WorldWideScience

Sample records for super-orbital re-entry vehicles

  1. Flap effectiveness appraisal for winged re-entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, Donato; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Donelli, Raffaele S.; Viviani, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The interactions between shock waves and boundary layer are commonplace in hypersonic aerodynamics. They represent a very challenging design issue for hypersonic vehicle. A typical example of shock wave boundary layer interaction is the flowfield past aerodynamic surfaces during control. As a consequence, such flow interaction phenomena influence both vehicle aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. In this framework, the present research effort describes the numerical activity performed to simulate the flowfield past a deflected flap in hypersonic flowfield conditions for a winged re-entry vehicle.

  2. In-Flight Imaging Systems for Hypervelocity and Re-Entry Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to create a rugged, reliable, compact, standardized imaging system for hypervelocity and re-entry vehicles using sapphire windows, small imagers, and...

  3. Linear quadratic regulator design for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the design of an attitude controller for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle. The decoupling of the symmetric and asymmetric motion makes it possible to design two separate controllers, one for the pitch mot ion and one for the lateral motion. The design of the controller, a

  4. Re-entry vehicle shape for enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Garcia, Joseph A. (Inventor); Prabhu, Dinesh K. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A convex shell structure for enhanced aerodynamic performance and/or reduced heat transfer requirements for a space vehicle that re-enters an atmosphere. The structure has a fore-body, an aft-body, a longitudinal axis and a transverse cross sectional shape, projected on a plane containing the longitudinal axis, that includes: first and second linear segments, smoothly joined at a first end of each the first and second linear segments to an end of a third linear segment by respective first and second curvilinear segments; and a fourth linear segment, joined to a second end of each of the first and second segments by curvilinear segments, including first and second ellipses having unequal ellipse parameters. The cross sectional shape is non-symmetric about the longitudinal axis. The fourth linear segment can be replaced by a sum of one or more polynomials, trigonometric functions or other functions satisfying certain constraints.

  5. Dynamic and Static High Temperature Resistant Ceramic Seals for X- 38 re-Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrick, Karin E.; Curry, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    In a highly successful partnership, NAS A, ESA, DLR (German Space Agency) and European industry are building the X-38, V201 re-entry spacecraft, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). This vehicle would serve both as an ambulance for medical emergencies and as an evacuation vehicle for the Space Station. The development of essential systems and technologies for a reusable re-entry vehicle is a first for Europe, and sharing the development of an advanced re-entry spacecraft with foreign partners is a first for NASA. NASA, in addition to its subsystem responsibilities, is performing overall X-38 vehicle system engineering and integration, will launch V201 on the Space Shuttle, deliver flight data for post-flight analysis and assessment and is responsible for development and manufacture of structural vehicle components and thermal protection (TPS) tiles. The major European objective for cooperation with NASA on X-38 was to establish a clear path through which key technologies needed for future space transportation systems could be developed and validated at affordable cost and with controlled risk. Europe has taken the responsibility to design and manufacture hot control surfaces like metallic rudders and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) body flaps, thermal protection systems such as CMC leading edges, the CMC nose cap and -skirt, insulation, landing gears and elements of the V201 primary structure. Especially hot control surfaces require extremely high temperature resistant seals to limit hot gas ingestion and transfer of heat to underlying low-temperature structures to prevent overheating of these structures and possible loss of the vehicle. Complex seal interfaces, which have to fulfill various, tight mission- and vehicle-related requirements exist between the moveable ceramic body flaps and the bottom surface of the vehicle, between the rudder and fin structure and the ceramic leading edge panel and TPS tiles. While NASA

  6. A New Strategy of Guidance Command Generation for Re-entry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie DaoCheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance command for re-entry vehicle can be in various formats, but the Euler angles can be provided directly by gyros, so designers used to develop autopilot with commands of Euler angles. After the generation of commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle, it’s important to settle how to convert commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle to commands of Euler angles. Traditional conversion strategy relies on bank angle, but the solution to bank angle comprises complicated calculation and can’t be precise. This paper introduces a new conversion strategy of guidance command. This strategy relies on the relative position and velocity measured by seeker, an auxiliary coordinate is established as a transition, the transformation matrix from launch coordinate to body coordinate is solved in a new way, then the commands of Euler angles are obtained. The calculation of bank angle is avoided. The autopilot designed with the converted Euler-angle commands, can track commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle steadily. The vehicle reaches the target point precisely. Simulation results show that the new conversion strategy based on seeker information from commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle to Euler-angle commands is valid.

  7. A New Strategy of Guidance Command Generation for Re-entry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance command for re-entry vehicle can be in lots of formats, but the Euler angles can be provided directly by gyros, so designers used to develop autopilot with commands of Euler angles. After the generation of commands of attack angle and sideslip angle, it’s important to settle how to convert commands of attack angle and sideslip angle to commands of Euler angles. Traditional conversion strategy relies on bank angle, solution to bank angle comprises complicated calculation and can’t be precise. This paper introduces a new conversion strategy of guidance command. This strategy relies on the relative position and velocity measured by seeker, an auxiliary coordinateis established as a transition, the transformation matrix from launch coordinate to body coordinate is solved in a new way, then the commands of Euler angles are obtained. The calculation of bank angle is avoided. The autopilot designed with the converted Euler-angle commands, can track commands of attack angle and sideslip angle steadily.The vehicle reaches the target point precisely. Simulation results show that the new conversion strategy based on seeker information from commands of attack angle and sideslip angle to Euler-angle commands is right.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(1, pp.93-100, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2360

  8. FLPP IXV Re-entry Vehicle, Transonic Characterisation Based on FOI T1500 Wind Tunnel Tests and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torngren, L.; Chiarelli, C.; Mareschi, V.; Tribot, J.-P.; Binetti, P.; Walloschek, T.

    2009-01-01

    The European Space Agency ESA, has engaged in 2004, the IXV project (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) which is part of the FLPP (Future Launcher Preparatory Programme) aiming at answering to critical technological issues, while supporting the future generation launchers and to improve in general European capabilities in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry for space transportation, exploration and scientific applications. The IXV key mission and system objectives are the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system, integrating the critical re-entry technologies at the system level. The current IXV vehicle is a slender body type exhibiting rounded shape, thick body controlled by means of two control surfaces. The current mission is to perform an atmospheric re- entry ended by a safe recovery in supersonic regime. A potential extension of the flight domain down to the transonic regime was proposed to be analyzed. The objectives were to study the capability of the IXV for flying autonomously enabling a recovery of the vehicle by means of a subsonic parachute based DRS. The vehicle designed for the hypersonic speeds integrating a large base with only two control surfaces located close to the plane of symmetry is definitively not tuned for transonic ones. CFD done by Thales Alenia Space and wind tunnel activities involving FOI T1500 facility contributed to built up an Aerodynamic Data Base (AEDB) to be used as inputs for flying qualities analysis and re-entry simulations. The paper presents the main objectives of the transonic activities with emphasis on CFD and WTT including a description of the different prediction tools and discussing the main outcomes of the current data comparisons.

  9. Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A.; Easler, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    This adhesive is capable of repairing damaged leading edge components of reentry vehicles while in space, and is novel with regard to its ability to be applied in the vacuum of space, and in a microgravity environment. Once applied, the adhesive provides thermal and oxidation protection to the substrate (in this case, reinforced carbon/carbon composites, RCCs) during re-entry of a space vehicle. Although there may be many formulations for repair adhesives, at the time of this reporting, this is the first known adhesive capable of an on-orbit repair. The adhesive is an engineered ceramic material composed of a pre-ceramic polymer and refractory powders in the form of a paste or putty that can be applied to a scratched, cracked, or fractured composite surface, covering and protecting the damaged area. The adhesive is then "cured" with a heat cycle, thereby cross-linking the polymer into a hardened material and bonding it to the substrate. During the heat of reentry, the material is converted to a ceramic coating that provides thermal and oxidative stability to the repaired area, thus allowing the vehicle to pass safely from space into the upper atmosphere. Ceramic powders such as SiC, ZrB2 and Y2O3 are combined with allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) resin, and are mixed to form a paste adhesive. The material is then applied to the damaged area by brush, spatula, trowel, or other means to fill cracks, gaps, and holes, or used to bond patches onto the damaged area. The material is then cured, in a vacuum, preferably at 250F (approximately equal to 121C) for two hours. The re-entry heating of the vehicle at temperatures in excess of 3,000F (approximately equal to 1,650C) then converts this material into a ceramic coating. This invention has demonstrated advantages in resistance to high temperatures, as was demonstrated in more than 100 arc-jet tests in representative environments at NASA. Extensive testing verified oxidation protection for the repaired substrate (RCC

  10. Assessment Of The Aerodynamic And Aerothermodynamic Performance Of The USV-3 High-Lift Re-Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Richiello, Camillo; Russo, Gennaro

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic trade-off analysis carried out with the aim to design a hypersonic flying test bed (FTB), namely USV3. Such vehicle will have to be launched with a small expendable launcher and shall re-enter the Earth atmosphere allowing to perform several experiments on critical re-entry phenomena. The demonstrator under study is a re-entry space glider characterized by a relatively simple vehicle architecture able to validate hypersonic aerothermodynamic design database and passenger experiments, including thermal shield and hot structures. Then, a summary review of the aerodynamic characteristics of two FTB concepts, compliant with a phase-A design level, has been provided hereinafter. Indeed, several design results, based both on engineering approach and computational fluid dynamics, are reported and discussed in the paper.

  11. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  12. Robust adaptive constrained backstepping flight controller design for re-entry reusable launch vehicle under input constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear constrained controller is designed for a reusable launch vehicle during re-entry phase in the presence of model uncertainty, external disturbance, and input constraint, via combining sliding mode control and adaptive backstepping control. Since the complex coupling between the translational and rotational dynamics of reusable launch vehicle, a control-oriented model derived from rotational dynamic is used for controller design. During the virtual control input design procedure, a dynamic robust term is utilized to compensate for the uncertainty. In addition, a filter is applied to handle “explosion of terms” problem during the actual control input design. To reduce the computational burden, adaptive law is used to evaluate the unknown norm bound of the lumped uncertainty. An auxiliary system is constructed to compensate for the input constraint effect. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the developed controller in providing stable tracking of the guidance command by numerical simulation on the 6-degree-of-freedom model of reusable launch vehicle.

  13. The application of quaternions and other spatial representations to the reconstruction of re-entry vehicle motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sapio, Vincent

    2010-09-01

    The analysis of spacecraft kinematics and dynamics requires an efficient scheme for spatial representation. While the representation of displacement in three dimensional Euclidean space is straightforward, orientation in three dimensions poses particular challenges. The unit quaternion provides an approach that mitigates many of the problems intrinsic in other representation approaches, including the ill-conditioning that arises from computing many successive rotations. This report focuses on the computational utility of unit quaternions and their application to the reconstruction of re-entry vehicle (RV) motion history from sensor data. To this end they will be used in conjunction with other kinematic and data processing techniques. We will present a numerical implementation for the reconstruction of RV motion solely from gyroscope and accelerometer data. This will make use of unit quaternions due to their numerical efficacy in dealing with the composition of many incremental rotations over a time series. In addition to signal processing and data conditioning procedures, algorithms for numerical quaternion-based integration of gyroscope data will be addressed, as well as accelerometer triangulation and integration to yield RV trajectory. Actual processed flight data will be presented to demonstrate the implementation of these methods.

  14. Angular and Linear Velocity Estimation for a Re-Entry Vehicle Using Six Distributed Accelerometers: Theory, Simulation and Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G

    2003-04-28

    This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the

  15. Attenuation of low-frequency electromagnetic wave in the thin sheath enveloping a high-speed vehicle upon re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, DongLin; Li, XiaoPing; Liu, YanMing; Xie, Kai; Bai, BoWen

    2017-02-01

    Low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic (EM) waves are suggested as potentially solving "radio blackout" caused by a plasma sheath enveloping a high-speed vehicle on re-entry. However, the traditional plasma absorption theory neglects the fact that the plasma sheath is electrically small compared to LF EM wavelengths. To understand clearly the attenuation of such waves through the plasma sheath, different attenuation mechanisms for the electric field (SE) and magnetic field (SH) were studied using the equivalent circuit approach. Analytical expressions were derived by modeling the plasma sheath as a spherical shell, and numerical simulations were performed to validate the effectiveness of the expressions. SE and SH are calculated for various plasma parameter settings; the EM wave attenuations obtained from plasma absorption theory are used for comparison. Results show that, instead of SE and SH being equal in the plasma absorption theory, SE and SH are no longer the same for electrically small sizes. Whereas |SH| is close to that from plasma absorption theory, |SE| is much higher. Further analysis shows that |SH| is a function of the ratio of electron density (ne) and collision frequency (ve) and increases with increasing ne/ve. Numerical simulations with radio-attenuation-measurement-C-like vehicle's plasma sheath parameters are performed and the results show that the magnetic field attenuation in the front part of the vehicle is much lower than in the rear. So it is suggested to place the magnetic loop antenna in the very front part of the vehicle. Finally, SH at different frequencies are calculated using plasma sheath parameter values simulating the re-entry phase of a radio-attenuation measurement-C vehicle and results show that such a vehicle might overcome radio blackout during the entire re-entry phase if systems operating below 3 MHz and above the L-band are combined with a lower-frequency system working below Earth's ionosphere and a higher-frequency system

  16. Re-entry and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, H.; Guangming, X.

    1983-11-01

    The physics of re-entry are discussed with emphasis on the re-entry trajectory of a ballistic missile. Factors discussed include re-entry speed, ablation, aerodynamic heating, and the plasma sheath shield. Experimental techniques used to simulate the aerodynamics and performance of missile systems include the computer, the wind tunnel, and free flight. Each of these is briefly discussed.

  17. An electromagnetic method for removing the communication blackout with a space vehicle upon re-entry into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Hu, Ruifeng; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2017-03-01

    When a hypersonic vehicle travels in the Earth and Mars atmosphere, the surface of the vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer, which is an envelope of ionized air, created from the compression and heat of the atmosphere by the shock wave. The vehicles will lose contact with ground stations known as the reentry communication blackout. Based on the magnetohydrodynamic framework and electromagnetic wave propagation theory, an analytical model is proposed to describe the effect of the effectiveness of electromagnetic mitigation scheme on removing the reentry communication blackout. C and Global Positioning System (GPS) bands, two commonly used radio bands for communication, are taken as the cases to discuss the effectiveness of the electromagnetic field mitigation scheme. The results show that the electron density near the antenna of vehicles can be reduced by the electromagnetic field, and the required external magnetic field strength is far below the one in the magnetic window method. The directions of the external electric field and magnetic field have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the mitigation scheme. Furthermore, the effect of electron collisions on the required applied electromagnetic field is discussed, and the result indicates that electron collisions are a key factor to analyze the electromagnetic mitigation scheme. Finally, the feasible regions of the applied electromagnetic field for eliminating blackout are given. These investigations could have a significant benefit on the design and optimization of electromagnetic mitigation scheme for the blackout problem.

  18. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  19. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  20. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  1. A new Green's function Monte Carlo algorithm for the solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation: Application to the modeling of the communication breakdown problem in space vehicles during re-entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kausik, E-mail: kausik.chatterjee@aggiemail.usu.edu [Strategic and Military Space Division, Space Dynamics Laboratory, North Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Roadcap, John R., E-mail: john.roadcap@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Singh, Surendra, E-mail: surendra-singh@utulsa.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is the exposition of a recently-developed, novel Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) algorithm for the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations and its application to the modeling of the plasma sheath region around a cylindrical conducting object, carrying a potential and moving at low speeds through an otherwise neutral medium. The plasma sheath is modeled in equilibrium through the GFMC solution of the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann (NPB) equation. The traditional Monte Carlo based approaches for the solution of nonlinear equations are iterative in nature, involving branching stochastic processes which are used to calculate linear functionals of the solution of nonlinear integral equations. Over the last several years, one of the authors of this paper, K. Chatterjee has been developing a philosophically-different approach, where the linearization of the equation of interest is not required and hence there is no need for iteration and the simulation of branching processes. Instead, an approximate expression for the Green's function is obtained using perturbation theory, which is used to formulate the random walk equations within the problem sub-domains where the random walker makes its walks. However, as a trade-off, the dimensions of these sub-domains have to be restricted by the limitations imposed by perturbation theory. The greatest advantage of this approach is the ease and simplicity of parallelization stemming from the lack of the need for iteration, as a result of which the parallelization procedure is identical to the parallelization procedure for the GFMC solution of a linear problem. The application area of interest is in the modeling of the communication breakdown problem during a space vehicle's re-entry into the atmosphere. However, additional application areas are being explored in the modeling of electromagnetic propagation through the atmosphere/ionosphere in UHF/GPS applications.

  2. Research on Terminal Guidance for Re-Entry Vehicle Based on Second-Order Sliding Mode Control%基于二阶滑模的再入飞行器末制导律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦荣斌; 张科

    2011-01-01

    A new robust terminal guidance law based on second-order sliding mode control is proposed for the problems existing in vehicle re-entry phase after starting of terminal guidance system, such as model uncertainty, complex aerodynamic conditions and constraint conditions for falling angle. Based on second-order variable structure control theory, a terminal guidance law with finite convergence time is designed; meanwhile, in order to weakening the influence of disturbance and chattering, a super-spiral algorithm is introduced for designing the second-order sliding mode terminal guidance law with finite convergence time and continuous control effect. Controlled by this guidance law, the angular rate of line-of-sight ( LOS) and constraint conditions for falling angle can converge quickly, thus ensuring higher guidance accuracy. Theoretic proof of stability based on Lyapunov theorem and simulation results show that the proposed guidance law is effective.%针对再入飞行过程中飞行器末制导启动后制导系统存在的模型不确定性因素以及气动环境复杂等鲁棒制导问题,结合落点角约束条件,提出一种基于二阶滑模的鲁棒末制导律设计方法.基于二阶滑模控制的思想,设计有限时间收敛的二阶滑模末制导律;为了消除有界的内外扰影响同时削弱抖振效果,引入超螺旋算法设计有限时间收敛的连续二阶滑模末制导律.飞行器在该末制导律导引下,弹目视线角速率及落角约束快速收敛,从而保证飞行器有很高的命中精度.基于Lyapunov定理的稳定性理论证明及仿真结果均表明了该末制导方案的有效性.

  3. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  4. Re-Entry Guidance Using an Energy-State Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akio; Shimada, Yuzo; Uchiyama, Kenji

    This paper presents a new guidance and control system for a re-entry vehicle. In the conventional drag acceleration control system employed for the present space shuttles, the velocity is an unobservable state variable and the associated pole tends to be unstable. Therefore, in this study, a condition which allows all the states to be observable is introduced using a state-space linearization method. It is also shown that energy and its rate are appropriate for the state variables. A guidance law is analytically derived on the basis of the obtained state equation with respect to the energy by solving a two-point boundary-value problem. Furthermore, a tracking control system is designed to make the position, velocity, and flight path angle of the vehicle track the reference states generated in the guidance system. Finally, numerical simulation is performed to verify the validity of the obtained plant expression, and the effectiveness of the proposed guidance and control system.

  5. Ongoing Capabilities and Developments of Re-Entry Plasma Ground Tests at EADS-ASTRIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    During re-entry, spacecrafts are subjected to extreme thermal loads. On mars, they may go through dust storms. These external heat loads are leading the design of re-entry vehicles or are affecting it for spacecraft facing solid propellant jet stream. Sizing the Thermal Protection System require a good knowledge of such solicitations and means to model and reproduce them on earth. Through its work on European projects, ASTRIUM has developed the full range of competences to deal with such issues. For instance, we have designed and tested the heat-shield of the Huygens probe which landed on Titan. In particular, our plasma generators aim to reproduce a wide variety of re-entry conditions. Heat loads are generated by the huge speed of the probes. Such conditions cannot be fully reproduced. Ground tests focus on reproducing local aerothermal loads by using slower but hotter flows. Our inductive plasma torch enables to test little samples at low TRL. Amongst the arc-jets, one was design to test architecture design of ISS crew return system and others fit more severe re-entry such as sample returns or Venus re-entry. The last developments aimed in testing samples in seeded flows. First step was to design and test the seeding device. Special diagnostics characterizing the resulting flow enabled us to fit it to the requirements.

  6. IXV re-entry demonstrator: Mission overview, system challenges and flight reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Roberto; Denaro, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced re-entry demonstrator vehicle aimed to perform in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies. The IXV integrates key technologies at the system level, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flying test-beds. The project builds on previous achievements at system and technology levels, and provides a unique and concrete way of establishing and consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission and system objectives are the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention is paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight. Following the extensive detailed design, manufacturing, qualification, integration and testing of the flight segment and ground segment elements, IXV has performed a full successful flight on February 11th 2015. After the launch with the VEGA launcher form the CSG spaceport in French Guyana, IXV has performed a full nominal mission ending with a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. During Flight Phase, the IXV space and ground segments worked perfectly, implementing the whole flight program in line with the commanded maneuvers and trajectory prediction, performing an overall flight of 34.400 km including 7.600 km with hot atmospheric re-entry in automatic guidance, concluding with successful precision landing at a distance of ~1

  7. Hypersonic re-entry technology; insights into new advances in re-entry vehicles and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudmeijer, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    We are already used to a widespread commercial utilization of spaceflight, particularly with satellites for communication, earth observation, navigation, weather forecast and many other applications. Launching satellites is a rather costly affair, particularly because twenty minutes after lift-off t

  8. Optimization of Observation Strategy to Improve Re-entry Prediction of Objects in HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasotto, M.; Di Mauro, G.; Massari, M.; Di Lizia, P.; Armellin, R.; Funke, Q.; Flohrer, T.

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade the number of space debris moving on high elliptical orbit (HEO) has grown fast. Many of these resident space objects (RSO) consist of medium and large spent upper stages of launch vehicles, whose atmosphere re-entry might violate on-ground casualty risk constraints. Increasing the accuracy of re-entry predictions for this class of RSO is therefore a key issue to limit the hazards on the Earth assets. Traditional computational methods are mainly based on the exploitation of Two Line Elements (TLEs), provided by the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and currently the only public data source available for these kind of analyses. TLE data however, are characterized by low accuracies, and in general come without any uncertainty information, thus limiting the achievable precision of the re-entry estimates. Better results on the other hand, can be obtained through the exploitation of observational data provided by one or more Earth sensors. Despite the benefits, this approach introduces a whole new set of complexities, mainly related with the design of proper observation campaigns. This paper presents a method based on evolutionary algorithms, for the optimization of observation strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through dedicated examples, in which re-entry predictions, attainable with existing and ideal sensor architectures, are compared with corresponding results derived from TLE data.

  9. Spacecraft Re-Entry Impact Point Targeting Using Aerodynamic Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The ability to re-enter the atmosphere at a desired location is important for spacecraft containing components that may survive re-entry. While impact point targeting has traditionally been initiated through impulsive burns with chemical thrusters on large vehicles such as the Space Shuttle, and the Soyuz and Apollo capsules, many small spacecraft do not host thrusters and require an alternative means of impact point targeting to ensure that falling debris do not cause harm to persons or property. This paper discusses the use of solely aerodynamic drag force to perform this targeting. It is shown that by deploying and retracting a drag device to vary the ballistic coefficient of the spacecraft, any desired longitude and latitude on the ground can be targeted provided that the maneuvering begins early enough and the latitude is less than the inclination of the orbit. An analytical solution based on perturbations from a numerically propagated trajectory is developed to map the initial state and ballistic coefficient profile of a spacecraft to its impact point. This allows the ballistic coefficient profile necessary to reach a given target point to be rapidly calculated, making it feasible to generate the guidance for the decay trajectory onboard the spacecraft. The ability to target an impact point using aerodynamic drag will enhance the capabilities of small spacecraft and will enable larger space vehicles containing thrusters to save fuel by more effectively leveraging the available aerodynamic drag.

  10. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  11. Study on Mini Re-Entry System Using Deployable Membrane Aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masashi; Suzuki, Kojiro; Imamura, Osamu; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    An aeroshell made from membrane material have an advantage of reduction in the aerodynamic heating, because its small mass and large area enable us to make the low-ballistic-coefficient flight, in which the vehicle decelerates at very high altitude with low atmospheric density. In this paper, we propose a new concept of mini re-entry system for small satellites. This vehicle is called "FEATHER" (Flexible Expanded Aeroshell with Tiny payload Harness for Entry and Recovery). "FEATHER" is a novel re-entry and recovery system, featuring the autonomous aeroshell deployment, the low-ballistic-coefficient re-entry with less severe aerodynamicc heating and so on. FEATHER is composed of the membrane aeroshell made from the high-temperature cloth called ZYLON®, an outer frame made of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) and a payload. When the aeroshell receives the aerodynamic heating, the temperature of SMA frame rises and restores the circular shape as memorized beforehand. Then the membrane aeroshell is automatically deployed. Therefore the vehicle can achieve the low-ballistic-coefficient flight with a drastic reduction in the aerodynamic heating without any additional sensors, controllers and actuators. The preliminary studies made on FEATHER system so far including the hypersonic wind tunnel experiments are presented in this paper.

  12. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out.

  13. Airborne re-entry observation experiment SLIT: UV spectroscopy during STARDUST and ATV1 re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhle, Stefan; Wernitz, Ricarda; Herdrich, Georg; Fertig, Markus; Röser, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Heiko

    2011-09-01

    Emission spectra during re-entry have been measured in 2006 for the STARDUST capsule and in 2008 for the ATV1 "Jules Verne" re-entry. This paper summarizes the approach to design the airborne UV spectroscopic setup and its modifications with respect to the missions. For the STARDUST mission, results of data analysis of data presented in 2008 are given while for the ATV1 observation first spectra of the main disruption are exemplary presented. The surface radiation during the STARDUST re-entry is used to estimate convective and radiative heat flux using different analytical models. A first look at the spectroscopic footprint of ATV1 shows that during the first explosive event, a severe break-up of the main ATV1 structure occurs. However, a correlation with an explosion of fuel could not be observed.

  14. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion.

  15. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  16. Investigation of the Performance Characteristics of Re-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    uicontrol ...8217,... ’Visible’,’on’,... ’HorizontalAlignment’, ’center’); edit4 = uicontrol (’Style’,’Edit’,’Units’,’Normalized’,... 53...8217,’on’,... ’HorizontalAlignment’, ’center’); edit5 = uicontrol (’Style’,’Edit’,’Units’,’Normalized’,...

  17. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pre-X Experimental Re-Entry Lifting Body: Design of Flight Test Experiments for Critical Aerothermal Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    hypersonic domain has never been explored with a controlled glider . BOR 4 BOR 5 The hypersonic glider HYFLEX The main concrete...the most critical phenomena concerning the design and sizing of a re- entry vehicle. Pre-X hypersonic glider • Improving the flight measurement...laws of a gliding body with body flaps. • Performing the first design and development end to end of the hypersonic glider . • To reduce risk for

  19. Re-entry simulation chamber for thermo-mechanical characterisation of space materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Volker

    2003-09-01

    During re-entry, materials and components are subject to very high thermal and mechanical loads. Any failure may cause loss of mission. Therefore, materials and components have to be tested under most rigid conditions to verify the suitability of the material and to verify the design of the components. The Re-Entry Simulation Chamber (RESiC) at ARC Seibersdorf research (ARCS) allows simulating the high thermal loads as well as complex mechanical load profiles that may occur during a re-entry; additionally, the influence of chemical reactions of materials with gaseous components of the atmosphere can be studied. The high vacuum chamber (better than 1×10-6 mbar) has a diameter of 650 mm and allows a sample height of 500 mm, or 1000 mm with extension flange. The gas dosing system is designed to emulate the increasing atmospheric pressure during the re-entry trajectory of a vehicle. Heating is performed by a 30 kW induction generator that allows a sufficiently rapid heating of larger components; electrically conductive materials such as metals or carbon fibre reinforced ceramics are directly heated, while for electrical insulators, susceptor plates or tubes will be employed. The uniaxial servo-hydraulic testing machine has a maximum load of 70 kN, either static or with a frequency of up to 70 Hz, with any given load profile (sinus, rectangular, triangular, ...). Strain measurements will be done by non-contacting laser speckle system for maximum flexibility and minimum instrumentation time effort (currently under application testing), or by strain gauges. All relevant process parameters are controlled and recorded by microcomputer. The highly sophisticated control software allows a convenient and reliable multi-channel data acquisition, e.g. temperatures at various positions of the test piece, pressure, loads, strains, and any other test data according to customer specifications; the data format is suitable for any further data processing. During the set-up and

  20. Unveiling the super-orbital modulation of LSI +61 303 in X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Hadasch, Daniela; Rea, Nanda; Caliandro, G. Andrea; Chen, Yupeng; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    We found evidence for the super-orbital modulation in the X-ray emission of LS I +61 303 from the longest monitoring date by the RXTE. The time evolution of the modulated fraction in the orbital light curves can be well fitted with a sinusoidal function having a super-orbital period of 1667 days. However, we have found a 281.8+/-44.6 day shift between the super-orbital variability found at radio frequencies and our X-ray data. We also find a super-orbital modulation in the maximum count rate ...

  1. Unveiling the super-orbital modulation of LSI +61 303 in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Shu; Hadasch, Daniela; Rea, Nanda; Caliandro, G Andrea; Chen, Yupeng; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    We found evidence for the super-orbital modulation in the X-ray emission of LS I +61 303 from the longest monitoring date by the RXTE. The time evolution of the modulated fraction in the orbital light curves can be well fitted with a sinusoidal function having a super-orbital period of 1667 days. However, we have found a 281.8+/-44.6 day shift between the super-orbital variability found at radio frequencies and our X-ray data. We also find a super-orbital modulation in the maximum count rate of the orbital light curves, compatible with the former results, including the shift.

  2. Precise Orbit Determination of the GOCE Re-Entry Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Francesco; Otten, Michiel; Springer, Tim; Enderle, Werner; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    During the last days of the GOCE mission, after the GOCE spacecraft ran out of fuel, it slowly decayed before finally re-entering the atmosphere on the 11th November 2013. As an integrated part of the AOCS, GOCE carried a GPS receiver that was in operations during the re-entry phase. This feature provided a unique opportunity for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) analysis. As part of the activities carried out by the Navigation Support Office (HSO-GN) at ESOC, precise ephemerides of the GOCE satellite have been reconstructed for the entire re-entry phase based on the available GPS observations of the onboard LAGRANGE receiver. All the data available from the moment the thruster was switched off on the 21st of October 2013 to the last available telemetry downlink on the 10th November 2013 have been processed, for a total of 21 daily arcs. For this period a dedicated processing sequence has been defined and implemented within the ESA/ESOC NAvigation Package for Earth Observation Satellites (NAPEOS) software. The computed results show a post-fit RMS of the GPS undifferenced carrier phase residuals (ionospheric-free linear combination) between 6 and 14 mm for the first 16 days which then progressively increases up to about 80 mm for the last available days. An orbit comparison with the Precise Science Orbits (PSO) generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland) shows an average difference around 9 cm for the first 8 daily arcs and progressively increasing up to 17 cm for the following days. During this reentry phase (21st of October - 10th November 2013) a substantial drop in the GOCE altitude is observed, starting from about 230 km to 130 km where the last GPS measurements were taken. During this orbital decay an increment of a factor of 100 in the aerodynamic acceleration profile is observed. In order to limit the mis-modelling of the non-gravitational forces (radiation pressure and aerodynamic effects) the newly developed

  3. GPK-2 re-entry and deepening -- a technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J.; Gerard, A.; Barla, R.; Socomine, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Between mid February to end of May 1999 (in 104 days) the well GPK2 at the Soultz HDR site was successfully re-entered and deepened from 3876 m to a final depth of 5084 m and fully completed. Re-entry included the pulling of the existing 321 1 m long internal 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string, fishing of a submersible pump and some 150 m of 2 3/8-inch tubing, sealing of a major loss zone and opening of a 6 1/4-inch well section in granite (3211-3876 m) to 8 1/2-inch hole size. The well was extended to 5048 m in 8 1/2'' hole size and again completed with a floating 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string. The casing shoe is at 4431 m. A bottom hole core was taken in the depth range 5048-5051 m. The core recovery was app. 40%. A pilot hole in 6 1/4-inch was drilled from 5051-5084 m for in situ stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing technique. The re-entry and deepening of the well GPK2 was accompanied by several technical developments. New casing packer elements based on inflatable metal shells were developed in a close cooperation between SOCOMINE and MeSy GmbH (patent pending). These packer elements were successfully integrated into the completion of the well. The full weight of the casing string is supported by these elements which are filled with and imbedded in cement. High temperature cementing strategies (up to 170-190 C) for the complex saline fluids encountered in Soultz (High Magnesium Resistant Cements) were developed in a cooperation between Schlumberger Dowell (Vechta), SOCOMINE, SII of Houston, Ruhr-University Bochum, BGR Hannover and IFP Paris. The development of several high temperature logging tools (200 C range, 6-arm caliper, PTF probe) was initiated with CSMA (Cornwall) during the preparation of the deepening of GPK2. Initial scientific investigations included borehole logging (NGS, CLIPER, ARI, UBI, TEMPERATURE), geological investigations (cuttings, core) and seismic monitoring while drilling. During the first temperature log

  4. Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Libby, Paul A

    1962-01-01

    In this and a following issue (Vol. VIII, 1962, Fasc. 2-3) of "Astronautica Acta" there will appear the papers presented at the first international symposium sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation. The theme of the meeting was "Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories." It was held at Louveciennes outside of Paris on June 19-21, 1961. Sixteen papers by authors from nine countries were presented; attendees numbered from 80 to 100. The organizing committee for the symposium was as follows: Prof. PAUL A. LIBBY, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, U.S.A., Chairman; Prof. LuiGI BROGLIO, University of Rome, Italy; Prof. B. FRAEIJS DE VEUBEKE, University of Liege, Belgium; Dr. D. G. KING-HELE, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Rants, United Kingdom; Prof. J. M. J. KooY, Royal Military School, Breda, Netherlands; Prof. JEAN KovALEVSKY, Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France; Prof. RuDOLF PESEK, Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia. The detailed ...

  5. Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B K; Cronn, D R

    1986-02-01

    The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for tests conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels.

  6. Unveiling the super-orbital modulation of LS I +61 303 in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Shu; Hadasch, Daniela; Rea, Nanda; Caliandro, G Andrea; Chen, Yupeng; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    From the longest monitoring of LS I +61 303 done to date by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) we found evidence for the long-sought, years- long modulation in the X-ray emission of the source. The time evolution of the modulated fraction in the orbital lightcurves can be well fitted with a sinusoidal function having a super-orbital period of 1667 days, the same as the one reported in non-contemporaneous radio measurements. However, we have found a 281.8 \\pm 44.6 days shift between the super-orbital variability found at radio frequencies extrapolated to the observation time of our campaign and what we found in the super-orbital modulation of the modulated fraction of our X-ray data. We also find a super-orbital modulation in the maximum count rate of the orbital lightcurves, compatible with the former results, including the shift.

  7. Guttiferone K impedes cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells via stabilization of FBXW7 and subsequent c-MYC degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Z; Yao, M; Li, Y; Xie, C; Holst, J; Liu, T; Cai, S; Lao, Y; Tan, H; Xu, H-X; Dong, Q

    2016-06-02

    Cell cycle re-entry by quiescent cancer cells is an important mechanism for cancer progression. While high levels of c-MYC expression are sufficient for cell cycle re-entry, the modality to block c-MYC expression, and subsequent cell cycle re-entry, is limited. Using reversible quiescence rendered by serum withdrawal or contact inhibition in PTEN(null)/p53(WT) (LNCaP) or PTEN(null)/p53(mut) (PC-3) prostate cancer cells, we have identified a compound that is able to impede cell cycle re-entry through c-MYC. Guttiferone K (GUTK) blocked resumption of DNA synthesis and preserved the cell cycle phase characteristics of quiescent cells after release from the quiescence. In vehicle-treated cells, there was a rapid increase in c-MYC protein levels upon release from the quiescence. However, this increase was inhibited in the presence of GUTK with an associated acceleration in c-MYC protein degradation. The inhibitory effect of GUTK on cell cycle re-entry was significantly reduced in cells overexpressing c-MYC. The protein level of FBXW7, a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for degradation of c-MYC, was reduced upon the release from the quiescence. In contrast, GUTK stabilized FBXW7 protein levels during release from the quiescence. The critical role of FBXW7 was confirmed using siRNA knockdown, which impaired the inhibitory effect of GUTK on c-MYC protein levels and cell cycle re-entry. Administration of GUTK, either in vitro prior to transplantation or in vivo, suppressed the growth of quiescent prostate cancer cell xenografts. Furthermore, elevation of FBXW7 protein levels and reduction of c-MYC protein levels were found in the xenografts of GUTK-treated compared with vehicle-treated mice. Hence, we have identified a compound that is capable of impeding cell cycle re-entry by quiescent PTEN(null)/p53(WT) and PTEN(null)/p53(mut) prostate cancer cells likely by promoting c-MYC protein degradation through stabilization of FBXW7. Its usage as a clinical modality to

  8. On Re-Entry Prediction of Near Earth Objects with Genetic Algorithm Using KS Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Anilkumar, A. K.; Xavier James Raj, M.; Sabarinath, A.

    2009-03-01

    The accurate orbit prediction of the near-Earth objects is an important requirement for the re-entry and the life time estimation. The method of Kustaanheimo and Stiefel (KS) total energy element equations is one of the powerful methods for orbit prediction. Recently, due to the reentries of large number of risk objects, which posses threat to the human life and property, a great concern is developed in the space scientific community. Consequently, the prediction of risk objects re-entry time and location has got much importance for the proper planning of mitigation strategies and hazard assessment. This paper discusses an integrated procedure for orbit life time prediction combining the KS elements and genetic algorithm (GA). The orbit prediction is carried out by numerically integrating the KS element equations. In this methodology, the ballistic coefficient is estimated from a set of observed orbital parameters in terms of the Two Line Elements (TLE) by minimizing the variance of the predicted re-entry time from different TLE using GA. A software, KSGEN, systematically developed in-house using KS elements and genetic algorithm is utilized for predicting the re-entry time of the risk objects. This software has been effectively used for the prediction of the re-entry time in the past seven re-entry exercise campaigns conducted by the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The predicted re-entry time matched quite well with the actual re-entry time for all the seven IADC re-entry campaigns. A detailed analysis is carried out with two case studies.

  9. A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttà, Carmelo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Giarrusso, Lucia; Miceli, Giuseppe; Cuttitta, Francesco; La Rosa, Donata; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

  10. Re-entry into the true lumen from the subintimal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter A; Caps, Michael T; Nelken, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular reconstruction of the femoral and popliteal arteries is replacing femoral-popliteal bypass. This is made possible by subintimal recanalization to manage long chronic total occlusions. Re-entry into the true lumen is the most challenging step in this process. This article summarizes the techniques for re-entry into the true lumen in the superficial femoral and above- and below-the-knee popliteal arteries.

  11. Procedural and Early Outcomes of Two Re-entry Devices for Subintimal Recanalization of Aortoiliac and Femoropopliteal Chronic Total Occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuruskan, Ertan; Saracoglu, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty is a common treatment choice for chronic total occlusions (CTO) in the iliac and femoropopliteal arteries. This article describes the technical aspects and early outcomes of two different re-entry devices and comparison with manual re-entry technique. A retrospective review of 61 patients (re-entry group) treated with Outback or Pioneer Plus catheters was carried out. A matched cohort of patients (n=62) who underwent lower extremity interventions without the use of re-entry devices (manual re-entry group) were also analyzed (overall 123 patients were analyzed). Procedural success, procedural durations, patency estimates, ankle-brachial indices, and complications were analyzed. Sixty-one patients underwent Outback or Pioneer Plus guided subintimal recanalization. After the procedure, ankle-brachial indices significantly increased in all patients during follow-up. Primary patency for the entire cohort was 83% in the first month. When the re-entry device group was compared with manual re-entry group, no difference was found with respect to success, complication, and patencies between the two groups during follow-up. However, procedure duration and the amount of contrast agent used was significantly decreased in re-entry groups (pCTO using re-entry devices for aortoiliac or femoropopliteal arteries is safe and effective. These devices shorten the procedure time, the re-entry time, reduce radiation risk, and reduce the amount of contrast agent employed.

  12. Development of an innovative validation strategy of gas-surface interaction modelling for re-entry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, N.; Esser, B.; Fertig, M.; Gülhan, A.; Herdrich, G.; Massuti-Ballester, B.

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarises the final synthesis of an ESA technology research programme entitled "Development of an Innovative Validation Strategy of Gas Surface Interaction Modelling for Re-entry Applications". The focus of the project was to demonstrate the correct pressure dependency of catalytic surface recombination, with an emphasis on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) re-entry conditions and thermal protection system materials. A physics-based model describing the prevalent recombination mechanisms was proposed for implementation into two CFD codes, TINA and TAU. A dedicated experimental campaign was performed to calibrate and validate the CFD model on TPS materials pertinent to the EXPERT space vehicle at a wide range of temperatures and pressures relevant to LEO. A new set of catalytic recombination data was produced that was able to improve the chosen model calibration for CVD-SiC and provide the first model calibration for the Nickel-Chromium super-alloy PM1000. The experimentally observed pressure dependency of catalytic recombination can only be reproduced by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood recombination mechanism. Due to decreasing degrees of (enthalpy and hence) dissociation with facility stagnation pressure, it was not possible to obtain catalytic recombination coefficients from the measurements at high experimental stagnation pressures. Therefore, the CFD model calibration has been improved by this activity based on the low pressure results. The results of the model calibration were applied to the existing EXPERT mission profile to examine the impact of the experimentally calibrated model at flight relevant conditions. The heat flux overshoot at the CVD-SiC/PM1000 junction on EXPERT is confirmed to produce radiative equilibrium temperatures in close proximity to the PM1000 melt temperature.This was anticipated within the margins of the vehicle design; however, due to the measurements made here for the first time at relevant temperatures for the junction, an increased

  13. Re-entry Attitude Double-loop SMC of the Spacecraft and Its Logic Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-wen; BI Kai-bo

    2007-01-01

    A spacecraft re-entry attitude control method using sliding mode control (SMC) theory is developed. The controller utilizes double-loop SMC scheme and provides the robust, de-coupled tracking of both the angular velocity and the shuttle orientation angles. In accordance with the hybrid-controlling characteristics of the aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control system of the spacecraft, the control torque commands are allocated into the actuators such as the aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control system by using the optimal control selection allocation algorithm. The simulation of the spacecraft re-entry attitude controlling demonstrates the robust, de-coupled tracking performance of the proposed method and its validity.

  14. Analysis Of The ATV1 Re-Entry Using Near-UV Spectroscopic Data From The ESA/NASA Multi-Instrument Aircraft Observation Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohle, Stefan; Marynowski, Thomas; Knapp, Andreas; Wernitz, Ricarda; Lips, Tobias

    2011-05-01

    The first Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV1) named Jules Verne was launched in March 2009 to carry over seven tons of experiments, fuel, water, food and other supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) orbiting at about 350 km. Attached to the ISS, it served as an extension to the space station, giving extra space for the six astronauts and cosmonauts who will ultimately form the permanent ISS Crew. On September 29, 2009, a controlled de-orbit maneuver lead the spacecraft to enter the Earth's atmosphere over the south pacific ocean. The following destructive re-entry was observed by two aircraft equipped with a wide variety of imaging and spectroscopic instruments. In this paper, we present quantitative results from the near-UV spectroscopic measurements acquired aboard an experimental DC-8 aircraft operated by NASA. The wavelength range of observation allows a determination of temperatures from radiation and the investigation of atomic radiation with respect to the identification of the destructive process. Furthermore, the excitation temperatures of chromium give an insight into the explosive events occurring during re-entry. Analysing the continuum of the measured spectra, the Planck radiation temperature is fitted to the data. These temperatures indicate that most of the radiating parts are titanium alloys, i.e. the outer structure of ATV1. All results within this paper are compared to a simulated break-up scenario and related to basic results from other experimenters which allows drawing an overall scenario for this destructive re-entry.

  15. Exploring Efficacy in Negotiating Support: Women Re-Entry Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi-Berardinelli, Josephine Oriana

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature on women re-entry students reveals that women students concurrently struggle with family, work, and sometimes health issues. Women students often do not receive adequate support from their partners or from other sources in helping manage the multiple roles that compete for their time, and often face constraints that affect…

  16. ENTRYSAT: A 3U Cubesat to Study the Re-Entry Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. F.; Chaix, J.; Mimoun, D.; EntrySat student Team

    2014-04-01

    The EntrySat is a 3U CubeSat designed to study the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. The project, developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA, is funded by CNES and is intended to be launched in January 2016, in the context of the QB50 network. The scientific goal is to relate the kinematics of the satellite with the aerothermodynamic environment during re-entry. In particular, data will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. According to these requirements, the satellite will measure the temperature, pressure, heat flux, and drag force during re-entry, as well as the trajectory and attitude of the satellite. One of the major technological challenges is the retrieval of data during the re-entry phase, which will be based on the Iridium satellite network. The system design is based on the use of commercial COTS components, and is mostly developed by students from ISAE. As such, the EntrySat has an important educational value in the formation of young engineers.

  17. Perpetuation of Torsade de Pointes in heterogeneous hearts : competing foci or re-entry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandersickel, Nele; de Boer, Teun P; Vos, Marc A; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Torsade de Pointes (TdP) can be the consequence of cardiac remodeling, drug effects or the combination of both. The mechanism underlying TdP is unclear, and may involve triggered focal activity or re-entry. Recent work by our group has indicated that both cases may exist, i.e. TdPs induced in the

  18. Acute amiodarone promotes drift and early termination of spiral wave re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Harumichi; Honjo, Haruo; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Okuno, Yusuke; Harada, Masahide; Takanari, Hiroki; Sakuma, Ichiro; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-07-01

    Intravenous application of amiodarone is commonly used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the acute effects of amiodarone on spiral wave (SW) re-entry, the primary organization machinery of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF), in comparison with lidocaine. A two-dimensional ventricular myocardial layer was obtained from 24 Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, and epicardial excitations were analyzed by high-resolution optical mapping. During basic stimulation, amiodarone (5 microM) caused prolongation of action potential duration (APD) by 5.6%-9.1%, whereas lidocaine (15 microM) caused APD shortening by 5.0%-6.4%. Amiodarone and lidocaine reduced conduction velocity similarly. Ventricular tachycardias induced by DC stimulation in the presence of amiodarone were of shorter duration (sustained-VTs >30 s/total VTs: 2/58, amiodarone vs 13/52, control), whereas those with lidocaine were of longer duration (22/73, lidocaine vs 14/58, control). Amiodarone caused prolongation of VT cycle length and destabilization of SW re-entry, which is characterized by marked prolongation of functional block lines, frequent wavefront-tail interactions near the rotation center, and considerable drift, leading to its early annihilation via collision with anatomical boundaries. Spiral wave re-entry in the presence of lidocaine was more stabilized than in control. In the anisotropic ventricular myocardium, amiodarone destabilizes SW re-entry facilitating its early termination. Lidocaine, in contrast, stabilizes SW re-entry resulting in its persistence.

  19. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to…

  20. UNVEILING THE SUPER-ORBITAL MODULATION OF LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 IN X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian; Zhang Shu; Chen Yupeng; Wang Jianmin [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Torres, Diego F.; Hadasch, Daniela; Rea, Nanda; Caliandro, G. Andrea, E-mail: jianli@ihep.ac.cn [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Torre C5, 2a planta, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    From the longest monitoring of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 done to date by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer we found evidence for the long-sought, years-long modulation in the X-ray emission of the source. The time evolution of the modulated fraction in the orbital light curves can be well fitted with a sinusoidal function having a super-orbital period of 1667 days, the same as the one reported in non-contemporaneous radio measurements. However, we have found a 281.8 {+-} 44.6 day shift between the super-orbital variability found at radio frequencies extrapolated to the observation time of our campaign and what we found in the super-orbital modulation of the modulated fraction of our X-ray data. We also find a super-orbital modulation in the maximum count rate of the orbital light curves, compatible with the former results, including the shift.

  1. Facilitation of school re-entry and peer acceptance of children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Anne Sofie; Schmiegelow, K; Brok, J

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates from childhood cancer call for efforts to reintegrate children with cancer back into their academic and social environments. The aims of this study were to: (1) review and analyse the existing literature on school re-entry interventions for children with cancer; and (2......, there is a need for intervention programmes exploring the optimal path for the reintegration of children with cancer into the education system and into their peer groups....

  2. Re-Entries: New strategies in development zones at the Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Briceno, M.; Figueroa, J.; Bolanos, C. [Lagoven, S.A., Morichal, Edo. Monagas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells in Venezuela began in the Orinoco Oil Belt with the wells CI-87 and CI-97 in the J-20 block, drilled in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Well CI-87 produces up to 1000 BPD without steam injection. Due to the success of this well, the exploitation strategy was oriented toward re-entry and sidetracking wells with mechanical problems, high water cut and low potential. The purpose of this programme was to enhance drainage patterns, access new reservoirs through existing bores, and increase oil production while reducing per-barrel costs. Eighteen (18) wells were re-drilled in different pay zones such as O-12, O-13, O-14 and O-15 with horizontal sections between a thousand feet and one thousand six hundred feet. Those wells were completed with progressive cavity pumps, sucker rod beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps. Presented in this paper are the results of the re-entries at the Orinoco Oil Belt and the future re-entry strategy.

  3. TRMM Re-Entry Planning: Attitude Determination and Control During Thruster Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft has been undergoing design for a controlled re-entry to Earth. During simulation of the re-entry plan, there was evidence of errors in the attitude determination algorithms during thruster modes. These errors affected the bum efficiency, and thus planning, during re-entry. During thruster modes, the spacecraft attitude is controlled off of integrated Gyro Error Angles that were designed to closely follow the nominal spacecraft pointing frame (Tip Frame). These angles, however, were not exactly mapped to the Tip Frame from the Body Frame. Additionally, in the initial formulation of the thruster mode attitude determination algorithms, several assumptions and approximations were made to conserve processor speed. These errors became noticeable and significant when simulating bums of much longer duration (-10 times) than had been produced in flight. A solution is proposed that uses attitude determination information from a propagated extended Kalman filter that already exists in the TRMM thruster modes. This attitude information is then used to rotate the Gyro Error Angles into the Tip Frame. An error analysis is presented that compares the two formulations. The new algorithm is tested using the TRMM High-Fidelity Simulator and verified with the TRMM Software Testing and Training Facility. Simulation results for both configurations are also presented.

  4. Targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2α impedes cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mu; Xie, Chanlu; Kiang, Mei-Yee; Teng, Ying; Harman, David; Tiffen, Jessamy; Wang, Qian; Sved, Paul; Bao, Shisan; Witting, Paul; Holst, Jeff; Dong, Qihan

    2015-10-27

    Cell cycle re-entry of quiescent cancer cells has been proposed to be involved in cancer progression and recurrence. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane glycerophospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are implicated in cancer cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cPLA2α in cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells. When PC-3 and LNCaP cells were rendered to a quiescent state, the active form of cPLA2α with a phosphorylation at Ser505 was lower compared to their proliferating state. Conversely, the phospho-cPLA2α levels were resurgent during the induction of cell cycle re-entry. Pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2α with Efipladib upon induction of cell cycle re-entry inhibited the re-entry process, as manifested by refrained DNA synthesis, persistent high proportion of cells in G0/G1 and low percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases, together with a stagnant recovery of Ki-67 expression. Simultaneously, Efipladib prohibited the emergence of Skp2 while maintained p27 at a high level in the nuclear compartment during cell cycle re-entry. Inhibition of cPLA2α also prevented an accumulation of cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin E/CDK2, phospho-pRb, pre-replicative complex proteins CDC6, MCM7, ORC6 and DNA synthesis-related protein PCNA during induction of cell cycle re-entry. Moreover, a pre-treatment of the prostate cancer cells with Efipladib during induction of cell cycle re-entry subsequently compromised their tumorigenic capacity in vivo. Hence, cPLA2α plays an important role in cell cycle re-entry by quiescent prostate cancer cells.

  5. Sensitivity analysis and probabilistic re-entry modeling for debris using high dimensional model representation based uncertainty treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Piyush M.; Kubicek, Martin; Minisci, Edmondo; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Well-known tools developed for satellite and debris re-entry perform break-up and trajectory simulations in a deterministic sense and do not perform any uncertainty treatment. The treatment of uncertainties associated with the re-entry of a space object requires a probabilistic approach. A Monte Carlo campaign is the intuitive approach to performing a probabilistic analysis, however, it is computationally very expensive. In this work, we use a recently developed approach based on a new derivation of the high dimensional model representation method for implementing a computationally efficient probabilistic analysis approach for re-entry. Both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties that affect aerodynamic trajectory and ground impact location are considered. The method is applicable to both controlled and un-controlled re-entry scenarios. The resulting ground impact distributions are far from the typically used Gaussian or ellipsoid distributions.

  6. An activation-repolarization time metric to predict localized regions of high susceptibility to re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Bishop, Martin J.; Hanson, Ben; Coronel, Ruben; Opthof, Tobias; Bourkens, Bastiaan; Walton, Richard; Efimov, Igor; Bostock, Julian; Hill, Yolanda; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Initiation of re-entrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) involves complex interactions between activation and repolarization wavefronts. Recent experimental work has identified the time interval between S2 repolarization proximal to a line of functional block and the activation at the adjacent distal side, as a critical determinant of re-entry. Objective We hypothesized: (1) an algorithm could be developed which would generate a spatial map of this interval (designated the “re-entry vulnerability index”-RVI); (2) that this would accurately identify a pathway of re-entry as well as rotor formation in animal experiments and in a computational model; and, (3) that it would be possible to generate an RVI map in humans during routine clinical procedures and co-register with anatomical and electrophysiological features. Methods and Results An algorithm was developed which sampled all points on a multielectrode grid and calculated RVI between all pairs of electrodes within a given radius. The algorithm successfully identified the spatial region with increased susceptibility to re-entry in an established Langendorff pig heart model and the site of re-entry and rotor formation in an optically mapped sheep heart model and corresponding computational simulations. The feasibility of RVI mapping was evaluated during a clinical procedure by co-registering with the anatomy and physiology in a patient undergoing a VT ablation. Conclusions We developed an algorithm to calculate a re-entry vulnerability index from intervals between local repolarization and activation times at all adjacent points over a multielectrode grid. The algorithm accurately identified the region of re-entry in two animal models of functional re-entry. The possibility of clinical application was demonstrated in a patient with VT. PMID:25863160

  7. Application of Extended Kalman Filter to Tactical Ballistic Missile Re-entry Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the advantages and performance of Extended Kalman Filter for the estimation of non-linear system where linearization takes place about a trajectory that was continually updated with the state estimates resulting from the measurement. Here tactile ballistic missile Re-entry problem is taken as a nonlinear system model and Extended Kalman Filter technique is used to estimate the positions and velocities at the X and Y direction at different values of ballistic coefficients. The result shows that the method gives better estimation with the increase of ballistic coefficient.

  8. Parallel, Gradient-Based Anisotropic Mesh Adaptation for Re-entry Vehicle Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Park, Michael A.; Jones, William T.

    2006-01-01

    Two gradient-based adaptation methodologies have been implemented into the Fun3d refine GridEx infrastructure. A spring-analogy adaptation which provides for nodal movement to cluster mesh nodes in the vicinity of strong shocks has been extended for general use within Fun3d, and is demonstrated for a 70 sphere cone at Mach 2. A more general feature-based adaptation metric has been developed for use with the adaptation mechanics available in Fun3d, and is applicable to any unstructured, tetrahedral, flow solver. The basic functionality of general adaptation is explored through a case of flow over the forebody of a 70 sphere cone at Mach 6. A practical application of Mach 10 flow over an Apollo capsule, computed with the Felisa flow solver, is given to compare the adaptive mesh refinement with uniform mesh refinement. The examples of the paper demonstrate that the gradient-based adaptation capability as implemented can give an improvement in solution quality.

  9. Super-orbital variability of LS I +61$^{\\circ}$303 at TeV energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Buson, S; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Clavero, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gora, D; Guberman, D; Hadasch, D; Hahn, A; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Moretti, E; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Pedaletti, G; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Verguilov, V; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zanin, R; Casares, J; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The gamma-ray binary LS I +61$^{\\circ}$303 is a well established source from centimeter radio up to very high energy (VHE; E$>$100 GeV). Its broadband emission shows a periodicity of $\\sim$26.5 days, coincident with the orbital period. A longer (super-orbital) period of 1667 $\\pm$ 8 days was discovered in radio and confirmed in optical and high energy (HE; E>100 MeV) gamma-ray observations. We present a four-year campaign performed by MAGIC together with archival data concentrating on a search for a long timescale signature in the VHE emission. We focus on the search for super-orbital modulation of the VHE peak and on the search for correlations between TeV emission and optical determination of the extension of the circumstellar disk. A four-year campaign has been carried out by MAGIC. The source was observed during the orbital phases when the periodic VHE outbursts have occurred ($\\phi$=0.55-0.75). Additionally, we included archival MAGIC observations and data published by the VERITAS collaboration in these ...

  10. The super-orbital variability of LS I +61 303 at all frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Diego F.; Hadasch, Daniela; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the gamma-ray binary LS I + 61 303 is highly variable across all frequencies. Beside its variability due to the modulation of its emission at the 26.496-day orbital period, the system also presents variability consistent with the so-called superorbital period, of 1667 days. Short and highly luminous X-ray bursts, reminiscent of typical magnetar behavior, have been also detected. I will summarize this phenomenology and present recent analysis of LSI +61 303 using data taken with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, putting it in a multi-wavelength context. I will show that the super-orbital modulation of the GeV data is obvious, and that is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron. I will also show that the super-orbital evolution also exists in TeV data. Finally, I will present correlation studies between TeV, GeV, X-ray, optical, and radio data and comment on a physical, pulsar-based scenario which could explain the general behavior of this enigmatic binary.

  11. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  12. An Exploration of Factors Reducing Recidivism Rates of Formerly Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities Participating in a Re-Entry Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…

  13. Use of the Stingray Re-Entry System in Two Complex Cases of Occluded Superficial Femoral Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Galbraith, Erin M.; Marc Del Rosario; Khusrow Niazi

    2011-01-01

    Totally occluded infrainguinal arterial disease presents formidable challenges to endovascular revascularization. A variety of devices have been made available to make the crossing of these lesions more amenable to endovascular techniques. We discuss the novel use of a device that has been developed for crossing occluded coronary arteries, the Stingray Re-Entry System.

  14. Use of the Stingray Re-Entry System in Two Complex Cases of Occluded Superficial Femoral Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Galbraith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Totally occluded infrainguinal arterial disease presents formidable challenges to endovascular revascularization. A variety of devices have been made available to make the crossing of these lesions more amenable to endovascular techniques. We discuss the novel use of a device that has been developed for crossing occluded coronary arteries, the Stingray Re-Entry System.

  15. An Exploration of Factors Reducing Recidivism Rates of Formerly Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities Participating in a Re-Entry Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…

  16. Does Offender Gambling on the inside Continue on the outside? Insights from Correctional Professionals on Gambling and Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Walker, Gordon J.

    2009-01-01

    This study brings to light a neglected topic of particular importance--offender gambling issues within the context of re-entry into the community. Fifteen correctional professionals from Nevada (high gambling availability) and Utah (no legalized gambling) participated in semi-structured interviews to provide insights into how gambling may impact…

  17. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

  18. Near-Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy of HAYABUSA Spacecraft Re-entry

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Shinsuke; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Iiyama, Ohmi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Shoemaker, Michael A; Shiba, Yasuo; Ueda, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    HAYABUSA is the first spacecraft ever to land on and lift off from any celestial body other than the moon. The mission, which returned asteroid samples to the Earth while overcoming various technical hurdles, ended on June 13, 2010, with the planned atmospheric re-entry. In order to safely deliver the sample return capsule, the HAYABUSA spacecraft ended its 7-year journey in a brilliant "artificial fireball" over the Australian desert. Spectroscopic observation was carried out in the near-ultraviolet and visible wavelengths between 3000 and 7500 \\AA at 3 - 20 \\AA resolution. Approximately 100 atomic lines such as Fe I, Mg I, Na I, Al I, Cr I, Mn I, Ni I, Ti I, Li I, Zn I, O I, and N I were identified from the spacecraft. Exotic atoms such as Cu I, Mo I, Xe I and Hg I were also detected. A strong Li I line (6708 \\AA) at a height of ~55 km originated from the onboard Li-Ion batteries. The FeO molecule bands at a height of ~63 km were probably formed in the wake of the spacecraft. The effective excitation temper...

  19. A Swift BAT Look at Super-Orbital X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Sean A; Skinner, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a study with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope in the 14 - 195 keV range of the long-term variability of 5 low mass X-ray binaries with reported or suspected super-orbital periods -- 4U 1636-536, 4U 1820-303, 4U 1916-053, Cyg X-2 and Sco X-1. No significant periodic modulation was detected around the previously reported values in the 4U 1916-053, Cyg X-2 or Sco X-1 light curves. The $\\sim$170 d period of 4U 1820-303 was detected up to 24 keV, consistent with the proposed triple system model. The $\\sim$46 d period in 4U 1636-536 was detected up to 100 keV, clearly inconsistent with variable photoelectric absorption via a warped precessing disc. We speculate that the appearance of this modulation after 4U 1636-536 entered the low/hard state indicates that this variability could be linked to jet precession such as observed in SS 433.

  20. [Sternal re-entry using the retractor for harvesting internal thoracic artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinami, H; Takeuchi, Y

    2002-06-01

    The number of redo cardiac operations, especially coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), has recently been increasing mainly due to the failure of saphenous vein grafts. Re-opening a median sternotomy is troublesome, because of possible adhesion of the heart to the sternum. Preoperative computed tomography is quite useful and helpful in determining the degree of the adhesion of the heart and ascending aorta to the back of the sternum. We report here a safe and useful technique for sternal re-entry using a retractor for harvesting the internal thoracic artery (ITA). When re-opening a median sternotomy the incision is made to the sternal wires; the wires are then cut and removed. Small rake retractors, which are connected to the ITA retractor, are hooked to both ends of the left side of the sternum. The ITA retractor is gently wound up to lift up the sternum. An oscillating saw is then applied to divide the anterior table of the sternum. When the posterior table of the sternum is carefully divided, the left side of the sternum is automatically elevated slightly. Complete division of the sternum can be confirmed by this slight elevation. If the left side of the sternum is elevated a little bit more by the ITA retractor, the dissection of the adhesion between the sternum and the heart can be performed without assistance. This technique is most beneficial for a case of redo CABG with the use of the left ITA, but it can be applied in any patients who previously underwent median sternotomy.

  1. Benchmark Shock Tube Experiments for Radiative Heating Relevant to Earth Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Cruden, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility for conditions relevant to high speed entry into a variety of atmospheres, including Earth, Venus, Titan, Mars and the Outer Planets. The tests that measured radiation relevant for Earth re-entry are the focus of this work and are taken from campaigns 47, 50, 52 and 57. These tests covered conditions from 8 km/s to 15.5 km/s at initial pressures ranging from 0.05 Torr to 1 Torr, of which shots at 0.1 and 0.2 Torr are analyzed in this paper. These conditions cover a range of points of interest for potential fight missions, including return from Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and Mars. The large volume of testing available from EAST is useful for statistical analysis of radiation data, but is problematic for identifying representative experiments for performing detailed analysis. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to select a subset of benchmark test data that can be considered for further detailed study. These benchmark shots are intended to provide more accessible data sets for future code validation studies and facility-to-facility comparisons. The shots that have been selected as benchmark data are the ones in closest agreement to a line of best fit through all of the EAST results, whilst also showing the best experimental characteristics, such as test time and convergence to equilibrium. The EAST data are presented in different formats for analysis. These data include the spectral radiance at equilibrium, the spatial dependence of radiance over defined wavelength ranges and the mean non-equilibrium spectral radiance (so-called 'spectral non-equilibrium metric'). All the information needed to simulate each experimental trace, including free-stream conditions, shock time of arrival (i.e. x-t) relation, and the spectral and spatial resolution functions, are provided.

  2. Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Magnetized Re-Entry Plasma Sheath Via the Kinetic Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a theoretical model of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a hypersonically induced plasma, it has been demonstrated that the classical radiofrequency communications blackout that is experienced during atmospheric reentry can be mitigated through the appropriate control of an external magnetic field of nominal magnitude. The model is based on the kinetic equation treatment of Vlasov and involves an analytical solution for the electric and magnetic fields within the plasma allowing for a description of the attendant transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients. The ability to transmit through the magnetized plasma is due to the magnetic windows that are created within the plasma via the well-known whistler modes of propagation. The case of 2 GHz transmission through a re-entry plasma is considered. The coefficients are found to be highly sensitive to the prevailing electron density and will thus require a dynamic control mechanism to vary the magnetic field as the plasma evolves through the re-entry phase.

  3. Romance, recovery & community re-entry for criminal justice involved women: Conceptualizing and measuring intimate relationship factors and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard

    Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women's attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women's substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed.

  4. An evaluation of a resorbable (semirigid) GTR membrane in human periodontal intraosseous defects: A clinicoradiological re-entry study

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak S Gowda; Vijay Chava; Ajeya E. G. Kumara

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a resorbable, semi rigid guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane in the treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled clinicoradiological re-entry study. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with bilateral, identical intraosseous defects were selected. The sides for test and control group were randomly allocated to treat either with bioresorbable semi rigid membrane (test group) or open flap debridement (cont...

  5. The characteristics of registered nurses whose licenses expire: why they leave nursing and implications for retention and re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Susan M; Palazzo, Lorella; Hart, L Gary; Keepnews, David

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about RNs who drop their licenses and their potential re-entry into the nursing workforce. The results of this study provide insight into reasons nurses leave their careers and the barriers to re-entry, all important indicators of the current professional climate for nursing. While representing only one state, these findings suggest that RNs who allow their licenses to expire do so because they have reached retirement age or, among those who do not cite age as a factor, because many are unable or unwilling to work in the field. Inactive nurses who might otherwise appear to be likely candidates for re-entry into the profession may not be easily encouraged to practice nursing again without significant changes in their personal circumstances or the health care work environment. Effective ways to address current and pending RN workforce shortages include expanding RN education capacity to produce more RNs who can contribute to the workforce across the coming decades, and promote work environments in which RNs want to, and are able to, practice across a long nursing career.

  6. Potential dermal exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura M; Querejeta, Giselle A; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38+/-17)mLh(-1) with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  7. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 {+-} 17) mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  8. Simulation of re-entry in a piece of myocardial tissue: strong sensitivity to spatial and temporal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfart, B; Ohlén, G; Karlsson, L

    1996-07-01

    A simple model for the simulation of re-entrant excitation was created. The model consists of a matrix of 15x15 compartments, where each compartment has its own action potential that depends dynamically on four ion currents (INa, ICa, Ik and Ib) having time and voltage-dependent activation and inactivation kinetics. The compartments were combined with resistors to simulate electrotonic interaction. At short excitation intervals the action potential was shortened in duration, and at even shorter coupling intervals decremental propagation occurred. Re-entry around an obstacle could be elicited in response to a properly timed extra stimulus. A time dependent unidirectional block was made by making some of the action potentials longer in duration. An obstacle was not a necessary substrate for re-entry, but the timing of the extra stimulus was critical. In the presence of an obstacle, the induction of re-entry was critically dependent on the shape of the obstacle. The most important result of the simulations is that the system is highly sensitive to the initial spatial and temporal conditions. These sensitivities are generic features of dynamic systems that are described by non-linear differential equations and are typical for chaotic systems. The system studied shows features associated with deterministic chaos.

  9. An integrated approach for risk object re-entry predictions in terms of KS elements and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Anil Kumar, A. K.; Xavier James Raj, M.

    The accurate estimation of the orbital lifetime of decaying near-Earth objects is of considerable importance for prediction of risk object re-entry time and proper planning of mitigation strategies and hazard assessment. It has become necessary to use extremely complex force models to match with the present operational requirements and observational techniques. The problem becomes all the more complicated in the near-Earth environment due to the fact that the object is influenced by the non-spherical effects of the Earth's gravitational field as well as the dissipative effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The database available for the re-entry time or orbital lifetime prediction of the debris objects is based on the set of Two Line Elements (TLEs) provided by the agencies like NORAD. These TLEs provide information regarding the orbital parameters together with rate of mean motion decay and an equivalent ballistic coefficient B*. The objects physical parameters like mass, area of cross section, shape and dimensions are not available accurately and the modelling of the atmosphere in which objects decay takes place is also uncertain. Besides, the tumbling effect of the body and gas molecular interaction, further makes the prediction of re-entry time a very complicated exercise. The method of the K-S total-energy element equations (Stiefel & Scheifele 1971) is a powerful method for numerical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round-off and truncation errors in the numerical algorithm. The equations are everywhere regular in contrast with the classical Newtonian equations, which are singular at the collision of the two bodies. The equations are smoothed for eccentric orbits because eccentric anomaly is the independent variable. Genetic Algorithms (Deb 1995) has received a great deal of attention regarding their potential as an optimisation technique for complex functions. This paper highlights the implementation

  10. A case study of non-traditional students re-entry into college physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stewart Gordon

    Two groups of students in introductory physics courses of an Access Program for engineering technologies were the subjects of this study. Students with a wide range of academic histories and abilities were enrolled in the program; many of the students were re-entry and academically unprepared for post-secondary education. Five years of historical data were evaluated to use as a benchmark for revised instruction. Data were gathered to describe the pre-course academic state of the students and their academic progress during two physics courses. Additional information was used to search for factors that might constrain academic success and as feedback for the instructional methods. The data were interpreted to regulate constructivist design features for the physics courses. The Engineering Technology Access Program was introduced to meet the demand from non-traditional students for admission to two-year engineering' technology programs, but who did not meet normal academic requirements. The duration of the Access Program was two terms for electronic and computer engineering students and three terms for civil and mechanical engineering students. The sequence of mathematics and physics courses was different for the two groups. The Civil/Mechanical students enrolled in their first mathematics course before undertaking their first physics course. The first mathematics and physics courses for the Electronics students were concurrent. Academic success in the two groups was affected by this difference. Over a five-year period the success rate of students graduating with a technology diploma was approximately twenty-five percent. Results from this study indicate that it was possible to reduce the very high attrition in the combined Access/Technology Programs. While the success rate for the Electronics students increased to 38% the rate for the Civil/Mechanical students increased dramatically to 77%. It is likely that several factors, related to the extra term in the Access

  11. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of a low ballistic coefficient deployable capsule in Earth re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, G.; Savino, R.; Mongelluzzo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a microsatellite and the related deployable recovery capsule. The aero-brake is folded at launch and deployed in space and is able to perform a de-orbiting controlled re-entry. This kind of capsule, with a flexible, high temperature resistant fabric, thanks to its lightness and modulating capability, can be an alternative to the current "conventional" recovery capsules. The present authors already analyzed the trajectory and the aerodynamic behavior of low ballistic coefficient capsules during Earth re-entry and Mars entry. In previous studies, aerodynamic longitudinal stability analysis and evaluation of thermal and aerodynamic loads for a possible suborbital re-entry demonstrator were carried out in both continuum and rarefied regimes. The present study is aimed at providing preliminary information about thermal and aerodynamic loads and longitudinal stability for a similar deployable capsule, as well as information about the electronic composition of the plasma sheet and its possible influence on radio communications at the altitudes where GPS black-out could occur. Since the computer tests were carried out at high altitudes, therefore in rarefied flow fields, use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo codes was mandatory. The computations involved both global aerodynamic quantities (drag and longitudinal moment coefficients) and local aerodynamic quantities (heat flux and pressure distributions along the capsule surface). The results verified that the capsule at high altitude (150 km) is self-stabilizing; it is stable around the nominal attitude or at zero angle of attack and unstable around the reverse attitude or at 180° angle of attack. The analysis also pointed out the presence of extra statically stable equilibrium trim points.

  12. Cardiac tamponade arising from a venous source following anterograde dissection re-entry coronary angioplasty to a chronic total occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, E; Arena, F; Sapontis, J; Ward, M; Bhindi, R

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare complication of coronary intervention to chronic total occlusions (CTO PCI). We report a case of persistent bleeding from a venous source following successful anterograde dissection-reentry (ADR) CTO PCI. Pericardiocentesis was performed 1 h post-procedure for tamponade. Persistent bleeding was investigated with contrast transesophageal echocardiography, pericardial manometry and blood analysis. Coronary venography revealed subtle extravasation from a cardiac vein adjacent to the site of luminal re-entry. Coronary venous perforation using ADR CTO PCI has not previously been described; however, the volume of blood loss may be significant and surgical exploration may be appropriate.

  13. E2F-dependent induction of p14ARF during cell cycle re-entry in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Arroyo, Ana Gutierrez; El Messaoudi, Selma; Clark, Paula A

    2007-01-01

    The ARF protein, encoded by alternate exon usage within the CDKN2A locus, provides a link between the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressor pathways. Agents that disable pRb or otherwise impinge on the E2F family of transcription factors induce expression of ARF, resulting in stabilization...... of p53 and activation of p53-regulated genes. However, in some cell types ARF is not induced upon cell cycle re-entry, as expected of a conventional E2F target gene, leading to the suggestion that the ARF promoter only responds to supra-physiological or aberrant levels of E2F. These properties have...

  14. [Enlargement of keratinized peri-implant mucosa at the time of second stage surgery (re-entry)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Regula; Bassetti, Renzo; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A tightly attached keratinized mucosa around endosseous dental implants is believed to be protective against peri-implant bone loss. Tension caused by buccal frena and mobile non keratinized mucosa is to avoid. This case report documents the optimization of peri-implant mucosal conditions in the upper and lower jaw. At the time of second stage surgery (re-entry) at submucosally osseointegrated dental implants an enlargement of keratinized mucosa and a thickening of soft tissue was obtained administrating a vestibuloplasty combined by a free gingival graft or a vestibuloplasty combined by an apically moved flap.

  15. Low-cost development of the Algyoefield in Hungary by means of horizontal re-entry boreholes; Die kostenguenstige Entwicklung des Algyoe-West-Feldes in Ungarn durch horizontale Re-Entry-Bohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzel, H. [Weatherford Oil Tool GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany); Osz, A. [Magyar Olaj (MOL), Budapest (Hungary); Kerk, T. [Becfield Drilling Services, Edemissen-Berkhoepen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Planning and implementation of a typical re-entry borehole in southern Hungary are described. The cost is about half that of a new borehole, and the available infrastructure can be used. The production index of a typical Algyoehorizontal borehole is higher by a factor of 12 than for a vertical borehole in the same field. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Beispielbohrung (Algyoe488) wird die Planung und Durchfuehrung einer typischen Re-Entry Bohrung in Suedungarn beschrieben. Durch die weitgehende Verwendung von standardisierten Komponenten und Verfahren sowie durch die enge Zusammenarbeit zweier deutscher Service Unternehmen mit dem Auftraggeber wurde bei insgesamt 35 Horizontalbohrungen in Ungarn der Effekt der Lernkurve zur optimierten Erstellung der Bohrung und damit zur Kostensenkung effektiv eingesetzt. Die so aufgearbeiteten Bohrungen werden im Vergleich zu einer neuen Bohrung fuer etwa die Haelfte der Kosten erstellt. Die vorhandene Infrastruktur des Feldes kann weiter verwendet werden. Der Produktionsindex einer typischen AlgyoeHorizontalbohrung liegt um den Faktor 12 hoeher als eine Vertikalbohrung im gleichen Feld. (orig.)

  16. Re-entry communication through a plasma sheath using standing wave detection and adaptive data rate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Yang, Min; Bai, Bowen; Li, Xiaoping; Zhou, Hui; Guo, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Radio blackout during the re-entry has puzzled the aerospace industry for decades and has not yet been completely resolved. To achieve a continuous data link in the spacecraft's re-entry period, a simple and practicable communication method is proposed on the basis that (1) the electromagnetic-wave backscatter of the plasma sheath affects the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of the antenna, and the backscatter is negatively correlated to transmission components, and (2) the transmission attenuation caused by the plasma sheath reduces the channel capacity. We detect the voltage standing wave ratio changes of the antenna and then adjust the information rate to accommodate the varying channel capacity, thus guaranteeing continuous transmission (for fewer critical data). The experiment was carried out in a plasma generator with an 18-cm-thick and 30-cm-diameter hollow propagation path, and the adaptive communication was implemented using spread spectrum frequency, shift key modulation with a variable spreading factor. The experimental results indicate that, when the over-threshold of VSWR was detected, the bit rate reduced to 250 bps from 4 Mbps automatically and the tolerated plasma density increased by an order of magnitude, which validates the proposed scheme. The proposed method has little additional cost, and the adaptive control does not require a feedback channel. The method is therefore applicable to data transmission in a single direction, such as that of a one-way telemetry system.

  17. Is the time dimension of the cell cycle re-entry in AD regulated by centromere cohesion dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Vladan P; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana; Zivković, Lada; Djelić, Ninoslav; Smith, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal involvement is a legitimate, yet not well understood, feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Firstly, AD affects more women than men. Secondly, the amyloid-β protein precursor genetic mutations, responsible for a cohort of familial AD cases, reside on chromosome 21, the same chromosome responsible for the developmental disorder Down's syndrome. Thirdly, lymphocytes from AD patients display a novel chromosomal phenotype, namely premature centromere separation (PCS). Other documented morphological phenomena associated with AD include the occurrence of micronuclei, aneuploidy, binucleation, telomere instability, and cell cycle re-entry protein expression. Based on these events, here we present a novel hypothesis that the time dimension of cell cycle re-entry in AD is highly regulated by centromere cohesion dynamics. In view of the fact that neurons can re-enter the cell division cycle, our hypothesis predicts that alterations in the signaling pathway leading to premature cell death in neurons is a consequence of altered regulation of the separation of centromeres as a function of time. It is well known that centromeres in the metaphase-anaphase transition separate in a non-random, sequential order. This sequence has been shown to be deregulated in aging cells, various tumors, syndromes of chromosome instability, following certain chemical inductions, as well as in AD. Over time, premature chromosome separation is both a result of, and a driving force behind, further cohesion impairment, activation of cyclin dependent kinases, and mitotic catastrophe, a vicious circle resulting in cellular degeneration and death.

  18. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes.

  19. A Flexible-Segment-Model-Based Dynamics Calculation Method for Free Hanging Marine Risers in Re-Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xue-song; WANG Sheng-wei

    2012-01-01

    In re-entry,the drilling riser hanging to the holding vessel takes on a free hanging state,waiting to be moved from the initial random position to the wellhead.For the re-entry,dynamics calculation is often done to predict the riser motion or evaluate the structural safety.A dynamics calculation method based on Flexible Segment Model (FSM) is proposed for free hanging marine risers.In FSM,a riser is discretized into a series of flexible segments.For each flexible segment,its deflection feature and external forces are analyzed independently.For the whole riser,the nonlinear governing equations are listed according to the moment equilibrium at nodes.For the solution of the nonlinear equations,a linearization iteration scheme is provided in the paper.Owing to its flexibility,each segment can match a long part of the riser body,which enables that good results can be obtained even with a small number of segments.Moreover,the linearization iteration scheme can avoid widely used Newton-Rapson iteration scheme in which the calculation stability is influenced by the initial points.The FSM-based dynamics calculation is timesaving and stable,so suitable for the shape prediction or real-time control of free hanging marine risers.

  20. Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H

    2015-08-01

    Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions.

  1. Review of six cases of maxillary ameloblastoma from the West Indies: re-entry cryosurgery as prophylactic surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsalu, C; Scipio, E; Williams, N

    2009-09-01

    Maxillary ameloblastoma is a rare histopathological entity. A total of six cases of histologically confirmed maxillary ameloblastoma from the West Indies is reviewed. Three of the cases were taken from a total of 47 histologically confirmed ameloblastoma over a 15-year period (1980-1995) from two major maxillofacial units in Jamaica. Two other cases were from documentation in Jamaica between 2000 and 2002, one of which occurred in a 13-year-old girl (these two patients have been followed-up periodically to 2006). The sixth case was from the records of the maxillofacial department of the University of the West Indies in Trinidad and Tobago. This last patient, at a recent review, has inoperable recurrence. These cases were reviewed with respect to demographics (patient's age and gender), location and extent of tumour, radiological features, concurrent involvement of the mandible, treatment with special emphasis on current treatment modality and follow-up. The findings do not differ from what has been documented by other authors from other parts of the world. Because of the radiographic anatomy of the maxilla, recurrence may be detected late despite such occurring earlier following initial surgical management. It is for this reason that we suggest re-entry cryosurgery for prevention of recurrence for maxillary ameloblastoma. The only case of maxillary ameloblastoma that had re-entry cryosurgery continues to benefit from absence of recurrence at periodic follow-ups at four years post-primary surgical management (which was enucleation).

  2. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  3. The IXV vehicle model identification subsystem: Off-line estimation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar-Romero, J. A.; Bidaux-Sokolowski, A.; Maina, S.; Preaud, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an ESA re-entry technological platform built to verify in-flight the performance of critical re-entry technologies. The successful flight of the IXV provides the key elements to consolidate the knowledge necessary for the development of future European re-entry systems. The exploitation of in-flight data represents a cornerstone for this flying test bench. In this frame the IXV Vehicle Model Identification subsystem, VMI, represents those steps, techniques and algorithms that shall be applied to the collected data in order to improve the prediction capabilities for future design of re-entry vehicles and specifically to: Improve IXV flight dynamics model. Validate aerodynamic prediction methods based on Wind Tunnel Tests, WTT, and Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD. Validate the vehicle model identification process and tools.

  4. Novel Hybrid Ablative/Ceramic Layered Composite for Earth Re-entry Thermal Protection: Microstructural and Mechanical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, K.; Mergia, K.; Marinou, A.; Vekinis, G.; Barcena, J.; Florez, S.; Perez, B.; Pinaud, G.; Bouilly, J.-M.; Fischer, W. P. P.

    2015-04-01

    In view of spacecraft re-entry applications into planetary atmospheres, hybrid thermal protection systems based on layered composites of ablative materials and ceramic matrix composites are investigated. Joints of ASTERM™ lightweight ablative material with Cf/SiC (SICARBON™) were fabricated using commercial high temperature inorganic adhesives. Sound joints without defects are produced and very good bonding of the adhesive with both base materials is observed. Mechanical shear tests under ambient conditions and in liquid nitrogen show that mechanical failure always takes place inside the ablative material with no decohesion of the interface of the adhesive layer with the bonded materials. Surface treatment of the ablative surface prior to bonding enhances both the shear strength and the ultimate shear strain by up to about 60%.

  5. OPERA- A CNES Tool to Monitor Short and Middle Term Uncontrolled Re-Entries Using Mean Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolado, J. C.; Agueda, A.; Aivar, L.; Tirado, J.

    2013-09-01

    Objects in Low-Earth Orbits (LEO) and Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) are subjected to decay and re- entry into the atmosphere due mainly to the drag force. While being this process the best solution to avoid the proliferation of debris in space and ensure the sustainability of future space activities, it implies a threat to the population on ground. Thus, the prediction of the in-orbit lifetime of an object and the evaluation of the risk on population and ground assets constitutes a crucial task. This paper will concentrate on the first of these tasks.Unfortunately the lifetime of an object in space is remarkably difficult to predict. This is mainly due to the dependence of the atmospheric drag on a number of uncertain elements such as the density profile and its dependence on the solar activity, the atmospheric conditions, the mass and surface area of the object (very difficult to evaluate), its uncontrolled attitude, etc.In this paper we will present a method for the prediction of this lifetime based on publicly available Two-Line Elements (TLEs) from the American USSTRATCOM's Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). TLEs constitute an excellent source to access routinely orbital information for thousands of objects even though of their reduced and unpredictable accuracy.Additionally, the implementation of the method on a CNES's Java-based tool will be presented. This tool (OPERA) is executed routinely at CNES to predict the orbital lifetime of a whole catalogue of objects.

