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Sample records for super-heavy element production

  1. Rotating target wheel system for super-heavy element production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Falout, J; Janssens, R V F

    2004-01-01

    A new scattering chamber housing a large diameter rotating target wheel has been designed and constructed in front of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) for the production of very heavy nuclei (Z greater than 100) using beams from the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS). In addition to the target and drive system, the chamber is extensively instrumented in order to monitor target performance and deterioration. Capabilities also exist to install rotating entrance and exit windows for gas cooling of the target within the scattering chamber. The design and initial tests are described.

  2. Survival and compound nucleus probability of super heavy element Z = 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)

    2017-05-15

    As a part of a systematic study for predicting the most suitable projectile-target combinations for heavy-ion fusion experiments in the synthesis of {sup 289-297}Ts, we have calculated the transmission probability (T{sub l}), compound nucleus formation probabilities (P{sub CN}) and survival probability (P{sub sur}) of possible projectile-target combinations. We have also studied the fusion cross section, survival cross section and fission cross sections for different projectile-target combination of {sup 289-297}Ts. These theoretical parameters are required before the synthesis of the super heavy element. The calculated probabilities and cross sections show that the production of isotopes of the super heavy element with Z = 117 is strongly dependent on the reaction systems. The most probable reactions to synthetize the super heavy nuclei {sup 289-297}Ts are worked out and listed explicitly. We have also studied the variation of P{sub CN} and P{sub sur} with the mass number of projectile and target nuclei. This work is useful in the synthesis of the super heavy element Z = 117. (orig.)

  3. Alpha radioactivity in heavy and super heavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com; Sahadevan, Sabina; Biju, R.K. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The alpha decay half lives and other characteristics of 190 even-even super heavy elements in the range 100{<=}Z{<=}120 has been determined within the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model (CPPM). The computed Q values and log{sub 10}(T{sub 1/2}) values plotted against neutron number of parent nuclei were studied and it was found that neutron shell closures in the super heavy region occur at N=162 and N=184. The alpha decay half lives for parent nuclei with atomic number Z=106 onwards were compared with experimental data and are found to be in good agreement with each other. A semi-empirical formula for alpha decay half lives has been formulated by making least squares fit to the available experimental data. The new semi-empirical formula was used for calculating half lives of isotopes of nuclei in the chosen range 100{<=}Z{<=}120. These results when compared with the corresponding experimental half life values and the values calculated using GLDM and Viola-Seaborg systematics showed good agreement.

  4. A novel approach to the island of stability of super-heavy elements search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieloch A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that the cross section for super-heavy nuclei production of Z > 118 is dropping into the region of tens of femto barns. This creates a serious limitation for the complete fusion technique that is used so far. Moreover, the available combinations of the neutron to proton ratio of stable projectiles and targets are quite limited and it can be difficult to reach the island of stability of super heavy elements using complete fusion reactions with stable projectiles. In this context, a new experimental investigation of mechanisms other than complete fusion of heavy nuclei and a novel experimental technique are invented for our search of super- and hyper-nuclei. This contribution is focused on that technique.

  5. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H.G.; Dahl, L.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Runke, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schoett, H.J.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Muenzenberg, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hamilton, J.H. [Vanderbuilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Morita, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Roberto, J.B.; Rykaczewski, K.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    The reaction {sup 54}Cr + {sup 248}Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Recent Super Heavy Element Experiments at GSI-SHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, M.; Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Comas, V. F.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Henderson, R.; Heredia, J. A.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kenneally, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kratz, J. V.; Lang, R.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.; Moody, K.; Munzenberg, G.

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of element 116 (Lv) in fusion-evaporation reactions of a 48Ca beam with 248Cm targets was studied at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI in Darmstadt. At excitation energies of the compound nuclei of 40.9 MeV, four decay chains were measured, which were assigned to the isotope 292Lv, and one chain, which was assigned to 293Lv. Measured cross-sections of (3.4 + 2.7 -1.6) pb and (0.9 + 2.1 -0.7) pb, respectively, and decay data of the chains agree with data measured previously at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna. We measured the velocity spectra of the 116 isotopes and transfer products which reveal the reaction type underlying the synthesis of the nuclei. The experience gained in this experiment will serve as a basis for future experiments to study still heavier elements at the velocity filter SHIP. Searches for element 120 in fusion-evaporation reactions of a 54Cr beam with 248Cm targets were studied later at SHIP and progress in the analysis will be discussed. The synthesis of element 116 (Lv) in fusion-evaporation reactions of a 48Ca beam with 248Cm targets was studied at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI in Darmstadt. At excitation energies of the compound nuclei of 40.9 MeV, four decay chains were measured, which were assigned to the isotope 292Lv, and one chain, which was assigned to 293Lv. Measured cross-sections of (3.4 + 2.7 -1.6) pb and (0.9 + 2.1 -0.7) pb, respectively, and decay data of the chains agree with data measured previously at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna. We measured the velocity spectra of the 116 isotopes and transfer products which reveal the reaction type underlying the synthesis of the nuclei. The experience gained in this experiment will serve as a basis for future experiments to study still heavier elements at the velocity filter SHIP. Searches for element 120 in fusion-evaporation reactions of a 54Cr beam with 248Cm targets were studied later at SHIP and progress in the analysis will be

  7. Towards Identification of Super Heavy Elements by Means of Mass Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, Peter; Ito, Yuta; Wada, Michiharu; Arai, Fumiya; Kaji, Daiya; Morimoto, Kouji; Morita, Kosuke; Sonoda, Tetsu; Katayama, Ichirou

    2014-09-01

    The present standard technique for determining the identity of Super Heavy Elements is by alpha-decay spectroscopy, wherein chains of alpha-decays to well-known species provide unique fingerprints to identify the parent nucleus. However, as advances in production capabilities bring us closer to the much-anticipated ``island of stability,'' decay spectroscopy will become less tenable. It is already seen that the heaviest elements, those above Z = 113, decay chains all terminate in spontaneous fission before reaching well-known nuclei. As the island of stability is more closely approached, alpha-decay will be replaced by beta-decay and spontaneous fission while half-lives become exceedingly long. To work towards overcoming the looming limitations in identification via decay spectroscopy, we have installed a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph coupled to the GARIS-II separator at RIKEN. The device has been proven to be highly efficient and capable of accurate high-precision mass measurements. In initial studies we will aim to make precision mass measurements of trans-uranium elements up through Lr to validate the device. We will describe the progress of this project and describe the long-range strategy.

  8. Elements Discrimination in the Study of Super-Heavy Elements using an Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Wieloch, A; Péter, J; Lojek, K; Alamanos, N; Amar, N; Anne, R; Angélique, J C; Auger, G; Dayras, R; Drouart, A; Fontbonne, J M; Gillibert, A; Grévy, S; Hanappe, F; Hannachi, F; Hue, R; Khouaja, A; Legou, T; López-Martens, A; Liénard, E; Manduci, L; De Oliveira-Santos, F; Politi, G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Stodel, C; Stuttgé, L; Tillier, J; De Tourreil, R; Villari, A C C; Wieleczko, J P

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated ionization chamber was built and installed to measure the energy loss of very heavy nuclei at 2.7 MeV/u produced in fusion reactions in inverse kinematics (beam of 208Pb). After going through the ionization chamber, products of reactions on 12C, 18O targets are implanted in a Si detector. Their identification through their alpha decay chain is ambiguous when their half-life is short. After calibration with Pb and Th nuclei, the ionization chamber signal allowed us to resolve these ambiguities. In the search for rare super-heavy nuclei produced in fusion reactions in inverse or symmetric kinematics, such a chamber will provide direct information on the nuclear charge of each implanted nucleus.

  9. Status of the low-energy super-heavy element facility at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schury, P., E-mail: schury@riken.jp [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wada, M.; Ito, Y. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Arai, F. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Kaji, D. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Kimura, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Morimoto, K.; Haba, H. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Jeong, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koura, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyatake, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morita, K.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Wollnik, H. [Dept. Chemistry and BioChemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate nuclei produced via fusion–evaporation reactions, especially super-heavy elements (SHE), we have begun construction of a facility for conversion of fusion–evaporation residues (EVR) to low-energy beams. At the base of this facility is a small cryogenic gas cell utilizing a traveling wave RF-carpet, located directly following the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, which will thermalize EVRs to convert them into ion beams amenable to ion trapping. We present here the results of initial studies of this small gas cell.

  10. Deformed Potential Energy of Super Heavy Element Z = 120 in a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bao-Qiu; MA Zhong-Yu; ZHU Zhi-Yuan; SONG Hong-Qiu; ZHAO Yao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy elements Z = 120 is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). The shell correction is calculated with the Strutinsky method and the microscopic single particle energies are derived from the shell model in an axially deformed Woods-Saxon potential with the same quasi-molecular shape. The total potential energy of a nucleus is calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is adopted to describe the deformed potential energies in a set of cold reactions. The neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible to the deep valley of the fusion barrier due to shell corrections. In the cold fusion path, the doublehump fusion barrier is predicted by the shell correction and complete fusion events may occur. The results show that some of projectile-target combinations in the entrance channel, such as 50Ca+252Fm→ 302120* and 58Fe+244pu→ 302120*, favour the fusion reaction, which can be considered as candidates for the synthesis of super heavy nuclei Z = 120 and the former might be the best cold fusion reaction to produce the nucleus 302120among them.

  11. Exploration of (super-)heavy elements using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Jochen

    2011-01-31

    Motivated by the steadily increasing number of known nuclei and nuclear properties, theories of nuclear structure are presently a field of intense research. This work concentrates on the self-consistent description of nuclei in terms of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach. The extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of super-heavy elements (SHE) using the SHF model, the dependence on different parameterization and the influence of collective correlation will be studied. The general scope of this work are large scale calculation for a global survey of properties of SHE like binding energies, separation energies and decay characteristics and lifetimes. These calculations were done in a collaboration with the theory group of the GSI in Darmstadt and have the aim to develop a database of lifetimes and reaction rates for {alpha}, {beta}-decay and spontaneous fission in a very wide range with proton numbers 86 {<=} Z {<=} 120 and neutron numbers up to N {approx} 260 relevant for the astrophysical r-process. The results of this study for example predictions of a possible islands of very stable nuclei and information of favored decay mode for each nuclei are also applicable in the recent experimental synthesis of exotic SHE. For these calculation a framework to calculate {beta}-decay half-lives within the SHF model has been developed and the existing axial SHF code has been extended to compute {beta}-transition matrix elements and so to provide an estimation of half-lives. (orig.)

  12. Fusion Barrier of Super-heavy Elements in a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBao-Qiu; MAZhong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energies for super-heavy elements Z = 110,112,114,116,118 arc determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi-molecular mechanism is introduced to describe the deformation of a nucleus in the GLDM and the shell model simultaneously. The macroscopic energy of a twocenter nuclear system in the GLDM includes the volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, the proximity effect at each mass asymmetry, and accurate nuclear radius. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method and the microscopic single particle energies are derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods-Saxon potential with the quasi-molecular shape. The total potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the fusion barriers of the cold reactions 64Ni + 208 spb → 272 110*, 70Zn + 208pb → 278 112*, 76Ge + 208seb → 284 114*,82Se + 208pb → 29 116*, 86Kr + 208pb → 294 118*. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for the deep valley of the fusion barrier. In the cold fusion path, double-hump fusion barriers could be predicted by the shell corrections and complete fusion events may occur.

  13. Fusion Barrier of Super-heavy Elements in a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bao-Qiu; MA Zhong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energies for super-heavy elements Z = 110,112,114,116,118 are determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi-molecular mechanism is introduced to describe the deformation of a nucleus in the GLDM and the shell model simultaneously. The macroscopic energy of a twocenter nuclear system in the GLDM includes the volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, the proximity effect at each mass asymmetry, and accurate nuclear radius. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method and the microscopic single particle energies are derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods-Saxon potential with the quasi-molecular shape. The total potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the fusion barriers of the cold reactions 64Ni + 208Pb → 272110*, 70Zn + 208Pb → 278112*, 76Ge + 208pb → 284114*,82Se + 208Pb → 290116*, 86Kr + 208Pb → 294118*. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for the deep valley of the fusion barrier. In the cold fusion path, double-hump fusion barriers could be predicted by the shell corrections and complete fusion events may occur.

  14. The research and practice of boosting oil production by duplicated horizontal wells in thick super heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiwu, Li; Yang Jing, Wangping; Ping, Yuan [Exploration and Development Research Institute of Liaohe Oilfield Company, PetroChina, P.R.China , 124010 (China)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the extraction of heavy oil and super heavy oil from reservoirs is difficult and production decline and sand production are some of the numerous challenges it faces. The aim of this paper is to show how secondary development can address these issues. A preliminary study was conducted and then a plan of secondary development was applied to M6 Block which is a massive extra-ultra heavy oil reservoir. The plan included 154 wells with 30 new horizontal wells. Results proved SAGD to be a good technique for high oil recovery results with improved production from M6 Block. After the implementation of the secondary development, oil recovery improved by 36.3%. This technique also solved the sand production problem. This study showed that secondary development can be a solution to obtain a better performance from heavy oil reservoirs and provides guidance to other similar reservoir.

  15. Estimating Super Heavy Element Event Random Probabilities Using Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Mark; Henderson, Roger; Kenneally, Jacqueline; Moody, Kenton; Nelson, Sarah; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Wilk, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Because superheavy element (SHE) experiments involve very low event rates and low statistics, estimating the probability that a given event sequence is due to random events is extremely important in judging the validity of the data. A Monte Carlo method developed at LLNL [1] is used on recent SHE experimental data to calculate random event probabilities. Current SHE experimental activities in collaboration with scientists at Dubna, Russia will be discussed. [4pt] [1] N.J. Stoyer, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 455 (2000) 433.

  16. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Theisen, C

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei.

  17. Fission of super-heavy nuclei explored with Skyrme forces

    CERN Document Server

    Schindzielorz, N; Klüpfel, P; Reinhard, P -G; Hager, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a large scale survey of life-times for spontaneous fission in the regime of super-heavy elements (SHE), i.e. nuclei with Z=104-122. This is done on the basis of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model. The axially symmetric fission path is computed using a quadrupole constraint. Self-consistent cranking is used for the collective masses and associated quantum corrections. The actual tunneling probability is estimated by the WKB approximation. Three typical Skyrme forces are used to explore the sensitivity of the results. Benchmarks in the regime Z=104-108 show an acceptable agreement. The general systematics reflects nicely the islands of shell stabilization and the crossover from $\\alpha$-decay to fission for the decay chains from the region of Z/N=118/176.

  18. Remarks on the fission barriers of super-heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Muenzenberg, G.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Runke, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Antalic, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hamilton, J.H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Morita, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Roberto, J.B.; Rykaczewski, K.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Shell-correction energies of super-heavy nuclei are approximated by using Q{sub α} values of measured decay chains. Five decay chains were analyzed, which start at the isotopes {sup 285}Fl, {sup 294}118, {sup 291}Lv, {sup 292}Lv and {sup 293}Lv. The data are compared with predictions of macroscopic-microscopic models. Fission barriers are estimated that can be used to eliminate uncertainties in partial fission half-lives and in calculations of evaporation-residue cross-sections. In that calculations, fission probability of the compound nucleus is a major factor contributing to the total cross-section. The data also provide constraints on the cross-sections of capture and quasi-fission in the entrance channel of the fusion reaction. Arguments are presented that fusion reactions for synthesis of isotopes of elements 118 and 120 may have higher cross-sections than assumed so far. (orig.)

  19. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, Ch

    2003-01-01

    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  20. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation patterns of heavy and super-heavy rainfall in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Iman; Doostkamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Esmaeil; Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza; Yarahmadi, Parvane

    2017-09-01

    Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord G i statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.

  1. Super-heavy dark matter – Towards predictive scenarios from inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannike, Kristjan [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.racioppi@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-05-15

    A generic prediction of the Coleman–Weinberg inflation is the existence of a heavy particle sector whose interactions with the inflaton, the lightest state in this sector, generate the inflaton potential at loop level. For typical interactions the heavy sector may contain stable states whose relic abundance is generated at the end of inflation by the gravity alone. This general feature, and the absence of any particle physics signal of dark matter so far, motivates us to look for new directions in the dark sector physics, including scenarios in which dark matter is super-heavy. In this article we study the possibility that the dark matter is even heavier than the inflaton, its existence follows from the inflaton dynamics, and its abundance today is naturally determined by the weakness of gravitational interaction. This implies that the super-heavy dark matter scenarios can be tested via the measurements of inflationary parameters and/or the CMB isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities. We explicitly work out details of three Coleman–Weinberg inflation scenarios, study the systematics of super-heavy dark matter production in those cases, and compute which parts of the parameter spaces can be probed by the future CMB measurements.

  2. Study of Survival Probability of Super Heavy Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGNan; ZHAOEn-Guang; LIWen-Fei; LIJian-Feng; XUHu-Shan; ZUOWei; LIJun-Qing

    2003-01-01

    The survival probability of super heavy nuclei produced in cold fusion reactions is studied by using the standard Fermi gas level density formula and analyzed with fission and neutron evaporation characteristics predicted in different theoretical models. The level density formula used in this letter suppresses the ratio of neutron emission width to fission width, Гn/Гf. The dependence of Гn/Гf on the saddle point level density parameter and excitation energy is also investigated.

  3. Correlations between neutrons and protons near Fermi surface and $Q_{\\alpha}$ of super-heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Xizhen; Meng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The shell corrections and shell gaps in nuclei are systematically studied with the latest Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS4) mass model. We find that most of asymmetric nuclei with (sub)-shell closures locate along the shell stability line (SSL), $N=1.37Z+13.5$, which might be due to a strong correlation between neutrons and protons near Fermi surface. The double magicity of nuclei $^{46}$Si and $^{78}$Ni is predicted according to the corresponding shell gaps, shell corrections and nuclear deformations. The unmeasured super-heavy nuclei $^{296}$118 and $^{298}$120, with relatively large shell gaps and shell corrections, also locate along the SSL, whereas the traditional magic nucleus $^{298}$Fl evidently deviates from the line. The $\\alpha$-decay energies of super-heavy nuclei with $Z=113-126$ are simultaneously investigated by using the WS4 model together with the radial basis function corrections. For super-heavy nuclei with large shell corrections, the smallest $\\alpha$-decay energy for elements $Z=116$, 117 and 11...

  4. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays & Super-heavy Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We reanalyse the prospects for upcoming Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray experiments in connection with the phenomenology of Super-heavy Dark Matter. We identify a set of observables well suited to reveal a possible anisotropy in the High Energy Cosmic Ray flux induced by the decays of these particles, and quantify their performance via Monte Carlo simulations that mimic the outcome of near-future and next-generation experiments. The spherical and circular dipoles are able to tell isotropic and anisotropic fluxes apart at a confidence level as large as $4\\sigma$ or $5\\sigma$, depending on the Dark Matter profile. The forward-to-backward flux ratio yields a comparable result for relatively large opening angles of about 40~deg, but it is less performing once a very large number of events is considered. We also find that an actual experiment employing these observables and collecting 300~events at 60~EeV would have a $50\\%$ chance of excluding isotropy against Super-heavy Dark Matter at a significance of at least $3...

  5. Super-Heavy Dark Matter - Towards Predictive Scenarios from Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2016-01-01

    A generic prediction of the Coleman-Weinberg inflation is the existence of a heavy particle sector whose interactions with the inflaton, the lightest state in this sector, generate the inflaton potential at loop level. For typical interactions the heavy sector may contain stable states whose relic abundance is generated at the end of inflation by the gravity alone. This general feature, and the absence of any particle physics signal of dark matter so far, call for a paradigm shift in the dark sector physics. Accordingly, the dark matter is heavier than the inflaton, its existence follows from the inflaton dynamics, and its abundance today is naturally determined by the weakness of gravitational interaction. This implies that the super-heavy dark matter scenarios can be tested via the measurements of inflationary parameters and/or the CMB isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities. We explicitly work out details of three Coleman-Weinberg inflation scenarios, study the systematics of super-heavy dark matt...

  6. High Spin Isomers and Super Heavy Elements (SHE) Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Domitian G.

    2010-04-01

    To get closer to the SHE-Island the new radioactive beams are proposed for future fusion reaction. We suggest something different : to use the advantage of High Spin Isomer States, by tacking into account the importance of the G (spin-isospin cupling) suggested by Ripka 1.

  7. Collisions of Rare Earth Nuclei - a New Reaction Route for Synthesis of Super Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, R K

    2012-01-01

    Theories have predicted an island of stability in the super heavy mass region with half lives ranging from a few seconds to a few thousands of years. Extensive efforts are being made experimentally to reach these nuclei in the region of Z = 110 and above with suitable combinations of proton and neutron numbers. However, the cross sections for production of these nuclei are seen to be in the range of a few pico barns or less, and pose great experimental challenges. We show in the present note that great advantages can be obtained by carrying out heavy ion reactions with suitable combinations of projectile and target nuclei in the rare earth region, that will lead to compound systems with very small excitation energy, and with better neutron/proton ratio for larger stability.

  8. Investigation on radiation shielding parameters of ordinary, heavy and super heavy concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishwaanath P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shielding of a reactor is required for protection of people and environment during normal operation and accidental situations. In the present paper we investigated the shielding parameters viz. mass attenuation coefficients, linear attenuation coefficients, tenth-value layer, effective atomic numbers, kerma relative to air and exposure buildup factors for gamma-ray for ordinary, heavy, and super heavy concretes. Macroscopic effective removal cross-sections for fast neutron had also been calculated. Ordinary concrete is economically suitable for mixture high energy gamma-ray and neutron as it has large weight fraction of low-Z as compared with super heavy concretes to slow down the neutron. Super heavy concretes are superior shielding for both reactor operation and accident situations. The study is useful for optimizing for shielding design and radiation protection in the reactors.

  9. Probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of super heavy nucleus $^{286}$112

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2014-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for the reactions of all the projectile-target combinations found in the cold valleys of $^{286}$112 have been studied using scattering potential as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential, so as to predict the most probable projectile-target combinations in heavy ion fusion reactions for the synthesis of super heavy nucleus $^{286}$112. While considering the nature of potential pockets and half lives of the colliding nuclei, the systems $^{82}$Ge + $^{204}$Hg, $^{80}$Ge + $^{206}$Hg and $^{78}$Zn + $^{208}$Pb found in the deep cold valley region and the systems $^{48}$Ca+$^{238}$U, $^{38}$S+$^{248}$Cm and $^{44}$Ar+$^{242}$Pu in the cold valleys are predicted to be the better optimal projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of super heavy nucleus $^{286}$112.

  10. Probable Projectile-Target Combinations for the Synthesis of Super Heavy Nucleus 286112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Santhosh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The fusion cross sections for the reactions of all the projectile-target combinations found in the cold valleys of 286112 have been studied using scattering potential as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential, so as to predict the most probable projectile-target combinations in heavy ion fusion reactions for the synthesis of super heavy nucleus 286112. While considering the nature of potential pockets and half lives of the colliding nuclei, the systems 82Ge + 204Hg, 80Ge + 206Hg and 78Zn + 208Pb found in the deep cold valley region and the systems 48Ca+238U, 38S+248Cm and 44Ar+242Pu in the cold valleys are predicted to be the better optimal projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of super heavy nucleus 286112.

