high sucrose concentrations in synthetic medium with a conversion efficiency of 89.92%. The strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (author).

  3. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  4. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  5. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  6. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  7. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  8. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  9. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  10. Sugar content, cariogenicity, and dental concerns with commonly used medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H; Epstein, Joel B

    2015-02-01

    Oral adverse events such as cariogenicity are often overlooked as drug-associated effects because the sugar content of many medications may be negligible compared with the patients' overall dietary intake of sugar. There are, however, several liquid formulations of medications with significantly high sugar content that are commonly used in patients with swallowing difficulties. These medications may be associated with negative oral health sequelae and should be considered part of the oral health care providers' differential diagnosis of oral pathologies. We reviewed the literature regarding the sugar content of oral liquid medications commonly prescribed by oral health care providers, with consideration to their caries potential. Where not available via public sources, pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly for additional information on the sugar (carbohydrate) content of these oral liquid medication formulations. Over 50 commonly used oral liquid medications prescribed for patients with swallowing difficulties were reviewed and found to contain sugar in varying amounts up to 4 grams per dose (usually 1 teaspoon or 5 milliliters). Patients who are required to take multiple doses per day of these sugar-containing oral liquid medications may be at increased risk for caries and associated oral health consequences. Recognition and avoidance of sugar-containing oral liquid medications can help clinicians optimize patient treatment, decreasing the risk for potential drug-induced caries while emphasizing patient safety and improved oral health. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  12. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  13. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  14. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  15. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  16. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi

    2016-09-16

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait.

  17. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-04-16

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents.

  18. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-be

  19. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit persp

  20. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal