WorldWideScience

Sample records for super-orbital re-entry vehicles

  1. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  2. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural

  3. Passivity analysis for a winged re-entry vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, E. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-10

    Application of simple adaptive control (SAC) theory to the design of guidance and control systems for winged re-entry vehicles has been proven successful. To apply SAC to these non-linear and non-stationary systems, it needs to be Almost Strictly Passive (ASP), which is an extension of the Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) condition for linear, time-invariant systems. To fulfill the ASP condition, the controlled, non-linear system has to be minimum-phase (i.e., the zero dynamics is stable), and there is a specific condition for the product of output and input matrix. Earlier studies indicate that even the linearised system is not ASPR. The two problems at hand are: 1) the system is non-minimum phase when flying with zero bank angle, and 2) whenever there is hybrid control, e.g., yaw control is established by combined reaction and aerodynamic control for the major part of flight, the second ASPR condition cannot be met. In this paper we look at both issues, the former related to the guidance system and the latter to the attitude-control system. It is concluded that whenever the nominal bank angle is zero, the passivity conditions can never be met, and guidance should be based on nominal commands and a redefinition of those whenever the error becomes too large. For the remaining part of the trajectory, the passivity conditions are marginally met, but it is proposed to add feedforward compensators to alleviate these conditions. The issue of hybrid control is avoided by redefining the controls with total control moments and adding a so-called control allocator. Deriving the passivity conditions for rotational motion, and evaluating these conditions along the trajectory shows that the (non-linear) winged entry vehicle is ASP. The sufficient conditions to apply SAC for attitude control are thus met.

  4. In-Flight Imaging Systems for Hypervelocity and Re-Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to create a rugged, reliable, compact, standardized imaging system for hypervelocity and re-entry vehicles using sapphire windows, small imagers, and...

  5. Linear quadratic regulator design for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the design of an attitude controller for an unpowered, winged re-entry vehicle. The decoupling of the symmetric and asymmetric motion makes it possible to design two separate controllers, one for the pitch mot ion and one for the lateral motion. The design of the controller, a

  6. Aerothermodynamics of generic re-entry vehicle with a series of aerospikes at nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Velidi, Gurunadh; Guven, Ugur

    2014-03-01

    Re-entry of a blunt nosed vehicle is one of the most intriguing problems in any space programme. Especially in light of various space tourism possibilities, there are many works concerning re-entry of commercial blunt nosed space vehicles. In this paper, a generic blunt body re-entry model represented by a hemisphere-cylinder, fitted axisymmetrically with an aerodisk aerospike at the nose is investigated numerically with commercially available control volume based axisymmetric flow solver. The scaled down re-entry model has a base diameter of 40 mm and an overall length of 100 mm. A 6 mm diameter aerospike fitted axisymmetrically at the nose has a hemispherical cap from which another aerospike of 4 mm diameter protrudes which again has a hemispherical cap. Two dimensional compressible, axisymmetric Navier Stokes Equations are solved for a turbulent hypersonic flow of a 5 species, chemically reacting air in thermal equilibrium with free stream conditions of Mach no., static pressure and temperature of 10.1, 16,066 Pa and 216.65 K, respectively. The results are compared with that of re-entry model without any aerospike. Among the cases investigated, the spiked blunt body having two aerospikes in series with lengths l1 and l2 equal to 30 and 20 respectively and overall length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 showed a favourable reduction in the peak reattachment heat flux along with high reduction in aerodynamic drag and thus stands as a prospective case for blunt body nose configuration for hypersonic flight.

  7. Improved MPSP Method-based Cooperative Re-entry Guidance for Hypersonic Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computationally sufficient technique is used to solve the 3-D cooperative re-entry guidance problem for hypersonic gliding vehicles. Due to the poor surrounding adaptive ability of the traditional cooperative guidance methods, a novel methodology, named as model predictive static programming (MPSP, is used to solve a class of finite-horizon optimal control problems with hard terminal constraints. The main feature of this guidance law is that it is capable of hitting the target with high accuracy for each one of the cooperative vehicles at the same time. In addition, it accurately satisfies variable constraints. Performance of the proposed MPSP-based guidance is demonstrated in 3-D nonlinear dynamics scenario. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed cooperative re-entry guidance methodology has the advantage of computational efficiency and better robustness against the perturbations.

  8. Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A.; Easler, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    This adhesive is capable of repairing damaged leading edge components of reentry vehicles while in space, and is novel with regard to its ability to be applied in the vacuum of space, and in a microgravity environment. Once applied, the adhesive provides thermal and oxidation protection to the substrate (in this case, reinforced carbon/carbon composites, RCCs) during re-entry of a space vehicle. Although there may be many formulations for repair adhesives, at the time of this reporting, this is the first known adhesive capable of an on-orbit repair. The adhesive is an engineered ceramic material composed of a pre-ceramic polymer and refractory powders in the form of a paste or putty that can be applied to a scratched, cracked, or fractured composite surface, covering and protecting the damaged area. The adhesive is then "cured" with a heat cycle, thereby cross-linking the polymer into a hardened material and bonding it to the substrate. During the heat of reentry, the material is converted to a ceramic coating that provides thermal and oxidative stability to the repaired area, thus allowing the vehicle to pass safely from space into the upper atmosphere. Ceramic powders such as SiC, ZrB2 and Y2O3 are combined with allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) resin, and are mixed to form a paste adhesive. The material is then applied to the damaged area by brush, spatula, trowel, or other means to fill cracks, gaps, and holes, or used to bond patches onto the damaged area. The material is then cured, in a vacuum, preferably at 250F (approximately equal to 121C) for two hours. The re-entry heating of the vehicle at temperatures in excess of 3,000F (approximately equal to 1,650C) then converts this material into a ceramic coating. This invention has demonstrated advantages in resistance to high temperatures, as was demonstrated in more than 100 arc-jet tests in representative environments at NASA. Extensive testing verified oxidation protection for the repaired substrate (RCC

  9. Observer-based attitude controller for lifting re-entry vehicle with non-minimum phase property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the attitude control problem for the lifting re-entry vehicle with non-minimum phase property. A novel attitude control method is proposed for this kind of lifting re-entry vehicle without assuming the internal dynamics to be measurable. First, an internal dynamics extended state observer is developed to deal with the unmeasurable problem of the internal dynamics. And then, the control scheme which adopts output feedback method is proposed by modifying the traditional output redefinition technique with internal dynamics extended state observer. This control scheme only requires the system output to be measurable, and it can still stabilize the unstable internal dynamics and track attitude commands. Besides, because of the inherent property of extended state observer in rejecting uncertainties and disturbances, the control precision of the proposed controller is higher than the controller designed with traditional output redefinition technique. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude controller are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  10. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  11. Nonlinear gain of a millimetre wave antenna array mounted on a re-entry vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    A millimetre wave antenna array, mounted on a space vehicle re-entering the Earth's atmosphere, encounters a high density plasma around it. At high antenna power, the millimetre wave field heats the electrons nonuniformly. The electron temperature, T e , follows the antenna pattern, being maximum along the direction of the principal maximum (z-axis) and falling off rapidly across it. The ambipolar plasma diffusion under the pressure gradient force creates a refractive index profile with maximum on the z-axis, leading to self-convergence of the millimetre wave and enhancement in the effective gain of the antenna

  12. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yü cel, Abdulkadir C.; Gomez, Luis J.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often

  13. An electromagnetic method for removing the communication blackout with a space vehicle upon re-entry into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Hu, Ruifeng; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2017-03-01

    When a hypersonic vehicle travels in the Earth and Mars atmosphere, the surface of the vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer, which is an envelope of ionized air, created from the compression and heat of the atmosphere by the shock wave. The vehicles will lose contact with ground stations known as the reentry communication blackout. Based on the magnetohydrodynamic framework and electromagnetic wave propagation theory, an analytical model is proposed to describe the effect of the effectiveness of electromagnetic mitigation scheme on removing the reentry communication blackout. C and Global Positioning System (GPS) bands, two commonly used radio bands for communication, are taken as the cases to discuss the effectiveness of the electromagnetic field mitigation scheme. The results show that the electron density near the antenna of vehicles can be reduced by the electromagnetic field, and the required external magnetic field strength is far below the one in the magnetic window method. The directions of the external electric field and magnetic field have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the mitigation scheme. Furthermore, the effect of electron collisions on the required applied electromagnetic field is discussed, and the result indicates that electron collisions are a key factor to analyze the electromagnetic mitigation scheme. Finally, the feasible regions of the applied electromagnetic field for eliminating blackout are given. These investigations could have a significant benefit on the design and optimization of electromagnetic mitigation scheme for the blackout problem.

  14. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  15. A new Green's function Monte Carlo algorithm for the solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation: Application to the modeling of the communication breakdown problem in space vehicles during re-entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Kausik; Roadcap, John R.; Singh, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the exposition of a recently-developed, novel Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) algorithm for the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations and its application to the modeling of the plasma sheath region around a cylindrical conducting object, carrying a potential and moving at low speeds through an otherwise neutral medium. The plasma sheath is modeled in equilibrium through the GFMC solution of the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann (NPB) equation. The traditional Monte Carlo based approaches for the solution of nonlinear equations are iterative in nature, involving branching stochastic processes which are used to calculate linear functionals of the solution of nonlinear integral equations. Over the last several years, one of the authors of this paper, K. Chatterjee has been developing a philosophically-different approach, where the linearization of the equation of interest is not required and hence there is no need for iteration and the simulation of branching processes. Instead, an approximate expression for the Green's function is obtained using perturbation theory, which is used to formulate the random walk equations within the problem sub-domains where the random walker makes its walks. However, as a trade-off, the dimensions of these sub-domains have to be restricted by the limitations imposed by perturbation theory. The greatest advantage of this approach is the ease and simplicity of parallelization stemming from the lack of the need for iteration, as a result of which the parallelization procedure is identical to the parallelization procedure for the GFMC solution of a linear problem. The application area of interest is in the modeling of the communication breakdown problem during a space vehicle's re-entry into the atmosphere. However, additional application areas are being explored in the modeling of electromagnetic propagation through the atmosphere/ionosphere in UHF/GPS applications

  16. A new Green's function Monte Carlo algorithm for the solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation: Application to the modeling of the communication breakdown problem in space vehicles during re-entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kausik, E-mail: kausik.chatterjee@aggiemail.usu.edu [Strategic and Military Space Division, Space Dynamics Laboratory, North Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Roadcap, John R., E-mail: john.roadcap@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Singh, Surendra, E-mail: surendra-singh@utulsa.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is the exposition of a recently-developed, novel Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) algorithm for the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations and its application to the modeling of the plasma sheath region around a cylindrical conducting object, carrying a potential and moving at low speeds through an otherwise neutral medium. The plasma sheath is modeled in equilibrium through the GFMC solution of the nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann (NPB) equation. The traditional Monte Carlo based approaches for the solution of nonlinear equations are iterative in nature, involving branching stochastic processes which are used to calculate linear functionals of the solution of nonlinear integral equations. Over the last several years, one of the authors of this paper, K. Chatterjee has been developing a philosophically-different approach, where the linearization of the equation of interest is not required and hence there is no need for iteration and the simulation of branching processes. Instead, an approximate expression for the Green's function is obtained using perturbation theory, which is used to formulate the random walk equations within the problem sub-domains where the random walker makes its walks. However, as a trade-off, the dimensions of these sub-domains have to be restricted by the limitations imposed by perturbation theory. The greatest advantage of this approach is the ease and simplicity of parallelization stemming from the lack of the need for iteration, as a result of which the parallelization procedure is identical to the parallelization procedure for the GFMC solution of a linear problem. The application area of interest is in the modeling of the communication breakdown problem during a space vehicle's re-entry into the atmosphere. However, additional application areas are being explored in the modeling of electromagnetic propagation through the atmosphere/ionosphere in UHF/GPS applications.

  17. Hayabusa Re-Entry: Trajectory Analysis and Observation Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where

  18. Application of the FADS system on the Re-entry Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huang

    2016-07-01

    The aerodynamic model for Flush Air Data Sensing System (FADS) is built based on the surface pressure distribution obtained through the pressure orifices laid on specific positions of the surface,and the flight parameters,such as angle of attack,angle of side-slip,Mach number,free-stream static pressure and dynamic pressure are inferred from the aerodynamic model.The flush air data sensing system (FADS) has been used on several flight tests of aircraft and re-entry vehicle,such as,X-15,space shuttle,F-14,X-33,X-43A and so on. This paper discusses the application of the FADS on the re-entry module with blunt body to obtain high-precision aerodynamic parameters.First of all,a basic theory and operating principle of the FADS is shown.Then,the applications of the FADS on typical aircrafts and re-entry vehicles are described.Thirdly,the application mode on the re-entry module with blunt body is discussed in detail,including aerodynamic simulation,pressure distribution,trajectory reconstruction and the hardware shoule be used,such as flush air data sensing system(FADS),inertial navigation system (INS),data acquisition system,data storage system.Finally,ablunt module re-entry flight test from low earth orbit (LEO) is planned to obtain aerodynamic parameters and amend the aerodynamic model with this FADS system data.The results show that FADS system can be applied widely in re-entry module with blunt bodies.

  19. IXV re-entry demonstrator: Mission overview, system challenges and flight reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Roberto; Denaro, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced re-entry demonstrator vehicle aimed to perform in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies. The IXV integrates key technologies at the system level, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flying test-beds. The project builds on previous achievements at system and technology levels, and provides a unique and concrete way of establishing and consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission and system objectives are the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention is paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight. Following the extensive detailed design, manufacturing, qualification, integration and testing of the flight segment and ground segment elements, IXV has performed a full successful flight on February 11th 2015. After the launch with the VEGA launcher form the CSG spaceport in French Guyana, IXV has performed a full nominal mission ending with a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. During Flight Phase, the IXV space and ground segments worked perfectly, implementing the whole flight program in line with the commanded maneuvers and trajectory prediction, performing an overall flight of 34.400 km including 7.600 km with hot atmospheric re-entry in automatic guidance, concluding with successful precision landing at a distance of ~1

  20. Hypersonic re-entry technology; insights into new advances in re-entry vehicles and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudmeijer, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    We are already used to a widespread commercial utilization of spaceflight, particularly with satellites for communication, earth observation, navigation, weather forecast and many other applications. Launching satellites is a rather costly affair, particularly because twenty minutes after lift-off

  1. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ASTRODYNAMICS AND RE-ENTRY MECHANICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selected list of references in the fields of astronautics and re-entry mechanics is classified and discussed, and a comprehensive subject and author index is included for ease in locating the references. (Author)

  2. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  3. Behavior of HfB2-SiC Materials in Simulated Re-Entry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gunsman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew; Ridge, Jerry; Martinez, Ed; Squire, Tom; Olejniczak, Joe

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) Investigate the oxidation/ablation behavior of HfB2/SiC materials in simulated re-entry environments; 2) Use the arc jet test results to define appropriate use environments for these materials for use in vehicle design. The parameters to be investigated include: surface temperature, stagnation pressure, duration, number of cycles, and thermal stresses.

  4. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-25

    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  5. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aerodynamics of the EXPERT Re-Entry Ballistic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Mazhul, I. I.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002 till now, experimental studies of the EXPERT reentry capsule have been performed in ITAM SB RAS wind tunnels. These studies have been performed in consecutive ISTC project No. 2109, 3151, and currently ongoing project No. 3550. The results of earlier studies in ITAM wind tunnels can be found in [1-4]. The present paper describes new data obtained for the EXPERT model.

  7. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  9. Re-entry simulation chamber for thermo-mechanical characterisation of space materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Volker

    2003-09-01

    During re-entry, materials and components are subject to very high thermal and mechanical loads. Any failure may cause loss of mission. Therefore, materials and components have to be tested under most rigid conditions to verify the suitability of the material and to verify the design of the components. The Re-Entry Simulation Chamber (RESiC) at ARC Seibersdorf research (ARCS) allows simulating the high thermal loads as well as complex mechanical load profiles that may occur during a re-entry; additionally, the influence of chemical reactions of materials with gaseous components of the atmosphere can be studied. The high vacuum chamber (better than 1×10-6 mbar) has a diameter of 650 mm and allows a sample height of 500 mm, or 1000 mm with extension flange. The gas dosing system is designed to emulate the increasing atmospheric pressure during the re-entry trajectory of a vehicle. Heating is performed by a 30 kW induction generator that allows a sufficiently rapid heating of larger components; electrically conductive materials such as metals or carbon fibre reinforced ceramics are directly heated, while for electrical insulators, susceptor plates or tubes will be employed. The uniaxial servo-hydraulic testing machine has a maximum load of 70 kN, either static or with a frequency of up to 70 Hz, with any given load profile (sinus, rectangular, triangular, ...). Strain measurements will be done by non-contacting laser speckle system for maximum flexibility and minimum instrumentation time effort (currently under application testing), or by strain gauges. All relevant process parameters are controlled and recorded by microcomputer. The highly sophisticated control software allows a convenient and reliable multi-channel data acquisition, e.g. temperatures at various positions of the test piece, pressure, loads, strains, and any other test data according to customer specifications; the data format is suitable for any further data processing. During the set-up and

  10. ELECTRA © Launch and Re-Entry Safety Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, B.; Arnal, M. H.; Aussilhou, C.; Blazquez, A.; Chemama, F.

    2010-09-01

    French Space Operation Act gives as prime objective to National Technical Regulations to protect people, properties, public health and environment. In this frame, an independent technical assessment of French space operation is delegated to CNES. To perform this task and also for his owns operations CNES needs efficient state-of-the-art tools for evaluating risks. The development of the ELECTRA© tool, undertaken in 2007, meets the requirement for precise quantification of the risks involved in launching and re-entry of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© project draws on the proven expertise of CNES technical centers in the field of flight analysis and safety, spaceflight dynamics and the design of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© tool was specifically designed to evaluate the risks involved in the re-entry and return to Earth of all or part of a spacecraft. It will also be used for locating and visualizing nominal or accidental re-entry zones while comparing them with suitable geographic data such as population density, urban areas, and shipping lines, among others. The method chosen for ELECTRA© consists of two main steps: calculating the possible reentry trajectories for each fragment after the spacecraft breaks up; calculating the risks while taking into account the energy of the fragments, the population density and protection afforded by buildings. For launch operations and active re-entry, the risk calculation will be weighted by the probability of instantaneous failure of the spacecraft and integrated for the whole trajectory. ELECTRA©’s development is today at the end of the validation phase, last step before delivery to users. Validation process has been performed in different ways: numerical application way for the risk formulation; benchmarking process for casualty area, level of energy of the fragments entries and level of protection housing module; best practices in space transportation industries concerning dependability evaluation; benchmarking process for

  11. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  12. Recording animal vocalizations from a UAV: bat echolocation during roost re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepper, Laura N; Kinniry, Morgan

    2018-05-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are rising in popularity for wildlife monitoring, but direct recordings of animal vocalizations have not yet been accomplished, likely due to the noise generated by the UAV. Echolocating bats, especially Tadarida brasiliensis, are good candidates for UAV recording due to their high-speed, high-altitude flight. Here, we use a UAV to record the signals of bats during morning roost re-entry. We designed a UAV to block the noise of the propellers from the receiving microphone, and report on the characteristics of bioacoustic recordings from a UAV. We report the first published characteristics of echolocation signals from bats during group flight and cave re-entry. We found changes in inter-individual time-frequency shape, suggesting that bats may use differences in call design when sensing in complex groups. Furthermore, our first documented successful recordings of animals in their natural habitat demonstrate that UAVs can be important tools for bioacoustic monitoring, and we discuss the ethical considerations for such monitoring.

  13. Psychophysiological assessment and correction of spatial disorientation during simulated Orion spacecraft re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S; Toscano, William B; Reschke, Millard F; Tsehay, Addis

    2018-03-02

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures in the rotating chair (Orion tests) simulating angular accelerations of the crew vehicle during re-entry. AFTE subjects received 2 h of training before Orion tests 2, 3, and 4. Motion sickness symptoms, task performance, and physiological measures were recorded on all subjects. Results showed that the AFTE group had significantly lower symptom scores when compared to Controls on test 2 (p = .05), test 3 (p = .03), and test 4 (p = .02). Although there were no significant group differences on task performance, trends showed that AFTE subjects were less impaired than Controls. Heart rate change scores (20 rpm minus baseline) of AFTE subjects indicated significantly less reactivity on Test 4 compared to Test 1 (10.09 versus 16.59, p = .02), while Controls did not change significantly across tests. Results of this study indicate that AFTE may be an effective countermeasure for mitigating spatial disorientation and motion sickness in astronauts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Libby, Paul A

    1962-01-01

    In this and a following issue (Vol. VIII, 1962, Fasc. 2-3) of "Astronautica Acta" there will appear the papers presented at the first international symposium sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics of the International Astronautical Federation. The theme of the meeting was "Space Flight and Re-Entry Trajectories." It was held at Louveciennes outside of Paris on June 19-21, 1961. Sixteen papers by authors from nine countries were presented; attendees numbered from 80 to 100. The organizing committee for the symposium was as follows: Prof. PAUL A. LIBBY, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, U.S.A., Chairman; Prof. LuiGI BROGLIO, University of Rome, Italy; Prof. B. FRAEIJS DE VEUBEKE, University of Liege, Belgium; Dr. D. G. KING-HELE, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Rants, United Kingdom; Prof. J. M. J. KooY, Royal Military School, Breda, Netherlands; Prof. JEAN KovALEVSKY, Bureau des Longitudes, Paris, France; Prof. RuDOLF PESEK, Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia. The detailed ...

  15. DEBRISK, a Tool for Re-Entry Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaly, P.; Spel, M.

    2012-01-01

    An act of French parliament, adopted in 2008, imposes satellite constructors to evaluate the end-of-life operations in order to assure the risk mitigation of their satellites. One important element in this evaluation is the estimation of the mass and impact energy of the satellite debris after atmospheric re-entry. For this purpose, CNES has developed the tool DEBRISK which allows the operator to simulate the re-entry phase and to study the demise altitudes or impact energy of the individual fragments of the original satellite. DEBRISK is based on the so called object based approach. Using this approach, a breakup altitude is assumed where the satellite disintegrates due to the pressure loads. This altitude is typically around 78 km. After breakup, the satellite structure is modelled by a parent-child approach, where each child has its birth criterion. In the simplest approach the child is born after demise of the parent object. This could be the case of an object A containing an object B which is in the interior of object A and thus not exposed to the atmosphere. Each object is defined by: - its shape, attitude and dimensions, - the material along with their physical properties - the state and velocity vectors. The shape, attitude and dimensions define the aerodynamic drag of the object which is input to the 3DOF trajectory modelling. The aerodynamic mass used in the equation of motion is defined as the sum of the object's own mass and the mass of the object's offspring. A new born object inherits the state vector of the parent object. The shape, attitude and dimensions also define the heating rates experienced by the object. The heating rate is integrated in time up to the point where the melting temperature is reached. The mass of melted material is computed from the excess heat and the material properties. After each step the amount of ablated material is determined using the lumped mass approach and is peeled off from the object, updating mass and shape of the

  16. Re-entry Adjustment and Job Embeddedness: The Mediating Role of Professional Identity in Indonesian Returnees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianto, Sonny; Jianhong, Ma; Hommey, Confidence; Damayanti, Devi; Wahyuni, Honey

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between difficulty in re-entry adjustment and job embeddedness, considering the mediating role of sense of professional identity. The online data on demographic characteristics, difficulty on re-entry adjustment, sense of professional identity, and job embeddedness were collected from 178 Indonesian returnees from multiple organizations. The results showed that difficulty in re-entry adjustment was a significant predictor of a sense of professional identity; a sense of professional identity was a significant predictor of job embeddedness. Furthermore, sense of professional identity is an effective mediating variable, bridging the relationship between post-return conditions to the home country and work atmosphere. Finally, the key finding of this study was that sense of professional identity mediated the effect of difficulty in re-entry adjustment on job embeddedness. The theoretical and practical implications, study limitations, and future research needs of our findings are noted.

  17. Hypersonic Cruise and Re-Entry Radio Frequency Blackout Mitigation: Alleviating the Communications Blackout Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented here will be a review of a NASA effort to provide a method to transmit and receive RF communications and telemetry through a re-entry plasma thus alleviating the classical RF blackout phenomenon.

  18. Utilizing Weather RADAR for Rapid Location of Meteorite Falls and Space Debris Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This activity utilizes existing NOAA weather RADAR imagery to locate meteorite falls and space debris falls. The near-real-time availability and spatial accuracy of these data allow rapid recovery of material from both meteorite falls and space debris re-entry events. To date, at least 22 meteorite fall recoveries have benefitted from RADAR detection and fall modeling, and multiple debris re-entry events over the United States have been observed in unprecedented detail.

  19. Risk Assessment During the Final Phase of an Uncontrolled Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, A.; Hourtolle, C.; Goester, J. F.; Fuentes, N.

    2013-09-01

    As French National Space Agency, CNES is empowered to monitor compliance with technical regulations of the French Space Operation Act, FSOA, and to take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of people, property, public health and environment for all space operations involving French responsibility at international level.Therefore, CNES developed ELECTRA that calculates the risk for ground population involved in three types of events: rocket launching, controlled re-entry and uncontrolled re-entry. For the first two cases, ELECTRA takes into account degraded cases due to a premature stop of propulsion.Major evolutions were implemented recently on ELECTRA to meet new users' requirements, like the risk assessment during the final phase of uncontrolled re-entry, that can be combined with the computed risk for each country involved by impacts.The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the ELECTRA method and main functionalities, and then to highlight these recent improvements.

  20. Atmosphere Re-Entry Simulation Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pellicani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic re-entry vehicles aerothermodynamic investigations provide fundamental information to other important disciplines like materials and structures, assisting the development of thermal protection systems (TPS efficient and with a low weight. In the transitional flow regime, where thermal and chemical equilibrium is almost absent, a new numerical method for such studies has been introduced, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC numerical technique. The acceptance and applicability of the DSMC method have increased significantly in the 50 years since its invention thanks to the increase in computer speed and to the parallel computing. Anyway, further verification and validation efforts are needed to lead to its greater acceptance. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulator OpenFOAM and Sparta have been studied and benchmarked against numerical and theoretical data for inert and chemically reactive flows and the same will be done against experimental data in the near future. The results show the validity of the data found with the DSMC. The best setting of the fundamental parameters used by a DSMC simulator are presented for each software and they are compared with the guidelines deriving from the theory behind the Monte Carlo method. In particular, the number of particles per cell was found to be the most relevant parameter to achieve valid and optimized results. It is shown how a simulation with a mean value of one particle per cell gives sufficiently good results with very low computational resources. This achievement aims to reconsider the correct investigation method in the transitional regime where both the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC and the computational fluid-dynamics (CFD can work, but with a different computational effort.

  1. Socio-Economic status of parents as a correlate of re-entry of girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status (SES) and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated for the study. Two research instruments, the “Socio-Economic Status of Parents” and the “Reentry into ...

  2. Exploring Efficacy in Negotiating Support: Women Re-Entry Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi-Berardinelli, Josephine Oriana

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature on women re-entry students reveals that women students concurrently struggle with family, work, and sometimes health issues. Women students often do not receive adequate support from their partners or from other sources in helping manage the multiple roles that compete for their time, and often face constraints that affect…

  3. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2018-03-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  4. Recovery, Transportation and Acceptance to the Curation Facility of the Hayabusa Re-Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.; Okada, T.; Yada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The "Hayabusa" re-entry capsule was safely carried into the clean room of Sagamihara Planetary Sample Curation Facility in JAXA on June 18, 2010. After executing computed tomographic (CT) scanning, removal of heat shield, and surface cleaning of sample container, the sample container was enclosed into the clean chamber. After opening the sample container and residual gas sampling in the clean chamber, optical observation, sample recovery, sample separation for initial analysis will be performed. This curation work is continuing for several manths with some selected member of Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary Examination Team (HASPET). We report here on the 'Hayabusa' capsule recovery operation, and transportation and acceptance at the curation facility of the Hayabusa re-entry capsule.

  5. Facilitation of school re-entry and peer acceptance of children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, A. S.; Schmiegelow, K.; Brok, J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates from childhood cancer call for efforts to reintegrate children with cancer back into their academic and social environments. The aims of this study were to: (1) review and analyse the existing literature on school re-entry interventions for children with cancer; and (2......) discuss the importance of peer involvement in the treatment. Relevant databases were searched using equivalent search algorithms and six studies were selected that target children with cancer and/or their classmates. Two authors independently reviewed the literature for data extraction. The articles were...... reviewed using the PRISMA model for reporting reviews. Statistical calculations for the meta-analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2. The metaanalyses showed significant effects of school re-entry programmes in terms of enhancing academic achievement in children with cancer (P = 0.008) and lowering...

  6. Cardiac re-entry dynamics and self-termination in DT-MRI based model of Human Foetal Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, Irina V.; Anderson, Richard A.; Holden, Arun V.; Pervolaraki, Eleftheria; Wen, Fen Cai

    2018-02-01

    The effect of human foetal heart geometry and anisotropy on anatomy induced drift and self-termination of cardiac re-entry is studied here in MRI based 2D slice and 3D whole heart computer simulations. Isotropic and anisotropic models of 20 weeks of gestational age human foetal heart obtained from 100μm voxel diffusion tensor MRI data sets were used in the computer simulations. The fiber orientation angles of the heart were obtained from the orientation of the DT-MRI primary eigenvectors. In a spatially homogeneous electrophysiological monodomain model with the DT-MRI based heart geometries, cardiac re-entry was initiated at a prescribed location in a 2D slice, and in the 3D whole heart anatomy models. Excitation was described by simplified FitzHugh-Nagumo kinetics. In a slice of the heart, with propagation velocity twice as fast along the fibres than across the fibers, DT-MRI based fiber anisotropy changes the re-entry dynamics from pinned to an anatomical re-entry. In the 3D whole heart models, the fiber anisotropy changes cardiac re-entry dynamics from a persistent re-entry to the re-entry self-termination. The self-termination time depends on the re-entry’s initial position. In all the simulations with the DT-MRI based cardiac geometry, the anisotropy of the myocardial tissue shortens the time to re-entry self-termination several folds. The numerical simulations depend on the validity of the DT-MRI data set used. The ventricular wall showed the characteristic transmural rotation of the helix angle of the developed mammalian heart, while the fiber orientation in the atria was irregular.

  7. Multiple Re-entry Closures After TEVAR for Ruptured Chronic Post-dissection Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become a promising treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, its role in treating chronic post-dissection thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA is still limited owing to persistent retrograde flow into the false lumen (FL through abdominal or iliac re-entry tears. Report: A case of chronic post-dissection TAA treatment, in which a dilated descending FL ruptured into the left thorax, is described. The primary entry tear was closed by emergency TEVAR and multiple abdominal re-entries were closed by EVAR. In addition, major re-entries at the detached right renal artery and iliac bifurcation were closed using covered stents. To close re-entries as far as possible, EVAR was carried out using the chimney technique, and additional aortic extenders were placed above the coeliac artery. A few re-entries remained, but complete FL thrombosis of the rupture site was achieved. Follow-up computed tomography showed significant shrinkage of the FL. Discussion: In treating post-dissection TAA, entry closure by TEVAR is sometimes insufficient, owing to persistent retrograde flow into the FL from abdominal or iliac re-entries. Adjunctive techniques are needed to close these distal re-entries to obtain complete FL exclusion, especially in rupture cases. Recently, encouraging results of complete coverage of the thoraco-abdominal aorta with fenestrated or branched endografts have been reported; however, the widespread employment of such techniques appears to be limited owing to technical difficulties. The present method with multiple re-entry closures using off the shelf and immediately available devices is an alternative for the endovascular treatment of post-dissection TAA, especially in the emergency setting. Keywords: Aortic dissection, Ruptured aortic aneurysm, Post-dissection thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, Endovascular aortic repair, Reentry closure, Endovascular procedures

  8. A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Future missions to Mars that would need a sophisticated lander, hopper, or rover could benefit from the REARM Architecture. The mission concept REARM Architecture is designed to provide unprecedented capabilities for future Mars exploration missions, including human exploration and possible sample-return missions, as a reusable lander, ascend/descend vehicle, refuelable hopper, multiple-location sample-return collector, laboratory, and a cargo system for assets and humans. These could all be possible by adding just a single customized Re-Entry-Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System, called REARM-spacecraft, and a docking station at the Martian orbit, called REARM-dock. REARM could dramatically decrease the time and the expense required to launch new exploratory missions on Mars by making them less dependent on Earth and by reusing the assets already designed, built, and sent to Mars. REARM would introduce a new class of Mars exploration missions, which could explore much larger expanses of Mars in a much faster fashion and with much more sophisticated lab instruments. The proposed REARM architecture consists of the following subsystems: REARM-dock, REARM-spacecraft, sky-crane, secure-attached-compartment, sample-return container, agile rover, scalable orbital lab, and on-the-road robotic handymen.

  9. Incarcerated women's relationship-based strategies to avoid drug use after community re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Claire; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Victor, Grant

    2016-10-01

    While recent research has stressed the supportive role that family and friends play for incarcerated persons as they re-enter the community, drug-using incarcerated women re-entering the community often have to rely on family, community, and intimate relationships that have played a role in their substance abuse and criminalization. In this study the authors conducted qualitative analysis of clinical sessions with rural, drug-using women (N = 20) in a larger prison-based HIV risk reduction intervention in Kentucky during 2012-2014 to examine incarcerated women's perceptions of the role of their family, community, and intimate relationships in their plans to decrease their substance abuse upon community re-entry. Women stressed the obstacles to receiving support in many of their family and drug-using relationships after community re-entry. Nonetheless, they asserted that changes in their relationships could support their desires to end their substance abuse by setting limits on and using their positive relationships, particularly with their children, to motivate them to change. Interventions to promote incarcerated women's health behavior changes-including substance abuse-must acknowledge the complex social environments in which they live.

  10. Coupling Existing Software Paradigms for Thermal Control System Analysis of Re-Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed is the unification of existing and operational high fidelity simulation software tools into an integrated framework with which to predict...

  11. Drag De-Orbit Device: A New Standard Re-Entry Actuator for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, David; Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of CubeSats, research in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) becomes possible for universities and small research groups. Only a handful of launch sites can be used, due to geographical and political restrictions. As a result, common orbits in LEO are becoming crowded due to the additional launches made possible by low-cost access to space. CubeSat design principles require a maximum of a 25-year orbital lifetime in an effort to reduce the total number of spacecraft in orbit at any time. Additionally, since debris may survive re-entry, it is ideal to de-orbit spacecraft over unpopulated areas to prevent casualties. The Drag Deorbit Device (D3) is a self-contained targeted re-entry subsystem intended for CubeSats. By varying the cross-wind area, the atmospheric drag can be varied in such a way as to produce desired maneuvers. The D3 is intended to be used to remove spacecraft from orbit to reach a desired target interface point. Additionally, attitude stabilization is performed by the D3 prior to deployment and can replace a traditional ADACS on many missions.This paper presents the hardware used in the D3 and operation details. Four stepper-driven, repeatedly retractable booms are used to modify the cross-wind area of the D3 and attached spacecraft. Five magnetorquers (solenoids) over three axes are used to damp rotational velocity. This system is expected to be used to improve mission flexibility and allow additional launches by reducing the orbital lifetime of spacecraft.The D3 can be used to effect a re-entry to any target interface point, with the orbital inclination limiting the maximum latitude. In the chance that the main spacecraft fails, a timer will automatically deploy the booms fully, ensuring the spacecraft will at the minimum reenter the atmosphere in the minimum possible time, although not necessarily at the desired target interface point. Although this does not reduce the risk of casualties, the 25-year lifetime limit is still respected, allowing

  12. Re-entry of the Soyuz MS-08 carrier rocket 25 March 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomeo, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    The re-entry of the Soyuz MS-08 carrier rocket on 2018 March 25 could be observed from a large part of the central Mediterranean Sea. The radio station of the Planetarium in Venice was able to record the return into the atmosphere. The radio signal was perceived in Venice from 01h23m52,5s UTC with a frequency of 1431,363 Hz until 01h24m02,0s with a frequency of 805,487 Hz. Considering the recorded frequency variations due to the Doppler effect, it can be deduced that the object was drastically decelerating in those last moments by about 1.3 km/s.

  13. An Exploration of Factors Reducing Recidivism Rates of Formerly Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities Participating in a Re-Entry Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…

  14. Vocational Interest as a Correlate of Re-Entry of Girls into School in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta; Egbochuku, Elizabeth Omotunde

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocational interest socio-economic status and re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. The research design adopted was correlational because it sought to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A sample size of 306 girls who re-enrolled in institutes…

  15. Does Offender Gambling on the inside Continue on the outside? Insights from Correctional Professionals on Gambling and Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Walker, Gordon J.

    2009-01-01

    This study brings to light a neglected topic of particular importance--offender gambling issues within the context of re-entry into the community. Fifteen correctional professionals from Nevada (high gambling availability) and Utah (no legalized gambling) participated in semi-structured interviews to provide insights into how gambling may impact…

  16. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  17. Re-Entry Women Students in Higher Education: A Model for Non-Traditional Support Programs in Counseling and Career Advisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    A model program of support for non-traditional women students has been developed at Texas Woman's University (TWU). Based on a pilot study, several steps were taken to assist these re-entry students at TWU. For example, in spring semester of 1983, a committee for re-entry students was established, with a student organization--Women in…

  18. Physiological responses of astronaut candidates to simulated +Gx orbital emergency re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Yueying; Wu, Ping; Gu, Zhiming; Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated astronaut candidates' physiological and pathological responses to +Gx exposure during simulated emergency return from a running orbit to advance astronaut +Gx tolerance training and medical support in manned spaceflight. There were 13 male astronaut candidates who were exposed to a simulated high +Gx acceleration profile in a spacecraft during an emergency return lasting for 230 s. The peak value was 8.5 G. Subjective feelings and symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory responses, and changes in urine component before, during, and after +Gx exposure were investigated. Under high +Gx exposure, 15.4% of subjects exhibited arrhythmia. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly and four different types of HR response curves were distinguished. The ratio of QT to RR interval on the electrocardiograms was significantly increased. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) declined with increasing G value and then returned gradually. SaO2 reached a minimum (87.7%) at 3 G during the decline phase of the +Gx curve. Respiratory rate increased significantly with increasing G value, while the amplitude and area of the respiratory waves were significantly reduced. The overshoot appeared immediately after +Gx exposure. A few subjects suffered from slight injuries, including positive urine protein (1/13), positive urinary occult blood (1/13), and a large area of petechiae on the back (1/13). Astronaut candidates have relatively good tolerance to the +Gx profile during a simulation of spacecraft emergent ballistic re-entry. However, a few subjects exhibited adverse physiological responses and slight reversible pathological injuries.

  19. Romance, recovery & community re-entry for criminal justice involved women: Conceptualizing and measuring intimate relationship factors and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard

    Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women's attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women's substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed.

  20. Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Magnetized Re-Entry Plasma Sheath Via the Kinetic Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a theoretical model of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a hypersonically induced plasma, it has been demonstrated that the classical radiofrequency communications blackout that is experienced during atmospheric reentry can be mitigated through the appropriate control of an external magnetic field of nominal magnitude. The model is based on the kinetic equation treatment of Vlasov and involves an analytical solution for the electric and magnetic fields within the plasma allowing for a description of the attendant transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients. The ability to transmit through the magnetized plasma is due to the magnetic windows that are created within the plasma via the well-known whistler modes of propagation. The case of 2 GHz transmission through a re-entry plasma is considered. The coefficients are found to be highly sensitive to the prevailing electron density and will thus require a dynamic control mechanism to vary the magnetic field as the plasma evolves through the re-entry phase.

  1. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 ± 17) mL h -1 with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  2. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 {+-} 17) mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  3. A case study of non-traditional students re-entry into college physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stewart Gordon

    Two groups of students in introductory physics courses of an Access Program for engineering technologies were the subjects of this study. Students with a wide range of academic histories and abilities were enrolled in the program; many of the students were re-entry and academically unprepared for post-secondary education. Five years of historical data were evaluated to use as a benchmark for revised instruction. Data were gathered to describe the pre-course academic state of the students and their academic progress during two physics courses. Additional information was used to search for factors that might constrain academic success and as feedback for the instructional methods. The data were interpreted to regulate constructivist design features for the physics courses. The Engineering Technology Access Program was introduced to meet the demand from non-traditional students for admission to two-year engineering' technology programs, but who did not meet normal academic requirements. The duration of the Access Program was two terms for electronic and computer engineering students and three terms for civil and mechanical engineering students. The sequence of mathematics and physics courses was different for the two groups. The Civil/Mechanical students enrolled in their first mathematics course before undertaking their first physics course. The first mathematics and physics courses for the Electronics students were concurrent. Academic success in the two groups was affected by this difference. Over a five-year period the success rate of students graduating with a technology diploma was approximately twenty-five percent. Results from this study indicate that it was possible to reduce the very high attrition in the combined Access/Technology Programs. While the success rate for the Electronics students increased to 38% the rate for the Civil/Mechanical students increased dramatically to 77%. It is likely that several factors, related to the extra term in the Access

  4. E2F-dependent induction of p14ARF during cell cycle re-entry in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Arroyo, Ana Gutierrez; El Messaoudi, Selma; Clark, Paula A

    2007-01-01

    The ARF protein, encoded by alternate exon usage within the CDKN2A locus, provides a link between the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressor pathways. Agents that disable pRb or otherwise impinge on the E2F family of transcription factors induce expression of ARF, resulting in stabilization...... of p53 and activation of p53-regulated genes. However, in some cell types ARF is not induced upon cell cycle re-entry, as expected of a conventional E2F target gene, leading to the suggestion that the ARF promoter only responds to supra-physiological or aberrant levels of E2F. These properties have...

  5. Low-cost development of the Algyoefield in Hungary by means of horizontal re-entry boreholes; Die kostenguenstige Entwicklung des Algyoe-West-Feldes in Ungarn durch horizontale Re-Entry-Bohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzel, H. [Weatherford Oil Tool GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany); Osz, A. [Magyar Olaj (MOL), Budapest (Hungary); Kerk, T. [Becfield Drilling Services, Edemissen-Berkhoepen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Planning and implementation of a typical re-entry borehole in southern Hungary are described. The cost is about half that of a new borehole, and the available infrastructure can be used. The production index of a typical Algyoehorizontal borehole is higher by a factor of 12 than for a vertical borehole in the same field. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Beispielbohrung (Algyoe488) wird die Planung und Durchfuehrung einer typischen Re-Entry Bohrung in Suedungarn beschrieben. Durch die weitgehende Verwendung von standardisierten Komponenten und Verfahren sowie durch die enge Zusammenarbeit zweier deutscher Service Unternehmen mit dem Auftraggeber wurde bei insgesamt 35 Horizontalbohrungen in Ungarn der Effekt der Lernkurve zur optimierten Erstellung der Bohrung und damit zur Kostensenkung effektiv eingesetzt. Die so aufgearbeiteten Bohrungen werden im Vergleich zu einer neuen Bohrung fuer etwa die Haelfte der Kosten erstellt. Die vorhandene Infrastruktur des Feldes kann weiter verwendet werden. Der Produktionsindex einer typischen AlgyoeHorizontalbohrung liegt um den Faktor 12 hoeher als eine Vertikalbohrung im gleichen Feld. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H

    2015-08-01

    Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M; Straube, Werner L; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, András; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-03-27

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Technology and Mitigation (ATDM) SPARC Re-Entry Code Fiscal Year 2017 Progress and Accomplishments for ECP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, Micah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rider, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freno, Brian Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bova, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnes, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The SPARC (Sandia Parallel Aerodynamics and Reentry Code) will provide nuclear weapon qualification evidence for the random vibration and thermal environments created by re-entry of a warhead into the earth’s atmosphere. SPARC incorporates the innovative approaches of ATDM projects on several fronts including: effective harnessing of heterogeneous compute nodes using Kokkos, exascale-ready parallel scalability through asynchronous multi-tasking, uncertainty quantification through Sacado integration, implementation of state-of-the-art reentry physics and multiscale models, use of advanced verification and validation methods, and enabling of improved workflows for users. SPARC is being developed primarily for the Department of Energy nuclear weapon program, with additional development and use of the code is being supported by the Department of Defense for conventional weapons programs.

  9. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, Flavio; Faglia, Ezio; Losa, Sergio; Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela; Lanza, Gaetano; Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  10. Uncontrolled re-entry of satellite parts after finishing their mission in LEO: Titanium alloy degradation by thermite reaction energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monogarov, K. A.; Pivkina, A. N.; Grishin, L. I.; Frolov, Yu. V.; Dilhan, D.

    2017-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics for investigating the use of pyrotechnic compositions, i.e., thermites, to reduce the risk of the fall of thermally stable parts of deorbiting end-of-life LEO satellites on the Earth are described. The main idea was the use of passive heating during uncontrolled re-entry to ignite thermite composition, fixed on the titanium surface, with the subsequent combustion energy release to be sufficient to perforate the titanium cover. It is supposed, that thus destructed satellite parts will lose their streamline shape, and will burn out being aerodynamically heated during further descending in atmosphere (patent FR2975080). On the base of thermodynamic calculations the most promising thermite compositions have been selected for the experimental phase. The unique test facilities have been developed for the testing of the efficiency of thermite charges to perforate the titanium TA6V cover of 0.8 mm thickness under temperature/pressure conditions duplicated the uncontrolled re-entry of titanium tank after its mission on LEO. Experiments with the programmed laser heating inside the vacuum chamber revealed the only efficient thermite composition among preliminary selected ones to be Al/Co3O4. Experimental searching of the optimal aluminum powder between spherical and flaked nano- and micron-sized ones revealed the possibility to adjust the necessary ignition delay time, according to the titanium cover temperature dependency on deorbiting time. For the titanium tank the maximum temperature is 1100 °C at altitude 68 km and pressure 60 Pa. Under these conditions Al/Co3O4 formulations with nano-Al spherical particles provide the ignition time to be 13.3 s, and ignition temperature as low as 592±5 °C, whereas compositions with the micron-sized spherical Al powder reveal these values to be much higher, i.e., 26.3 s and 869±5 °C, respectively. The analytical and experimental studies described

  11. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    observations confirmed the challenge of a long-range acquisition during re-entry. These challenges are due to unknown atmospheric conditions, image saturation, vibration etc. This provides the motivation for the use of a digital NIR sensor. The characterizations performed on the digital NIR sensor included radiometric, spatial, and spectral measurements using blackbody radiation sources and known targets. An assessment of the collected data for three Space Shuttle atmospheric re-entries, STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128, are provided along with a description of various events of interest captured using the digital NIR imaging system such as RCS firings and boundary layer transitions. Lastly the process used to convert the raw image counts to quantitative temperatures is presented along with comparisons to the Space Shuttle's onboard thermocouples.

  12. The Use of a Re-Entry Catheter in Recanalization of Chronic Inflow Occlusions of the Common Iliac Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjas, Greg; Thurley, Peter; Habib, Said

    2008-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusions can be unsuccessful due to a failure to break back into the true lumen, and lesions without a proximal stump can be particularly problematic. True lumen re-entry catheters have not been previously used for this type of lesion. The authors report eight patients, five males and three females, with lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication referred for endovascular treatment. Imaging demonstrated unilateral chronic total occlusion of the common iliac artery in six patients and two patients with short patent stumps at the origin of the occluded common iliac artery. Endovascular therapy was initially unsuccessful due to an inability to re-enter the true lumen after crossing the occlusion in the subintimal plane. With the assistance of the Outback LTD catheter it was possible to achieve continuity of the dissecting tract with the true lumen, thus facilitating successful primary stenting in all eight patients. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of the Outback LTD catheter in this type of lesion

  13. Re-entry experiences of Black men living with HIV/AIDS after release from prison: Intersectionality and implications for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shufang; Crooks, Natasha; Kemnitz, Rebecca; Westergaard, Ryan P

    2018-06-12

    Both the HIV epidemic and incarceration disproportionately affect Black men in the United States. A critical period for incarcerated Black men living with HIV/AIDS is re-entry into the community, which is often associated with adverse health outcomes. Additionally, Black men living with HIV/AIDS involved in the criminal justice system are burdened by multiple, intersecting disadvantaged identities and social positions. This study aimed to examine community re-entry experiences among Black men living with HIV/AIDS from an intersectional perspective. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 incarcerated Black men in Wisconsin, at pre-release from prison and six months after re-entry. Thematic analysis guided by intersectionality theory was used to analyze interview transcripts. Seven emerged themes included Intersectional Identities and Social Positions, Family Support, Neighborhood Violence, Relationship with Law Enforcement, Employment, Mental Health Concerns, and Medical Care and Medication Management. Intersecting identities and social positions interact with factors at multiple levels to inform health and HIV care. A conceptual framework was developed to illustrate relationships among themes. Findings demonstrate the relevance of intersectionality theory in HIV care with Black men involved in criminal justice system. Incorporating a social-ecological perspective into intersectionality framework could be useful in theoretical and empirical research. Disenfranchised communities may particularly benefit from interventions that address community- and systemic-level issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Fenestration Technique for Abdominal Aortic Dissection Membranes Using a Combination of a Needle Re-entry Catheter and the “Cheese-wire” Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Sebastian; Gürke, Lorenz; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to demonstrate the applicability of a combined needle-based re-entry catheter and “cheese-wire” technique for fenestration of abdominal aortic dissection membranes. Methods: Four male patients (mean age: 65 years) with acute complicated aortic type B dissections were treated at our institution by fenestrating the abdominal aortic dissection membrane using a hybrid technique. This technique combined an initial membrane puncture with a needle-based re-entry catheter using a transfemoral approach. A guidewire was passed through the re-entry catheter and across the membrane. Using a contralateral transfemoral access, this guidewire was then snared, creating a through-and-through wire access. The membrane was then fenestrated using the cheese-wire maneuver. Results: We successfully performed: (a) membrane puncture; (b) guidewire passage; (c) guidewire snaring; and (d) cheese-wire maneuver in all four cases. After this maneuver, decompression of the false lumen and acceptable arterial inflow into the true lumen was observed in all cases. The dependent visceral arteries were reperfused. In one case, portions of the fenestrated membrane occluded the common iliac artery, which was immediately and successfully stented. In another case, long-standing intestinal hypoperfusion before the fenestration resulted in reperfusion-related shock and intraoperative death of the patient. Conclusions: The described hybrid approach for fenestration of dissection membranes is technically feasible and may be established as a therapeutic method in cases with a complicated type B dissection.

  15. Atrial fibrillation driven by micro-anatomic intramural re-entry revealed by simultaneous sub-epicardial and sub-endocardial optical mapping in explanted human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brian J; Zhao, Jichao; Csepe, Thomas A; Moore, Brandon T; Li, Ning; Jayne, Laura A; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Lim, Praise; Bratasz, Anna; Powell, Kimerly A; Simonetti, Orlando P; Higgins, Robert S D; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Weiss, Raul; Hummel, John D; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2015-09-14

    The complex architecture of the human atria may create physical substrates for sustained re-entry to drive atrial fibrillation (AF). The existence of sustained, anatomically defined AF drivers in humans has been challenged partly due to the lack of simultaneous endocardial-epicardial (Endo-Epi) mapping coupled with high-resolution 3D structural imaging. Coronary-perfused human right atria from explanted diseased hearts (n = 8, 43-72 years old) were optically mapped simultaneously by three high-resolution CMOS cameras (two aligned Endo-Epi views (330 µm2 resolution) and one panoramic view). 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GE-MRI, 80 µm3 resolution) revealed the atrial wall structure varied in thickness (1.0 ± 0.7-6.8 ± 2.4 mm), transmural fiber angle differences, and interstitial fibrosis causing transmural activation delay from 23 ± 11 to 43 ± 22 ms at increased pacing rates. Sustained AF (>90 min) was induced by burst pacing during pinacidil (30-100 µM) perfusion. Dual-sided sub-Endo-sub-Epi optical mapping revealed that AF was driven by spatially and temporally stable intramural re-entry with 107 ± 50 ms cycle length and transmural activation delay of 67 ± 31 ms. Intramural re-entrant drivers were captured primarily by sub-Endo mapping, while sub-Epi mapping visualized re-entry or 'breakthrough' patterns. Re-entrant drivers were anchored on 3D micro-anatomic tracks (15.4 ± 2.2 × 6.0 ± 2.3 mm2, 2.9 ± 0.9 mm depth) formed by atrial musculature characterized by increased transmural fiber angle differences and interstitial fibrosis. Targeted radiofrequency ablation of the tracks verified these re-entries as drivers of AF. Integrated 3D structural-functional mapping of diseased human right atria ex vivo revealed that the complex atrial microstructure caused significant differences between Endo vs. Epi activation during pacing and sustained AF driven by intramural re-entry anchored to fibrosis-insulated atrial bundles. Published on

  16. Experimental investigation of re-entry aerodynamic phenomena - Development of non-intrusive ?ow diagnostics in a Ludwieg tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    To further improve the design of hypersonic vehicles so that fully reusable systems become a reality, the detailed understanding of the ?ow ?eld that the vehicle generates is of paramount importance. The thesis deals with the aspects of experimental ?ow research which includes also the ?ow facility

  17. Factors associated with dropout among patients in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and predictors of re-entry. A national registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukten, Anne; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Waal, Helge; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Retention in treatment is often highlighted as one of the key indicators of success in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). To identify factors associated with long-term retention in opioid maintenance treatment and to analyse predictors of subsequent treatment episodes. Treatment retention and re-entry were examined for a national cohort of patients admitted to OMT in Norway in the period 1997-2003. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to investigate factors associated with treatment dropout 18months after treatment entry. The 18month retention rate among patients admitted to OMT in Norway (n=2431) was 65.8% (n=1599). Dropout from OMT within 18months was associated with younger age (HR 0.97 [0.96-0.98]), high levels of general pre-treatment criminal offences (HR 1.66 [1.32-2.09]) and having drug-related offences during the 30days prior to dropout (HR 1.80 [1.36-2.38]). Of the patients who dropped out (n=832), 42.7% (n=355) were re-engaged in subsequent treatment episodes. Pre-treatment criminal offences were associated with increased odds for treatment re-entry, whereas being younger and having drug-related offences during the first OMT episode were associated with lower odds for re-engagement in OMT. Gender was not associated with treatment dropout and re-entry. High levels of pre-treatment criminal offences and drug offences during the 30days prior to dropout were associated with treatment dropout. Efforts to increase support services to these patients may contribute to higher rates of retention in OMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrograde transdorsal-to-plantar or transplantar-to-dorsal intraluminal re-entry treatment following unsuccessful subintimal angioplasty for below-the-ankle arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yueqi; Zhao Jungong; Li Minghua; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Jianbo; Liu Fang; Cheng Yingsheng; Wang Jue; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the technical feasibility and efficacy of transdorsal-to-plantar (TDP) or transplantar-to-dorsal (TPD) intraluminal re-entry procedure following unsuccessful subintimal angioplasty for the treatment of arterial occlusion below the ankle. Methods: TDP or TPD retrograde intraluminal re-entry angioplasty was carried out in 8 diseased limbs of 8 diabetic patients (5 males and 3 females, aged 62∼81 years with a mean age of 75±8 years), who were accompanied with chronic below-the-ankle arterial occlusive disease, after the standard transtibial subintimal angioplasty had failed. Both before and after the procedure the clinical symptoms, dorsal or plantar arterial pulse volume scores and ankle-brachial indexes (ABI) were determined in all patients, the results were compared and statistically analysed. During the follow-up period, the degree of pain relief, the healing of the wound, the salvage of the diseased limb and the restenosis occurrence of the target vessels were evaluated. Results: Of the total 8 patients, TDP or TPD retrograde intraluminal re-entry angioplasty was successfully performed in 5(62.5%). After the treatment the foot pain was markedly relieved, the median pulse volume scores and ankle-brachial indexes were increased from 0.60±0.55 and 0.32±0.20 before the procedure to 2.40±0.55 and 0.75±0.12 after the procedure, respectively (P<0.01 for both). At the end of the follow-up lasting for twelve months, the visual analogue scale was apparently improved, the scores decreased from preoperative 7.40±1.14 to 2.20±1.48 (P=0.002). Of two cases with intractable skin ulcer, the skin lesion was completely healed in one and was significantly decreased in size in another. No amputation surgery was needed in all successfully treated patients. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed that one target vessel developed re-stenosis. Conclusion: TDP and TDP retrograde intraluminal re-entry techniques are clinically feasible and effective for the

  19. Neuronal injury external to the retina rapidly activates retinal glia, followed by elevation of markers for cell cycle re-entry and death in retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Galan

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are neurons that relay visual signals from the retina to the brain. The RGC cell bodies reside in the retina and their fibers form the optic nerve. Full transection (axotomy of the optic nerve is an extra-retinal injury model of RGC degeneration. Optic nerve transection permits time-kinetic studies of neurodegenerative mechanisms in neurons and resident glia of the retina, the early events of which are reported here. One day after injury, and before atrophy of RGC cell bodies was apparent, glia had increased levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6, and phospho-ERK1/2; however, these signals were not detected in injured RGCs. Three days after injury there were increased levels of phospho-Rb and cyclin A proteins detected in RGCs, whereas these signals were not detected in glia. DNA hyperploidy was also detected in RGCs, indicative of cell cycle re-entry by these post-mitotic neurons. These events culminated in RGC death, which is delayed by pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Our data show that a remote injury to RGC axons rapidly conveys a signal that activates retinal glia, followed by RGC cell cycle re-entry, DNA hyperploidy, and neuronal death that is delayed by preventing glial MAPK/ERK activation. These results demonstrate that complex and variable neuro-glia interactions regulate healthy and injured states in the adult mammalian retina.

  20. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Mitigates the Effects of Spatial Disorientation to Simulated Orion Spacecraft Re-Entry: Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Reschke, Millard F.; Gebreyesus, Fiyori; Rocha, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation to future astronauts during re-entry of the proposed Orion spacecraft. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-hour physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these effects. Twenty subjects were assigned to two groups (AFTE and Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures to a simulated Orion re-entry test in the rotating chair. Treatment subjects were given two hours of AFTE training before each Orion test. A diagnostic scale was used to evaluate motion sickness symptom severity. Results showed that 2 hours of AFTE significantly reduced motion sickness symptoms during the second Orion test. AFTE subjects were able to maintain lower heart rates and skin conductance levels and other responses than the control group subjects during subsequent tests. Trends show that performance was less degraded for AFTE subjects. The results of this study indicate that astronauts could benefit from receiving at least 2 hours of preflight AFTE. In addition, flight crews could benefit further by practicing physiologic self-regulation using mobile devices.

  1. Predictors of homeless services re-entry within a sample of adults receiving Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly; Vaclavik, Danielle; Watson, Dennis P; Wilka, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Local and national evaluations of the federal Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) have demonstrated a high rate of placement of program participants in permanent housing. However, there is a paucity of research on the long-term outcomes of HPRP, and research on rehousing and prevention interventions for single adults experiencing homelessness is particularly limited. Using Homeless Management Information System data from 2009 to 2015, this study examined risk of return to homeless services among 370 permanently housed and 71 nonpermanently housed single adult HPRP participants in Indianapolis, Indiana. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were conducted to analyze time-to-service re-entry for the full sample, and the homelessness prevention and rapid rehousing participants separately. With an average follow-up of 4.5 years after HPRP exit, 9.5% of the permanently housed HPRP participants and 16.9% of those nonpermanently housed returned to homeless services. By assistance type, 5.4% of permanently housed and 15.8% of nonpermanently housed homelessness prevention recipients re-entered services, and 12.8% of permanently housed and 18.2% of nonpermanently housed rapid rehousing recipients re-entered during the follow-up period. Overall, veterans, individuals receiving rapid rehousing services, and those whose income did not increase during HPRP had significantly greater risk of returning to homeless services. Veterans were at significantly greater risk of re-entry when prevention and rehousing were examined separately. Findings suggest a need for future controlled studies of prevention and rehousing interventions for single adults, aiming to identify unique service needs among veterans and those currently experiencing homelessness in need of rehousing to inform program refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  3. A Second Chance to Dream: Initiating ODeL in Secondary School Re-Entry Programs for Young Adult Secondary School Dropouts the Case of Mumias District, Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musita, Richard; Ogange, Betty O.; Lugendo, Dorine

    2018-01-01

    The Kenyan education system has very limited re-entry options for learners who drop out before attaining secondary school certificate. It is very difficult to access training and or secure a job that requires at least secondary school education. This study examined the prospects of initiating Open and Distance e-Learning(ODeL) in re-entry…

  4. Zero-fluoroscopy cryothermal ablation of atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia guided by endovascular and endocardial catheter visualization using intracardiac echocardiography (Ice&ICE Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luani, Blerim; Zrenner, Bernhard; Basho, Maksim; Genz, Conrad; Rauwolf, Thomas; Tanev, Ivan; Schmeisser, Alexander; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C

    2018-01-01

    Stochastic damage of the ionizing radiation to both patients and medical staff is a drawback of fluoroscopic guidance during catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, emerging zero-fluoroscopy catheter-guidance techniques are of great interest. We investigated, in a prospective pilot study, the feasibility and safety of the cryothermal (CA) slow-pathway ablation in patients with symptomatic atrioventricular-nodal-re-entry-tachycardia (AVNRT) using solely intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) for endovascular and endocardial catheter visualization. Twenty-five consecutive patients (mean age 55.6 ± 12.0 years, 17 female) with ECG-documentation or symptoms suggesting AVNRT underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) in our laboratory utilizing ICE for catheter navigation. Supraventricular tachycardia was inducible in 23 (92%) patients; AVNRT was confirmed by appropriate stimulation maneuvers in 20 (80%) patients. All EPS in the AVNRT subgroup could be accomplished without need for fluoroscopy, relying solely on ICE-guidance. CA guided by anatomical location and slow-pathway potentials was successful in all patients, median cryo-mappings = 6 (IQR:3-10), median cryo-ablations = 2 (IQR:1-3). Fluoroscopy was used to facilitate the trans-septal puncture and localization of the ablation substrate in the remaining 3 patients (one focal atrial tachycardia and two atrioventricular-re-entry-tachycardias). Mean EPS duration in the AVNRT subgroup was 99.8 ± 39.6 minutes, ICE guided catheter placement 11.9 ± 5.8 minutes, time needed for diagnostic evaluation 27.1 ± 10.8 minutes, and cryo-application duration 26.3 ± 30.8 minutes. ICE-guided zero-fluoroscopy CA in AVNRT patients is feasible and safe. Real-time visualization of the true endovascular borders and cardiac structures allow for safe catheter navigation during the ICE-guided EPS and might be an alternative to visualization technologies using geometry reconstructions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Das Re-entry von Kritik: Assemblageforschung nach der Kritik an der Kritik. Kommentar zu Alexa Färbers „Potenziale freisetzen“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Göbel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Kommentar zum Beitrag von Alexa Färber diskutiert eine Vermengung von drei unterschiedlichen Kritikbegriffen sowie Orten von Kritik in der aktuellen Debatte um die Assemblageforschung im Feld der Urban Studies. Ich rekonstruiere und unterscheide zwischen einem Kritikbegriff als theoretischer Norm, wie er von der (neo-marxistischen Stadt- und Raumforschung vertreten wird, und der ontologischen Kritik dieser Norm seitens der Assemblageforscher_innen. Alexa Färbers Beitrag zeigt drittens exemplarisch eine sich einschleichende normative Ebene in der Assemblageforschung auf, die bislang als Kritikform unterbelichtet geblieben ist. Diese wird als Wiedereinführung (re-entry von empirisch vollzogener Kritik in die Assemblageforschung bezeichnet. Damit ist eine theoretische Neupositionierung von Kritik ‚innerhalb’ einer Assemblage gemeint, indem Kritik nicht mehr als theoretische Norm ‚außerhalb’ zu verorten ist. In diesem Kommentar plädiere ich dafür, in der Assemblageforschung eine differenzierte Auseinandersetzung mit unterschiedlichen Begriffen und Orten von Kritik zu pflegen, um innerhalb der Urban Studies und für interessierte städtische Akteure mit urbaner Expertise (u.a. Architekt_innen, Planer_innen, Künstler_innen, Aktivist_innen, Kultur- und Sozialarbeiter_innen, DIY-Gemeinschaften klarer adressierbar zu sein.

  6. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  7. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ningappa Gurav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periradicular (PR bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect.

  8. Treatment of a large periradicular defect using guided tissue regeneration: A case report of 2 years follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit Ningappa; Shete, Abhijeet Rajendra; Naiktari, Ritam

    2015-01-01

    Periradicular (PR) bone defects are common sequelae of chronic endodontic lesions. Sometimes, conventional root canal therapy is not adequate for complete resolution of the lesion. PR surgeries may be warranted in such selected cases. PR surgery provides a ready access for the removal of pathologic tissue from the periapical region, assisting in healing. Recently, the regeneration of the destroyed PR tissues has gained more attention rather than repair. In order to promote regeneration after apical surgery, the principle of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has proved to be useful. This case presents the management of a large PR lesion in a 42-year-old male subject. The PR lesion associated with 21, 11 and 12 was treated using GTR membrane, fixated with titanium minipins. The case was followed up for 2 years radiographically, and a surgical re-entry confirmed the re-establishment of the lost labial plate. Thus, the principle of GTR may immensely improve the clinical outcome and prognosis of an endodontically involved tooth with a large PR defect. PMID:26941526

  9. A complex dissected chronic occlusion: targeted balloon dilatation of false lumen to access true lumen, combined localized subintimal tracking and reentry, parallel wire, contralateral injection and a useful antegrade lumen re-entry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Tam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusion (CTO angioplasty is one of the most challenging procedures remaining for the interventional operator. Recanalizing CTOs can improve exercise capacity, symptoms, left ventricular function and possibly reduce mortality. Multiple strategies such as escalating wire, parallel wire, seesaw, contralateral injection, subintimal tracking and re-entry (STAR, retrograde wire techniques (controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking, CART, reverse CART, confluent balloon, rendezvous in coronary, and other techniques have all been described. Selection of the most appropriate approach is based on assessment of vessel course, length of occluded segment, presence of bridging collaterals, presence of bifurcating side branches at the occlusion site, and other variables. Today, with significant operator expertise and the use of available techniques, the literature reports a 50-95% success rate for recanalizing CTOs.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma and bi-phasic tri calcium phosphate in the management of periodontally compromised teeth with hopeless prognosis: A case report with six-year follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramoniam Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of periodontal therapy is to prolong the lifespan of dentition as there is no ideal substitute for natural dentition even in the era of dental implants. Treatment of teeth with advanced periodontal disease with hopeless prognosis is always extraction. However in this case report, we discuss a novel regenerative strategy using a combination of platelet rich plasma and bi-phasic tri calcium phosphate for a lower central incisor that was considered for extraction. Clinical and radiographic examination during the six-year follow-up postoperatively revealed stable periodontal health in the lower right central incisor. The surgical re-entry done in the sixth year postoperatively revealed good periradicular healing and alloplastic bone graft incorporation within the host bone.

  11. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  12. Thermophysical aspects of re-entry flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.N.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference discusses low density aerothermodynamics, the drag of bodies in rarefied hypersonic flow, transitional hypervelocity aerodynamic simulation and scaling, high temperature kinetics and transport properties, electron-nitrogen molecule collisions in high temperature nonequilibrium air, theoretical studies of dissociative recombination, the transport properties of some atom/ion interactions in air, and the interaction energies, dipole transition moments, and transport cross sections of N(+)-N and O(+)-O. Also discussed are the results of studies of potential fluid mechanisms for enhanced stagnation heating, vortex-induced leeward heating on a biconic at Mach 6 and 10, the effects of surface discontinuities on convective heat transfer in hypersonic flow, computational convergence in chemical reacting flows, and three-dimensional viscous shock layer applications for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

  13. Planetary Mission Entry Vehicles Quick Reference Guide. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carol; Arcadi, Marla

    2006-01-01

    This is Version 3.0 of the planetary mission entry vehicle document. Three new missions, Re-entry F, Hayabusa, and ARD have been added to t he previously published edition (Version 2.1). In addition, the Huyge ns mission has been significantly updated and some Apollo data correc ted. Due to the changing nature of planetary vehicles during the desi gn, manufacture and mission phases, and to the variables involved in measurement and computation, please be aware that the data provided h erein cannot be guaranteed. Contact Carol Davies at cdavies@mail.arc. nasa.gov to correct or update the current data, or to suggest other missions.

  14. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  15. Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and micron-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Mcminn, John D.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicle control law development using H(infinity) and mu-synthesis is discussed. Airbreathing SSTO vehicles has a mutli-faceted mission that includes orbital operations, as well as re-entry and descent culminating in horizontal landing. However, the most challenging part of the operations is the ascent to orbit. The airbreathing propulsion requires lengthy atmospheric flight that may last as long as 30 minutes and take the vehicle half way around the globe. The vehicles's ascent is characterized by tight payload to orbit margins which translate into minimum fuel orbit as the performance criteria. Issues discussed include: SSTO airbreathing vehicle issues; control system performance requirements; robust control law framework; H(infinity) controller frequency analysis; and mu controller frequency analysis.

  16. Intermediate Experimental Vehicle, ESA Program IXV ATDB Tool and Aerothermodynamic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschi, Vincenzo; Ferrarella, Daniela; Zaccagnino, Elio; Tribot, Jean-Pierre; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Rufolo, Giuseppe; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2011-05-01

    In the complex domain of the space technologies and among the different applications available in Europe, a great interest has been placed since several years in the development of re-entry technologies. Among the different achievements obtained in that field it is to be recalled the experience of the Atmospheric Re-entry Vehicle flight in 1998 and a certain number of important investments per-formed at Agency and national levels like Hermes, MSTP, Festip, X-38, FLPP, TRP, GSTP, HSTS, AREV, Pre-X. IXV (Intermediate eXperimental V ehicle) builds on these past experiences and studies and it is conceived to be the next technological step forward with respect to ARD With respect to previous European ballistic or quasi- ballistic demonstrators, IXV will have an increased in- flight manoeuvrability and the planned mission will allow verifying the performances of the required technologies against a wider re-entry corridor. This will imply from the pure technological aspect to increase the level of engagement on critical technologies and disciplines like aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics, guidance, navigation, control, thermal protection materials and in flight measurements. In order to support the TPS design and the other sub- systems, an AeroThermodynamicDataBase Tool has been developed by Dassault Aviation and integrated by Thales Alenia Space with the Functional Engineering Simulator (used for GNC performances evaluation) in order to characterize the aerothermodynamic behaviour of the vehicle. This paper will describe: - The methodology used to develop the ATDB tool, based on the processing of CFD computations and WTT campaigns results. - The utilization of the ATDB tool, by means of its integration into the System process. - The methodology used for the aerothermal characterization of IXV.

  17. Overview of the In-Flight Experimentations and Measurements on the IXV Experimental Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, E.; Giusto, S.; Del Vecchio, A.; Mancuso, S.

    2009-01-01

    After an assessment and then a trade-off of all the passenger experiments proposed by different partners within Europe, a selection of Core Experiments to be embarked on-board IXV to fulfil the Mission and System Requirements has been made. Some Passenger Experiments have also been identified to be potentially embarked, provided it is compatible with the system allocations, since they could bring valuable additional in-flight data. All those experiments include Thermal Protection System (TPS) experiments (including innovative TPS materials), AeroThermoDynamic (ATD) experiments and Health Monitoring System (HMS) experiments. Aside the previously mentioned experiments, a specific Vehicle Model Identification experiment (VMI) aims at validating in-flight the mathematical models of flight dynamics for a gliding re-entry vehicle. This paper also presents a preliminary version of the in- flight measurement plan, encompassing both conventional instrumentation and advanced sensors or even innovative measurement techniques.

  18. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    and test platform for the Orion Program. Critical spacecraft systems, re-entry and recovery systems, and launch abort systems of Orion could also be demonstrated in early test flights of the launch vehicle demo. Furthermore, an early demonstrator of this type would provide a stop-gap for retaining critical human capital and infrastructure while affording the current emerging generation of young engineers opportunity to work with and capture lessons learned from existing STS program offices and personnel, who were integral in the design and development of the Space Shuttle before these resources are no longer available. The objective of this study is to define candidate launch vehicle demonstration concepts that are based on Space Shuttle assets and determine their performance capabilities and how these demonstration vehicles could evolve to a heavy lift capability to low earth orbit.

  19. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation

  20. Efficient Numerical Methods for Nonequilibrium Re-Entry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    right-hand side is the only quadratic operation). The number of sub- iterations , kmax, used in this update needs to be chosen for optimal convergence and...Upper Symmetric Gauss - Seidel Method for the Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations,”, AIAA Journal, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp. 1025-1026, Sept. 1988. 11Edwards, J.R...Candler, “The Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Gauss - Seidel Line Relaxation,” Computers and Fluids, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 135-150, 1989

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury: An Overview of School Re-Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bonnie Foster; Colson, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a definition of traumatic brain injury (TBI); describes problem behavioral characteristics of students post-TBI and some possible solutions; examines academic, social, emotional, and cognitive factors; and outlines interventions to assist teachers in working constructively with TBI students. (JDD)

  2. ARV Re-Entry Module Aerodynmics And Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Heloise; Tran, Philippe; Berthe, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Astrium-ST is the prime contractor of ARV phase A and is especially in charge of designing the Reentry Module (RM). The RM aeroshape has been defined following a trade-off. High level system requirements were derived with particular attention paid on minimum lift-over-drag ratio, trim incidence, centre-of-gravity lateral off-set and box size, volumetric efficiency, attitude at parachute deployment, flight heritage and aeroheating. Since moderate cross-range and thus L/D ratio were required, the aeroshape trade-off has been performed among blunt capsule candidates. Two front- shield families were considered: spherical (Apollo/ARD/Soyuz type) and sphero-conical (CTV type) segment front-shield. The rear-cone angle was set to 20° for internal pressurized volume and accommodation purposes. Figures of merit were assessed and a spherical front- shield of ARD type with a 20° rear-cone section was selected and proposed for further investigations. Maximum benefits will be taken from ARD flight heritage. CFD and WTT campaigns plans will be presented including preliminary results.

  3. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  4. Analysis of internal ablation for the thermal control of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberos, Jose A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A new method of thermal protection for transatmospheric vehicles is introduced. The method involves the combination of radiation, ablation and transpiration cooling. By placing an ablating material behind a fixed-shape, porous outer shield, the effectiveness of transpiration cooling is made possible while retaining the simplicity of a passive mechanism. A simplified one-dimensional approach is used to derive the governing equations. Reduction of these equations to non-dimensional form yields two parameters which characterize the thermal protection effectiveness of the shield and ablator combination for a given trajectory. The non-dimensional equations are solved numerically for a sample trajectory corresponding to glide re-entry. Four typical ablators are tested and compared with results obtained by using the thermal properties of water. For the present level of analysis, the numerical computations adequately support the analytical model.

  5. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  6. Robust Switching Control for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight in the hypersonic regime is critical to NASA's goals because access to earth orbit and re-entry from orbit to earth or to other planets with atmospheres...

  7. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  8. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  9. Communication through a plasma sheet around a fast moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2011-10-01

    Investigation of the complicated problem of scattering of electromagnetic waves on turbulent pulsations induced by a sheared flow inside a plasma sheath is important for many applications including communication with hypersonic and re-entry vehicles. Theoretical and computational work aimed at improving the understanding of electromagnetic wave scattering processes in such turbulent plasmas is presented. We analyze excitation of low frequency ion-acoustic type oscillations in a compressible plasma flow with flow velocity shear and influence of such turbulent pulsations on scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves used for communication purposes. We have appropriately included in our analysis the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals as well as electron - ion collisions. Results of numerical solutions for plasma density and electric field perturbations for different velocity profiles have been used in the derived expressions for scattered wave energy and scattering cross section. Work supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory and Air Force Office Of Scientific Research Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, A Lockheed Martin Company, under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.

  11. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  12. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  14. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  15. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. Results of investigations on the 0.004-scale model 74-0 of the configuration 4 (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA/MSFC 14-by-14-inch trisonic wind tunnel (oa131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an oil flow boundary-layer visualization wind tunnel test of an 0.004-scale model of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Orbiter in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14-by-14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel are presented. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 through 2.75, at angles-of-attack from 0 through 25 degrees, and at unit Reynolds numbers from 5.0 to 7.0 million per foot. The test program involved still and motion picture photography of oil-paint flow patterns on the orbiter, during and immediately after tunnel flow, to determine areas of boundary layer separation and regions of potential auxiliary power unit exhaust recirculation during transonic and low supersonic re-entry flight.

  18. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  19. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  20. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  1. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  2. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  3. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of the Spaceliner-7.1 vehicle in high altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, Gennaro; Morsa, Luigi; Sippel, Martin; Schwanekamp, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    SpaceLiner, designed by DLR, is a visionary, extremely fast passenger transportation concept. It consists of two stages: a winged booster, a vehicle. After separation of the two stages, the booster makes a controlled re-entry and returns to the launch site. According to the current project, version 7-1 of SpaceLiner (SpaceLiner-7.1), the vehicle should be brought at an altitude of 75 km and then released, undertaking the descent path. In the perspective that the vehicle of SpaceLiner-7.1 could be brought to altitudes higher than 75 km, e.g. 100 km or above and also for a speculative purpose, in this paper the aerodynamic parameters of the SpaceLiner-7.1 vehicle are calculated in the whole transition regime, from continuum low density to free molecular flows. Computer simulations have been carried out by three codes: two DSMC codes, DS3V in the altitude interval 100-250 km for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients and DS2V at the altitude of 60 km for the evaluation of the heat flux and pressure distributions along the vehicle nose, and the DLR HOTSOSE code for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients in continuum, hypersonic flow at the altitude of 44.6 km. The effectiveness of the flaps with deflection angle of -35 deg. was evaluated in the above mentioned altitude interval. The vehicle showed longitudinal stability in the whole altitude interval even with no flap. The global bridging formulae verified to be proper for the evaluation of the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude interval 80-100 km where the computations cannot be fulfilled either by CFD, because of the failure of the classical equations computing the transport coefficients, or by DSMC because of the requirement of very high computer resources both in terms of the core storage (a high number of simulated molecules is needed) and to the very long processing time.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  5. Improved Re-Configurable Sliding Mode Controller for Reusable Launch Vehicle of Second Generation Addressing Aerodynamic Surface Failures and Thrust Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TV-SMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC is developed and tuned up for the X-33 sub-orbital technology demonstration vehicle in launch and re-entry modes. A variety of nominal, dispersion and failure scenarios have tested via high fidelity 6DOF simulations using MAVERIC/SLIM simulation software.

  6. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  7. Re-Entry Trauma: Asian Re-Integration after Study in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind

    2011-01-01

    Many students who re-locate from host to home country are said to undergo a process of reverse culture shock akin to bereavement, involving stages of a grieving process. This has been likened to a "W-curve" in which feelings fluctuate before reaching a more balanced state. The present study examined the re-acculturation of Taiwanese and…

  8. The RN-BSN Bridge Course: Transitioning the Re-Entry Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Carol; Shovein, Julia; Damazo, Becky; Fox, Sherry

    2001-01-01

    A 6-week bridge course designed to ease the transition of registered nurses into baccalaureate degree programs focused on critical thinking, learning styles, professional roles, values clarification, time management, and career planning. It also oriented students to Web Course Tools, used for distance learning. Outcomes included role and campus…

  9. POPSCAN: A CNES Geo-Information Study for Re-Entry Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, N.; Tholey, N.; Battiston, S.; Montabord, M.; Studer, M.

    2013-09-01

    Within the framework of the FSOA, French Space Operations Act (referred to as the "Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales" or LOS in French), including in particular the monitoring of safety requirements for people and property, one major parameter to consider is Geographic Information (GI) on population distribution, human activity, and land occupation.This article gives an overview of the set of geographic and demographic data examined for CNES control offices, outlining the advantages and limits of each one : coverage, precision, update frequency, availability, distribution, ...It focuses on the two major available global population databases: GPW-GRUMP from CIESIN of COLUMBIA University and LandScan from ORNL. The work engaged on POPSCAN integrates digital analysis about these two world population grids and also comparisons on other databases such as GLOBAL- INSIGHT, VMAP0, ESRI, DMSP-ISA, GLOBCOVER, OpenFlights, ... for urban areas, communication networks, sensitive human activities and land use.

  10. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop and test a sub-scale version of the Maraia Entry Capsule on a high altitude balloon. The capsule is released at 100,000 ft. The...

  11. Maneuver Analysis and Targeting Strategy for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Cliff; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Kangas, Julie A.; Wilson, Roby S.; Wong, Mau C.; Potts, Christopher L.; Williams, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    The Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) returned to Earth on January 15, 2006 after seven years of collecting interstellar and comet particles over three heliocentric revolutions, as shown in Figure 1. The SRC was carried on board the Stardust spacecraft, as shown in Figure 2. Because the spacecraft was built with unbalanced thrusters, turns and attitude control maintenance resulted in undesirable delta-v being imparted to the trajectory. As a result, a carefully planned maneuver strategy was devised to accurately target the Stardust capsule to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). This paper provides an overview of the Stardust spacecraft and mission and describes the maneuver strategy that was employed to achieve the stringent targeting requirements for landing in Utah. In addition, an overview of Stardust maneuver analysis tools and techniques will also be presented.

  12. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  13. Surface dust criteria for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds for re-entry to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.; Brorby, G.; Warmerdam, J. [Exponent, Oakland, CA (United States); Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction. Building reentry criteria for dioxin TEQ, as measured by surface wipes, vary greatly, from as low as 1 ng/m{sup 2} to as high as 125 ng/m{sup 2}1. Recently, the World Trade Center Indoor Air Taskforce calculated a reentry criterion of 2 ng TEQ/m{sup 2} for a residential exposure. This number was based on the EPA's draft cancer slope factor (CSF) of 1 x 10{sup 6} (mg/kg-day)-1, and various exposure parameters, dermal absorption values, and a cancer risk criterion of 1 x 10{sup -4}. An indoor 'degradation' parameter was also included in the calculations. However, a single criterion based on a single set of assumptions cannot be universally applied to all sites with contaminated surfaces. Reentry criteria that consider a wider range of exposure scenarios, exposure pathways, bioavailability, and behavioral parameters would be very useful to risk managers who may have to address multiple diverse situations in the coming years. This paper describes our recommended reentry ''building surface'' criteria for four exposure scenarios: (1) adult occupational, (2) adult residential, (3) childhood ''occupational'' (i.e., school), and (4) childhood residential.

  14. The HYTHIRM Project: Flight Thermography of the Space Shuttle During the Hypersonic Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Berger, Karen T.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Splinter, Scott C.; Krasa, Paul W.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. A background and an overview of several multidisciplinary efforts that culminated in the acquisition of high resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during hypervelocity atmospheric entry is presented. The successful collection of thermal data has demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining remote high-resolution infrared imagery during hypersonic flight for the accurate measurement of surface temperature. To maximize science and engineering return, the acquisition of quantitative thermal imagery and capability demonstration was targeted towards three recent Shuttle flights - two of which involved flight experiments flown on Discovery. In coordination with these two Shuttle flight experiments, a US Navy NP-3D aircraft was flown between 26-41 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 (STS-119) and Mach 14.7 (STS-128) using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. This same Navy aircraft successfully monitored the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission (STS-125). The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic approach used by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements team to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an imaging platform to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. The mission planning tools included a pre-flight capability to predict the infrared signature of the Shuttle. Such tools permitted optimization of the hardware configuration to increase signal-to-noise and to maximize the available dynamic range while mitigating the potential for saturation. Post flight, analysis tools were used to assess atmospheric effects and to convert the 2-D intensity images to 3-D temperature maps of the windward surface. Comparison of the spatially resolved global thermal measurements to surface thermocouples and CFD prediction is made. Successful demonstration of a quantitative, spatially resolved, global temperature measurement on the Shuttle suggests future applications towards hypersonic flight test programs within NASA, DoD and DARPA along with flight test opportunities supporting NASA's project Constellation.

  15. Model surface conductivity effect for the electromagnetic heat shield in re-entry flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Otsu, Hirotaka; Kawamura, Masaaki; Konigorski, Detlev; Takizawa, Yuji; Abe, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of model surface conductivity on shock layer enhancement by an applied magnetic field in weakly ionized supersonic plasma flow with a large Hall parameter (β∼300) was investigated experimentally. The shock layer structures of test models of two kinds were measured using laser absorption spectroscopy, in the large Hall parameter situation. One was an insulated model; the other was a conductive spherical blunt model. The shock layer enhancement phenomenon by the applied magnetic field was more pronounced for the insulated model than for the conductive model. This tendency agrees with the computational fluid dynamics result, at least qualitatively

  16. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...

  17. A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model for Radiating Earth Re-entry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    debted to Steven Lewis, Guerric De Crombrugghe de Looringhe, Dr. Troy Eichmann , Dr. Timothy McIntyre, and Dr. Richard Morgan for their assistance in... Eichmann [29]). 20 Figure 8. Side view of UV spectrometer capture area on the model (slit height not to scale, adapted from Zander et al. [133...2011. 29. Eichmann , T. N. Radiation Measurements in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Queensland, 2012. 30. Glass, D. E., R

  18. Social Support Reciprocity and Occupational Self-Efficacy Beliefs during Mothers' Organizational Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Dalit; Seiger, Christine P.; Orth, Ulrich; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assesses the effects of a lack of social support reciprocity at work on employees' occupational self-efficacy beliefs. We assume that the self-efficacy effects of received support and support reciprocity depend on the specific work context (e.g., phase in the process of organizational socialization). 297 women who returned to…

  19. Esthetics, "Aida" and "Re-entry shock:" Fountains in a blind woman's drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Blind people can invent drawings for material objects like cups, and matters esthetic, like "glory" at the climax of a story. In sketches of cups, their drawings are realistic, using lines for surface edges of profiles, and borders of cross-sections. They are metaphoric if they show purely mental events. These points are illustrated by two drawings by EW, a blind woman with two notable uses of a "fountain" device. One shows "glory" in the opera "Aida" and one is for memories overflowing.

  20. Emergency planning and preparedness for re-entry of a nuclear powered satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This safety practice report provides a general overview of the management of incidents or emergencies that may be created when nuclear power sources employed in space systems accidentally re-enter the earth's atmosphere and impact on its surface. 8 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Integrated Photonic Engine for Miniaturized Fiber Optics Sensor Interrogators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structural health monitoring is critical capability for NASA, and it is required for launch vehicles, space vehicles, re-entry vehicles, vehicle pressure systems,...

  2. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  3. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  4. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  5. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  6. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-10

    401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited 20081027289 Attorney Docket No. 96674 SUPERCAVITATING ...methods and more specifically to systems and methods for controlling a trajectory of a supercavitating vehicle. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...1 [0005) Some investigations into reducing the drag of high-speed, underwater vehicles have focused attention on supercavitating underwater vehicles

  7. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  8. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    ...., and Armor Holdings, Inc., for armored vehicles. This report addresses armored vehicles, specifically the Buffalo Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle, the Cougar, the Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal Rapid Response Vehicle (JERRV...

  9. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  10. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  11. Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Patrick B.; Keller, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) utilizing LOX\\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its liquid hydrogen contents, with no need for separate cryogenic insulation, and in part because the high use temperature of titanium honeycomb reduces the required surface area of re-entry thermal protection systems. System operability is increased because TPS needs to be applied only to surfaces where temperatures exceed approximately 650 K. In order to demonstrate the viability of a titanium sandwich constructed propellant tank, a technology demonstration program was conducted including the design, fabrication and testing of a propellant tank-TPS system. The tank was tested in controlled as well as ambient environments representing ground hold conditions for a RLV main propellant tank. Data collected during each test run was used to validate predictions for air liquefaction, outside wall temperature, boil-off rates, frost buildup and its insulation effects, and the effects of placing a thermal protection system blanket on the external surface. Test results indicated that titanium honeycomb, when used as a RLV propellant tank material, has great promise as a light-weight structural system.

  12. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  13. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  14. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  15. On Autonomous Articulated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nayl, Thaker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to address the problems of modeling, path planning and path following for an articulated vehicle in a realistic environment and in the presence of multiple obstacles.In greater detail, the problem of the kinematic modeling of an articulated vehicle is revisited through the proposal of a proper model in which the dimensions and properties of the vehicle can be fully described, rather than considering it as a unit point. Based on this approach, nonlinear and line...

  16. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  17. Vehicle electrification. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, N. [GM Global Research and Development, Warren, MI (United States); Eberle, U.; Formanski, V.; Grebe, U.D.; Matthe, R. [General Motors Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This publication describes the development of electrified propulsion systems from the invention of the automobile to the present and then provides an outlook on expected technology progress. Vehicle application areas for the various systems are identified based on a range of energy supply chains and the technological limits of electric powertrain components. GM anticipates that vehicle electrification will increase in the future. Battery-electric vehicles will become competitive for some applications, especially intra-urban, short-distance driving. Range-extended electric vehicles provide longer driving range and offer full capability; with this technology, electric vehicles can serve as the prime vehicle for many customers. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell-electric powertrains have potential for application across most of the vehicle segments. They produce zero emissions during all phases of operation, offer short refueling times, but have powertrain cooling and hydrogen storage packaging constraints. While the market share of electrified vehicles is expected to increase significantly, GM expects conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines to also have a long future - however, a lot of them will be supported by various levels of electrification. (orig.)

  18. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  19. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  20. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  1. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  2. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  3. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  4. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  5. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  6. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  7. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  8. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  9. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  10. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  11. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, O.; Delevallee, A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle has a body with propulsion assemblies that drive caterpillar tracks. When a propulsion unit inclines about its articulation axis it is aided by an advance movement of the caterpillar track in the opposite direction of rotation [fr

  12. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  15. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  18. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  19. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  20. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  1. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  2. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; hide

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  3. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  4. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  5. Space Vehicle Valve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  6. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  7. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  8. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  9. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  10. Space robot simulator vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  11. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  12. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  13. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  15. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  16. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  17. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  18. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  19. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  20. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  1. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  3. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  4. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  5. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M.

    2009-09-01

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  6. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  7. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  8. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  9. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  10. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    stressed or worn out beyond economic repair due to combat operations by repairing, rebuilding, or procuring replacement equipment. These...lives Vehicle Hardening Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter • Unique and economical surge capability • Support in coordination with op tempo...Speed, • Diagnostics Indicators – DECU Health Check Indicator, Utility Bus Comm Failure, 1553 Bus Comm Failure; MPU Critical Failure, Cautions and

  11. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  12. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  13. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  14. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  15. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  16. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  17. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  18. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  19. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions....... The contributions are organized in topical sections named: road; rail; and air....

  20. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  1. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  2. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  3. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  4. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  5. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  6. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) connected vehicle research : program is a multimodal initiative to enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless : communications among vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications : dev...

  7. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  8. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  9. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  11. Tracked vehicles in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Walton, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    A programme of remote inspections has been conducted on the Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel at Trawsfynydd Power Station using climbing vehicles. Tracked remotely operated vehicles supported the inspection programme by assisting with the delivery and recovery of the climbing vehicles and facilitating the use of various accessory packages. This paper presents details of the support project, the tracked vehicles and of the uses made of them during the inspection programme. (author)

  12. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    optimize vehicle operation, and capture vehicle kinetic energy during braking ( regenerative energy). As much as two-thirds of this imported oil comes... categories . Figure 4 provides a visual representation of many of the HEV and BEV options available on the 2010 GSA Schedule. Figure 4 - GSA...gallon • Renewable energy generated 24 • Vehicle miles driven by vehicle category • Implementation costs – Infrastructure modifications required

  13. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  14. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  15. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  16. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  17. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  18. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  1. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  2. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  3. Vehicle State Estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Iersel, van S.S.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the electric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  4. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  5. Vehicle Tracking System, Vehicle Infrastructure Provided with Vehicle Tracking System and Method for Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is described comprising - a plurality of sensor nodes (10) that each provide a message (D) indicative for an occupancy status of a detection area of an vehicle infrastructure monitored by said sensor node, said sensor nodes (10) being arranged in the vehicle infrastructure

  6. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  7. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  8. Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Systems ( JAUGS ). JAUGS is a JRP technology initiative under the cognizance of the Aviation and Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center...AMRDEC). The JAUGS focus is on developing a high-level command and control architecture for UGVs. As defined in the JRP Glossary, “ JAUGS is an upper...vehicle platforms and missions. JAUGS uses the Society of Automotive Engineers Generic Open Architecture framework to classify UGV interfaces and

  9. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  10. Combat Vehicle Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    reducing fuel storage under armor , and using manual instead of automatic transmissions, these decisions involve definite operational trade-offs...turn. 20 The application of ceramic materials has made possible the adiabatic -aiesel concept that reduces under - armor cooling system size requirements...systems will eliminate all conventional torsion bar suspension volume under armor space claim, and will have a very direct effect on reducing vehicle

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  12. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  14. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  15. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  16. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  17. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  18. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  19. Heber D. Curtis: The Re-entry Graduate Student at UVa Who Became an Outstanding Dynamical Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1998-09-01

    Heber D. Curtis, the great pioneer of nebular and galactic research, later observatory director at Allegheny and then at the University of Michigan, was a dynamical astronomer in the earliest days of photographic radial-velocity measurements. He did his undergraduate work in classical languages at Michigan, where as a student he showed no apparent interest in astronomy. Curtis's first jobs were teaching Latin and Greek at Napa College, then at the College of the Pacific. Both had small Clark refractors and he began observing, then measuring, visual double stars. He decided to become an astronomer, and spent the summers of 1897 and 1898 as a special student at Lick Observatory, and of 1899 at Ann Arbor. In 1900, at the age of 28, married and with two small children, Curtis entered the University of Virginia as a full-time graduate student. Both Yerkes and Lick Observatories had declined to accept him. At Charlottesville Curtis did his Ph.D. thesis on the orbit of Comet 1898 I, received his degree in 1902, and immediately joined the Lick staff. His work on spectroscopic binaries and high-velocity stars at Mount Hamilton and at the Lick Southern Hemisphere Observatory, will be described in this paper. W. W. Campbell and Curtis published the First Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binaries in 1905; it listed all 140 of these objects then known. In 1909, Curtis was recalled to Lick to take over the Crossley reflector and thus left the field of dynamical astronomy. At Santiago, his assistant was George F. Paddock, a UVa M.A. in astronomy who based his Ph.D. thesis on Chile observational data. When Ormond Stone, UVa professor of astronomy and Leander McCormick Observatory director, retired in 1912, Curtis was the first choice to succeed him, but declined the post to remain at Lick.

  20. Comparison of Sex-Role Orientation and Personality Variables in Traditional Women and College Re-Entry Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Norma F.

    Studies have indicated that mature women maintain a permanent role identity along two dimensions, i.e., traditional women or nontraditional women. However, the lifeset of many mature adult women may be on the continuum between these two positions, i.e., in the position of "deferred achiever." The personality variables and sex-role orientations of…

  1. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M.; Straube, Werner L.; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, Andras; Drechsel, David N.; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2017-01-01

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell

  2. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  3. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  4. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  5. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  6. Accelerated Lane-Changing Trajectory Planning of Automated Vehicles with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of lane changing using automated vehicles and the frequency of turning lanes in city settings, this paper aims to generate an accelerated lane-changing trajectory using vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration (V2VC. Based on the characteristics of accelerated lane changing, we used a polynomial method and cooperative strategies for trajectory planning to establish a lane-changing model under different degrees of collaboration with the following vehicle in the target lane by considering vehicle kinematics and comfort requirements. Furthermore, considering the shortcomings of the traditional elliptical vehicle and round vehicle models, we established a rectangular vehicle model with collision boundary conditions by analysing the relationships between the possible collision points and the outline of the vehicle. Then, we established a simulation model for the accelerated lane-changing process in different environments under different degrees of collaboration. The results show that, by using V2VC, we can achieve safe accelerated lane-changing trajectories and simultaneously satisfy the requirements of vehicle kinematics and comfort control.

  7. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  8. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  9. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  10. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  11. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  12. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  13. Undersea vehicles and national needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Undersea Vehicles and National Needs, National Research Council

    .... Advances in guidance and control, communications, sensors, and other technologies for undersea vehicles can provide an opportunity to understand the oceans' influence on the energy and chemical...

  14. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  15. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  16. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  17. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  18. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  19. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics: Vehicle Dynamic Characterization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    subassemblies that would be common on ground vehicles. Powertrain Systems: Gas Powered, Diesel , Turbo Diesel , Gas Turbine, Hybrid: Gas- Electric...PROPULSE (Hybrid Diesel - Electric System with Export Power), Command Zone (integrated vehicle control and diagnostic system), and TerraMax (Unmanned... Diesel -Electric, Series, Parallel. Power Distribution: RWD, FWD, AWD, open diff, LSD, Torsen diff, differential braking (traction control), drive by

  20. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  1. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  2. Bio ethanol use in light vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches vehicles emissions and air quality, Unite States context, Brazilian context, bio ethanol impact on engine emissions, bioethanol and engine technologies for emission control, bioethanol impact on engine emissions, flex-fuel vehicles, impact of bioethanol use in light vehicles, evolution perspectives for light vehicles: energy issues, and hybrid vehicles.

  3. Tyre influences on untripped vehicle rollover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Lupker, H.A.; Koppenaal, C.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicle rollover can be initiated by steering actions that occur at vehicle evasive manoeuvres or high speed cornering of commercial vehicles. This untripped vehicle rollover is more difficult to reproduce for passenger cars then for commercial vehicles. For passenger cars it occurs closer to the

  4. Driverless vehicles; Automatisches Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetting, H.H. [MSEE, Goetting KG, Lehrte (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New sensor systems, radiocommunication and computer technology have speeded up progress in automation. Driverless vehicles are now feasible. They offer maximum mobility and driving comfort, arrival on time and with minimum environmental effects. Germany should make use of its technological advantage and start trial projects on public roads now. [German] Mit der neuen Sensor-, Funk- und Rechnertechnik ist Bewegung in die Automatisierung gekommen. Automatisches Fahren hat grosse Vorteile fuer unser Wirtschafts- und Sozialleben. Es bietet fuer uns alle ein hoechstes Mass an Mobilitaet, entspannter Bewegung, puenktlicher Ankunft, geringster Belastung fuer die Umwelt (weniger Kraftstoff, weniger Laerm, weniger Platzbedarf). Es ist jetzt entscheidend, dass wir unseren technologischen Vorsprung in Deutschland nutzen, und die ersten Erprobungsprojekte auf oeffentlichen Strassen starten. (orig.)

  5. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  6. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerling, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  7. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  8. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  9. Intelligent vehicle initiative : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) is embarking on a new program called the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The USDOT intends to jointly define the program plan and conduct the IVI in cooperation with the motor vehicle, trucking, and...

  10. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  11. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  12. From cooperative to autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, T.P.J.; Nijmeijer, H.; Fossen, T.I.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    What defines an autonomous vehicle? In this chapter the authors will try to answer this question and formulate the limitations of driver assistance systems as well as for—conditionally—autonomous vehicles . First a short summary of the levels of automation as provided by the society of automotive

  13. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible.

  14. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  15. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  16. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  17. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  18. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible. Projections by all models were in close agreement only in the first few years. Although the projections from LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, and ParaChoice were in qualitative agreement, there were significant differences in sales shares given by the different models for individual powertrain types, particularly in later years (2030 and later). For example, projected sales shares of conventional spark-ignition vehicles in 2030 for a given scenario ranged from 35% to 74%. Reasons for such differences are discussed, recognizing that these models were not developed to give quantitatively accurate predictions of future sales shares, but to represent vehicles markets realistically and capture the connections between sales and important influences. Model features were also compared at a high level, and suggestions for further comparison

  19. Connected Vehicle Technologies for Efficient Urban Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Connected vehicle technology is employed to optimize the vehicle's control system in real-time to reduce congestion, improve fuel economy, and reduce emissions. This project's goal was to develop a two-way communication system to upload vehicle data ...

  20. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  1. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  2. Collaborative Unmanned Vehicles for Maritime Domain Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, A. J; Horner, D. P; Kragelund, S. P

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned vehicles are becoming a critical component of military operations. As the vehicles develop in capability, there will be a trend for heterogeneous classes of unmanned vehicles to be able to work in a more collaborative fashion...

  3. The impact of vehicle appearance and vehicle behavior on pedestrian interaction with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Martens, M.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  4. The Impact of Vehicle Appearance and Vehicle Behavior on Pedestrian Interaction with Autonomous Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, Debargha; Martens, Marieke; Eggen, Berry; Terken, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  5. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  6. Seam joining techniques for three-dimensional woven carbon material of at least 1" thickness., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat shield technology is a critical component for both re-entry and hypersonic vehicles. The traditional manufacturing approach for designing heat shields consists...

  7. Experiment, Modeling and Simulation of Gas-Surface Interactions for Reactive Flows in Hypersonic Flights (L'experimentation, la modelisation et la simulation d'interactions gaz-surface pour ecoulements reactifs en vol hypersonique) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... of high temperatures gases. Focusing on re-entry situation the presentations dealt with high temperature gas chemistry and also on gas- surface interaction known as catalytic effects for space vehicles...

  8. Continuum-Kinetic Hybrid Framework for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Predictive modeling of chemically reacting flows is essential for the design and optimization of future hypersonic vehicles. During atmospheric re-entry, complex...

  9. Feasibility of Determining Aerodynamic Coefficients for a NASA Apollo Body With the Use of Telemetry Data From Free Flight Range Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Topper, Benjamin; Brown, T. G; Bukowski, Edward; Davis, Bradford S; Hall, Rex A; Muller, Peter C; Vong, Timothy T; Brandon, Fred J

    2007-01-01

    ... s) Langley Research Center to perform a free-flight experiment with telemetry (TM) instrumented sub-scaled re-entry vehicle in order to determine the feasibility of using TM to obtain aerodynamic coefficients...

  10. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for components of future high-speed aircraft, re-entry vehicles and...

  11. Integration of Complex Geometry, 3D Woven Preforms via Innovative Stitching Technique, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thick, 3D woven carbon/phenolic composites offer potential improvement over legacy thermal protection systems (TPS) for re-entry vehicle heat shield applications....

  12. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  13. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  14. Predicting vehicle fuel consumption patterns using floating vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiman; Wu, Jianping; Yang, Senyan; Zhou, Liutong

    2017-09-01

    The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively. The fuel consumption forecasting model was established by using a Back Propagation Neural Network. Part of the sample set was used to train the forecasting model and the remaining part of the sample set was used as input to the forecasting model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  16. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  17. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  18. Description of light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report describes pre-crash scenarios that might be addressed by vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The focus is on crashes involving at least 1 light vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. The 2004-2008 General Esti...

  19. Non-cable vehicle guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugela, G.C.; Willott, A.M.; Chopiuk, R.G.; Thornton, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose is to determine the most promising driverless mine vehicle guidance systems that are not dependent on buried cables, and to plan their development. The project is presented in two phases: a preliminary study and literature review to determine whether suitable technologies exist to justify further work; and an in-depth assessment and selection of technologies for vehicle guidance. A large number of guidance elements are involved in a completely automated vehicle. The technologies that hold the best potential for development of guidance systems for mine vehicles are ultrasonics, radar, lasers, dead reckoning, and guidance algorithms. The best approach to adaptation of these technologies is on a step by step basis. Guidance modules that are complete in themselves and are designed to be integrated with other modules can provide short term benefits. Two modules are selected for development: the dragline operations monitor and automated machine control for optimized mining (AMCOM). 99 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  1. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    instrumentation is intelligent small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV’s), autonomous profilers, gliders [1], etc. The ultimate aim in all autonomous platforms research and development is to reach the stage of unescorted missions with minimum failures...

  2. Autonomous Laser-Powered Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autonomous laser-powered vehicle designed to autonomously penetrate through ice caps of substantial (e.g., kilometers) thickness by melting a path ahead of the vehicle as it descends. A high powered laser beam is transmitted to the vehicle via an onboard bare fiber spooler. After the beam enters through the dispersion optics, the beam expands into a cavity. A radiation shield limits backscatter radiation from heating the optics. The expanded beam enters the heat exchanger and is reflected by a dispersion mirror. Forward-facing beveled circular grooves absorb the reflected radiant energy preventing the energy from being reflected back towards the optics. Microchannels along the inner circumference of the beam dump heat exchanger maximize heat transfer. Sufficient amount of fiber is wound on the fiber spooler to permit not only a descent but also to permit a sample return mission by inverting the vehicle and melting its way back to the surface.

  3. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Initiative : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Ongoing and recently completed research and development indicate that collision avoidance systems offer the potential for significantly reducing motor vehicle crashes. Preliminary estimates by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...

  5. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  6. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid...... method where distribution system operator (DSO) optimizes the cost of EV charging while taking substation transformer capacity into account....

  7. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter requested that the Inspector General (IG), DoD review the DoD procurement history for body armor and armored vehicles and determine whether officials properly followed contracting policies...

  8. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  9. 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This is the seventh edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 69 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 73 through 85 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 94 through 98) and fuel use (Figures 101 through 104). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 109 through 123), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 135 through 142). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  10. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    1979. b. TOP 02-2-708, Vehicle Personnel Heater Compatibility, 18 July 1980. c. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J381, Surface Vehicle...Total Irradiance Second Class minimum, First Class recommended Engine speed ± 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) Air pressure (as appropriate) ± 1...digital camera is suggest to photograph all instrumentation locations. A tape measure, a graduated cylinder and an electric paint sprayer are required

  11. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  12. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  13. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  14. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  15. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  16. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  17. International Conference on Heavy Vehicles HVParis 2008 : Heavy Vehicle Transport Technology (HVTT 10)

    OpenAIRE

    JACOB, Bernard; NORDENGEN, Paul; O'CONNOR, Alan; BOUTELDJA, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Sommaire : Heavy vehicles and WIM technology, testing and standards. Interactions between heavy vehicles or trains and the infrastructure, environment and other system users. Heavy vehicle and road management information: measurements, data quality, data management. Freight mobility and safety. Vehicle classification, size and weight evaluation, regulations and enforcement. Traffic and road safety. WIM of road vehicles, trains and aeroplanes.

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification...

  19. Motor vehicle stocks, scrappage, and sales

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Greenspan; Darrel Cohen

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for forecasting aggregate sales of new motor vehicles; this framework incorporates separate models for the change in the vehicle stock and for the rate of vehicle scrappage. Because this approach requires only a minimal set of assumptions about demographic trends, the state of the economy, consumer ''preferences,'' new vehicle prices and repair costs, and vehicle retirements, it is shown to be especially useful as a macroeconomic forecasting tool. In addition, th...

  20. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  1. Formal Verification of Autonomous Vehicle Platooning

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Maryam; Dennis, Louise A.; McAree, Owen; Fisher, Michael; Veres, Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles into convoys or platoons is expected on our highways in the near future. However, before such platoons can be deployed, the new autonomous behaviors of the vehicles in these platoons must be certified. An appropriate representation for vehicle platooning is as a multi-agent system in which each agent captures the "autonomous decisions" carried out by each vehicle. In order to ensure that these autonomous decision-making agents in vehicle platoo...

  2. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  3. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  4. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  6. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  7. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. Vehicle-to-vehicle communications : readiness of V2V technology for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research report is to assess the readiness for application of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) : communications, a system designed to transmit basic safety information between vehicles to facilitate warnings to : drivers concerning impend...

  9. Vehicle Animation Software (VAS) to Animate Results Obtained from Vehicle Handling and Rollover Simulations and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Results from vehicle computer simulations usually take the form of numeric data or graphs. While these graphs provide the investigator with the insight into vehicle behavior, it may be difficult to use these graphs to assess complex vehicle motion. C...

  10. Understanding the Distributional Impacts of Vehicle Policy : Who Buys New and Used Alternative Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This research project explores the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market, including both Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and the sociodemographic characteristics of purchasing households. We use detailed...

  11. Death from a driverless vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2018-03-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major cause of fatalities around the world, and a number of deaths are caused by moving traffic on public roads. Deaths from vehicles that are off the highway may be called non-traffic fatalities which can be due to a vehicle reversing, carbon monoxide poisoning, weather-induced over-heating inside the vehicle and electric windows. Children (and animals) are the usual victims. We report a case from India where a man was found lying dead by the roadside with a lorry nearby. The autopsy findings indicated that he had been run over, but as there was no history of a vehicular collision and with no eyewitnesses, the investigators were unsure of the probable sequence of events that led to his death. The autopsy findings, history, circumstantial evidence and chemical analysis enabled us to work out what had happened.

  12. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  13. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  14. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  15. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  16. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  17. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  18. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Govern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  19. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  1. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  2. IEA Vehicle Efficiency Workshops Drive New Vehicle Policy Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Fuel economy is not only about getting more performance from the engine. Components outside the engine are also large fuel consumers. If fuel-economy test methods always remembered that, vehicle manufacturers would optimise component performance. A number of initiatives addressing component test standards and related policies have been triggered by IEA's recent workshops.

  3. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  4. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  5. Study on the Vehicle Dynamic Load Considering the Vehicle-Pavement Coupled Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-11-01

    The vibration of vehicle-pavement interaction system is sophisticated random vibration process and the vehicle-pavement coupled effect was not considered in the previous study. A new linear elastic model of the vehicle-pavement coupled system was established in the paper. The new model was verified with field measurement which could reflect the real vibration between vehicle and pavement. Using the new model, the study on the vehicle dynamic load considering the vehicle-pavement coupled effect showed that random forces (centralization) between vehicle and pavement were influenced largely by vehicle-pavement coupled effect. Numerical calculation indicated that the maximum of random forces in coupled model was 2.4 times than that in uncoupled model. Inquiring the reason, it was found that the main vibration frequency of the vehicle non-suspension system was similar with that of the vehicle suspension system in the coupled model and the resonance vibration lead to vehicle dynamic load increase significantly.

  6. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  7. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  8. Mobility Systems For Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wendell

    1987-02-01

    The majority of existing robotic systems can be decomposed into five distinct subsystems: locomotion, control/man-machine interface (MMI), sensors, power source, and manipulator. When designing robotic vehicles, there are two main requirements: first, to design for the environment and second, for the task. The environment can be correlated with known missions. This can be seen by analyzing existing mobile robots. Ground mobile systems are generally wheeled, tracked, or legged. More recently, underwater vehicles have gained greater attention. For example, Jason Jr. made history by surveying the sunken luxury liner, the Titanic. The next big surge of robotic vehicles will be in space. This will evolve as a result of NASA's commitment to the Space Station. The foreseeable robots will interface with current systems as well as standalone, free-flying systems. A space robotic vehicle is similar to its underwater counterpart with very few differences. Their commonality includes missions and degrees-of-freedom. The issues of stability and communication are inherent in both systems and environment.

  9. More Than Just Selling Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    FAW Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. (FTMS), a joint vehicle sales venture owned by auto giants China FAW Group Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp., was inaugurated in 2003 in an effort to strengthen the two firms’ operations in the world’s fastest-growing auto mark

  10. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  11. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  12. Analysis of electric vehicles measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, B.M.J.; Geldtmeijer, D.A.M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to have a significant impact on electricity grids. Intelligent charging strategies are suggested by literature and tested in the field to prevent overloading of network assets in electricity grids by using the flexibility of electro-mobility. This paper covers an

  13. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  14. Maintenance of remote reconnaissance vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A description is provided of the maintenance program developed for remote reconnaissance vehicles, such as RRV-1, in use at the Three Mile Island Unit 2. The described approach, which is simple, effective, and flexible, helped to make the effort successful. It will be applied to future projects

  15. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  16. Light vehicle crash avoidance needs and countermeasure profiles for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direc...

  17. Vehicle Awareness Device Data from Leesburg, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The files in this data environment were produced using the Vehicle Awareness Device (VAD) installed on one test vehicle over a two month period. The VAD installed in...

  18. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  19. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging

  20. Logistic Vehicle System Replacement Cost Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinson, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) was originally fielded from 1985-1989. Most of the LVS fleet will reach end-of-service life in 2005, therefore the goal of the Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR...

  1. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  2. Estimating Texas motor vehicle operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A specific Vcost model was developed for Texas conditions based on a sophisticated fuel model for light : duty vehicles, several excellent sources of secondary vehicle cost data, and the ability to measure heavy truck fuel : consumption through both ...

  3. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  4. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  5. National connected vehicle field infrastructure footprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The fundamental premise of the connected vehicle initiative is that enabling wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices will bring about transformative changes in safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts in th...

  6. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  7. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  8. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  9. Automated and connected vehicle implications and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Automated and connected vehicles (ACV) and, in particular, autonomous vehicles have captured : the interest of the public, industry and transportation authorities. ACVs can significantly reduce : accidents, fuel consumption, pollution and the costs o...

  10. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Breddia, C.A.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of

  11. Vehicle Thermal Management Facilities | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Facility The Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility features a pad to conduct vehicle thermal station next to the pad provides a continuous data stream on temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar

  12. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  13. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  14. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  15. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  16. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    world settings. The implementation and qualification of these technologies addresses national objectives and improves the state of the art to advance...Gasoline Electric Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). Figure 1 shows one of the H2ICE vehicles. The H2ICE vehicles have a full hybrid system capable of...Hickam NAC National Automotive Center PACOM Pacific Command SLI Starting, Lighting, and Ignition SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TARDEC Tank Automotive Research Development, and Engineering Center

  17. Remote surface testing and inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, E.A.; Goldsmith, H.A.; Proudlove, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A remotely controlled vehicle capable of roving over the outer surface of a nuclear reactor primary vessel carrying inspection instrumentation. The vehicle comprises an elongate bridge having a pair of suction support pads. Each pad carries gas thrusters for acting in opposition to the suction effort thereby to reduce adherence of the pads and enable displacement of the vehicle over the surface. The vehicle is supported by a services conducting umbilical. (author)

  18. The impact of vehicle appearance and vehicle behavior on pedestrian interaction with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Martens, M.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.M.B.