  6. An evaluation of a resorbable (semirigid GTR membrane in human periodontal intraosseous defects: A clinicoradiological re-entry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Gowda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a resorbable, semi rigid guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane in the treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled clinicoradiological re-entry study. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with bilateral, identical intraosseous defects were selected. The sides for test and control group were randomly allocated to treat either with bioresorbable semi rigid membrane (test group or open flap debridement (control group. Radiographic analysis was done by comparing intraoral peri apical radiographs taken at baseline and at six months. Extended cone paralleling device with grid was used to standardize radiographs. Auto CAD software was used for the analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired-t test. Results: On surgical reentry at six months, the mean reduction in depth of the defect at the test site was 2.63 mm. The mean gain in Relative attachment level was 1.75 mm. The control sites showed a statistically insignificant gain. The mean percentage defect fill assessed on radiographs using auto CAD software was 15.54%. Conclusion: The resorbable, semi-rigid GTR membrane can be effectively used for the treatment of human one-walled angular defects.

  7. Spectral Changes in the Hyperluminous Pulsar in NGC 5907 as a Function of Super-Orbital Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Fuerst, F; Stern, D; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Brightman, M; Harrison, F A; Rana, V

    2016-01-01

    We present broad-band, multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy of the pulsating ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) in NGC 5907. Simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR data from 2014 are best described by a multi-color black-body model with a temperature gradient as a function of accretion disk radius significantly flatter than expected for a standard thin accretion disk (T(r) ~ r^{-p}, with p=0.608^{+0.014}_{-0.012}). Additionally, we detect a hard power-law tail at energies above 10 keV, which we interpret as being due to Comptonization. We compare this observation to archival XMM-Newton, Chandra, and NuSTAR data from 2003, 2012, and 2013, and investigate possible spectral changes as a function of phase over the 78d super-orbital period of this source. We find that observations taken around phases 0.3-0.4 show very similar temperature profiles, even though the observed flux varies significantly, while one observation taken around phase 0 has a significantly steeper profile. We discuss these findings in light of the recent...

  8. Swift reveals a ~5.7 day super-orbital period in the M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Murrray, S S

    2015-01-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29$\\pm$1 times the orbital period, i.e. $\\sim$81$\\pm$3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3--10 keV Swift XRT luminosity lightcurve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65+/-0.05 days, and a >5$\\sigma$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods 5.4--5.8 days were detected at a >3$\\sigma$ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70\\% l...

  9. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  10. ARTD1 regulates cyclin E expression and consequently cell-cycle re-entry and G1/S progression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Karolin; Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Fey, Monika; Hottiger, Michael O

    2016-08-02

    ADP-ribosylation is involved in a variety of biological processes, many of which are chromatin-dependent and linked to important functions during the cell cycle. However, any study on ADP-ribosylation and the cell cycle faces the problem that synchronization with chemical agents or by serum starvation and subsequent growth factor addition already activates ADP-ribosylation by itself. Here, we investigated the functional contribution of ARTD1 in cell cycle re-entry and G1/S cell cycle progression using T24 urinary bladder carcinoma cells, which synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after splitting without any additional stimuli. In synchronized cells, ARTD1 knockdown, but not inhibition of its enzymatic activity, caused specific down-regulation of cyclin E during cell cycle re-entry and G1/S progression through alterations of the chromatin composition and histone acetylation, but not of other E2F-1 target genes. Although Cdk2 formed a functional complex with the residual cyclin E, p27(Kip 1) protein levels increased in G1 upon ARTD1 knockdown most likely due to inappropriate cyclin E-Cdk2-induced phosphorylation-dependent degradation, leading to decelerated G1/S progression. These results provide evidence that ARTD1 regulates cell cycle re-entry and G1/S progression via cyclin E expression and p27(Kip 1) stability independently of its enzymatic activity, uncovering a novel cell cycle regulatory mechanism.

  11. Navigation System for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotterer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    PHOENIX is a downscaled experimental vehicle to demonstrate automatic landing capabilities of future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). PHOENIX has flown in May 2004 at NEAT (North European Aerospace Test range) in Vidsel, Sweden. As the shape of the vehicle has been designed for re-entry, the dynamics are very high and almost unstable. This requires a fast and precise GNC system. This paper describes the navigation system and the navigation filter of PHOENIX. The system is introduced and the h...

  12. Factors associated with dropout among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and predictors of re-entry. A national registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukten, Anne; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Waal, Helge; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Retention in treatment is often highlighted as one of the key indicators of success in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). To identify factors associated with long-term retention in opioid maintenance treatment and to analyse predictors of subsequent treatment episodes. Treatment retention and re-entry were examined for a national cohort of patients admitted to OMT in Norway in the period 1997-2003. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to investigate factors associated with treatment dropout 18months after treatment entry. The 18month retention rate among patients admitted to OMT in Norway (n=2431) was 65.8% (n=1599). Dropout from OMT within 18months was associated with younger age (HR 0.97 [0.96-0.98]), high levels of general pre-treatment criminal offences (HR 1.66 [1.32-2.09]) and having drug-related offences during the 30days prior to dropout (HR 1.80 [1.36-2.38]). Of the patients who dropped out (n=832), 42.7% (n=355) were re-engaged in subsequent treatment episodes. Pre-treatment criminal offences were associated with increased odds for treatment re-entry, whereas being younger and having drug-related offences during the first OMT episode were associated with lower odds for re-engagement in OMT. Gender was not associated with treatment dropout and re-entry. High levels of pre-treatment criminal offences and drug offences during the 30days prior to dropout were associated with treatment dropout. Efforts to increase support services to these patients may contribute to higher rates of retention in OMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Mitigates the Effects of Spatial Disorientation to Simulated Orion Spacecraft Re-Entry: Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Reschke, Millard F.; Gebreyesus, Fiyori; Rocha, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation to future astronauts during re-entry of the proposed Orion spacecraft. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-hour physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these effects. Twenty subjects were assigned to two groups (AFTE and Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures to a simulated Orion re-entry test in the rotating chair. Treatment subjects were given two hours of AFTE training before each Orion test. A diagnostic scale was used to evaluate motion sickness symptom severity. Results showed that 2 hours of AFTE significantly reduced motion sickness symptoms during the second Orion test. AFTE subjects were able to maintain lower heart rates and skin conductance levels and other responses than the control group subjects during subsequent tests. Trends show that performance was less degraded for AFTE subjects. The results of this study indicate that astronauts could benefit from receiving at least 2 hours of preflight AFTE. In addition, flight crews could benefit further by practicing physiologic self-regulation using mobile devices.

  14. Facilitation of school re-entry and peer acceptance of children with cancer: a review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, A S; Schmiegelow, K; Brok, J; Johansen, C; Thorsteinsson, T; Simovska, V; Larsen, H B

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates from childhood cancer call for efforts to reintegrate children with cancer back into their academic and social environments. The aims of this study were to: (1) review and analyse the existing literature on school re-entry interventions for children with cancer; and (2) discuss the importance of peer involvement in the treatment. Relevant databases were searched using equivalent search algorithms and six studies were selected that target children with cancer and/or their classmates. Two authors independently reviewed the literature for data extraction. The articles were reviewed using the PRISMA model for reporting reviews. Statistical calculations for the meta-analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2. The meta-analyses showed significant effects of school re-entry programmes in terms of enhancing academic achievement in children with cancer (P = 0.008) and lowering their levels of depression (P = 0.05). Increased knowledge among classmates was associated with less fear and a more positive attitude towards the child with cancer. Due to limited numbers of patients, lack of control groups, and the diversity of intervention strategies used in previous studies, there is a need for intervention programmes exploring the optimal path for the reintegration of children with cancer into the education system and into their peer groups.

  15. Neuronal injury external to the retina rapidly activates retinal glia, followed by elevation of markers for cell cycle re-entry and death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Galan

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are neurons that relay visual signals from the retina to the brain. The RGC cell bodies reside in the retina and their fibers form the optic nerve. Full transection (axotomy of the optic nerve is an extra-retinal injury model of RGC degeneration. Optic nerve transection permits time-kinetic studies of neurodegenerative mechanisms in neurons and resident glia of the retina, the early events of which are reported here. One day after injury, and before atrophy of RGC cell bodies was apparent, glia had increased levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6, and phospho-ERK1/2; however, these signals were not detected in injured RGCs. Three days after injury there were increased levels of phospho-Rb and cyclin A proteins detected in RGCs, whereas these signals were not detected in glia. DNA hyperploidy was also detected in RGCs, indicative of cell cycle re-entry by these post-mitotic neurons. These events culminated in RGC death, which is delayed by pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data show that a remote injury to RGC axons rapidly conveys a signal that activates retinal glia, followed by RGC cell cycle re-entry, DNA hyperploidy, and neuronal death that is delayed by preventing glial MAPK/ERK activation. These results demonstrate that complex and variable neuro-glia interactions regulate healthy and injured states in the adult mammalian retina.

  16. Preliminary Study on the Return and Re-entry of Manned Lunar Landing%载人登月返回再入有关问题初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾世锦

    2011-01-01

    载人登月返回再入涉及到三体问题,且与近地轨道返回再入相比速度更大.因此再入方式的选择和再入弹道的设计涉及到飞行器的方案和再入返回的安全.通过对不同返回再入方式的对比分析,认为跳跃式再入是优选方案.再入点选择、再入过载、升阻比、再入航程、再入轨道倾角都是返回再入方案设计中需要考虑的问题,需结合工程实际进行深化论证,文章提出了参数选取的初步建议.%The return and re-entry of manned lunar landing involves three-body problem,and the speed is greater comparing with that of returning from earth orbit.Therefore, the choice of re-entry type and the design of re-entry trajectory are vital for aircraft and the safety of re-entry.By comparisons among different types of reentry, it is regarded that the skip re-entry is an optimal scheme.The choice of re-entry point, lift-drag ratio, reentry flight and re-entry orbital inclination are all crucial issues which should be considered in the design of reentry problems.These problems need to be testified by systematic engineering practices, and some preliminary advice about the various parameters selection are proposed in this paper.

  17. Surgical re-entry evaluation of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel™ and platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of grade II furcation: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkirat Kaur Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The furcation area creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited, and surgical procedures are generally required. The introduction of bioactive agents, such as platelet concentrates, enamel matrix derivatives, bone morphogenic proteins, and matrix macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid has expanded the scope for better outcomes in furcation treatment. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring nonsulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is an immune and platelet concentrate containing all the constituents of a blood sample, which are favorable for healing and immunity. The purpose of the present case report was to assess through surgical re-entry, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel™ in conjunction with PRF in a patient with grade II furcation defect. It was observed that the combined approach resulted in significant furcation defect fill on re-evaluation at 6 months.

  18. Detection of Acoustic/Infrasonic/Seismic Waves Generated by Hypersonic Re-Entry of the HAYABUSA Capsule and Fragmented Parts of the Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Kazuki; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shiba, Yasuo; Furumoto, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa

    2011-10-01

    Acoustic/infrasonic/seismic waves were observed during the re-entry of the Japanese asteroid explorer ``HAYABUSA'' at 6 ground sites in Woomera, Australia, on 2010 June 13. Overpressure values of infrasound waves were detected at 3 ground sites in a range from 1.3 Pa, 1.0 Pa, and 0.7 Pa with each distance of 36.9 km, 54.9 km, and 67.8 km, respectively, apart from the SRC trajectory. Seismic waveforms through air-to-ground coupling processes were also detected at 6 sites, showing a one-to-one correspondence to infrasound waves at all simultaneous observation sites. Audible sound up to 1 kHz was recorded at one site with a distance of 67.8 km. The mother spacecraft was fragmented from 75 km down to 38 km with a few explosive enhancements of emissions. A persistent train of HAYABUSA re-entry was confirmed at an altitude range of between 92 km down to 82 km for about 3 minutes. Light curves of 136 fragmented parts of the spacecraft were analyzed in detail based on video observations taken at multiple ground sites, being classified into three types of fragmentations, i.e., melting, explosive, and re-fragmented types. In a comparison between infrasonic waves and video-image analyses, regarding the generation of sonic-boom type shock waves by hypersonically moving artificial meteors, both the sample return capsule and fragmented parts of the mother spacecraft, at an altitude of 40 ± 1 km were confirmed with a one-to-one correspondence with each other.

  19. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  20. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  1. Optimisation and thermal control of a multi-layered structure for space electronic devices and thermal shielding of re-entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Riccardo; Barboni, Renato; Gasbarri, Paolo; Chiwiacowsky, Leonardo D.

    2012-06-01

    All electronic devices, due to Joule effect, present heat dissipation, when they are electrically fed. The heat overstocking produces efficiency and performances reduction. On account of this the thermal control is mandatory. On small electronic equipments, the difficulty or impossibility of using a cooling fluid for the free or forced convection heat dissipation imposes the presence of cooling systems based on another kind of functioning principle such as the conduction. In this paper the thermal control, via pyroelectric materials, is presented. Furthermore, an optimisation of geometric, thermal and mechanical parameters, influencing the thermal dissipation, is studied and presented. Pyroelectric materials are able to convert heat into electrical charge spontaneously and, due to this capability, such materials could represent a suitable choice to increase the heat dissipation. The obtained electric charge or voltage could be used to charge a battery or to feed other equipments. In particular, a sequence of different materials such as Kovar®, molybdenum or copper-tungsten, used in a multi-layer pyroelectric wafer, together with their thicknesses, are design features to be optimised in order to have the optimal thermal dissipation. The optimisation process is performed by a hybrid approach where a genetic algorithm (GA) is used coupled with a local search procedure, in order to provide an appropriate balance between exploration and exploitation of the search space, which helps in the search for the optimal or quasi-optimal solution. Since the design variables used in the optimisation procedure are defined in different domains, discrete (e.g. the number of layers in the pyroelectric wafer) and continuous (e.g. the layers thickness) domains, the genetic representation for the solution should take it into account. The chromosome used in the genetic algorithm will mix both integer and real values, what will also be reflected in the genetic operators used in the optimisation process. Finally, numerical analyses and results complete the work.

  2. Relationship of cell cycle re-entry and Alzheimer's disease%细胞周期重启与阿尔茨海默病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 王海红; 董为人

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and accounts for more than 60% of the dementia in adults. It is found that terminally differentiated cells upon abnormal stimuli may pass the G0/G1 checkpoint into Gl phase and replicate DNA in S phase and that some cells may even arrive at G2 phase. However they eventually can not enter M phase and complete mitosis. Neurons in the adult central nervous system have classically been described as being in a terminally differentiated state meaning that they no longer return the cell cycle. However, more and more studies show that there is a cell cycle re-entry phenotype in the neurons of AD brain. Cell cycle re-entry may lead to neuron death and is closely related with the pathological changes of AD.%阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)是最常见的神经退行性疾病,占成人痴呆症的60%以上.研究表明在受到异常刺激时分化成熟的细胞可以跨过G0/G1检查点进入G1期,并在S期发生DNA复制,有的细胞甚至能够到达G2期,但是最终却不能进入M期完成有丝分裂的整个过程.中枢神经元通常被认为处于终末分化状态,意味着它们不再进入细胞周期.然而,越来越多的研究显示AD患者脑中神经元存在细胞周期的重启,细胞周期重启可导致神经元死亡,细胞周期重启与AD的病理变化关系密切.

  3. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit Ningappa; Shete, Abhijeet Rajendra; Naiktari, Ritam

    2015-01-01

    Periradicular (PR) bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect.

  4. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ningappa Gurav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periradicular (PR bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect.

  5. Varying types of circus movement re-entry with both normal and dissociated contralateral conduction causing different right and left atrial rhythms in canine atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, S; Boineau, J P; Schuessler, R B; Cox, J L

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model of atrial flutter (AFL) or fibrillation (AFB) and to determine precisely the pathway of atrial activation during arrhythmias induced by programmed stimulation. In 10 dogs, a shunt from the left subclavian artery to the left upper pulmonary vein was created to produce left atrial enlargement. Five months later, using programmed electrical stimulation, it was possible to induce 17 sustained atrial tachycardias in 9 of the 10 dogs, including 9 episodes of AFL caused by circus movement re-entry, 6 episodes of focal tachycardia, and 2 episodes of AFB. Short cycle length left atrial tachycardias caused by either circus movement or a focus did not propagate in a uniform 1:1 pattern to the right atrium (RA), resulting in RA dissociation. In these arrhythmias, complex wavefronts from both current and preceding left atrial cycles coexisted in the RA. Circus movement was associated with a spectrum of different re-entrant pathways with different path lengths. These differences in the path length were determined by various ways in which obstacles such as the superior vena cava and orifice of the right atrial appendage or pulmonary vein orifices were combined by contiguous areas of functional block.

  6. Implications of the Turing completeness of reaction-diffusion models, informed by GPGPU simulations on an XBox 360: cardiac arrhythmias, re-entry and the Halting problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarle, Simon

    2009-08-01

    In the arsenal of tools that a computational modeller can bring to bare on the study of cardiac arrhythmias, the most widely used and arguably the most successful is that of an excitable medium, a special case of a reaction-diffusion model. These are used to simulate the internal chemical reactions of a cardiac cell and the diffusion of their membrane voltages. Via a number of different methodologies it has previously been shown that reaction-diffusion systems are at multiple levels Turing complete. That is, they are capable of computation in the same manner as a universal Turing machine. However, all such computational systems are subject to a limitation known as the Halting problem. By constructing a universal logic gate using a cardiac cell model, we highlight how the Halting problem therefore could limit what it is possible to predict about cardiac tissue, arrhythmias and re-entry. All simulations for this work were carried out on the GPU of an XBox 360 development console, and we also highlight the great gains in computational power and efficiency produced by such general purpose processing on a GPU for cardiac simulations.

  7. Das Re-entry von Kritik: Assemblageforschung nach der Kritik an der Kritik. Kommentar zu Alexa Färbers „Potenziale freisetzen“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Göbel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Kommentar zum Beitrag von Alexa Färber diskutiert eine Vermengung von drei unterschiedlichen Kritikbegriffen sowie Orten von Kritik in der aktuellen Debatte um die Assemblageforschung im Feld der Urban Studies. Ich rekonstruiere und unterscheide zwischen einem Kritikbegriff als theoretischer Norm, wie er von der (neo-marxistischen Stadt- und Raumforschung vertreten wird, und der ontologischen Kritik dieser Norm seitens der Assemblageforscher_innen. Alexa Färbers Beitrag zeigt drittens exemplarisch eine sich einschleichende normative Ebene in der Assemblageforschung auf, die bislang als Kritikform unterbelichtet geblieben ist. Diese wird als Wiedereinführung (re-entry von empirisch vollzogener Kritik in die Assemblageforschung bezeichnet. Damit ist eine theoretische Neupositionierung von Kritik ‚innerhalb’ einer Assemblage gemeint, indem Kritik nicht mehr als theoretische Norm ‚außerhalb’ zu verorten ist. In diesem Kommentar plädiere ich dafür, in der Assemblageforschung eine differenzierte Auseinandersetzung mit unterschiedlichen Begriffen und Orten von Kritik zu pflegen, um innerhalb der Urban Studies und für interessierte städtische Akteure mit urbaner Expertise (u.a. Architekt_innen, Planer_innen, Künstler_innen, Aktivist_innen, Kultur- und Sozialarbeiter_innen, DIY-Gemeinschaften klarer adressierbar zu sein.

  8. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit Ningappa; Shete, Abhijeet Rajendra; Naiktari, Ritam

    2015-01-01

    Periradicular (PR) bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect. PMID:26941526

  9. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  10. Long-term outcomes with use of the CrossBoss and stingray coronary CTO crossing and re-entry devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogabgab, Owen; Patel, Vishal G; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Fuh, Eric; Alomar, Mohammed; Rangan, Bavana V; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2013-11-01

    The Boston Scientific CrossBoss and Stingray Coronary CTO Crossing and Re-Entry devices (formerly the BridgePoint Medical System) can improve success rates in chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but there are no published data on long-term clinical outcomes. The acute and long-term outcomes of 170 consecutive patients who underwent CTO PCI at our institution were reviewed, including 60 patients in whom the CrossBoss and Stingray devices were used and 110 patients treated with other crossing strategies. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two cohorts. Patients in whom the CrossBoss/Stingray was utilized had more prior CTO PCI attempts (13.1% vs 1.6%; P=.003), required longer fluoroscopy times (46 ± 22 minutes vs 35 ± 20 minutes; P.99), and more guidewires for lesion crossing (8.0 ± 6.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.3; P.99) and major complication rates (4.8% vs 3.2%; P=.69) were similar. During a median follow-up of 1.81 years, the CrossBoss/Stingray group had no difference in target lesion revascularization (40.9% vs 29.6%; P=.13) and major adverse clinical events (40.3% vs 35.2%; P=.42). Use of the CrossBoss/Stingray devices for CTO PCI is associated with equally high success and equally low complication rates as other techniques, both immediately post procedure and during long-term follow-up, in spite of its use in higher complexity cases.

  11. Evaluation of Gengigel® Application in the Management of Furcation with Coronally Advanced Flap through Surgical Re-Entry-A Split Mouth Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sugandha; Kediege, Suresh D; Gupta, Akanksha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the challenging and unique periodontal problem of Grade II furcation defect has been managed through different treatment modalities in the past. A successful approach is based on complete closure of the defect. Different regenerative approaches have been tried. Aim This study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the role of Gengigel® (0.8% hyaluronic acid) as a potential material for regeneration of lost attachment apparatus. Materials and Methods A total of 20 sites with Grade II furcation defects from 10 patients were selected using random sampling technique. These were divided into Group A (placement of hyaluronic acid) and Group B (without placement of hyaluronic acid) according to treatment modality. Furcation defect assessment was done in vertical and horizontal depth preoperatively and postoperatively at six months through surgical re-entry. Recorded data was subjected to the statistical analysis unpaired and paired t-tests for intergroup and intragroup comparisons respectively. Results Mean plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index score showed statistically highly significant and significant results respectively, for both the groups at baseline and six months. Mean difference in probing pocket depth and Relative Attachment Level (RAL) were statistically highly significant, whereas, mean difference of gingival position margin was non significant for both the groups, at baseline and six months. Mean difference in horizontal component at baseline and six months was statistically highly significant for both the groups. Mean difference in vertical component at baseline and six months was statistically significant for both the groups. On comparison, the mean difference in vertical and horizontal component of Group A and Group B at six months was statistically not significant. conclusion Both Gengigel® with coronally positioned flap and coronally positioned flap alone are effective in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. The

  12. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  13. Experimental investigation of re-entry aerodynamic phenomena - Development of non-intrusive flow diagnostics in a Ludwieg tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    To further improve the design of hypersonic vehicles so that fully reusable systems become a reality, the detailed understanding of the flow field that the vehicle generates is of paramount importance. The thesis deals with the aspects of experimental flow research which includes also the flow facility

  14. Experimental investigation of re-entry aerodynamic phenomena - Development of non-intrusive flow diagnostics in a Ludwieg tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    To further improve the design of hypersonic vehicles so that fully reusable systems become a reality, the detailed understanding of the flow field that the vehicle generates is of paramount importance. The thesis deals with the aspects of experimental flow research which includes also the flow facility

  15. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  16. Ditching Simulation of Air and Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh; Mouillet, Jean-Baptiste; Burkhalter, Drew; Robert, Adrien; Schwoertzig, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    The impact on water of an aircraft or a re-entry space vehicle is a very complex event and considered as an important issue for the air and space industry. To ensure the safety of the crew and to limit the risks of loss of the vehicle, a prediction of its structural behaviour under various ditching configurations must be performed. Structural tests are very costly and must be limited in scale or number, so numerical simulations may be of great help for this purpose.Numerical simulations aim to predict the trajectory of the vehicle under impact, the pressure repartition on the body, structural stress, possible damages to the structure and occupant 'g' levels during impact. Physically, two types of configurations involving different phenomenon can be identified, vertical impacts and impacts with high horizontal components, where air entrapment, ventilation and cavitations can be the dimensioning factors.The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the features of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) transient dynamic explicit simulation methods to perform such simulations. This paper details analysis of the critical simulation parameters, fluid dynamic calculations, CPU and model size reduction techniques, Fluid-Structure contact modelling, examples of such simulations, correlation to physical tests using Explicit Finite Element based code RADIOSS from Altair Engineering. Two examples of re-entry and ditching numerical simulation are discussed in this paper with comparisons to physical test data.

  17. Clinical evaluation of regenerative potential of type I collagen membrane along with xenogenic bone graft in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects assessed with surgical re-entry and radiographic linear and densitometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The primary goal of periodontal therapy is to restore the tooth supporting tissues lost due to periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of combination of type I collagen (GTR membrane and xenogenic bone graft with open flap debridement (OFD in treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty paired intrabony defects were surgically treated using split mouth design. The defects were randomly assigned to treatment with OFD + collagen membrane + bone graft (Test or OFD alone (Control. The clinical efficacy of two treatment modalities was evaluated at 9 month postoperatively by clinical, radiographical, and intrasurgical (re-entry parameters. The measurements included probing pocket depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, gingival recession (GR, bone fill (BF, bone density (BD and intra bony component (INTRA. Results: The mean reduction in PD at 0-9 month was 3.3±0.82 mm and CAL gain of 3.40±1.51 mm occurred in the collagen membrane + bone graft (Test group; corresponding values for OFD (Control were 2.20±0.63 mm and 1.90±0.57 mm. Similar pattern of improvement was observed when radiographical and intra-surgical (re-entry post operative evaluation was made. All improvement in different parameters was statistically significant (P< 0.01. Interpretation and Conclusion: Treatment with a combination of collagen membrane and bone graft led to a significantly more favorable clinical outcome in intrabony defects as compared to OFD alone.

  18. Initial Experience and Feasibility of the New Low-Profile Stingray Catheter as Part of the Antegrade Dissection and Re-Entry Revascularization Strategy for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeremans, Joren; Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND During antegrade dissection re-entry (ADR) of chronic total occlusions (CTO), the first-generation Stingray catheter requires the use of large-bore guides (sheathless 7.5 Fr or 8 Fr), which increases the risk for access site-related complications and compromises radial approaches. Smaller guiding sizes necessitate long guidewires (e.g., 300 cm) or guidewire extensions for catheter advancement or removal. However, friction between guides and the Stingray catheter can result in unstable guidewire position or unintentional removal. Furthermore, failure to deliver the catheter at the distal re-entry zone is a common problem. To overcome issues of deliverability and reduce the need for pre-dilatations, with its inherent risk of creating subintimal hematomas, the Stingray low-profile (LP) balloon catheter was developed. CASE REPORT We describe 3 cases of successful application of the novel Stingray LP catheter during ADR. In all cases, 7 Fr guiding catheters were successfully used in combination with the device. The lower profile facilitated a good exchange and delivery of the device, without the need for balloon pre-dilatations in 2 cases. This resulted in a limited subintimal plane, enabling a smooth puncture into the true lumen. One case presented with extreme levels of calcification and tortuosity, resulting in a high degree of friction, despite the lower catheter profile. No in-hospital coronary or access site-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case report illustrates the feasibility of the Stingray LP catheter for the treatment of CTOs via the ADR technique. The lower profile of the catheter potentially increases the deliverability, safety, and exchangeability of the device.

  19. 未知环境下多UAV搜索的区域再入%Area Re-entry for Multi-UAV Search in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜继永; 张凤鸣; 毛红保; 杨骥; 张超

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses a cooperative search problem where a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) seeks to reduce uncertainty in an unknown environment.The gird-based representation of search environment is established,and a UAV dynamic model and a predictive model of UAV systems are presented.Taking into account the practical tactical requirements,an area re-enter model is formulated,considering some maneuverability constraints.The corresponding shortest re-enter path is formulated.We develop a cooperative search strategy based on "retractable" mechanism,which can enhance adaptability to unknown environments.We also propose a global information base to make full use of the real-time local environmental information detected by the UAVs,and generate the search path on-line in a rolling style.Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the main feature of the proposed method.%针对未知环境下多无人机(unmanned aerial vehicles,UAV)协同搜索问题展开研究,通过网格化的环境规则描述,给出了UAV的运动规则及UAV系统的预测模型.考虑实际战术需求,建立了满足UAV机动性能约束的区域再次进入数学模型,给出了最短再入路径的求解方法.引入了“伸缩式”协同搜索机制,增加对未知环境的适应性,同时设计了系统的全局信息库,从而充分利用UAV实时探测的环境信息,实施在线滚动规划.通过仿真验证了方法的有效性.

  20. Experiment lithopanspermia: test of interplanetary transfer and re-entry process of epi- and endolithic microbial communities in the FOTON-M3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    The Lithopanspermia hypothesis assumes that impact-expelled rocks serve as interplanetary transfer vehicles for microorganisms colonizing those rocks. It requires that the microorganisms survive (1) the impact ejection process from the planet of origin; (2) travelling through space; (3) capture and landing on another planet. In the experiment "Lithopanspermia" on board of the FOTON-M3 satellite (14.09.07) steps 2 and 3 of this scenario have been experimentally tested. Assay systems for step 2 were the bipolar epilithic lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans on their natural rock substrate as well as their reproduction structures, microbial communities from atacamás halites Chroococcidiopsiss, endolithic communities of Anabaena and Nostoc, and the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa. The samples were exposed to outer space conditions within the BIOPAN-6 facility of ESA. Preparatory space simulation studies (UV solar spectrum radiation and vacuum at 10-2 Pa) performed at the Spasolab-Laboratory of INTA (March-April 2007), have demonstrated the suitability of those lichen species. After flight (10 days exposure to harsh space conditions in low Earth orbit at about 300 km altitude) and recovery, the survival capacity of the microbial communities has been assayed. First analyses have confirmed a fast recovery of the biological activity (chlorophyll a- fluorescence) of the lichens, similar to the high survival rates observed in the experiment LICHENS onboard of the Foton-M2 mission (de la Torre et al., 2007; Sancho et al., 2007). There were no significant changes in relation with the pre-flight values of the epilithic-, endolithicand vagrant lichen samples. First results of Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy have demonstrated a high vitality of epilithic samples. Ultrastructural changes are being analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Cryoscanning. Furthermore, concerning the germination capacity of ascospores of Xanthoria

  1. High-order sliding mode observer based adaptive time-varying sliding mode for re-entry attitude control%基于高阶滑模观测器的自适应时变滑模再入姿态控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 刘向东; 盛永智

    2014-01-01

    A high-order sliding mode observer based time-varying sliding mode control strategy is presented to address the robust attitude control problem of uncertain re-entry vehicle. Firstly, a time-varying sliding surface and the corresponding sliding control law are designed respectively, in which the switching gains are obtained through an adaptation scheme. Hence, the requirement of a prior knowledge of the upper bound on the model uncertainty is removed. Further, a high-order sliding mode observer is adopted to get the information of the attitude angle derivatives and estimate the system disturbances as well. Thus, an observer based control scheme is constructed. Finally, a numerical simulation is employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in improving the attitude control accuracy as well as the system robustness.%针对再入飞行器鲁棒姿态控制问题,提出一种基于高阶滑模观测器的自适应时变滑模控制器设计方法。首先,设计了一种时变滑模面,并在此基础上推导了相应的时变滑模控制律,其中滑模控制中切换增益通过一种自适应算法获得,消除了控制器设计过程中对系统不确定性上界已知的要求;然后,利用高阶滑模观测器对控制器设计过程中用到的姿态角导数信息进行观测,同时能够获得系统扰动估计值,从而构造一种基于观测器的控制器形式;最后,通过仿真验证了所提出的控制算法在提高再入飞行器姿态控制精度以及系统鲁棒性方面的有效性。

  2. Electromagnetic shielding of thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, M.; Micheli, D.; Gradoni, G.; Morles, R. B.; Marchetti, M.; Moglie, F.; Mariani Primiani, V.

    2013-06-01

    The numerical simulation and the measurement of electromagnetic shielding at microwave frequencies of thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles is presented using nested reverberation chamber. An example of a possible thermal protection system for a re-entry vehicle is presented. This system based on carbon material is electromagnetically characterized. The characterization takes into account not only the materials but also the final assembly configuration of the thermal protection system. The frequency range is 2-8 GHz. The results of measurements and simulations show that the microwave shielding effectiveness of carbon materials is above 60 dB for a single tile and that the tile inter-distance is able to downgrade the shielding effectiveness on the average to about 40 dB.

  3. Computation of Hypersonic Flow about Maneuvering Vehicles with Changing Shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferencz, R M; Felker, F F; Castillo, V M

    2004-02-23

    Vehicles moving at hypersonic speeds have great importance to the National Security. Ballistic missile re-entry vehicles (RV's) travel at hypersonic speeds, as do missile defense intercept vehicles. Despite the importance of the problem, no computational analysis method is available to predict the aerodynamic environment of maneuvering hypersonic vehicles, and no analysis is available to predict the transient effects of their shape changes. The present state-of-the-art for hypersonic flow calculations typically still considers steady flow about fixed shapes. Additionally, with present computational methods, it is not possible to compute the entire transient structural and thermal loads for a re-entry vehicle. The objective of this research is to provide the required theoretical development and a computational analysis tool for calculating the hypersonic flow about maneuvering, deforming RV's. This key enabling technology will allow the development of a complete multi-mechanics simulation of the entire RV flight sequence, including important transient effects such as complex flight dynamics. This will allow the computation of the as-delivered state of the payload in both normal and unusual operational environments. This new analysis capability could also provide the ability to predict the nonlinear, transient behavior of endo-atmospheric missile interceptor vehicles to the input of advanced control systems. Due to the computational intensity of fluid dynamics for hypersonics, the usual approach for calculating the flow about a vehicle that is changing shape is to complete a series of steady calculations, each with a fixed shape. However, this quasi-steady approach is not adequate to resolve the frequencies characteristic of a vehicle's structural dynamics. Our approach is to include the effects of the unsteady body shape changes in the finite-volume method by allowing for arbitrary translation and deformation of the control volumes. Furthermore

  4. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    and test platform for the Orion Program. Critical spacecraft systems, re-entry and recovery systems, and launch abort systems of Orion could also be demonstrated in early test flights of the launch vehicle demo. Furthermore, an early demonstrator of this type would provide a stop-gap for retaining critical human capital and infrastructure while affording the current emerging generation of young engineers opportunity to work with and capture lessons learned from existing STS program offices and personnel, who were integral in the design and development of the Space Shuttle before these resources are no longer available. The objective of this study is to define candidate launch vehicle demonstration concepts that are based on Space Shuttle assets and determine their performance capabilities and how these demonstration vehicles could evolve to a heavy lift capability to low earth orbit.

  5. Robust Switching Control for Hypersonic Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight in the hypersonic regime is critical to NASA's goals because access to earth orbit and re-entry from orbit to earth or to other planets with atmospheres...

  6. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  7. Analysis of internal ablation for the thermal control of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberos, Jose A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A new method of thermal protection for transatmospheric vehicles is introduced. The method involves the combination of radiation, ablation and transpiration cooling. By placing an ablating material behind a fixed-shape, porous outer shield, the effectiveness of transpiration cooling is made possible while retaining the simplicity of a passive mechanism. A simplified one-dimensional approach is used to derive the governing equations. Reduction of these equations to non-dimensional form yields two parameters which characterize the thermal protection effectiveness of the shield and ablator combination for a given trajectory. The non-dimensional equations are solved numerically for a sample trajectory corresponding to glide re-entry. Four typical ablators are tested and compared with results obtained by using the thermal properties of water. For the present level of analysis, the numerical computations adequately support the analytical model.

  8. Thermal Analysis of Small Re-Entry Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Chen, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    The Small Probe Reentry Investigation for TPS Engineering (SPRITE) concept was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to facilitate arc-jet testing of a fully instrumented prototype probe at flight scale. Besides demonstrating the feasibility of testing a flight-scale model and the capability of an on-board data acquisition system, another objective for this project was to investigate the capability of simulation tools to predict thermal environments of the probe/test article and its interior. This paper focuses on finite-element thermal analyses of the SPRITE probe during the arcjet tests. Several iterations were performed during the early design phase to provide critical design parameters and guidelines for testing. The thermal effects of ablation and pyrolysis were incorporated into the final higher-fidelity modeling approach by coupling the finite-element analyses with a two-dimensional thermal protection materials response code. Model predictions show good agreement with thermocouple data obtained during the arcjet test.

  9. Thermochemical ablation of spherical cone during re-entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the use of the similar transform and potential theoryfor calculation of the bypass flow factor and pressure gradient and the analysis of the influence of bypass flow factor and pressure gradient on heat transfer is analyzed, and the distribution of nose cone ablation obtained by combining the controlling equations of boundary layer, the compatible relation of interface and the heat conduction of interior.

  10. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  11. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  12. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Hermes vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, J. C.

    1985-11-01

    The presence of Europe in the future developments of spatial programs, which are foreseen, for the 1990s and further, needs the availability of vehicles, modules and all related technologies adapted to operational use of low earth orbit station. The manned HERMES vehicle shall be part of the in-orbit infrastructure realized either in the European context or in cooperation between Europe and the United States. The main mission for this vehicle will be to run a shuttle with the station that means transport and change of the crews, its safe return in abort condition and cargo transport of consumable and experimental equipment. Secondary missions could be servicing on automatic platform, making autonomous scientific experiments. Lastly, the vehicle, by means of its on-board propulsion capability, could be used to accomplish in-orbit tow and assembly missions. Studies which are undertaken now about the vehicle are devoted to the aerodynamic shape (research of a compromise between aerothermic and overall fitting), the system (functional architecture, ground and flight configuration); further works dealing with technology are presently on hand in the field of thermal protection, aerodynamics, power generation with a high massic yield.

  14. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  15. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. Overview of Orion Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Donald B.; Aibicjpm. Vamessa V.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is designing a new spacecraft, called Orion, to fly astronauts to low earth orbit and beyond. Characterization of the dynamic stability of the Orion spacecraft is important for the design of the spacecraft and trajectory construction. Dynamic stability affects the stability and control of the Orion Crew Module during re-entry, especially below Mach = 2.0 and including flight under the drogues. The Launch Abort Vehicle is affected by dynamic stability as well, especially during the re-orientation and heatshield forward segments of the flight. The dynamic stability was assessed using the forced oscillation technique, free-to-oscillate, ballistic range, and sub-scale free-flight tests. All of the test techniques demonstrated that in heatshield-forward flight the Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle are dynamically unstable in a significant portion of their flight trajectory. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Orion dynamic aero program and a high-level summary of the dynamic stability characteristics of the Orion spacecraft.

  18. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  19. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  20. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  1. An uncommon case of spontaneous conversion from AV re-entry tachycardia to AV nodal re-entry tachycardia in a patient with dual tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljković, Ivan; Benko, Ivica; Manola, Šime; Radeljić, Vjekoslav; Pavlović, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 46-year old patient in whom an electrophysiology study (EP) was performed due to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia documented in 12-lead ECG. During the EP study, supraventricular tachycardia was induced easily and it corresponded to orthodromic AV reentry tachycardia (AVRT) using a concealed left free wall accessory pathway. However, during the study AVRT spontaneously and repeatedly converted to the typical slow-fast AV node reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). Both accessory and AV nodal slow pathways were ablated, due to the finding that both AVRT and AVNRT were independently inducible during the EP study.

  2. Improved Re-Configurable Sliding Mode Controller for Reusable Launch Vehicle of Second Generation Addressing Aerodynamic Surface Failures and Thrust Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TV-SMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC is developed and tuned up for the X-33 sub-orbital technology demonstration vehicle in launch and re-entry modes. A variety of nominal, dispersion and failure scenarios have tested via high fidelity 6DOF simulations using MAVERIC/SLIM simulation software.

  3. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  4. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  5. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  6. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  7. Vehicle chassis monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisu, P.; Soliman, A.; Rizzoni, G. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States). Center for Automotive Research

    2001-07-01

    Fault detection and isolation is becoming one of the most important aspects in vehicle control system design. In order to achieve this FDI schemes, particular vehicle subsystems integrated with a controller have been proposed. This paper introduces a new model-based fault detection and fault diagnosis method for monitoring the vehicle chassis performance. (orig.)

  8. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  9. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  10. Space vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  11. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    bases.) Qualifying advanced propulsion vehicles for this initiative are battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), hybrid...hydraulic vehicles (HHV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The AVPI integrates use of renewable energy at

  12. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

    and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian). Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from most Palaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence...... are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at -2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented...

  13. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  14. Re-entry Flight Experiments Lessons Learned - The Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator ARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    pressure field oscillations and it is difficult to estimate the impact of the Euler/Navier-Stokes modelisations on the heat-shield pressure field...the CFD results. However a good overall coherency between the contributors is observed. It is tough to discriminate between the real gas modelisations ...Stokes modelisations . For axial force coefficient, it can be seen that the CFD perfect gas level does not match the reconstructed values, which are

  15. Astronaut Thermal Exposure: Re-Entry After Low Earth Orbit Rescue Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, David B.; Hamilton, Douglas; Ilcus, Stana; Stepaniak, Phil; Son, Chang; Bue, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The STS-125 mission, launched May 11, 2009, is the final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. The repair mission's EVA tasks are described, including: installing a new wide field camera; installing the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; repairing the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; installing a new outer blanket layer; adding a Soft Capture and Rendezvous System for eventual controlled deorbit in about 2014; replacing the 'A' side Science Instrument Command and Data Handling module; repairing the Advanced Camera for surveys; and, replacing the rate sensor unit gyroscopes, fine guidance sensors and 3 batteries. Additionally, the Shuttle crew cabin thermal environment is described. A CFD model of per person CO2 demonstrates a discrepancy between crew breathing volume and general mid-deck levels of CO2. A follow-on CFD analysis of the mid-deck temperature distribution is provided. Procedural and engineering mitigation plans are presented to counteract thermal exposure upon reentry to the Earth atmosphere. Some of the procedures include: full cold soak the night prior to deorbit; modifying deck stowage to reduce interference with air flow; and early securing of avionics post-landing to reduce cabin thermal load prior to hatch opening. Engineering mitigation activities include modifying the location of the aft starboard ICUs, eliminating the X3 stack and eliminating ICU exhaust air directed onto astronauts; improved engineering data of ICU performance; and, verifying the adequacy of mid-deck temperature control using CFD models in addition to lumped parameter models. Post-mitigation CFD models of mid-deck temperature profiles and distribution are provided.

  16. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may n...

  17. Promoting the Personal Growth and Vocational Maturity of the Re-entry Woman: A Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNuzzo, Theresa M.; Tolbert, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effects of a group counseling model on the vocational maturity, self-esteem and self-confidence, degree of conformity, personal effectiveness and integration, and perception of needs of reentry women. Short-term group career counseling was effective; counselor facilitation and mutual group support promoted positive personal change.…

  18. Re-entry: online virtual worlds as a healing space for veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Jacquelyn Ford

    2009-02-01

    We describe a project designed to use the power of online virtual worlds as a place of camaraderie and healing for returning United States military veterans-a virtual space that can help them deal with problems related to their time of service and also assist in their reintegration into society. This veterans' space is being built in Second Life®, a popular immersive world, under consultation with medical experts and psychologists, with several types of both social and healing activities planned. In addition, we address several barrier issues with virtual worlds, including lack of guides or helpers to ensure the participants have a quality experience. To solve some of these issues, we are porting the advanced intelligence of the ICT's virtual human characters to avatars in Second Life®, so they will be able to greet the veterans, converse with them, guide them to relevant activities, and serve as informational agents for healing options. In this way such "avatar agents" will serve as autonomous intelligent characters that bring maximum engagement and functionality to the veterans' space. This part of the effort expands online worlds beyond their existing capabilities, as currently a human being must operate each avatar in the virtual world; few autonomous characters exist. As this project progresses we will engage in an iterative design process with veteran participants who will be able to advise us, along with the medical community, on what efforts are well suited to, and most effective within, the virtual world.

  19. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-altitude balloon flights are an inexpensive method used to lift payloads to high altitudes. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations permit payloads...

  20. Effecting Successful Community Re-Entry: Systems of Care Community Based Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Rebecca I.; Fette, Claudette; Scaffa, Marjorie E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for system reform for child and adolescent mental health services, long recognized as a vital issue, continues to challenge mental health professionals. While past legislation has not adequately addressed the issues, the 2003 President's New Freedom Commission may begin to reorient mental health systems toward recovery. Supported by this…

  1. Normativity's Re-entry. Niklas Luhmann's Social Systems Theory: Society and Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francot-Timmermans, L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern Western society is perceived as increasingly complex and contingent and in an era wherein our own identity is a matter of construction, the macro level of a description of societal unity constitutes a no less demanding task. Despite social complexity and contingency, societies are still in on

  2. Catheter perforation of distal oesophagus with duodenal re-entry of catheter. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundgaard, T.; Kristensen, H.; Lesak, F.

    An unusual case of perforation of the oesophagus is presented. A nasogastric tube had perforated the oesophagus and re-penetrated into the duodenum, and thereby re-entered the gastrointestinal tract without perforating the peritoneum and without causing the classical clinical signs of oesophageal perforation. Treatment was started 31 days after the perforation.

  3. [Epicardial cartography and surgical treatment by simple ventriculotomy of certain resistant re-entry ventricular tachycardias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G; Guiraudon, G; Frank, R; Gerbaux, A; Cousteau, J P; Barrillon, A; Gay, J; Cabrol, C; Facquet, J

    1975-02-01

    Intraventricular reentry has been prooved by pre-operative electrophysiological studies in two patients without coronary artery disease and resistant ventricular tachycardia. A simple ventriculotomy oriented by epicardial mapping during tachycardia was successfull with a background of 9 and 14 months respectively. In addition, delayed epicardial potentials put into evidence an intraventricular reentry in human myocardium. This new method holds promises for the treatment of some resistant ventricular tachycardia.

  4. Facilitating Successful Re-Entries in the United States: Training and Development for Women Returners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tomika W.

    2013-01-01

    Women returners are women who leave the paid workforce for a period of time following the birth of their child(ren) and subsequently seek to return to paid employment. As women returners attempt to re-enter the workforce, many of them are in need of updating their skills or re-training in a new set of skills. In this study, the training and…

  5. Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Louwerse, E.; Cock, J. de; Brouwer, D.; Zielhuis, G.; Heederik, D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of a European Concerted Action on Male Reproduction Capability an exposure assessment survey was conducted among seasonal workers in the fruit growing sector in the Netherlands. Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin p

  6. A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model for Radiating Earth Re-entry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    for carbon containing environments like Mars and Titan . The CN violet bands were the only atomic or molecular systems considered for the NEQAIR...range of surface pressures and temperatures [78, 124, 83, 82, 58, 100, 77]. Additionally, MacLean [63] developed a tool to compute the composition of an...Intensity Measurements in Simulated Titan Atmospheres. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 24(2):291300, April 2010. 22. Candler, G. V. The

  7. Megan's Law and its impact on community re-entry for sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; D'Amora, David A; Hern, Andrea L

    2007-01-01

    Community notification, known as "Megan's Law," provides the public with information about known sex offenders in an effort to assist parents and potential victims to protect themselves from dangerous predators. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of community notification on the lives of registered sex offenders. Two hundred and thirty-nine sex offenders in Connecticut and Indiana were surveyed. The negative consequences that occurred with the greatest frequency included job loss, threats and harassment, property damage, and suffering of household members. A minority of sex offenders reported housing disruption or physical violence following community notification. The majority experienced psychosocial distress such as depression, shame, and hopelessness. Recommendations are made for community notification policies that rely on empirically derived risk assessment classification systems in order to better inform the public about sex offenders' danger while minimizing the obstacles that interfere with successful community reintegration. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  8. Review of ESOC re-entry prediction results of Salyut-7/Kosmos-1686

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkrad, H.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of activities at ESA/ESOC during the followup of the Salyut-7/Kosmos-1686 decay, and of related cooperations with space agencies, research institutes, and national bodies within the ESA Member States, within the U.S. and within the USSR, is presented. A postflight analysis indicated areas for improvement in the forecast procedures, especially during the last day of the orbital lifetime. Corresponding revised decay predictions are presented for Salyut-7/Kosmos-1686, and the improved procedures are verified by an analysis of the reentries of Kosmos-1402A and Kosmos-1402C.

  9. Re-Entry Women: A Selective Review of the Educational Process, Career Choice, and Interest Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Carol K.; Denker, Elenor R.

    Opportunities and barriers in post secondary education for the mature woman are the focus of the first part of this review. Barriers including college restrictions, family resistance, and financial problems as well as attitudinal and self-concept characteristics are discussed. Opportunities are presented in a review of counseling considerations…

  10. Coming Home: Continuing Intercultural Learning during the Re-Entry Semester Following a Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Helen A.; Moss, David M.

    2015-01-01

    International experiences through structured study abroad programs are proposed as a powerful way to impact pre-service teachers' intercultural understandings and competence. In recent years attention has been placed on the nature of such study abroad programs, seeking to illuminate design elements that might enhance intercultural learning prior…

  11. COmbustion- and Re-Entry-PLasma research Using the ion Storage facility DESIREE (COREPLUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    curves for the [by definition infinite number of] molecular Rydberg states which play a role in this reaction, but also by the fact that these...possible direct electron transfer (i.e. long range processes without forming intermediate transient states) product channels are endothermic . Taking...the first of these reactions in a little more detail, and looking at the first two exothermic channels: Na+ + PO3- → Na + PO2 + O -0.4 eV 5a1

  12. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Automotive Instrumentation Division (TEDT-AT-AD-I) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400...characterize the on-center vehicle responses of military vehicles for the purposes of influencing vehicle design and ensuring military truck steering... mechanism attached to the test vehicle’s steering wheel (or replaces the steering wheel) that is strain gaged and calibrated to measure the steering effort

  13. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  14. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  15. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  16. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  17. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  18. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  19. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development of elect...

  20. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  1. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  2. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  3. Whither electric vehicles?

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) were poised to become the prime movers of the twentieth century.

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  5. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  6. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  7. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  8. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jack O; Hopkins, Joshua B; Norris, Scott; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such a mission would serve as a first step beyond low Earth orbit and prove out operational spaceflight capabilities such as life support, communication, high speed re-entry, and radiation protection prior to more difficult human exploration missions. On this proposed mission, the crew would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system, is a key science ob...

  9. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  10. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  11. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  12. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  13. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  14. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  15. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  16. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  17. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  18. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  19. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  20. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  2. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  3. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  4. Electric vehicles in action

    OpenAIRE

    Wikström, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses the political and practical conditions for introducing electric vehicles in Swedish public authorites and discusses the potential for using electric vehicles in public transport and public fleets. The work has been carried out using an interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach brings new insights to energy studies; the combination of technical methods and methods from social science allows the technology to be studied in its societal context. Local self-govern...

  5. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  6. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  7. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  8. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  9. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  10. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  11. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  12. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  13. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  14. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  15. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  16. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  17. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  18. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  19. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  20. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  1. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  2. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  3. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  4. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  5. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  6. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  7. 2011 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Capability-Platform (JBC-P) • Light-weight Crew-served Weapons • Joint Capability Release ( JCR ) • Combat Vehicle Improvements Mr. Scott Davis PEO...WIN-T INC 3 JTRS CREW V2 Relocation/V3 CS 11-12 OoC ( JCR ) BFT II VRC 103 & 104 CS 13-14 MSS Duke TI OSRVT (Rover 6) Nett

  8. The Vehicle Rescheduling Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe capacitated vehicle routing problem is to find a routing schedule describing the order in which geographically dispersed customers are visited to satisfy demand by supplying goods stored at the depot, such that the traveling costs are minimized. In many practical applications, a long

  9. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  10. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  11. Implementing Vehicle Routing Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Multiple Depot Vehicle Dispatch Problem," presented at the URSA/TIMS meeting San Juan, Puerto Rico, Oct. 1974. 28. Gillett, B., and Miller, L., " A Heuristic Algorithm for...45. Lam, T., "Comments on a Heuristic Algorithm for the Multiple Terminal Delivery Problem," Transportation Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1970, p. 403

  12. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  13. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  14. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  15. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  16. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  19. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  20. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  1. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  2. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  3. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  4. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  5. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...... in a merger situation? What is actually happening when two enterprises originate an SPV? And what distinguishes an SPV from a joint venture, or is it the same thing?...

  6. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    and Agreements Supply Chain Management Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter Guam & Saipan Diego Garcia Mediterranean SS KOCAK MV PHILLIPS MV...BUTTON MV LOPEZ USNS STOCKHAM SS PLESS MV HAUGE MV LUMMUS MV ANDERSON MV BONNYMAN USNS MARTIN SS OBREGON MV BAUGH MV WILLIAMS MV BOBO USNS WHEAT MPS...importantly it delivers the most valuable weapon on the battlefield – a soldier. LTC Erik Kurilla CDR, 1-24 Infantry Stryker Vehicles are 312 pieces

  7. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  8. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  9. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  10. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  11. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  12. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  13. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  14. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  15. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  16. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  17. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  18. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  19. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  20. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest . The track is a combination of a bauxite/dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-817A Tropic Testing of Vehicles 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Tropic Regions Test Center (TEDT-YPT) 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ

  1. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  2. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  3. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  4. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  5. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  6. LM-3B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    LM-3B launch vehicle is a heavy three-stage liquid propellant strap-on launch vehicle, which was developed based on the mature technologies of the LM-3A and LM-2E. It not only has the highest payload capacity to send China's satellites to GTO, but is also one of the most advanced launch vehicles in the world with high reliability, reasonable price and perfect technological design.

  7. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  8. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  9. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  10. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  13. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  14. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  15. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  16. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  17. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing...

  18. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Limited Vehicle Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Taracena Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP has been an important research topic during the last decades because of his vital role in the productive systems efficiency. Most of the work done in this area has been directed to solve large scale problems which may not apply for small companies which are a very important engine of the world economy. This paper approaches the problem when limited vehicle resources are present and road transportation is used. This study assumes variable customer orders. Variable volume and weight vehicle capacities are considered and the proposed algorithm develops the vehicle delivery routes and the set of customer orders to deliver per vehicle minimizing a cost objective function. In sampling small company’s logistics costs, big cost savings are found when using the proposed method.

  19. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  20. String stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, highway capacity has become a limiting factor, regularly causing traffic jams. Obviously, the road capacity can be increased by decreasing the inter-vehicle following distance di . As a consequence, however, vehicle automation in longitudinal direction is required in order to still

  1. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension ki

  2. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  3. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  4. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  5. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  6. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  7. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  8. Vehicle with tilting suspension system

    OpenAIRE

    Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea; Cavalli, Fabio; Carabelli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The patent is relative to the application of a tilting suspension on a snowmobile to improve its drive feeling and safety. At high speed the introduction of the tilting suspension reduce the rollover risk during cornering. The vehicle can tilt as a motorcycle and its lateral dimensions can be reduced not compromising the vehicle stability

  9. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  10. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  11. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Yuan Hsu; Tsung-Lin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficie...

  12. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...... and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric...

  13. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  14. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  15. 高超声速飞行器自抗扰姿态控制器设计%Active disturbance rejection attitude control design for hypersonic vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦昌茂; 齐乃明; 朱凯

    2011-01-01

    针对高超声速飞行器无动力再入过程中具有强耦合、气动参数摄动及不确定性的非线性姿态模型,结合自抗扰控制中的扩张状态观测器(extended state observer,ESO)及非线性状态误差反馈律(nonlinear law state error feedback,NLSEF),分别设计了高超声速飞行器内环和外环自抗扰姿态控制器.将不确定性、耦合及参数摄动等干扰作为"总和干扰"利用扩张状态观测器进行估计并动态反馈补偿,再利用NLSEF抑制补偿残差.自抗扰控制器(active disturbance rejection control,ADRC)设计无需精确的飞行器被控模型,也无需精确的气动参数及摄动界限.仿真结果表明,控制系统能够克服干扰及气动参数大范围摄动的影响,在获取良好的动态品质和跟踪性能的同时,具有较强的鲁棒性.%For the hypersonic vehicle nonlinear attitude mode in re-entry process unpowered with a strong coupling, aerodynamic parameter perturbations and non-deterministic, combining extended state observer ( ESO) and nonlinear law state error feedback ( NLSEF) in the active disturbance rejection cotrol ( ADRC) , the hypersonic vehicle inner and outer ADRC attitude controller are designed respectively. Interferences, such as uncertainty, coupling and parameter perturbations, are regarded as "the sum of interference" , the extended state observer is used to estimate and implement dynamic feedback compensation, and then the NLSEF is used to inhibit the compensating residual. ADRC controller is designed without a precise model of vehicle, and without precise perturbation boundaries of aerodynamic parameters. Simulation results show that the control system can overcome the impact of large-scale perturbations of interference and aerodynamic parameters, which has good dynamic qualities, tracking capabilities, and strong robustness.

  16. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  17. 77 FR 40921 - Communication With Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Communication With Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.32, Revision 1, ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May..., ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May 1975. This RG describes radiotelephone...

  18. Designing and operating multi-lateral completions that enable re-entry and selective intervention into one bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, D. [Sperry Sun Drilling Service, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Multi-lateral wells with a degree of complexity beyond simple barefoot side-tracks have been in commercial use since 1992. Hailed as the next great enabling technology after horizontal wells, their efficacy has been widely acknowledged by the industry, but their commercial application has seen slow growth rates in all but a few geographical locations. Perhaps we have learned from the experience of horizontal wells, where initial euphoria was eventually tempered by the realisation that they were not always appropriate. Initial results from early horizontal wells suggested that the intuitive assumption that they would produce positive benefits (in terms of improved recovery, better drainage patterns, less coning, better cash flow and improved NPV) were valid, but not always. (orig.)

  19. Thermo-mechanical performance of an ablative/ceramic composite hybrid thermal protection structure for re-entry applications

    OpenAIRE

    Triantou, K.; Mergia, K; Florez, S.; Perez, B.; Bárcena, Jorge; Rotärmel, W.; Pinaud, G.; Fischer, W.P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid thermal protection systems for aerospace applications based on ablative material (ASTERM (TM)) and ceramic matrix composite (SICARBON (TM)) have been investigated. The ablative material and the ceramic matrix composite were joined using graphite and zirconia zirconium silicate based commercial high temperature adhesives. The thermo-mechanical performance of the structures was assessed from room temperature up to 900 degrees C. In all the joints there is a decrease of shear strength wit...

  20. Cell cycle re-entry mechanisms after DNA damage checkpoints Giving it some gas to shut off the breaks!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to maintain genetic integrity, cells are equipped with cell cycle checkpoints that detect DNA damage, orchestrate repair, and if necessary, eliminate severely damaged cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. The mitotic machinery is now emerging as an important determinant of the cellular re

  1. Quantum Scattering Study of Ro-Vibrational Excitations in N+N(sub 2) Collisions under Re-entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Huo, Winifred M.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics approach using a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface is applied to study ro-vibrational excitation in N+N2 exchange scattering for collision energies in the range 2.1- 3.2 eV. State-to-state integral exchange cross sections are examined to determine the distribution of excited rotational states of N(sub 2). The results demonstrate that highly-excited rotational states are produced by exchange scattering and furthermore, that the maximum value of (Delta)j increases rapidly with increasing collision energies. Integral exchange cross sections and exchange rate constants for excitation to the lower (upsilon = 0-3) vibrational energy levels are presented as a function of the collision energy. Excited-vibrational-state distributions for temperatures at 2,000 K and 10,000 K are included.

  2. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  3. The automation of remote vehicle control. [in Mars roving vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, G.

    1977-01-01

    The automation of remote vehicles is becoming necessary to overcome the requirement of having man present as a controller. By removing man, remote vehicles can be operated in areas where the environment is too hostile for man, his reaction times are too slow, time delays are too long, and where his presence is too costly, or where system performance can be improved. This paper addresses the development of automated remote vehicle control for nonspace and space tasks from warehouse vehicles to proposed Mars rovers. The state-of-the-art and the availability of new technology for implementing automated control are reviewed and the major problem areas are outlined. The control strategies are divided into those where the path is planned in advance or constrained, or where the system is a teleoperator, or where automation or robotics have been introduced.

  4. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  5. Rescue vehicle Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hainsworth; Pete Nicolay [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2001-03-15

    The aim of this project was to develop a proof-of-concept Stirling engine and heat cell for use in the mining industry, primarily for underground applications. In particular, the Stirling engine, being an external combustion engine, offers the potential to operate on stored heat in low-oxygen or inert underground atmospheres. This makes it attractive for rescue vehicles, which are required to operate in such environments. A prototype Stirling engine with power output in the 15kW range was constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that this output was not achieved. While the basic thermodynamic principles of the design were valid, achieved output was well below the required value. The conclusion is that, because of the lack of commercial Stirling cycle-based products and the difficulty experienced in this project in overcoming the problem of high temperature seal implementation to produce a working prototype, the short term potential of the Stirling engine for mine rescue applications is limited.

  6. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  7. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  8. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  9. Vehicle Coordinated Strategy for Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuzzy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-shi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem with fuzzy demands (VRPFD is considered. A fuzzy reasoning constrained program model is formulated for VRPFD, and a hybrid ant colony algorithm is proposed to minimize total travel distance. Specifically, the two-vehicle-paired loop coordinated strategy is presented to reduce the additional distance, unloading times, and waste capacity caused by the service failure due to the uncertain demands. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  11. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  12. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the...

  13. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  14. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  15. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  16. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  17. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  18. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation to replace robotic vehicles in field studies. It will model the dynamics, terrain interaction,...

  19. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  20. 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This is the seventh edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 69 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 73 through 85 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 94 through 98) and fuel use (Figures 101 through 104). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 109 through 123), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 135 through 142). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  1. Light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  2. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  3. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  4. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  6. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  7. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  8. 36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 331.12 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.12 Vehicles. (a) The use of a vehicle off roadways is prohibited except as may be authorized by the District Engineer. (b) Vehicles shall not be parked in violation of any...

  9. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to the regulations in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply...

  10. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  11. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  12. 36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 327.2 Section 327.2... Vehicles. (a) This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles,...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  14. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  15. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT... Excluded vehicles. When counting light duty motor vehicles to determine under this part whether a person has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  16. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  17. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  18. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-02-28

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  19. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  1. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Spezia, Tony [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Arant, Michael [Clemson University; Broshears, Eric [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Chitwood, Caleb [Battelle; Colbert, Jameson [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hathaway, Richard [Western Michigan University; Keil, Mitch [Western Michigan University; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Pape, Doug [Battelle; Patterson, Jim [Hendrickson; Pittro, Collin [Battelle

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  2. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  3. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for components of future high-speed aircraft, re-entry vehicles and...

  4. Integration of Complex Geometry, 3D Woven Preforms via Innovative Stitching Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thick, 3D woven carbon/phenolic composites offer potential improvement over legacy thermal protection systems (TPS) for re-entry vehicle heat shield applications....