  11. The Super Heavy Oil with Light Oil Viscosity Reduction%超稠油掺稀降黏实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志强; 刘德俊; 关丽; 魏思达; 丁晋晋

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous demand of energy,more and more light crude oil was consumed while conventional crude oil production decreased year by year.Therefore,heavy oil as the effective supplement of conventional crude oil was gradually concerned by people.And how to efficiently and economically transport super heavy oil attracted people's attention.A light oil-blending and transportation process for super-heavy oil used by an oil field were characterized.By using a RS300 viscometer and other instruments, the diesel-super heavy blend for the viscosity-temperature and rheological properties, solidifying temperature and stability were studied.The results show that the volume fraction of diesel up to 25%,diesel fuel blended with super heavy oil freezing point was low.And the blend had good fluidity,stability,as well as the process had good economical efficiency.When the volume fraction of diesel oil was further increased,the freezing point was not changed.%随着全球对能源需求的不断增加,轻质原油的消耗量日益增多,而常规原油的产量逐年减少,因此稠油作为常规原油有效的补充资源逐渐受到人们的关注,如何高效、经济地输送超稠油也引起了人们的重视.利用RS300 旋转流变仪及凝点温度计,对某油田掺柴后的超稠油进行了黏温特性、流变特性、凝点及稳定性实验.实验结果表明,柴油的体积分数达到 25%时,掺柴油的超稠油凝点较低,具有较好的流动性,且具有较好的稳定性.当进一步增加柴油的体积分数时,其凝点未发生变化.

  12. Extensions of Natural Radioactivity to 4th-Type and of the Periodic Table to Super-heavy Nuclei: Contribution of Raj K Gupta to Cold Nuclear Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BirBikram Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied here the contribution of Indian Scientists associated with Prof. Raj K. Gupta to cold nuclear phenomena during the last almost four decades, which led to the discovery of fourth kind of natural radioactivity (also known as Cluster Radioactivity, CR and to the extension of periodic table to super heavy nuclei. It is exclusively pointed out how the Quantum Mechanical Fragmentation Theory (QMFT advanced by Prof. Raj K. Gupta and Collaborators led to the discovery of unique phenomenon of CR along with the predictions leading to the synthesis of super heavy elements. We have also mentioned the development of dynamical theories based on QMFT, the Preformed Cluster Model(PCM and the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM, to study the ground and excited state decays of nuclei, respectively, by Gupta and Collaborators. It is matter of great honor and pride for us to bring out this study to enthuse the young researchers to come up with novel ideas and have inspiration from the scientific contributions of Prof. Raj K. Gupta who is coincidentally celebrating his platinum jubilee birthday anniversary this year.

  13. Long lifetime components in the decay of excited super-heavy nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morjean M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For nuclear reactions in which super-heavy nuclei can be formed, the essential difference between the fusion process followed by fission and non-equilibrium processes leading to fission-like fragments is there action time. Quite probable non-equilibrium processes, characterized by very short reaction times, are highlighted thanks to mass-angle correlations. However, long lifetime components associated with fission following fusion have been observed with two independent experimental techniques, providing evidence for the formation of compound nuclei with Z = 120 and 124, followed by mass asymmetric fission.

  14. Ionization history of the Universe as a test for Super Heavy Dark Matter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possible distortions of the ionization history of the universe caused by an injection of non-thermal energy due to decays of hypothetical Super Heavy Dark Matter (SHDM) particles. These particles are usually considered as a possible source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) in the framework of the Top-Down model. Estimates of fraction of energy of decays converted to the UV range show that, for suitable parameters of SHDM particles, the significant distortions of power spectra of CMB anisotropy appear. Comparison with the observed power spectrum allows to restrict some properties of the SHDM particles. These decays can also increase of about 5 -- 10 times the degree of ionization of hydrogen at redshifts $z\\sim$ 10 -- 50 that essentially accelerates the formation of molecules $H_2$ and first stars during "dark ages".

  15. Fission half-lives of super-heavy nuclei in a microscopic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of 160 heavy and super-heavy nuclei is performed in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the finite range and density dependent Gogny force with the D1S parameter set. We show calculations in several approximations: with axially symmetric and reflexion symmetric wave functions, with axially symmetric and non-reflexion symmetric wave functions and finally some representative examples with triaxial wave functions are also discussed. Relevant properties of the ground state and along the fission path are thoroughly analyzed. Fission barriers, Q$_\\alpha$-factors and lifetimes with respect to fission and $\\alpha$-decay as well as other observables are discussed. Larger configuration spaces and more general HFB wave functions as compared to previous studies provide a very good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Exploring the stability of super heavy elements: First Measurement of the Fission Barrier of 254No

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-ray multiplicity and total energy emitted by the heavy nucleus 254No have been measured at 2 different beam energies. From these measurements, the initial distributions of spin I and excitation energy E∗ of 254No were constructed. The distributions display a saturation in excitation energy, which allows a direct determination of the fission barrier. 254No is the heaviest shell-stabilized nucleus with a measured fission barrier.

  17. Super-heavy electron material as metallic refrigerant for adiabatic demagnetization cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Piening, Boy; Jeevan, Hirale S; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Canfield, Paul C; Gegenwart, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature refrigeration is of crucial importance in fundamental research of condensed matter physics, because the investigations of fascinating quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, superfluidity, and quantum criticality, often require refrigeration down to very low temperatures. Currently, cryogenic refrigerators with (3)He gas are widely used for cooling below 1 K. However, usage of the gas has been increasingly difficult because of the current worldwide shortage. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative methods of refrigeration. We show that a new type of refrigerant, the super-heavy electron metal YbCo2Zn20, can be used for adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, which does not require (3)He gas. This method has a number of advantages, including much better metallic thermal conductivity compared to the conventional insulating refrigerants. We also demonstrate that the cooling performance is optimized in Yb1-x Sc x Co2Zn20 by partial Sc substitution, with x ~ 0.19. The substitution induces chemical pressure that drives the materials to a zero-field quantum critical point. This leads to an additional enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in low fields and low temperatures, enabling final temperatures well below 100 mK. This performance has, up to now, been restricted to insulators. For nearly a century, the same principle of using local magnetic moments has been applied for adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This study opens new possibilities of using itinerant magnetic moments for cryogen-free refrigeration.

  18. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  19. 超稠油高温调剖封窜技术%High Temperature Profile Control and Channel Blocking Sealing Technology for Super Heavy Oil Researviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建玉

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic steam stimulation is a recovery method of super heavy oil in Liaohe oilfield. The porosity of Du84 block of Xinglongtai oilfield in super heavy oil reservoir is generally 25% to 30%, air permeability is generally higher than 1306 × 10-3 μm2. Because of its high porosity and high permeability, steam channeling easily occurs to cause that heat energy of the injected steam can not be fully utilized, which can reduce production effect of the steam injection well. Water cut in adjacent well after the steam channeling increases, temperature rises, which can affect the production or cause to shut in well. Steam channeling aggravates casing deformation or damage. The high temperature resistant plugging agent can effectively block high permeability layer, adjust the steam absorption difference between low permeability layer and high permeability layer, change the flow direction of injected steam, which can alleviate the steam channeling, eliminate interference among wells, expand the injected steam swept volume, improve cycle oil production.%蒸汽吞吐开采是辽河油田超稠油主要开采方式.曙光油田杜84块兴隆台超稠油油藏孔隙度一般为25%~30%,空气渗透率一般高于1306×10-3 μm2,具有高孔隙度,高渗透率的特点,极易发生汽窜,导致注入蒸汽热能不能充分利用,直接降低了注汽井生产效果,使油藏动用不均的矛盾加剧.邻井受窜后含水升高液量突升,温度升高,影响其生产效果或关井防喷.汽窜加剧油层套管变形或损坏.研制的耐高温堵剂有效封堵高渗透层,调整地层高低渗透层带间的吸汽差异,改变注入蒸汽的走向,达到缓解汽窜、消除井间干扰、扩大注入蒸汽波及体积、提高周期采油量的目的.

  20. Technical Research on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery of Thin Shallow Bed Super Heavy Oil High Water-Cut Wells%薄浅层超稠油高含水井微生物采油技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at poor steam stimulation effect of high water-cut super heavy oil wells near edge water in west edge of Chunfeng Oilfield in Junggar Basin, the article researches microbial single well stimulation oil recovery technology. Microorganisms and oil-water interact with each other, have apparent effect upon crude oil viscosity reduction. Field Test of microbial single well stimulation at Pai6-Ping 48 well and Pai6-Ping49 well shows, oil production increases 25t/d, 2 727t in the stage. opening a new route of high water-cut super heavy oil cold production, having been popularized to the other 2 wells.%针对准噶尔盆地西缘春风油田靠近边水的高含水超稠油井蒸汽吞吐效果差的情况,开展了微生物单井吞吐采油技术研究。微生物与油水相互作用,对于原油降黏效果明显。排6-平48和排6-平49井微生物单井吞吐矿场试验,日增油25吨,阶段增油2727吨,开辟了高含水超稠油井冷采的新途径,已在另外两口井推广。

  1. Mean-field studies of time reversal breaking states in super-heavy nuclei with the Gogny force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L. M., E-mail: luis.robledo@uam.es [Departamento Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Recent progress on the description of time reversal breaking (odd mass and multi-quasiparticle excitation) states in super-heavy nuclei within a mean field framework and using several flavors of the Gogny interaction is reported. The study includes ground and excited states in selected odd mass isotopes of nobelium and mendelevium as well as high K isomeric states in {sup 254}No. These are two and four-quasiparticle excitations that are treated in the same self-consistent HFB plus blocking framework as the odd mass states.

  2. Fusion-fission probabilities, cross sections and structure notes of super-heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kowal, Michał; Jachimowicz, Piotr; Skalski, Janusz; Siwek-Wilczyńska, Krystyna; Wilczyński, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Fusion - fission probabilities in the synthesis of heaviest elements are discussed in the context of the latest experimental reports. Cross sections for superheavy nuclei are evaluated using "Fusion by Diffusion" (FBD) model. Predictive power of this approach is shown for experimentally known Lv, Og isotopes and predictions given for Z=119,120. Ground state and saddle point properties as: masses, shell corrections, pairing energies and deformations necessary for cross section estimations are calculated systematically within the multidimensional microscopic - macroscopic method based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single particle potential. In the frame of FBD approach predictions for production of elements heavier than Z = 118 are not too optimistic. For this reason, and because of high instability of superheavy nuclei, we comment on some structure effects, connected with the K-isomerism phenomenon which could lead to a significant increase in the stability of these systems.

  3. Trace elements in animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, P.; Durosoy, S.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with trace elements, such as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc which are essential to modern animal nutrition, but are increasingly detrimental to soil and water quality in today's globalized production. The goal in finding a sustainable balance between trace element

  4. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  5. Research on Casting Technology for Super Heavy Anvil Block%特厚大砧座铸件的铸造技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德润; 唐贤其; 宁德林; 杨晓兵

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the application of computer solidification simulation technology , the casting technology for super heavy anvil block are reseached , and the exported super heavy steel castings with thickness 2 350 mm which are needed the overall ultrasonic test are successfully completed .%结合计算机凝固模拟技术的应用,对厚大砧座铸钢件的铸造工艺及技术进行了研究,成功完成了厚度达到2350 mm且需要进行整体超声检测的外贸特厚大铸钢件的铸造。

  6. Research of HDNS technology for shallow super heavy oil reservoir in Chunfeng Oilfield%春风油田浅层超稠油HDNS技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠; 席伟军; 沈海兵

    2013-01-01

    There are thinner layers and serious thermal loss in shallow super heavy oil reservoir in Chunfeng Oilfield on the west of Junggar Basin.Aiming at these difficult problems,this paper puts forward a HDNS thermal recovery technology which includes drilling horizontal wells,adding viscosity reducer,and injecting nitrogen gas and steam.Nitrogen gas can re-duce the thermal conductivity factor of rock and the heat loss of thin heavy oil reservoir along the top caprock.Upward o-verlapped N2 gas has heat preservation function for the formation.The viscosity reducer can effectively reduce viscosity of crude oil and significantly decrease the yield value of underground crude oil and the critical temperature of crude oil flow. As a result,production period is extended and periodic oil production is increased.The injection-production integration string and the high angle deviated pump technology for horizontal well were adopted.Using the HDNS technology,it is to form productivity of 61.7 ×104 t/a with a oil production rate of more than 3.0% in Chunfeng Oilfield.%针对准噶尔盆地西缘春风油田浅层超稠油油层薄、地层热损失严重的难题,提出了水平井、降黏剂、氮气、蒸汽强化热采方式(HDNS)。氮气降低岩石导热系数,降低薄层稠油油藏沿上部盖层的热量损失。地层内氮气向上超覆,起到地层保温作用。降黏剂有效降低原油黏度,大幅降低了地下原油屈服值和原油能够流动的临界温度,延长了生产周期,增加了周期产油量。配套了注采一体化管柱和水平井大斜度泵工艺。春风油田应用HDNS技术已经建成产能61.7×104 t/a,采油速度大于3%。

  7. Extensions of Natural Radioactivity to 4th-Type and of the Periodic Table to Super-heavy Nuclei: Contribution of Raj K Gupta to Cold Nuclear Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    BirBikram Singh; Sushil Kumar; Sharma, Manoj K.; S K Patra

    2014-01-01

    We have studied here the contribution of Indian Scientists associated with Prof. Raj K. Gupta to cold nuclear phenomena during the last almost four decades, which led to the discovery of fourth kind of natural radioactivity (also known as Cluster Radioactivity, CR) and to the extension of periodic table to super heavy nuclei. It is exclusively pointed out how the Quantum Mechanical Fragmentation Theory (QMFT) advanced by Prof. Raj K. Gupta and Collaborators led to the disc...

  8. Isoscalar giant monopole resonance for drip-line and super heavy nuclei in the framework of a relativistic mean field formalism with scaling calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Biswal, S K

    2014-01-01

    We study the isoscalar giant monopole resonance for drip-lines and super heavy nuclei in the frame work of a relativistic mean field theory with scaling approach. The well known extended Thomas-Fermi approximation in the non-linear $\\sigma$-$\\omega$ model is used to estimate the giant monopole excitation energy for some selected light spherical nuclei starting from the region of proton to neutron drip-lines. The application is extended to super heavy region for Z=114 and 120, which are predicted by several models as the next proton magic number beyond Z=82. We compared the excitation energy obtained by four successful force parameters NL1, NL3, NL3$^*$ and FSUGold. The monopole energy decreases toward the proton and neutron drip-lines in an isotopic chain for lighter mass nuclei contrary to a monotonous decrease for super heavy isotopes. The maximum and minimum monopole excitation energies are obtained for nuclei with minimum and maximum isospin, respectively in an isotopic chain.

  9. On Three Elements in Productive Skills Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    Teaching productive skills are challenging components in English teaching.To explore proper methods to teach them,this essay will discuss a basic teaching model from the perspectives of three elements,tying to propose some advice for English teachers.

  10. The search for super-heavy ions; La quete des noyaux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevy, St. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL-LPC), IN2P3 - CNRS / Ensicaen et Universite, 14 - Caen (France); Stodel, Ch. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA-CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France)

    2003-07-01

    The authors present the search for heavy nuclei, they briefly draw a historical review of the production of heavy isotopes and then describe the means and possibilities the French GANIL (national great accelerator of heavy ions) facility offers. The different steps of the experimental process are described: production, selection, detection and identification. The production cross-sections are so weak that every parameter involved in the production process has to be optimized. It appears that the limit of our technological knowledge has been reached and unless an important technical step forward it seems impossible to go down below the pico-barn (10{sup -12}*10{sup -24} cm{sup 2}) for production cross-sections. The 2 remaining ways to improve the situation are: 1) to increase the intensity of the incident particle beam (today we have < 10{sup 13} pps), this implies that an important development about accelerators and ion sources has to be achieved, 2) the other way is to use radioactive ion beams, the excess of neutrons of the incident ion gives a better production rate and will allow us to reach the neutron-rich part of the stability island. (A.C.)

  11. The discovery of elements 107 to 112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, theoretical concepts prepared the path to nuclear matter with proton and neutron numbers far beyond the nuclei known at that time. The new laboratory GSI was founded for research on reactions with heavy ions, in particular those for production of the predicted super-heavy nuclei. In this contribution it is presented how the interaction between experiment and theory resulted in a continuous improvement of the experimental set-ups on the one hand, and of the knowledge of the processes during the nuclear reaction and of the properties of the produced nuclei on the other hand. In the course of this work six new elements from 107 to 112 were produced and identified. An overview of the present status of experimental results and a comparison with theoretical interpretations is given.

  12. The discovery of elements 107 to 112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2016-12-01

    In the 1960s, theoretical concepts prepared the path to nuclear matter with proton and neutron numbers far beyond the nuclei known at that time. The new laboratory GSI was founded for research on reactions with heavy ions, in particular those for production of the predicted super-heavy nuclei. In this contribution it is presented how the interaction between experiment and theory resulted in a continuous improvement of the experimental set-ups on the one hand, and of the knowledge of the processes during the nuclear reaction and of the properties of the produced nuclei on the other hand. In the course of this work six new elements from 107 to 112 were produced and identified. An overview of the present status of experimental results and a comparison with theoretical interpretations is given.

  13. Production of heavy elements in inhomogeneous cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Thomas; Applegate, James H.; Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    1994-07-01

    Baryon density inhomogeneities during big bang nucleosynthesis can result from a variety of possible causes (e.g., quantum chromodynamic and electroweak phase transitions; cosmic strings). We present here the consequences of such inhomogeneities with special emphasis on the production of heavy elements in a parameter study, varying the global baryon-to-photon ratio eta (which is related to the baryon density and the Hubble constant via eta10 = 64.94 Omegab(H0/50)2 and the length scale of the density inhomogeneities. The production of heavy elements beyond Fe can only occur in neutron-rich environments; thus, we limit our study to neutron-rich zones, originating from neutron diffusion into low-density regions. In this first calculation including elements heavier than Si, we prove an earlier hypothesis that under such conditions r-process elements can be produced, strongly enhanced by the process of fission cycling. Primordial r-process abundances are, however, very sensitive to the choice of eta. Significant amounts, comparable to or larger than the (permitted) floor of heavy-element abundances found in low-metallicity stars at the onset of galactic evolution, can only be obtained for values in excess of eta10 = 133 (i.e., Omegab(h50)2 = 2.0; e.g., Omegab = 1, H0 = 71, or Omegab = 0.5, H0 = 100) and large length scales of inhomogeneities, which minimize the back-diffusion of neutrons into proton-rich regions. Recent investigations analyzing the primordial abundances of light elements seem to set tighter limits, eta10 less than 26 to 39 (Omega b)(h50)2 less than 0.4 to 0.6, from He-4 and apparently considerably lower values based on Li, Be, and B. Under such conditions the predicted abundances of heavy elements are a factor of 105 or more below presently observable limits.

  14. On the Production of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, P

    2003-01-01

    Since the discovery of Deformed Superheavy Nuclei (1983–85) a bridge connects the island of SHE to known isotopes of lighter elements. What we know experimentally and theoretically on the nuclear structure of SHE is reported in a first section. The making of the elements, with an analysis of production cross sections, and the macroscopic limitation to Z=112+ is presented in a second section. The break-down of fusion cross sections in the ‘Coulomb Falls’ within a range of about 10 elements is introduced as the universal limiting phenomenon. How the nuclear structure of the collision partners modifies the on-set of this limitation is presented in Section 3. Reactions induced by deformed nuclei are pushed by side collisions to higher excitation energies (4n- and 5n-channels), whereas reactions driven by the cluster-like, closed-shell nuclei, 208126Pb and 13882Ba, are kept at low excitation energies (1n- and 2n-channels). The on-set of production limitation for deformed collision partners is moved to smalle...

  15. 胜利油田超稠油蒸汽驱汽窜控制技术%Steam channeling control in the steam flooding of super heavy oil reservoirs, Shengli Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹嫣镔; 刘冬青; 张仲平; 王善堂; 王全; 夏道宏

    2012-01-01

    In view of the severe steam channeling in the steam flooding of super heavy reservoir, lab experiment on steam channeling control were carried out. The combination of nitrogen foam and thermoset blocking agent was tested to seal steam channeling, in which thermoset blocking agent plugs big pore throats, while nitrogen foam adjusts steam absorption profile. The optimized foam formulation has a resistance factor of over 30 at 300 ℃, can plug low oil saturation areas selectively, and applies to the plugging of high permeability zones in super-heavy oil reservoirs. Thermoset blocking agent, which would consolidate at 120℃ in 4 h and consolidate at 150℃ in 2 h, can provide effective plugging during dynamic steam flooding. The best steam channeling control mode was determined using parallel tube model. By the combination of nitrogen foam and thermoset blocking agent, the recovery rate is 5.7% higher than the application of nitrogen foam only, with the overall sweeping efficiency reaching up to 60.8%. In 2011, the mode was used in the steam flooding in Shan-56 reservoir. The water cut drops 10.2%, the wellhead temperature of producer drops more than 15℃, the oil production of the well group increases over 28 tons per day, the valid period of a single cycle is up to 198 days, and the oil production increases 2 562 t, showing significant improvement in steam flooding.%针对超稠油油藏蒸汽驱过程中汽窜严重的问题,开展室内蒸汽驱汽窜控制技术研究,将氮气泡沫与热固性堵剂相结合封堵汽窜,热固性堵剂封堵大孔道,氮气泡沫调整蒸汽的吸汽剖面.优化后的泡沫剂体系300℃阻力因子达到30以上,且对低含油饱和度区域具有选择性封堵作用,适用于超稠油油藏条件下高渗透带的封堵;热固性堵剂在静态120℃可4h形成固结,150℃可2h有效固结,在蒸汽动态驱替过程中可形成有效封堵.利用双岩心管开展堵调工艺评价研究,结果表明,采用热固

  16. Alguns aspectos históricos da classificação periódica dos elementos químicos Some historical aspects of the periodic classification of the chemical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tolentino

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available A history of the periodic table of the elements is presented, from the first tentative classifications, passing through Meyer and Mendeleev, up to recent speculations on super-heavy elements still to be synthesized. Many of the discussions and discoveries related to chemical elements and their proper periodic classification are also presented.

  17. Entrance channel effects in superheavy element production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirov, Avazbek; Giardina, Giorgio; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Muminov, Akhtam

    2016-12-01

    The difference between evaporation residue cross sections measured in the cold (X+208Pb, 209Bi) and hot (48Ca+actinides) fusion reactions can be related to the stage of compound nucleus (CN) formation and/or to the stage of its survival against fission. The cold fusion reactions are favorable in synthesis of the superheavy elements (SHE) with charge numbers Z fusion reactions due to small excitation energy and large fission barrier of the CN formed in these reactions. The strong decrease of the cross sections of the synthesis of the SHE Z = 113 in the cold fusion reactions in comparison with the ones in the hot fusion reactions is the result of the increase of hindrance to the CN formation in the cold fusion reactions. The origin of the intrinsic fusion barrier, B, causing the strong decrease of the probability PCN in the cold fusion is discussed.

  18. Impacts of the tensor couplings of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ mesons and Coulomb exchange terms on super-heavy nuclei and their relation to symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Liliani, N; Diningrum, J P; Sulaksono, A

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effects of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms, Coulomb exchange term in local density approximation and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms of relativistic mean field model on the properties of nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and super-heavy nuclei. We found that for the same fixed value of symmetry energy $J$ or its slope $L$ the presence of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms and Coulomb exchange term yields thicker neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb. We also found that the roles of tensor coupling of $\\omega$ and $\\rho$ meson terms, Coulomb exchange term in local density approximation and various isoscalar-isovector coupling terms on the bulk properties of finite nuclei varies depending on the corresponding nucleus mass. However, on average, tensor coupling terms play a significant role in predicting the bulk properties of finite nuclei in a quite wide mass range especially in binding energies. We also observed that for some particular nuclei, the ...

  19. ECONOMIC ELEMENTS REGARDING THE STEEL COST PRODUCTION COUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IOANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our article features the elements that make up the cost of production. The economic activity implies a consumption of factors followed-up by products expressed in goods or services. In the first part of the article, we have defined and detailed the cost of production. In the second part we have calculated the cost of the production of one tone of low alloyed steel with vanadium. The prices for the components of cost production have been established within, Tenaris site, located in Calarasi county, Romania.

  20. Synthesis of a new element with atomic number Z=117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yuri Ts. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Abdullin, F. Sh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bailey, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Benker, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bennett, M. E. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Dmitriev, S. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hamilton, J. H. [Vanderbilt University; Henderson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Itkis, M. G. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Lobanov, Yu. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Mezentsev, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Moody, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Nelson, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Polyakov, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Porter, C. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ramayya, A. V. [Vanderbilt University; Riley, F. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Roberto, James B [ORNL; Ryabinin, M. A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad, Russia; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Sagaidak, R. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shaughnessy, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Shirokovsky, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Stoyer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Subbotin, V. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Sudowe, R. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sukhov, A. M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Tsyganov, Yu. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Utyonkov, V. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Voinov, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Vostokin, G. K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Wilk, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of a new chemical element with atomic number Z=117 is reported. The isotopes 293117 and 294117 were produced in fusion reactions between 48Ca and 249Bk. Decay chains involving eleven new nuclei were identified by means of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator. The measured decay properties show a strong rise of stability for heavier isotopes with Z111, validating the concept of the long sought island of enhanced stability for super-heavy nuclei.

  1. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  2. First ever production of a transactinide element in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, D.T.; Dressler, R.; Eichler, B.; Piguet, D.; Tuerler, A.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Thoerle, P.; Trautmann, N.; Zauner, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The transactinide element {sup 261}Rf was produced for the first time at the PSI Phillips cyclotron in the reaction {sup 244}Pu({sup 22}Ne,5n). At bombarding energy of 116 MeV the production cross section was 3 nb. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  3. Analysis on Availability of the Carbon Element in Alcohol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素荣; 蒋大和; 寇刘秀; 陆雍森

    2006-01-01

    According to the concept of circular economy, the mass integration of alcohol production was investigated though the analysis of the carbon element contained in raw material cassava. Through the mass integration, the distillage wastewater turned into carbon resource and produced a great deal of by-product biogas while its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced from 50000 mg/L to not more than 300 mg/L, the local secondary effluent standards, and other by-products such as CO2 (liquidized) and fusel oil were recovered. In the way, the consumption of raw material was only 2.2 tons cassava to produce 1 ton alcohol (96%, ψ) in the case study, much lower than the average level 2.92 t/t in China. The carbon element balance for production of alcohol was made through testing the concentrations of the carbon element of all mass flows. The results showed that the mass integration helped the availability of the carbon element increased from 44.74% to 64.75%.

  4. 超稠油燃烧基础参数特征研究%Physical simulation research on basic parameters of in—situ combustion for super heavy oil reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海清; 赵庆辉; 刘宝良; 吴拓; 彭旭

    2012-01-01

    针对超稠油油藏开展火烧油层技术可行性研究的需要,利用自行设计研制的火烧油层物理模拟实验装置,分别采用超稠油、特稠油、普通稠油开展了火烧油层燃烧基础参数物理模拟实验.对比了不同类型稠油门槛温度、燃料消耗量等燃烧基础参数,结合产出油组分及温度场发育特征,分析了超稠油燃烧基础参数特征.研究认为,超稠油油藏开展火烧油层试验是可行的,超稠油门槛温度、燃料消耗量等燃烧基础参数值均高于其他类型稠油;稠油火烧油层的驱油效率与黏度相关,黏度越大其燃料消耗量越大,其最终的驱油效率相对较低;火烧后原油性质发生了明显改善.%A physical simulation system has been designed and developed to study the feasibility of in - situ combustion for super heavy oil reservoirs. Physical simulation experiments have been carried out for the basic parameters of in - situ combustion by respectively using super heavy oil, extra heavy oil and conventional heavy oil. Basic combustion parameters such as threshold temperature and fuel consumption have been compared for different types of heavy oil. The parameter characteristics of super heavy oil combustion have been analyzed combining with produced oil composition and temperature field characteristics. It has been concluded that in - situ combustion is feasible for super heavy oil reservoirs, whose threshold temperature and fuel consumption are higher than other types of heavy oil. The displacement efficiency of in - situ combustion is related to oil viscosity. The higher the viscosity is, the bigger the fuel consumption is, and the lower the ultimate displacement efficiency will be. Crude oil properties have been substantially improved after in - situ combustion.

  5. Use of human MAR elements to improve retroviral vector production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buceta, M; Galbete, J L; Kostic, C; Arsenijevic, Y; Mermod, N

    2011-01-01

    Retroviral vectors have many favorable properties for gene therapies, but their use remains limited by safety concerns and/or by relatively lower titers for some of the safer self-inactivating (SIN) derivatives. In this study, we evaluated whether increased production of SIN retroviral vectors can be achieved from the use of matrix attachment region (MAR) epigenetic regulators. Two MAR elements of human origin were found to increase and to stabilize the expression of the green fluorescent protein transgene in stably transfected HEK-293 packaging cells. Introduction of one of these MAR elements in retroviral vector-producing plasmids yielded higher expression of the viral vector RNA. Consistently, viral titers obtained from transient transfection of MAR-containing plasmids were increased up to sixfold as compared with the parental construct, when evaluated in different packaging cell systems and transfection conditions. Thus, use of MAR elements opens new perspectives for the efficient generation of gene therapy vectors.

  6. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  7. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation.

  8. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...... comprises economic, environmental and social aspects. The impacts on and trade-offs between the different dimensions of sustainability are discussed, and combined with aspect of product quality. Furthermore, we identify the important planning decisions in relation to production and distribution and organise...... these in a decision hierarchy. Based on these discussions, decision support models based on mixed-integer linear programming are developed for the planning tasks on the tactical level, including decision-making on packaging options and delivery structures. The resulting models can be used to support production...

  9. Test elements of direct sums and free products of free Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cennet Eskal; Naime Ekici

    2016-02-01

    We give a characterization of test elements of a direct sum of free Lie algebras in terms of test elements of the factors. In addition, we construct certain types of test elements and we prove that in a free product of free Lie algebras, product of the homogeneous test elements of the factors is also a test element.

  10. Total quality management of forged products through finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, U.; Rachakonda, S.; Chandrasekharan, S.

    The paper reviews the entire thermo-mechanical history experienced by a complex shaped, high strength forged part during all stages of its manufacturing process, i.e. forging, heat treatment, and machining. It examines the current practice of selecting the process parameters using finite element simulation of forging and quenching operations on an individual basis. Some recent work related to the simulation of aging and machining operations is summarized. The capabilities of several well-known finite element codes for these individual simulations are compared. Then, an integrated simulation approach is presented which will permit the optimization of process parameters for all operations, as opposed to a single operation. This approach will ensure a total quality management of forged products by avoiding costly problems which, under the current practice, are detected only at the end of the manufacturing cycle, i.e. after final machining.

  11. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  12. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  13. Titanium as a Beneficial Element for Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shiheng; Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Cun; Wang, Xiaoming; Pan, Dongming

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is considered a beneficial element for plant growth. Ti applied via roots or leaves at low concentrations has been documented to improve crop performance through stimulating the activity of certain enzymes, enhancing chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, promoting nutrient uptake, strengthening stress tolerance, and improving crop yield and quality. Commercial fertilizers containing Ti, such as Tytanit and Mg-Titanit, have been used as biostimulants for improving crop production; however, mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects still remain unclear. In this article, we propose that the beneficial roles Ti plays in plants lie in its interaction with other nutrient elements primarily iron (Fe). Fe and Ti have synergistic and antagonistic relationships. When plants experience Fe deficiency, Ti helps induce the expression of genes related to Fe acquisition, thereby enhancing Fe uptake and utilization and subsequently improving plant growth. Plants may have proteins that either specifically or nonspecifically bind with Ti. When Ti concentration is high in plants, Ti competes with Fe for ligands or proteins. The competition could be severe, resulting in Ti phytotoxicity. As a result, the beneficial effects of Ti become more pronounced during the time when plants experience low or deficient Fe supply.

  14. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  15. Multiculturalism as an element of Lublin's tourism product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzoś, Jolanta; Szczęsna, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account both the cultural resources and the demand for a tourist offer with elements of cultural heritage, it can be stated that creating an intergrated tourism product based on Lublin's multicultural character is possible and needed. Traces of existence of various ethnic, national, religious groups are clear and vivid and may become the basis of an interesting offer for tourists. They are at the same time original and unique enough to become the trademark of the city. The realization of such a product can make Lublin the center of historical multiculturalism. The products could become Lublin's distinctive feature on the Polish and European map. The addressees of such a product could be tourists but also Lublin's citizens themselves, for whom it would be a great opportunity to learn about the past of their city. Multicultural heritage allows to create an offer that will help tourists to engage themselves actively in the cognitive process of discovering the city. Taking part in a cultural-religious event of a particular cultural group, staying in a stylish hotel, or a meal in a restaurant offering some traditional cuisine will activate tourists in an emotional way and will offer an opportunity to experience reality in a new way. This means of presenting reality is needed these days. There is a great need for active methods of presenting history, traditions, and customs. The Lublin of today offers too many traditional means of presentation, in which tourists are just passive observers and listeners. Broadening the current offer will not only promote Lublin's multicultural heritage but will also become a chance of creating a new image of its tourism.

  16. Iodox process tests in a transuranium element production campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E. D.; Benker, D. E.

    1979-06-01

    The Iodox process, an advanced method for removing gaseous radioiodine from airstreams, was tested at high activity levels during transuranium element production operations. Special equipment was used to remove radioiodine from 3-5M HNO/sub 3/ dissolver solutions by volatilization and to absorb the iodine from the dissolver off-gas into hyperazeotropic HNO/sub 3/. More than 96% of the /sup 131/I in the dissolver solutions was removed by heeating to 100/sup 0/C and air-sparging. Treatments such as boiling, sparging with 5% N/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and adjustment to 10/sup -4/ M KI or 1% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ effected the additional removal of /sup 131/I by factors of 2 to 5. Other than /sup 131/I, no fission products were volatilized during the treatments. A six-stage bubble-cap column was used for the abosrpttion. Off-gas decontamination factors were in the range of 1 x 10/sup 4/ to 8 x 10/sub 4/, or 5 to 7 per stage; these values are similar to those obtained during previous low-activity studies.

  17. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  18. Constraint on Heavy Element Production in Inhomogeneous Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis from The Light-Element Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Riou; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the observational constraints on the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis that Matsuura et al. suggested the possibility of the heavy element production beyond ${}^7$Li in the early universe. From the observational constraints on light elements of ${}^4$He and D, possible regions are found on the plane of the volume fraction of the high density region against the ratio between high-and low-density regions. In these allowed regions, we have confirmed that the heavy elements beyond Ni can be produced appreciably, where $p$- and/or $r$-process elements are produced well simultaneously.

  19. CO2 and viscosity breaker assisted steam huff and puff technology for horizontal wells in a super-heavy oil reservoir%超稠油水平井CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆敏; 鹿腾; 陶磊; 李宾飞; 张继国; 李敬

    2011-01-01

    为了改善超稠油油藏蒸汽吞吐开采效果,通过室内驱油实验研究水平井CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽驱驱油效率,利用数值模拟方法研究水平井CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐的降黏机理.研究证实:CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽驱驱油效率(80.8%)明显高于常规蒸汽驱驱油效率(65.4%);水平井CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐技术实现了降黏剂、CO2与蒸汽协同降黏作用的滚动接替,从而有效降低了注汽压力,扩大了蒸汽波及范围即扩大了降黏区域,提高了产油速度.根据温度分布和降黏机理的不同可将降黏区分成4个复合降黏区,即蒸汽复合降黏区、热水复合降黏区、低温水复合降黏区和CO2-降黏剂复合降黏区.矿场应用表明,水平井CO2与降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐技术在深部薄层超稠油油藏、深部厚层超稠油油藏和浅部薄层超稠油油藏开发过程中取得了显著的降黏增油效果.%In order to improve the recovery effect of steam huff and puff in a super-heavy oil reservoir, the displacement efficiency of CO2 and viscosity breaker assisted steam flooding was studied through in-lab displacement experiments. The viscosity reduction mechanism of CO2 and viscosity breaker assisted steam huff and puff for horizontal wells was realized by numerical simulation. The results show that the displacement efficiency of CO2 and viscosity breaker assisted steam flooding (80.8%) is higher than that of steam flooding (65.4%). The CO2 and viscosity breaker assisted steam huff and puff technology for horizontal wells realizes the rolling replacement of viscosity reduction of viscosity breaker, CO2 and steam, thus effectively reducing the steam injection pressure, expanding the steam sweep area, I.e., expanding the viscosity reduction region and improving oil production rate. The viscosity region can be divided into four compound viscosity reduction areas according to temperature distribution and viscosity reduction

  20. Project design for treatment of super heavy oil refinery wastewater by biological process%超稠油炼制污水生化处理工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玉颖

    2011-01-01

    针对辽河石化稠油与超稠油加工污水高含油、高乳化、高CODCr、高NH3 -N及高悬浮物的特点,设计了以一级水解酸化、CAST、二级水解酸化、曝气生物滤池(BAF)为核心的生化处理工艺,出水达到《辽宁省污水综合排放标准》(DB 21/1627-2008)中第二类污染物新扩改一级标准.%Heavy oil and super heavy oil refinery wastewater from Liaohe Petrochemical Company is characterized by high degree of emulsification and high concentration of oil, CODCr, ammonia nitrogen and suspended solids. The project design of biochemical treatment process with primary hydrolysis acidification, CAST, secondary hydrolysis acidification and biological aerated filters (BAF) as its core is proposed by this paper. The effluent after treatment could reach to the first level of integrated wastewater discharge standard in Liaoning province( DB 21/1627-2008).

  1. Understanding And Developing Innovative Products And Services: The Essential Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    Innovation is synonymous with successful development and implementation, and therefore peculiar to innovation is that it has to prove itself on the market before we can deem it innovative. This paper suggests an approach for understanding the principles for innovative products which is based......, not on the product itself, but on the activity and the effect on stakeholders. Innovative products are products that contain a difference, with appropriate, valuable and desirable effects induced on the company, consumer and society. The approach is exemplified through a case on the Sony Walkman. When designing...

  2. Application of the Integrated Product Support Elements by the F-35 Joint Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Product Support (IPS) elements, outlined in the Department of Defense’s Product Support Manager ( PSM ) Guidebook. This article aims to promote...in Figure 1, the two additional elements, product support management and sustaining engineering, were added to reflect the PSM and life-cycle...logistician’s enhanced enterprise roles and responsibilities, which transcend the traditional logistics domain. The PSM is a key leadership position for

  3. UTILIZATION OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS FOR PRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational films are productions aiming to inform target audience about designated issues. Educational films are distributed via television, cinema, computers (CD, DVD and Internet environment with technological developments. Films are produced by means of digital technologies. Despite the means for film presentation and distribution go through a change, the cinematography concept systemizing artistic and technical principles of film production has been continuing to exist as a valid assessment criterion for all films. Cinematographic agreements, which encompass precise organization of images and sounds for films, ensure conveying the message of productions. In this study, conventions that could be affective on preparation of educational films at the utilization environments of cinematographic principles and on sustaining interest on the productions have been scrutinized, and the usage purposes of these conventions in educational films have been discussed.

  4. Reply to 'Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis''

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, Shunji; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    This is a reply report to astro-ph/0604264. We studied heavy element production in high baryon density region in early universe astro-ph/0507439. However it is claimed in astro-ph/0604264 that small scale but high baryon density region contradicts observations for the light element abundance or in order not to contradict to observations high density region must be so small that it cannot affect the present heavy element abundance. In this paper we study big bang nucleosynthesis in high baryon density region and show that in certain parameter spaces it is possible to produce enough amount of heavy element without contradiction to CMB and light element observations.

  5. Prediction of super-heavy N{sup Low-Asterisk} and {Lambda}{sup Low-Asterisk} resonances with hidden beauty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiajun, E-mail: wujiajun@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao Lu [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing 100049 (China); Zou, B.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-03-13

    The meson-baryon coupled channel unitary approach with the local hidden gauge formalism is extended to the hidden beauty sector. A few narrow N{sup Low-Asterisk} and {Lambda}{sup Low-Asterisk} resonances around 11 GeV are predicted as dynamically generated states from the interactions of heavy beauty mesons and baryons. Production cross sections of these predicted resonances in pp and ep collisions are estimated as a guide for the possible experimental search at relevant facilities.

  6. Entrance channel effects in superheavy element production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasirov Avazbek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between evaporation residue cross sections measured in the cold (X+208Pb, 209Bi and hot (48Ca+actinides fusion reactions can be related to the stage of compound nucleus (CN formation and/or to the stage of its survival against fission. The cold fusion reactions are favorable in synthesis of the superheavy elements (SHE with charge numbers Z < 112 in comparison with the hot fusion reactions due to small excitation energy and large fission barrier of the CN formed in these reactions. The strong decrease of the cross sections of the synthesis of the SHE Z = 113 in the cold fusion reactions in comparison with the ones in the hot fusion reactions is the result of the increase of hindrance to the CN formation in the cold fusion reactions. The origin of the intrinsic fusion barrier, B*fus, causing the strong decrease of the probability PCN in the cold fusion is discussed.

  7. Determination of Impurity Elements in Pure Cerium Oxide Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peizhong; Chen Limin; Li Jie

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the rare earth impurity in pure cerium oxide is done by ICP-MS.The interference and other factors which affect analytical results were discussed.The accuracy are between 0.81% ~ 11.98% and the recoveries of standard addition are 96% ~ 112.5%.This method can meet the demand for product inspection.

  8. Optimization of the flexible mould process for the production of double-curved concrete elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grunewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and wellperforming concrete structures and elements can be manufactured. In this paper, an innovative method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milli

  9. Microlithography application for production of multilevel diffractive optical elements (as a security hologram feature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginets, Eugene; Kurashov, V.; Honcharuk, S.; Girnyk, V.; Kostyukevych, S.; Kostyukevych, K.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of a present research is to develop a method for production of multilevel Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) for use in Digital Security Holograms, using the direct-writing maskless lithography system.

  10. Mineral essential elements for nutrition in different chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, Luciano; Di Cesare, Cinzia; Manoni, Remo; Piano, Angela; Roberti, Piero; Salvatori, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the essential mineral nutritional elements in cocoa beans, in chocolates at different cocoa percentage (60,70,80 and 90%) and in milk chocolate are evaluated. Dark chocolates are confirmed as an excellent source of magnesium (252.2 mg/100 g) and iron (10.9 mg/100 g): in chocolate containing 90% cocoa, their content corresponds to, respectively, 67.0% and 80.3 of Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) in the European Union. The chocolate containing 90% cocoa is also a good source of zinc (3.5 mg/100 g), which is important for the immune system, and selenium (0.1 mg/100 g). Three main components suitable to explain the mineral concentrations are analyzed by factor analysis. The component 1 can be interpreted as the contribution from the cocoa beans, owing to the mineral characteristics of the soil in which they have grown; the component 2 is mainly due to the manipulation and transformation of the cocoa in chocolate, while the component 3 represents the milk powder.

  11. Elemental Fluorine-18 Gas: Enhanced Production and Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanBrocklin, Henry F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging

    2011-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an efficient, reproducible and reliable process for the preparation of fluorine-18 labeled fluorine gas ([¹⁸F]F₂) from readily available cyclotron-produced [¹⁸F]fluoride ion. The two step process entailed the production of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane with subsequent conversion to [¹⁸F]F₂ by electric discharge of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane in the presence of carrier nonradioactive F₂ gas. The specific goals of this project were i) to optimize the preparation of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane from [¹⁸F]fluoride ion; ii) to develop a prototype automated system for the production of [¹⁸F]F₂ from [¹⁸F]fluoride ion and iii) develop a compact user friendly automated system for the preparation of [¹⁸F]F₂ with initial synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled radiotracers. Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in the production of "non-standard" positron-emitting isotopes for the preparation of new radiotracers for a variety of applications including medical imaging and therapy. The increased availability of these isotopes from small biomedical cyclotrons has prompted their use in labeling radiotracers. In much the same way the production of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas has been known for several decades. However, access to [¹⁸F]F₂ gas has been limited to those laboratories with the means (e.g. F₂ targetry for the cyclotron) and the project-based need to work with [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. Relatively few laboratories, compared to those that produce [¹⁸F]fluoride ion on a daily basis, possess the capability to produce and use [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. A simplified, reliable system employing [¹⁸F]fluoride ion from cyclotron targetry systems that are already in place coupled with on-demand production of the [¹⁸F]F₂ gas would greatly enhance its availability. This would improve the availability of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas and promote further work with a valuable precursor. The major goals of the project were accomplished

  12. 超稠油区块汽窜研究及对策%Steam channeling of Super heavy oil Research and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田智

    2014-01-01

    对于克拉玛依油田九5区齐古组J3q3超稠油油藏,汽窜是制约生产、影响油藏采出程度的主要矛盾。油藏储层为大孔高渗储层。一旦油井发生汽窜,就会出现油藏受热不均的现象。纵向上表现为单层吸汽,平面上单向或者沿某些方向突进,从而导致蒸汽波及系数减小,驱油效率降低。蒸汽在对油藏加热时在剖面和平面上推进不均,使得热采效果变差,严重时造成油井停抽,影响正常生产。%In karamay oilfield group 95 qi ancient J3q3 ultra heavy oil reservoir, steam channeling is the principal contradiction of restricting production and affect the reservoir recovery degree. Reservoir for the big hole of high permeability reservoir. Once the wel steam channeling, reservoir heating uneven phenomenon wil occur. On the longitudinal performance for single suction vapor, the plane one-way or dash along certain direction, leading to steam sweep efficiency decreases, and reduce oil displacement efficiency. When heated in steam in the reservoir section on promoting peace, makes the effect of thermal recovery, stop smoking, serious when oil wel affect normal production.

  13. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products.

  14. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  15. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  16. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  17. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  18. The Comprehension Modes of Visual Elements: How People Know About the Contents by Product Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Regina W.Y. Wang; Mu-Chien Chou

    2010-01-01

    When shoppers enter a retail store, how do they comprehend the products in front of them? What visual elements can communicate messages in an effective way that help people comprehend product contents? Design and marketing personnel should pay attention to these issues. This study aims to investigate how people perceive and comprehend a product. It is conducted in three phases: Phase One involves collecting food package samples with ¡§Stratified Sampling¡¨; Phase Two consists of conducting fo...

  19. Trace elements in solid waste products from coal burning at some Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1994-03-01

    The content, concentration trend and mode of occurrence of 40 trace elements in coal mixtures (coals and host rocks), fly ash, bottom ash and lagooned ash at four Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) have been characterized. A complex of methods: separation, atomic emission and ICP spectroscopy, neutron activation, XRF, SEM, TEM, XRD, etc., was used. Trace elements in coal mixtures are concentrated mainly in the heavy fractions (above 2.9 g cm{sup -3}), authigenic minerals and organic matter; and to a lesser extent are present in the major detrital minerals and host rocks. A number of elements in the waste products, like coal mixtures (ash), exceed known Clarke contents. These are mostly the siderophilic, some lithophilic (Rb, Nb, Mo, Ba, REE, Hf) and chalcophilic (Cu, Zn, As) elements and U. The trace elements show different concentration trends in fly ash, but are more typical for non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the structure of mineral phases. The accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements, mostly from the chalcophilic (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sn, Sb) and lithophilic (Be, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo) groups, plus Co and U, show scattering trends into the atmosphere. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing relative increase in the fly ash. Considerable amounts of trace elments from stack emissions (Hf, As, Tl, Pb, etc.) have probably entered the soil near TPS. Trace elements can also occur in watersoluble forms (Li, Mo, Cs, halogen elements, V, As, Bi, etc.) in waste products and accumulate (Sr, Ba, Pb, etc.) in dump vegetation. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E11-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Bate, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This is the second in a projected series of six post-irradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements. Element E11-07, the subject of this report, received an equivalent of 701 full-power days of irradiation prior to scheduled withdrawal. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a /sup 137/Cs inventory of 17 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.3 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides /sup 134/Cs, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 154/Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the distribution of the beta emitters /sup 3/H, /sup 14/C, and /sup 90/Sr were obtained at six axial locations, four within the fueled region and one each above and below. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. These profiles reveal an increased degree of penetration of /sup 134/Cs, relative to /sup 137/Cs, evidently due to a longer time spent as xenon precursor. In addition to fission product distribution, the appearance of the element components was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed.

  1. Test of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Process for Super Heavy Oil Exploitation in Fengcheng Field by Pair of Horizontal Wells%风城超稠油双水平井蒸汽辅助重力泄油开发试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍进; 桑林翔; 樊玉新; 魏新春; 邱敏; 王景

    2012-01-01

    The super heavy oil in Fengcheng field is characterized by high viscosity, shallow burial depth, difficult of eonventional exploitatiun and low degree of recovery'. In 2008 and 2009, Wellblock Zhong-32 and Zhong-37 were successively as pilot areas in this field for SAGD process by pair of horizontal wells, integrated with the foreign experienees from analogous reservoirs exploitation and the characteris- tics of this reservoir. However, the unreasonable circulating preheating pressure differential control and string structure in real production caused poor connectivity in horizontal sections, low producing degree, easy steam breakthrough and high fluctuation of production. In this paper, 3D geologic modeling for studying the reservoir petrophysical property and barrier distribution is adopted to improve effect of SAGD development, finely recognize the geological tbatures of resm'voir. Furthermore, the key t~gulation technology for the SAGD circulafng pre- heating stage is confirmed to be the pressure differential controlling. The dynamic balance among the liquid-withdrawing capacity of steam chamber, the steam injection and recovery percent is the guidance tor production stage by SAGD process. So, such a SAGD technology for regulation and control is suitable for the whole pilot area.%风城油田超稠油黏度大、埋藏浅,常规开采难度大,采出程度低。借鉴国外类似油藏开发的经验,结合油藏自身特点,运用双水平井蒸汽辅助重力泄油(SAGD)开发技术,建立了重32、重37井区SAGD试验区。在实际生产中由于循环预热压差控制和管柱结构不合理,导致水平段连通性差,动用程度低,极易汽窜,生产波动大。为了提高开发效果,以强化精细地质研究为前提,应用三维地质建模研究储集层物性及隔层空间分布,精细认识油藏地质特点;对SAGD循环预热阶段进行总结梳理,认识到预热阶段核心调控技术是压差控制

  2. Observational Constraint on Heavy Element Production in Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Riou; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Based on a scenario of the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis (IBBN), we investigate the detailed nucleosynthesis that includes the production of heavy elements beyond Li-7. From the observational constraints on light elements of He4 and D for the baryon-to-photon ratio given by WMAP, possible regions found on the plane of the volume fraction of the high density region against the ratio between high- and low-density regions. In these allowed regions, we have confirmed that the heavy elements beyond Fe can be produced appreciably, where p- and/or r-process elements are produced well simultaneously compared to the solar system abundances. We suggest that recent observational signals such as He4 overabundance in globular clusters and high metallicity abundances in quasars could be partly due to the results of IBBN. Possible implications are given for the formation of the first generation stars

  3. The Analysis Influence of Elements the Processing on Quality of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sitko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Present productive systems demand cooperating very much elements of complicated processing whose a superior target is the obtainment of the article about established functional proprieties. To important links of the productive system they belong the boundary strip other: the quality of raw materials, the technical state and the efficiency of productive devices , the choice and the organization of the processing and difficult to prognosing, so called the human factor. On the job one presented the initial analysis of connected problems with the preparation and the realization of the processing in the foundry of cast iron. Became introduced manner of administering resources of materials which to the state the complex connection of the row elements technological, such as: the analysis the quantity of orders and time-limits deliveries, qualifying the quantity of elements the given productive party , time-limits of beginning of the production and the manner of working of the warehouse- economy farm. The special attention became turned on analysing problem of storing productive materials.

  4. 超大型空心钢锭翻转变形均匀性和压实效果研究%Research on Rotatory Deformation Uniformity and Compaction Effect of Super-heavy Hollow Steel Ingot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 马庆贤; 刘功梅

    2016-01-01

    20Mn5超大型空心钢锭在上平下V砧翻转芯轴拔长过程中采用普通V砧进行顺序翻转,锻件变形极不均匀且存在密集型疏松缺陷。通过DEFORM-3D数值模拟和理论推导,定量给出发散角和理论翻转角度与V砧角度和压下率的关系,提出不同压下率下的普通V砧翻转新工艺。数值模拟和物理试验结果表明,单砧压下时大圆角V砧和凸型V砧两种新型V砧的变形均匀性和压实效果均要优于普通V砧。翻转拔长模拟结果表明,不同压下率下凸型V砧、大圆角V砧和普通V砧翻转新工艺的变形均匀性和压实效果均要优于普通V砧顺序翻转,其中大圆角V砧翻转新工艺的变形均匀性最优,凸型V砧翻转新工艺的压实效果最优。研究结果可为国产大型筒体锻件空心钢锭锻造工艺规范的制定提供重要理论参考。%Sequenced rotation with ordinary V-shaped anvil is used in the upper flat and lower V-shaped anvils mandrel drawing process of 20Mn5 super-heavy hollow steel ingot, but the forging deforms unevenly and contains intensive porosities. By numerical simulation using DEFORM-3D and theoretical derivation, the relationship between divergence angle, theoretical rotation angle, V-shaped anvil angle and reduction rate is given quantificationally, and the new rotation processes with ordinary V-shaped anvil at different reduction rates are proposed. Numerical simulation and physical experiment results show that the deformation uniformity and compaction effect of big fillet V-shaped anvil and convex V-shaped anvil is better than that of ordinary V-shaped anvil for single press. Simulation results of rotatory drawing show the deformation uniformity and compaction effect of new rotation processes with convex V-shaped anvil, big fillet V-shaped anvil and ordinary V-shaped anvil is better than that of sequenced rotation with ordinary V-shaped anvil at different reduction rates, while the deformation

  5. Nonconforming rotated Q1 element on non-tensor product anisotropic meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO; Shipeng; SHI; Zhongci

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonconforming rotated Q1 element for the second order elliptic problem on the non-tensor product anisotropic meshes, i.e. the anisotropic affine quadrilateral meshes. Though the interpolation error is divergent on the anisotropic meshes,we overcome this difficulty by constructing another proper operator. Then we give the optimal approximation error and the consistency error estimates under the anisotropic affine quadrilateral meshes. The results of this paper provide some hints to derive the anisotropic error of some finite elements whose interpolations do not satisfy the anisotropic interpolation properties. Lastly, a numerical test is carried out, which coincides with our theoretical analysis.

  6. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  7. Production of building elements based on alkali-activated red clay brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Robayo-Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the feasibility of reusing a red clay brick waste (RCBW in order to produce building elements such as blocks, pavers and tiles, by using the technique of alkaline activation. The production of these building elements was based on the design of a hybrid mortar with 48.61 MPa of compressive strength, at 28 curing days at room temperature (25 °C. The hybrid mortar was synthesized by adding 10% by weight of Portland cement (OPC to the RCBW, Red Clay Brick Waste. As alkaline activators were used commercial industrial grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. Building elements were physically and mechanically characterized, according to Colombian Technical Standards (NTC. This technology process is presented as an alternative for the reuse of RCBW and its contribution to the environmental sustainability.

  8. Effect of Feeding Habits of Cows on Trace Element Contents of Some Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirezen Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead contents of several typical Turkish dairy products were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. The order of the elements in the dairy products was determined to be Zn > Se >Ni >Pb > Cu > Cd. Additionally, the concentration ranges in these samples were found to be 0.003-79.7, 4.32-59.8, 0.1-31.53, 0.58-30.9, 0.22-9.89 and 0.008-1.89 µg 100g –1, respectively. In determination of the selenium content in selected dairy product, the highest values were found in the milk and white cheese, but lower values are observed in yogurt. In addition, the results show two kinds of dairy products (milk and white cheese have as foods with high levels of nutritionally important trace elements such as Se and Zn. The results identify composition of these dairy products were within safety baseline levels for human consumption. Results obtained from this study also provided important information on safety and quality standards of local milk and milk products; cheese and yoghurts.

  9. The shock process and light element production in supernovae envelopes. Ph.D. Thesis - Chicago Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence E.; Dearborn, David S.; Schramm, David N.; Larsen, Jon T.; Kurokawa, Shin

    1990-01-01

    Detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the passage of supernova shocks through the hydrogen envelopes of blue and red progenitor stars was carried out to explore the sensitivity to model conditions of light element production (specifically Li-7 and B-11) which was noted by Dearborn, Schramm, Steigman and Truran (1989) (DSST). It is found that, for stellar models with M is less than or approximately 100 M solar mass, current state of the art supernova shocks do not produce significant light element yields by hydrodynamic processes alone. The dependence of this conclusion on stellar models and on shock strengths is explored. Preliminary implications for Galactic evolution of lithium are discussed, and it is suspected that intermediate mass red giant stars may be the most consistent production site for lithium.

  10. Correlations between productivity elements in Lolium perenne L. species for new varieties resistant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder [6, 9, 15].With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.

  11. GEH-4-63, 64: Proposal for irradiation of production brazed Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1961-05-18

    A brazed end closure is currently being used on prototypical NPR fuel elements. The production closure will use a braze alloy composed of 5% Be + 95% Zry-2 to braze the Zircaloy-2 cap to the jacket and to the metallic uranium core. A similar MTR test, a GEH-4-57, 58, used a braze alloy of the composition 4% Be + 12% Fe + 84% Zry-2 which melts at a lower temperature. In this previous test, element GEH-4-57 failed through a cladding defect located at the base of the braze heat affected zone. Because of this failure it would be desirable to subject a fuel element, which had been subjected to more severe brazing conditions, to the same conditions as GEH-4-57, 58. For this reason the thermal conditions of this test essentially match those of GEH-4-57, 58. This irradiation test consists of two identical fuel elements. The fuel material is normal metallic uranium, Zircaloy-2 clad of the tubular geometry, NPR inner size. The fuel was coextruded at Hanford by General Electric`s Fuels Preparation Department. Each element is 10.8 inches in length with flat Zircaloy-2 end caps brazed to the jacket and uranium core with the 5 Be + 95 Zry-2 brazing alloy, then TIG welded to further insure closure integrity. The elements ar 1.254 inches OD and 0.439 inches ID. For hydraulic purposes a 0.343 inch diamater flow restrictor has been fitted into the central flow channel of both elements.

  12. Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Schäfer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-12

    The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

  13. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: mlnegro@ipen.br, E-mail: saliba@ipen.br, E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  14. Influence of the pad printing plate‘ printing element depth on the quality of the printed product

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Živko; Dedijer, Sandra; Pál, Magdolna; Cigula, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in mass printing is repeatability and stability of the ink transfer from the printing plate onto the printing substrate. The pad printing is characterised by indirect ink transfer from a gravure printing plate. Beside area of the printing elements, on the pad printing plate one should take into account their depth as it is a factor which directly influences the printing ink quantity, i.e. overall quality of the printed product. The photopolymer pad printing...

  15. Elemental Bromine Production by TiO2 Photocatalysis and/or Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Francesco; Camera Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo

    2016-08-22

    Significant production of elemental bromine (Br2 ) was observed for the first time when treating bromide containing solutions at acidic pH, with TiO2 photocatalyst, ozone, or a combination thereof. Br2 selectivities up to approximately 85 % were obtained and the corresponding bromine mass balance values satisfied. The process is general and may be applied at a laboratory scale for green bromination reactions, or industrially as a cheap, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to the currently applied bromine production methods.

  16. Carbon stars and galactic chemical evolution: production of s-elements and wind heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laverny, P [Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Dept. Cassiopee, UMR 6202, Nice (France)], E-mail: laverny@oca.eu

    2008-12-15

    Cool carbon stars found on the asymptotic giant branch are characterized by their production of specific chemical species and by strong but complex winds. This is illustrated below by (i) discussing their production of s-elements in the Milky Way and in neighbour satellite galaxies and (ii) describing the strong heterogeneities observed in the massive dusty circumstellar envelope of the nearby carbon star IRC+10216. Some similarities existing between the inner clumpy envelope of IRC+10216 with the dusty clumps recently detected around the more evolved variable stars of R Coronae Borealis type are also discussed.