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle’s behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians’ decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  19. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  20. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  2. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  3. Multisensor simultaneous vehicle tracking and shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, J.; Appeldoorn, R.P.W.; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on vehicle automation applications that require both the estimation of kinematic and geometric information of surrounding vehicles, e.g., automated overtaking or merging. Rather then using one sensor that is able to estimate a vehicle's geometry from each sensor frame, e.g., a

  4. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1432 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.1432 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Vehicles and New Gasoline-Fueled Otto-Cycle Light-Duty...

  7. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed in...

  8. 40 CFR 51.356 - Vehicle coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle coverage. 51.356 Section 51.356....356 Vehicle coverage. The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and light duty trucks up to 8,500 pounds GVWR, and includes...

  9. Towards extended safety in connected vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Al-Fuqaha, A.; Ben Hamida, E.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current standards for vehicle safety consider only accidental failures; they do not consider failures caused by malicious attackers. The standards implicitly assume that the sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) of each vehicle compose a secure in-vehicle network because no external entity

  10. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  11. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  12. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  14. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed and...

  16. Virtual sensors for advanced vehicle stability control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Schouten, H.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced vehicle control technologies provide a great potential to further improve vehicle handling, ride and safety. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the added value of the TNO Vehicle State Estimation module to integrated active safety. State-of-the-art Electronic Stability Control

  17. Comparative economics of natural gas vehicles and other vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the U.S. due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and heath issues as well as operational issues. Adoption of natural gas as a standard transportation fuel will probably require market segmentation characterized by compressed natural gas utilization in light-duty vehicles and liquefied natural gas utilization in heavy-duty vehicles. The most significant barrier to natural gas utilization will continue to be the creation of a refueling infrastructure. As these problems are resolved, however, natural gas will emerge as the transportation fuel of the future

  18. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  19. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  20. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  1. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  2. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  3. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  4. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  5. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  6. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  7. The design of electric vehicle intelligent charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    As the situation of the lack of energy and environment pollution deteriorates rapidly, electric vehicle, a new type of traffic tool, is being researched worldwide. As the core components of electric vehicle, the battery and charger's performance play an important roles in the quality of electric vehicle. So the design of the Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger based on language-C is designed in this paper. The hardware system is used to produce the input signals of Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger. The software system adopts the language-C software as development environment. The design can accomplish the test of the parametric such as voltage-current and temperature.

  8. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  9. Energy regeneration from decelerating vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Chishty, Owais; Melis, Wim J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Up to now most car braking systems use hydraulic braking technology, which converts the excess of kinetic energy into heat, effectively resulting in an energy loss. Regenerative breaking technology supposedly deals with this problem by converting kinetic energy back into electrical energy that can then be reused for example during acceleration. Current hybrid vehicles are equipped with regenerative braking technology which makes them particularly interesting for situations with frequent decel...

  10. ROMO - The Robotic Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Brembeck, Jonathan; Ho, Lok Man; Schaub, Alexander; Satzger, Clemens; Tobolar, Jakub; Bals, Johann; Hirzinger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the ROboMObil, an innovative electro-mobility concept based on intelligent central control of four Wheel Robots, which integrate the drivetrain, brakes, steering and dampers. The motivation behind the Wheel Robot concept, the implementation details together with the suspension design are described. The electric power system, consisting of a Li-Ion battery cluster to provide high-voltage power for propulsion and a low-voltage supply for vehicle control, i...

  11. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  12. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  13. Urban planning for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Pieter J.; Ordoñez Medina, Sergio A.; Maheshwari, Tanvi; Wang, Biyu; Erath, Alexander; Cairns, Stephen; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2018-01-01

    In land-scarce Singapore, population growth and increasingly dense development are running up against limited remaining space for mobility infrastructure expansion. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) promise to relieve some of this pressure, through more efficient use of road space through platooning and intersection coordination, reducing the need for parking space, and reducing overall reliance on privately owned cars, realising Singapore’s vision of a “car-lite” future. In a collaborative resear...

  14. Overarching Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-31

    trailer. The PM, Transportation, provided existing LCCEs for the various systems in the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ( ACEIT ) format. The...Advanced Assault Amphibious Vehicle AAO Approved Acquisition Objective ACE Aviation Combat Element ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ALMC... ACEIT , SVLCCM, and CASA) using two different CESs, and estimated in three different constant budget dollar years (i.e., FY95, FY96, and FY01). A

  15. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  16. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  17. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.

  18. A prospective assessment of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a synthetic version of a cost-benefit analysis study of the development of electric vehicles (all-electric vehicles and hybrid-re-chargeable vehicles) by 2020. The authors have assessed the replacement of a conventional thermal engine vehicle by an electric vehicle. They comment the results obtained for the both types of electric vehicle. They outline that costs of ownership of electric vehicles are higher in 2010 but become competitive in 2020, and that environmental benefits are already present in 2010 but depend on the electricity production mode. They observe that some other environmental impacts are not taken into account, outline that a recharge station network has to be developed, and discuss the cost of this infrastructure

  19. Vehicle positioning based on UWB technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kang, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase of the number of urban cars, the vehicle internet is becoming a trend of smart transportion. In such vehicle network, accurate location is very crucial in many new applications such as autopilot, semi-autopilot and Car-to-x communications. UWB technology has been used for indoor closed range positioning and ranging widely, while UWB outdoor positioning and ranging research is relatively less. This paper proposed UWB as the vehicle positioning technology and developed a method based on two-way-ranging (TWR) to solve the ranging problem between vehicles. At the same time, the improved TOA method was used to locate vehicles, which has higher precision compared with traditional GPS or LBS. A hardware module is introduced and the simulation results show that the modules are capable of precise positioning for vehicles in vehicle network.

  20. An applications guide to vehicle SNM monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1987-03-01

    The applications guide introduces its readers to the vehicle special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that are becoming part of safeguards and security measures for nuclear material control at DOE facilities. Building on the foundation provided by an applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors published in 1986 and a technical report on vehicle monitoring published in 1982, the guide provides an overview of vehicle monitoring in Part 1, a discussion of technical aspects of vehicle monitoring in Part 2, and a catalog of vehicle SNM monitors available to DOE facilities in Part 3. Vehicle monitor upkeep, calibration, testing, and performance are important topics in Part 1. The short technical discussion in Part 2 is devoted to new developments and unique features of vehicle monitors

  1. Amphibious vehicles come of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2007-11-15

    This article highlighted the most popular amphibious vehicles used for oil patch applications. The Argo, designed and built by Ontario Drive and Gear Ltd. of New Hamburg, Ontario, was first introduced into the market in 1967. By 1994, it was commonly used by the oil patch when it was made more robust with a liquid-cooled engine. The all-season and all-terrain vehicle can carry up to 1,150 pounds and pull up to 1,800 pounds. More than 40,000 units have been sold for use in seismic, slashing, carrying in supplies for camps, pipeline and other facility maintenance. Its counterpart, the Centaur, has a bigger load capacity and more powerful liquid-cooled petrol or diesel engine that drives like a truck, with steering wheel and gas and brake pedals. It has certified rollover protection, can carry up to 1,500 pounds or pull 2,000 pounds and can travel at speeds of up to 28 miles per hour. The mammoth ARKTOS Craft was designed, engineered and built in British Columbia and can handle any terrain including thick mud, quicksand, muskeg, ice, water and snow. It is primarily used in the oil patch as an evacuation craft for offshore drilling in shallow waters. It has room for 52 passengers. With a 13-ton load capacity, the vehicle can manoeuvre through ice-water mixtures and can climb onto solid ice. Five units are being used as evacuation crafts on stand-by offshore drilling in shallow waters near Alaska, and 8 are being used for the same purpose for drilling beneath the Caspian Sea. It was also used in the Bohai Delta in China for a seismic survey. A modified craft is being developed for use in Fort McMurray's oil sand tailings ponds. This article also highlighted the prototype AmphibAlaska which has been under development for the past 25 years by an Alaskan entrepreneur. The utilitarian vehicle is being designed with a payload that can accommodate a crew of 5 and the gear needed for emergency response and fieldwork. It is designed to travel safely through hard ground

  2. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  3. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified electric vehicle. A qualified electric vehicle is a motor vehicle that meets the requirements of section 30(c). Accordingly, a qualified electric vehicle does not include any motor vehicle that has ever been used (for either personal or business use) as a non-electric vehicle. (b) Recapture of credit for...

  4. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  5. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event. PMID:23202231

  6. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Zhang Qiang; He Kebin; Yao Zhiliang; Wang Xintong; Zheng Bo; Streets, David G.; Wang Qidong; Ding Yan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  7. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  8. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  9. 2007 Canadian vehicle survey : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcha, A.; Norup, S.; Kormylo, A.

    2009-09-15

    The Canadian vehicle survey is a quarterly survey of vehicle transportation activities in Canada that began in 1999. This report presented the results of the Canadian vehicle survey for 2007. The purpose of the survey is to encourage Canadians to make energy-efficient choices regarding their driving habits. The study shed light on Canadian fuel consumption behaviour, modes of transportation and consumer trends. This report examined the composition of Canada's vehicle fleet, the main characteristics of this fleet, and the patterns of vehicle use. Some behavioural characteristics of Canadian drivers were also discussed. Specific topics that were presented included Canada's on-road vehicle fleet; geographic analysis; light vehicles; heavy vehicles such as medium and heavy trucks; and trip analysis such as road types used by vehicles, rush hour and fuel consumption, and driver's age and gender. It was concluded that vehicles in Canada consumed 31 billion litres of gasoline and 11 billion litres of diesel. In addition, fuel efficiency for heavy trucks increased 21 percent between 2000 and 2007. 15 tabs., 39 figs., 4 appendices.

  10. Social Internet of Vehicles for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital devices are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and interconnected. Their evolution to intelligent parts of a digital ecosystem creates novel applications with so far unresolved security issues. A particular example is a vehicle. As vehicles evolve from simple means of transportation to smart entities with new sensing and communication capabilities, they become active members of a smart city. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV consists of vehicles that communicate with each other and with public networks through V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle, V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure and V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian interactions, which enables both the collection and the real-time sharing of critical information about the condition on the road network. The Social Internet of Things (SIoT introduces social relationships among objects, creating a social network where the participants are not humans, but intelligent objects. In this article, we explore the concept of the Social Internet of Vehicles (SIoV, a network that enables social interactions both among vehicles and among drivers. We discuss technologies and components of the SIoV, possible applications and issues of security, privacy and trust that are likely to arise.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Operation and Launch of the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 Space Vehicles at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Florida, the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, or the Pacific Ocean near the Marshall Islands . Dragon Capsule Re-entry and Recovery The...California and a third location is in the equatorial Pacific near the Marshall Islands . The capsule would be directed along a pre-planned trajectory to...Water Separator PAE Potentially Adverse Effect PAFB Patrick Air Force Base PAH Poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Pb lead PCB Poly

  15. Hybrid Aerial/Rover Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A proposed instrumented robotic vehicle called an "aerover" would fly, roll along the ground, and/or float on bodies of liquid, as needed. The aerover would combine features of an aerobot (a robotic lighter-than-air balloon) and a wheeled robot of the "rover" class. An aerover would also look very much like a variant of the "beach-ball" rovers. Although the aerover was conceived for use in scientific exploration of Titan (the largest moon of the planet Saturn), the aerover concept could readily be adapted to similar uses on Earth.

  16. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  17. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  18. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  19. Vehicles Vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Christlieb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present text attempts to do a description as well as a reflection of the cities from the point of departure of its means of transport and the urban being who uses them. In other words, it tries to show the city as a tissue made of vehicles.El presente texto pretende hacer una descripción y una reflexión de la ciudad a partir de sus medios de transporte y del ser urbano que los utiliza. Intenta mostrar a la ciudad como un tejido o un entramado de vehículos en movimiento.

  20. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  1. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  2. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  3. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  4. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  5. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  6. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  7. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  8. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  9. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  10. Eco-Test at Vehicle Testing Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the world conference on sustainable developmentof ecology, the care for the environment has to be strictlycomplied with, and this should be the task both of every individualand of the society as an organised whole. The work presentsconcrete measurements from practice and the indicators of thesituation regarding motor vehicles in Croatia. The EGO-TESThas been performed in Croatia according to the European Uniondirectives; first on the vehicles with petrol engines. Now, it isstarting to be applied on the vehicles with Diesel engines as well.Compliance with the EGO TEST regarding motor vehicles inCroatia will take into consideration the guidelines provided bythe European Union and thus reduce the harm from exhaustgases and noise pollution, and increase the possibility of usingmotor vehicles in order to reduce the danger and increase thesafety on the roads by excluding old vehicles from traffic.

  11. [Design and application of portable rescue vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Qi, Huaying; Wang, Shen

    2017-12-01

    The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle. The portable rescue vehicle facilitates the operation of medical staff, and is worthy of clinical application.

  12. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  13. Vehicle for surface decontamination by electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, A.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a remote controlled, electric powered vehicle for continuous decontamination of several supports forming an angle for instance the bottom and the walls of nuclear swimming pools. The vehicle is provided with all the means required for electropolishing (electrolyte, pumps, effluent recovery etc...) and two electropolishing units, one under the vehicle for horizontal surface treatment the other adjustable in height on a bracket for vertical surface treatment [fr

  14. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  15. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  16. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  17. Societal megatrends and trends in vehicle technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Duysinx, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The confrence enviions the future trends in automotive technologies at the light of societal megatrends. Different emerging technologies for the vehicle powertrain are envisionned for the next decade: piston engines with natural gas, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells systems. In addition one must also consider the arrival of autonomous driving and of the race for lightweight design of cars.

  18. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  19. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  20. Obstacle detection system for underground mining vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P.; Polotski, V.; Piotte, M.; Melamed, F. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    A device for detecting obstacles by autonomous vehicles navigating in mine drifts is described. The device is based upon structured lighting and the extraction of relevant features from images of obstacles. The system uses image profile changes, ground and wall irregularities, disturbances of the vehicle`s trajectory, and impaired visibility to detect obstacles, rather than explicit three-dimensional scene reconstruction. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  2. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  3. Control of Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Supercavitating Vehicles using Transverse Jets Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0747 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ayers, Bradley...ANSI Std. Z39.18 CONTROL OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES USING TRANSVERSE JETS Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract N00014-13-1...fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle model using the thrust of the zero-net-mass-flux device. The experiments were conducted in NUWC Newport’ s

  4. Investigation of the Vehicle Mobility in Fording

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-29

    Conference on Multibody System Dynamics May 29 – June 2, 2016, Montréal, Canada Investigation of the Vehicle Mobility in Fording Arman Pazouki1...strategy outlined has been implemented in Chrono as a dedicated add-on called Chrono::FSI [3]. Figure 1 shows a vehicle model used in a fording simulation...rigid objects. Chrono::FSI has been used for vehicle mobility in fording operations as shown in Figure 2. The computational time per simulation time

  5. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  6. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  7. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  8. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  9. The 2005 Canadian vehicle survey : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallieres, S.

    2007-05-15

    This Canadian vehicle survey report provided an energy balance sheet for Canada as well as data on the production, trade, conversion rate and energy consumption of vehicle fleets per sector. Fuel consumption estimates were estimated based on fuel purchases and on-road vehicle use. The report highlighted the energy consumption of Canada's on-road vehicle fleet and examined the fleet composition characteristics. The data were compiled to enable government agencies to develop programs that help Canadians make energy efficient choices. Estimates were based on 2005 data from the Canadian Vehicle Survey (CVS). On-road vehicles consumed an estimated 29.5 billion litres of gasoline and 10 billion litres of diesel. Fuel consumption rates for light vehicles were 10.6 litres per 100 km. Rates for medium trucks were 10.6 litres per 100 km. The results of a quarterly analysis demonstrated that fuel efficiency improved during the warmest months of the year. Major increases in gasoline prices coincided with changes in driving habits. It was also noted that the number of light trucks has increased since 2000. Estimates also demonstrated that vehicles are more fuel efficient during long-distance trips, and that the age of drivers does not affect the fuel efficiency of gas-powered vehicles. 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  11. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  12. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  13. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Abhinandan; Kuo Calvin; Jayakumar Paramsothy; Cameron Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with ...

  14. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  15. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  16. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  17. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  18. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  19. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  20. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)