  5. Seam joining techniques for three-dimensional woven carbon material of at least 1" thickness. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat shield technology is a critical component for both re-entry and hypersonic vehicles. The traditional manufacturing approach for designing heat shields consists...

  6. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  7. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  8. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  10. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  11. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  12. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  13. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  14. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  15. Distributed control system for vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Jeffrey N.; Iaconis, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Previously, control systems for remotely controlled vehicles (RCVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) have largely been of a centralized design, in which all vehicles sensing and servo control systems are individually interfaces to a central computer. These controllers often have been completely redeveloped for each new application. This approach leads to increased development, installation, and maintenance costs, and to a product that is not easily adaptable to other platforms or tasks. Under a Phase II SBIR program, RedZone Robotics is developing a distributed control systems (DCS) that reduces development, installation, and maintenance costs while enhancing adaptability to other platforms or applications. The DCS consists of a distributed control network of small, intelligent local controller nodes acting on the vehicle motion and sensing system components. A central card oversees the network and handles higher level commands. The central card and local nodes are linked through the controller area network serial bus. The node hardware is of standardized design so that application specific tasks are largely accomplished in software. The standardized design makes the DCS potentially compatible with multiple UGV platforms and eventual dual-use applications in commercial vehicles. More sophisticated functionality, such as remote control or autonomous navigation can be layered on top of the low level control supplied by DCS. Thus, the DCS can be an enabling component for development of advanced UGV technologies. ALso, intelligent nodes enable fault identification and orderly shutdown to be accomplished directly at the vehicle actuators. This SBIR is sponsored by the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center.

  16. Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuel, Nigel; Lionberger, Troy A.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Baker, Michael S.

    2008-03-11

    A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

  17. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  18. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  19. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2013-01-01

    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  20. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  1. Approximation algorithms for some vehicle routing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bazgan, Cristina; Hassin, Refael; Monnot, Jérôme

    2005-01-01

    We study vehicle routing problems with constraints on the distance traveled by each vehicle or on the number of vehicles. The objective is either to minimize the total distance traveled by vehicles or to minimize the number of vehicles used. We design constant differential approximation algorithms for kVRP. Note that, using the differential bound for METRIC 3VRP, we obtain the randomized standard ratio . This is an improvement of the best-known bound of 2 given by Haimovich et al. (Vehicle Ro...

  2. Vehicle type choice and differentiated registration taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    to what extent the 2007 vehicle tax reform may explain these changes in purchasing behaviour using a discrete choice model. The model allows us to simulate the effect of price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. The analysis shows that the reform only changes purchase patterns slightly......Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered as a useful tool for promoting environmental friendly vehicles. Such a tax was introduced in Denmark in 2007. During 2007, the pattern in new vehicle purchases in Denmark changed toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. We analyse...

  3. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.

  4. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  5. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  6. Vehicle Routing with Uncertain Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn distribution networks a supplier transports goods from a distribution center to customers by means of vehicles with limited capacity. Drivers will drive routes on which they visit multiple customers to make deliveries. Typically, deliveries are made regularly and a fixed schedule is m

  7. Dimensions of vehicle sounds perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Foehl, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle sounds play an important role concerning customer satisfaction and can show another differentiating factor of brands. With an online survey of 1762 German and American customers, the requirement characteristics of high-quality vehicle sounds were determined. On the basis of these characteristics, a requirement profile was generated for every analyzed sound. These profiles were investigated in a second study with 78 customers using real vehicles. The assessment results of the vehicle sounds can be represented using the dimensions "timbre", "loudness", and "roughness/sharpness". The comparison of the requirement profiles and the assessment results show that the sounds which are perceived as pleasant and high-quality, more often correspond to the requirement profile. High-quality sounds are characterized by the fact that they are rather gentle, soft and reserved, rich, a bit dark and not too rough. For those sounds which are assessed worse by the customers, recommendations for improvements can be derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    demilitarization / demilitarization second destination tranportation repairable and consumerable parts associated with government furnished equipment / end...Details Date of Estimate: December 31, 2015 Source of Estimate: POE Disposal/ Demilitarization Total Cost (BY 2012 $M): Total costs for disposal...of all Vehicle are 191.5 Total Demilitarization Cost includes costs for disposal and transportation associated with disposal of JLTVs. The costs

  9. More Than Just Selling Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    FAW Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. (FTMS), a joint vehicle sales venture owned by auto giants China FAW Group Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp., was inaugurated in 2003 in an effort to strengthen the two firms’ operations in the world’s fastest-growing auto mark

  10. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  11. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... crash avoidance and other applications. Currently a public key infrastructure approach to security... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department...

  14. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  15. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  16. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  17. Vehicle Sprung Mass Estimation for Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    drivetrain controllers. These autonomous systems and controllers schedule gear shifts, actuate brakes, induce steer, schedule fuel injection, warn...longitudinal vehicle dynamics, drivetrain shuffle dynamics, or combined lateral, yaw, and roll dynamics to estimate the vehicle mass. Despite the research

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  19. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of t

  20. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging tec

  1. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  2. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  3. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  4. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schworer, Ian Josef

    2005-01-01

    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  5. Vehicles, Contents, Conceptual Structure, and Externalism

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, S L.

    1998-01-01

    We all know about the vehicle/content distinction (see Dennett 1991a, Millikan 1991, 1993). We shouldn't confuse properties represented in content with properties of vehicles of content. In particular, we shouldn't confuse the personal and subpersonal levels. The contents of the mental states of subject/agents are at the personal level. Vehicles of content are causally explanatory subpersonal events or processes or states. We shouldn't suppose that the properties of vehicles must be projected...

  6. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  7. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  8. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  10. Development of South African vehicle emission factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Table 1. Comparison of different vehicle emissions measurement techniques. 2. Monitoring methodology 2.1. Diesel vehicles Diesel vehicle emissions in idling and accelerated mode (2 000 rpm) were tested by means of an IMR 1400 Diga portable gas...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  13. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  14. Multisensor simultaneous vehicle tracking and shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, J.; Appeldoorn, R.; Kwakkernaat, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on vehicle automation applications that require both the estimation of kinematic and geometric information of surrounding vehicles, e.g., automated overtaking or merging. Rather then using one sensor that is able to estimate a vehicle's geometry from each sensor frame, e.g., a lida

  15. 49 CFR 387.305 - Combination vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination vehicles. 387.305 Section 387.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... § 387.305 Combination vehicles. The following combinations will be regarded as one motor vehicle...

  16. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  17. 15 CFR 265.13 - Emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency vehicles. 265.13 Section 265.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle...

  18. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...... the demands on cooling power density, temperature difference between hot and cold side, transient properties and COP, will be high....

  19. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  20. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual vehicles

  1. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  2. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  3. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  4. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  5. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  6. GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashood Mukhtar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Security systems and navigators have always been a necessity of human‟s life. The developments of advanced electronics have brought revolutionary changes in these fields. In this paper, we will present a vehicle tracking system that employs a GPS module and a GSM modem to find the location of a vehicle and offers a range of control features. To complete the design successfully, a GPS unit, two relays, a GSM Modem and two MCU units are used. There are five features introduced in the project. The aim of this project is to remotely track a vehicle‟s location, remotely switch ON and OFF the vehicle‟s ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the users request by performing appropriate actions. Short text messages are assigned to each of these features. A webpage is specifically designed to view the vehicle‟s location on Google maps. By using relay based control concept introduced in this paper, number of control features such as turning heater on/off, radio on/off etc. can be implemented in the same fashion.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  8. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  9. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  10. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  11. Surface properties-vehicle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huft, D. L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S. K.; Zimmer, R. A.; Bester, C. J.

    Several topics related to the surface properties of aircraft runways are discussed. The South Dakota profilometer; development of a data acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; the traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavements; the effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; the traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; the effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; the correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; a microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system, and, the representation of pavement surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential are discussed.

  12. Surface properties-vehicle interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huft, D.L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S.K.; Zimmer, R.A.; Bester, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: South Dakota profilometer; development of a data-acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavement-an assessment of their influence on safety; effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system; and, representation of pavement-surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential.

  13. Fuel cell vehicles: Status 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helmolt, Rittmar; Eberle, Ulrich

    Within the framework of this paper, a short motivation for hydrogen as a fuel is provided and recent developments in the field of fuel cell vehicles are described. In particular, the propulsion system and its efficiency, as well as the integration of the hydrogen storage system are discussed. A fuel cell drivetrain poses certain requirements (concerning thermodynamic and engineering issues) on the operating conditions of the tank system. These limitations and their consequences are described. For this purpose, conventional and novel storage concepts will be shortly introduced and evaluated for their automotive viability and their potential impact. Eventually, GM's third generation vehicles (i.e. the HydroGen3) are presented, as well as the recent 4th generation Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell SUV. An outlook is given that addresses cost targets and infrastructure needs.

  14. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  15. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  16. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  17. Prospects For China's Expendable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Lehao; Wang Xiaojun; Rong Yi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The expendable launch vehicle ( ELV) is the major means for human beings to enter space. Up until April 2009, China's Long March (LM) series launch vehicle has conducted 117 launches, and realized 75 consecutive successful launches since October 1996, which marks China's ELV development has entered a new historical era. Based on the analysis of China's LM series launch vehicle development status, combining with the new generation launch vehicle development, this raises a development prospect for China's ELV to meet the demands for future launch vehicle technology development.

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for CVT Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the simple continuously variable transmission (CVT) driveline model, the design of adaptive fuzzy control system for CVT vehicle is presented. The adaptive fuzzy control system consists of a scaling factor self-tuning fuzzy-PI throttle controller, and a hybrid fuzzy-PID CVT ratio and brake controller. The presented adaptive fuzzy control strategy is vehicle model independent, which depends only on the instantaneous vehicle states, but does not depend on vehicle parameters. So it has good robustness against uncertain vehicle parameters and exogenous load disturbance. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy strategy has good adaptability and practicality value.

  19. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  20. Overarching Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    trailer. The PM, Transportation, provided existing LCCEs for the various systems in the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ( ACEIT ) format. The...Advanced Assault Amphibious Vehicle AAO Approved Acquisition Objective ACE Aviation Combat Element ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ALMC... ACEIT , SVLCCM, and CASA) using two different CESs, and estimated in three different constant budget dollar years (i.e., FY95, FY96, and FY01). A

  1. Land Robotic Vehicles for Demining

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Considering large polluted areas and drawbacks of actual demining technologies main contributions of using robotic vehicles are expected in following topics: - Searching large areas and localization of mines and any explosives (UXO) by fast and reliable way. - Fast and reliable neutralization/destruction of mines without the need of personal assistance to be inside, or close to dangerous places. Demining process remains and will be still one of the most dangerous operations. For this reason n...

  2. Real Time Conflict Resolution in Automated Guided Vehicle Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    use an optimal n-I vehicle routing as the basis for obtaining an optimal n vehicle routing. When only one vehicle is present, the one vehicle routing problem is...scheduling algorithms in general, pointing out that most fall in the class of NP- Hard problems. Lenstra and Rinnoy Kan [581 showed the vehicle routing problem is...Dial-a-ride problems. Vehicle Routing Problems The vehicle routing problem is a very important problem in distribution management. Vehicles are routed

  3. Chemical Pollution from Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Ernest S.

    1969-01-01

    Recent publicity on electrically powered vehicles notwithstanding, the gasoline engine will probably be the principal power plant for passenger cars for at least the next decade. Chemical pollutants discharged by the gasoline engine are now under partial control. Motor cars of 1968 and 1969 model discharge only about 30 percent as much carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons as do older models. In theory, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen ultimately can be completely removed from gasoline engine exhaust. In order to accomplish this it would be necessary to modify cars to operate satisfactorily on a lean mixture and perhaps to use a catalyst in the exhaust system. Present designs of gas turbines for aircraft and for future projected application to ground vehicles yield pollutants (except for smoke) at levels below those of gasoline engines for a decade to come. It has also been shown possible to eliminate smoke as well as odor from the gas turbine. Thus with proper effort it is feasible to reduce pollution of the atmosphere due to transportation to an acceptable level, even if electrically or alternatively powered vehicles cannot be developed for a decade. PMID:4183827

  4. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  5. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  6. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  7. Design of control system rapid prototyping for suborbital reusable launch vehicle%亚轨道飞行器控制系统快速原型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞; 李新国; 泮斌峰

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the fast, cheap, efficient and other design requirements for flight vehicle control system, the design of suborbital spacecraft control system based on rapid control prototyping technology is proposed, and the design of hardware system, software system and real-time simulation is done in this paper. The system consists of the overall control computer, two real-time numerical simulation computers, VMIC, hardware interfaces, physical devices and other components. The six degrees of freedom mathematical model of SRLV re-entry process were built. The control distribution and classical control methods for attitude control is designed, too. RtFly platform is selected to the distributed rapid prototyping simulation. Simulation results show that the control parameter adjustment convenient, real-time system is good, rapid control prototyping technology can be effectively applied to aircraft control system design. The result of Simulation shows that the control parameters are easy to adjust and optimize, and the system has good real-time performance. Rapid control prototyping technology could be effectively applied to aircraft control system design.%为了实现对飞行器控制系统的快速、廉价、高效等设计需求,提出了一种基于快速控制原型技术的亚轨道飞行器控制系统设计方案,并完成系统的软硬件设计与实时仿真。该系统由总体控制计算机、两台实时数值仿真机、VMIC、硬件接口以及物理设备等组成,建立了亚轨道飞行器再入阶段六自由度运动模型,设计控制分配并采用经典控制方法进行姿态控制,通过RtFly平台进行分布式快速原型仿真。仿真结果表明,控制参数调节方便,系统实时性良好,快速控制原型技术可以有效应用于飞行器控制系统设计。

  8. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  9. Vehicle dynamic prediction systems with on-line identification of vehicle parameters and road conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event.

  10. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  11. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  12. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  15. The vehicle routing problem with two classes of vehicles and a limit on the number of vehicles in each class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, P.; Gouveia, L.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk we discuss several linear integer programming formulations for a particular case of the Vehicle Routing Problem, where several classes of vehicles are considered and a fixed number of vehicles is imposed in each class. We also present a set of valid inequalities which lead to significant improvements on the lower bounds. Some heuristics are also discussed. We present computational results taken from a set of tests with the number of clients ranging from 13 to 75.

  16. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  17. LM-4B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The history of LM-4B traces back to the end of the 1970s. The feasibility study of LM-4 began in 1982 and the engineering development was initiated in the following year.Initially, the LM-4 served as a back-up launch vehicle for LM-3 to launch China's communications satellites. After the successful launch of China's first communications satellites by LM-3 in 1984, the main mission of the LM-4 was shifted to launch sun-synchronous orbit meteorological satellites.

  18. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  19. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  20. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  1. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different systems, including thesystems with autonomous units, which cany all their knowledgewith them, and those with communication units, which informthe driver about the current situation of the road system byradio or other means. The symbols of various messageshave three main goals: to provide instruction, to warn ofoncoming danger, or to give advice regarding parking or lookingfor alternative routes. When not used for these purposes,they are used to provide general information about/he weathe1;temperature or possible attractions. The in-vehicle informationsystems try to assist the motorist in driving, and they arepromoted as part of the comprehensive intelligent transport system.

  2. Vehicles Vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Christlieb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present text attempts to do a description as well as a reflection of the cities from the point of departure of its means of transport and the urban being who uses them. In other words, it tries to show the city as a tissue made of vehicles.El presente texto pretende hacer una descripción y una reflexión de la ciudad a partir de sus medios de transporte y del ser urbano que los utiliza. Intenta mostrar a la ciudad como un tejido o un entramado de vehículos en movimiento.

  3. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  4. Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

  5. Vehicle Monitoring And Diagnostic Using IMS Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Sayyad,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Convergence of technologies is important in this era to make progress in any field. The need to converge technologies arises from the concept of improvisation. This paper proposes a system architecture which is used to diagnose vehicle parameters and then relay the data via a feasible next generation network based on IMS architecture to a central server. Vehicles are to be equipped with a simple portable scan tool (PST device which will interface with the OBD-II port of the vehicle and record the diagnostic data and relay them to the server. Further if the vehicle owner wants real time remote updates of the vehicle then it can be done by using his/her cellular device. IMS architecture simplifies the process of user registration and help in achieving faster transmission speed. Lastly various secondary applications can be generated by this system as by using thissystem the vehicles are getting connected on a grid.

  6. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  7. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  8. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  9. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  10. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  11. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  12. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  13. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  14. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  15. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  16. Reliable dynamic in-vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.

    2008-01-01

    Having started off from luxury makes and models, in-vehicle navigation systems are now gradually spreading through the entire vehicle fleet, as drivers appreciate their usefulness. Increasingly sophisticated systems are being developed, having much more advanced functions than simple driving directions. This thesis presents a new approach for in-vehicle navigation, in which travel time reliability is incorporated in the route finding component of the navigation system. Based on historical tra...

  17. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  18. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  19. Liability Issues Concerning Self-Driving Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Melinda Florina

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the civil liability issues that arise when self-driving vehicles are admitted to our streets. Firstly, it is explained why strict liability regimes for the vehicle holder, which are in place in several jurisdictions across Europe, are a workable foundation for ensuring compensation of the victim. However, accidents caused by highly automated vehicles will raise the question of the manufacturer’s liability for a defective product. Accordingly, this article examines the ...

  20. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  1. PROBLEMS OF SAFETY OF MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  2. OMV--Short Range Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), is shown without its main propulsion module. Essentially two propulsion vehicles in one, the OMV could be powered by a main propulsion module , or, in its short range vehicle configuration shown here, use its own hydrazine and cold gas thrusters. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  3. Technical Benefits of Tram Vehicle Energy Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drazek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving effects connected with use of energy accumulator on board of tram vehicle instead of substation are presented. Differences in results regarding weak and strong power supply system when taking into account energy losses and energy recuperation are pointed out. Running mode and energy changed from substation by a tram vehicle with accumulator is compared to a tram vehicle without on-board accumulator but supplied from substation equipped with energy accumulator.

  4. Defense Acquisitions. Rapid Acquisition of MRAP Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    safety, which required some modifying of designs and postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles were used. Also, long term sustainment costs...the form of reliability, mobility, and safety, which have required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles...issues required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, or adapting how vehicles were to be used. Testing of proposed Page 8 GAO-10-155T

  5. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  6. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  7. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The...

  8. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  9. Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

    2010-03-01

    Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

  10. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  11. Dynamic Analysis of a Military- Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available 'The ride dynamic characteristics of a typical medium weight, high speed military-tracked vehicle for negotiating rough cross-counlry terrain have been studied. The vehicle is modelled using finiteelement simulation method with beam and shell elements. An eigenvalue analysis has been done to estimate natural modes ofNibration of the vehicle. The dynamic response of certain salient locations is obtained by carrying out a transient dynamic analysis using implicit Newmark beta method. A constant forwar vehicle speed and non-deformable sinusoidal terrain profile are assumed.

  12. Integrated reliability program for Scout research vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, B. V.; Welch, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Integrated reliability program for Scout launch vehicle in terms of design specification, review functions, malfunction reporting, failed parts analysis, quality control, standardization and certification

  13. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  14. Navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.; Soehnitz, I.; Becker, J.C.; Schumacher, W. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the fusion of sensor data for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle as well as two lateral control concepts to track the vehicle along a desired path. The fusion of navigation data is based on information provided by multiple object-detecting sensors. The object data is fused to increase the accuracy and to obtain the vehicle's state from the relative movement w.r.t. the objects. The presented lateral control methods are an LQG/H{sub 2}-design and an input-output linearizing algorithm. These control schemes were both implemented on a test vehicle. (orig.)

  15. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  16. Control of Energy Regeneration for Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; MAO Xiao-jian; LI Li-ming; ZHUO Bn

    2008-01-01

    To extend electric vehicle (EV) running distance, the vehicle energy regeneration (ER) method and vehicle control strategy were designed based on the original vehicle braking system. The ER principle of direct current (DC) brushless motor was studied, the motor mathematical model and PI control method with torque close-loop were built. This control method was applied to pure EV and the real road tests were evaluated.The ER control does not make any significant uncomfortable influence brake feeling and can save about 10% battery energy based on 3 times economic commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles.

  17. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  18. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  19. Unmanned vehicle mobility: Limits of autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, A. W.; Hanna, D. M.; McFee, J.

    Considerable research is being conducted on the development of unmanned vehicles for military and civilian applications, particularly for hostile environments. It is desirable to produce a vehicle which can select its own route, not requiring remote navigation, but then it would be required to sense its surroundings. Although imaging systems and modern computers make this possible, the extreme data processing demands usually make it impractical. It is suggested that an inverse relationship exists between vehicle mobility and the complexity of the autonomous navigation system required for an unmanned vehicle. An overview of vehicle navigation is presented which shows the degree to which navigation is affected by increasing inherent mobility. If the inherent mobility of a vehicle is greatly enhanced, the scene image processing requirements and navigational computations are greatly simplified. This means the vehicle path selection and speed and steering adjustments may be made more quickly, resulting in higher vehicle speeds whenever possible. Combined with reduced deviation from the intended path, this would greatly increase the speed of the vehicle from one given point to another, suggesting that high speed autonomous navigation may be feasible.

  20. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.