  17. Spin Density Matrix Elements in exclusive production of ω mesons at Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianski B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin density matrix elements have been determined for exclusive ω meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets, in the kinematic region of 1.0 < Q2 < 10.0 GeV2, 3.0 < W < 6.3 GeV and –t' < 0.2 GeV2. The data, from which SDMEs are determined, were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer during the running period of 1996 to 2007 using the 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam of HERA. A sizable contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes is found for exclusive ω meson production.

  18. Materials in Manufacturing and Packaging Systems as Sources of Elemental Impurities in Packaged Drug Products: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis R; Stults, Cheryl L M; Paskiet, Diane M; Ball, Douglas J; Nagao, Lee M

    Elemental impurities in drug products can arise from a number of different sources and via a number of different means, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient, excipients, the vehicle, and leaching of elemental entities that are present in the drug product's manufacturing or packaging systems. Thus, knowledge about the presence, level, and likelihood of leaching of elemental entities in manufacturing and packaging systems is relevant to understanding how these systems contribute to a drug product's total elemental impurity burden. To that end, a joint team from the Extractables and Leachables Safety Information Exchange (ELSIE) Consortium and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS) has conducted a review of the available literature on elemental entities in pharmaceutically relevant polymers and the presence of these elemental entities in material extracts and/or drug products. This review article contains the information compiled from the available body of literature and considers two questions: (1) What elemental entities are present in the relevant polymers and materials and at what levels are they present? (2) To what extent are these elemental entities leached from these materials under conditions relevant to the manufacturing and storage/distribution of solution drug products? Conclusions drawn from the compiled data are as follows: (1) Elemental entities are present in the materials used to construct packaging and manufacturing systems as these materials either contain these elemental entities as additives or are exposed to elemental entities during their production. (2) Unless the elemental entities are parts of the materials themselves (for example, SiO2 in glass) or intentionally added to the materials (for example, metal stearates in polymers), their incidental amounts in the materials are generally low. (3) When elemental entities are present in materials and systems, generally only a very small

  19. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production - A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glina, Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by "Torf Corporation" company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  20. Designing an AHP methodology to prioritize critical elements for product innovation: an intellectual capital perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has for the past decades been evidenced as an important source of competitive advantages and differentiation at the firm level. At the same time, innovation has become a critical factor for companies to ensure their sustainability and even their survival in a globalized business landscape. Having in mind these two crucial concepts for business success, this study intends to build on the relationships between intellectual capital and product innovation at the firm level. Specifically, we will design and test a model based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, whose aim is to allow the prioritization of intellectual capital elements according to their relative importance for product innovation performance at the firm level. The main goal of this research is to build a diagnosis and action tool that helps business managers incorporate an intellectual capital perspective into their product innovation initiatives. This framework will help managers to better understand which intellectual capital elements are more critical to their product innovation efforts, and thereby systematize actions and clarify resource allocation priorities to improve their product innovation capabilities. In order to validate the practicability of this proposal, the methodology was empirically applied to a Portuguese innovative company.

  1. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  2. Spectroscopy of very heavy nuclei with a view to study super-heavy nuclei; Spectroscopie de noyaux tres lourds en vue de l'etude des noyaux super-lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalfallah, F

    2007-08-15

    Within the recent years, the spectroscopic study of single particle orbitals of very heavy elements (VHE) has become possible with the development of increasingly efficient experimental setups. This allows us, through nuclear deformation, to access with these deformed nuclei to orbitals situated around the Fermi level in the spherical superheavy elements (SHE) and learn more about the nuclear structure of these nuclei. The aim of this work is the spectroscopic studies of heavy and very heavy elements. Because of the experimental difficulties associated with the fusion reactions in the VHE region, a detailed optimization studies is essential. Simulation of energy loss and angular straggling of these nuclei due to the interaction in the target and to neutron's evaporation was carried out and allowed us to optimize the angular acceptance of the separators according to the target thickness. An extensive survey and exploration in the VHE region was also conducted on the basis of cross section's systematics in the literature and simulations carried out using the statistical code Hivap. In this framework, the possible extension of the range of validity of a set of Hivap parameters was investigated. This work has enabled us to prepare a list of experiments of interest for the production of very heavy nuclei. In this thesis, our work was concentrated on the spectroscopy of the nuclei No{sup 256} et Rf{sup 256} for which two experimental proposals were accepted. The octupole deformations predicted in the actinides region is studied in another part of this thesis, a part witch is dedicated to the gamma spectroscopy of Pa{sup 223}. The data from a new experiment carried out using the Jurogam-Ritu-Great setup are analysed and compared to previous results. They confirm the octupole deformed shape in this nucleus. (author)

  3. The Last Element of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazan, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Despite much achievements of the synthesis for super-heavy elements (10 new elements were obtained during the last 25 years), the experts in Mendeleev's Periodic Table have not answered the most fundamental question: where the Table ends? The calculations produced on the basis of Quantum Mechanics (the physical conditions in micro-scales) do not not answer this question till now. In my study of chemical compounds, I focused onto the physical conditions observed in macro-scales (the subjects of the regular physics and chemistry). Thus, the Law of Hyperboles was discovered in the Periodic Table: given any chemical compound, the contents of any element in it (per 1 gram-atom), including the contents of unknown elements, whose atomic masses can be set up arbitrarily, is described by the equation of a equilateral hyperbola Y=K/X. The tops of all the arcs are distributed along a real axis crossing the line Y=1 in the point of abscissa 411.66, which manifests the actual atomic mass of the last (heaviest) element of the Periodic Table: its location is Period 8, Group 1; its atomic mass is 411.66, its number is 155 (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table --- Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009). )

  4. [Migration of eight harmful elements from household products made with synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Harmful elements are used as stabilizers and colorants in synthetic resin products. Accidental ingestion of harmful elements from such synthetic resins by infants is a dangerous health hazard. The Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the International Standard ISO 8124-3 "Safety of toys-Part 3: Migration of certain elements" control the levels of migrated harmful elements, such as lead or cadmium, from infants toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from household products that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the law or standard. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) migrated from household products made of synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3: 2010 was executed in 135 products (total 150 specimens), and the concentration of these elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 1810 mg/kg and 1660 mg/kg of lead, exceeding the maximum acceptable level of the ISO standard, migrated from two products. In addition, lead and/or chromium at levels more than 1/10 of the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard migrated from four products. Household products that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and chromium.

  5. Distinguishing real from fake ivory products by elemental analyses: A Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Thitaram, Chatchote; Klinhom, Sarisa; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2017-03-01

    As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose. This Bayesian hybrid classification model was 93% accurate with 92% precision in discriminating ivory from non-ivory materials. The method was then validated by scanning an additional ivory and non-ivory samples, correctly identifying bone as not ivory with >95% accuracy, except elephant bone, which was 72%. It was less accurate for wood and rock (25-85%); however, a preliminary screening to determine if samples are not Ca-dominant could eliminate inorganic materials. In conclusion, elemental analyses by XRF can be used to identify several forms of fake ivory samples, which could have forensic application.

  6. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  7. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MINERAL ELEMENTS COMPOSITION OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS AND ITS BASED PRODUCT (ESULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Atiqah Ab Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of phytochemical and mineral elements composition of Cordyceps sinensis and its based product, Esulin were carried out in order to provide a basis for further research on the therapeutic value of these herbs. The results of both aqueous extracts positively showed the presence of several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. However, terpenoids only present in the aqueous extract of Esulin. In addition, the levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, ferum, lead and nickel of both extracts were below the maximum permissible level suggested by World Health Organization (1989 & Malaysian Food Law (1985. The presence of phytochemical components and mineral elements in the aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis and Esulin might contribute to their therapeutic applications in medicinal practices.

  9. Results of the Experiment on Chemical Identification of Db as a Decay Product of Element 115

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Utyonkov, V K; Shishkin, S V; Eremin, A V; Lobanov, Yu V; Tsyganov, Yu S; Chepigin, V I; Sokol, E A; Vostokin, G K; Aksenov, N V; Hussonnois, M; Itkis, M G; Aggeler, H W; Schumann, D; Bruchertseifer, H; Eichler, R; Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F

    2004-01-01

    For the first time the chemical identification of Db as the terminal isotope of the decay element 115 produced via the $^{243}{\\text{Am}}(^{48}{\\text{Ca}},3n)^{288}115$ reaction was realized. The experiment was performed on the U400 cyclotron of FLNR, JINR. The $^{243}$Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of $3.4\\cdot 10^{18}$ $^{48}$Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV in the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO$_3$. The group 5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex 50$\\times$8 cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group 5 elements. The eluant was evaporated onto 0.4 $\\mu$m thick polyethylene foils which were placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by $^3$He neutron counters for measurement of $\\alpha$ particles, fission fragments and neutrons. Over the course of the experiment...

  10. A metal sulfide photocatalyst composed of ubiquitous elements for solar hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Y; Umezawa, N; Srinivasan, N; Koyasu, S; Sakai, E; Miyauchi, M

    2016-06-14

    A visible-light-sensitive tin sulfide photocatalyst was designed based on a ubiquitous element strategy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Computational analysis suggested that tin monosulfide (SnS) would be more efficient than SnS2 as a photocathode for hydrogen production because of the low ionization potential and weak ionic character of SnS. To test this experimentally, nanoparticles of SnS were loaded onto a mesoporous electrode using a wet chemical method, and the bandgap of the synthesized SnS quantum dots was found to be tunable by adjusting the number of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) cycles, which controls the magnitude of the quantum confinement effect. Efficient hydrogen production was achieved when the bandgap of SnS was wider than that of the bulk form.

  11. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  12. Mini tomato production in organic system under greenhouse with partial control of meteorological elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo F. de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the meteorological elements of the environments and the production components of mini tomato crop in organic system in different forms of cultivation, biofertilizer doses and technological levels of protected environments. The research was conducted in completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to three greenhouses (A - climatized, B - mobile screen and C - fixed screen, two forms of cultivation (pots and beds and five doses of a commercial biofertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of dose indicated, with five replicates. The treatments affected the analyzed variables, except for biofertilizer doses and interaction of treatments. Air temperature was unchanged among the environments and the mean and minimum relative humidity were within the control range in the climatized greenhouse. The greenhouse with mobile screen showed the best production results for the cultivation in beds and the biofertilizer doses were indifferent for all treatments.

  13. Measurement of single top quark production at D0 using a matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrevski, Jovan Pavle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Until now, the top quark has only been observed produced in pairs, by the strong force. According to the standard model, it can also be produced singly, via an electroweak interaction. Top quarks produced this way provide powerful ways to test the charged-current electroweak interactions of the top quark, to measure |Vtb|, and to search for physics beyond the standard model. This thesis describes the application of the matrix element analysis technique to the search for single top quark production with the D0 detector using 0.9 fb-1 of Run II data. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the background model, assuming a Standard Model s-channel to t-channel cross section ratio of σst = 0.44, we measure the single top quark production cross section: σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.8$-1.4\\atop{+1.6}$ pb. This result has a p-value of 0.08%, corresponding to a 3.2 standard deviation Gaussian equivalent significance.

  14. Synthesis and properties of superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 172 or 184. The outstanding of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described which allowed for the identification of elements 107 to 112 in studies of cold fusion reactions based on lead and bismuth targets. Also presented are data which were obtained on the synthesis of elements 112, 114, and 116 in investigation of hot fusion reactions using actinide targets. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross- sections are compared with the results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the exploration of the regio...

  15. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  16. RIKEN 18GHz ECR离子源上金属离子的产生%Metal Ion Production with RIKEN 18GHz-ECRIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Kidera; Y.Yano; T.Nakagawa; T.Kageyama; Y.Higurashi; H.Haba; T.Aihara; T.Ohki; K.Kobayashi; A.Goto

    2007-01-01

    At RIKEN,three ECR ion sources(10GHz ECRIS,18GHz ECRIS and liquid He-free SC-ECRIS)are operated 3.8 external ion sources of heavy ion aecelerators.In the last year,multi-charged uranium ion beam was produced from 18GHz ECRIS by using UF6 and the 238U ion was successfully accelerated by the accelerator complex which consists of the RFQ linear accelerator,RIKEN heavy ion linear accelerator(RILAC)and RIKEN ring cyclotron accelerator(RRC).The typical beam intensity of 238U14+ was about 2puA on faraday cup after analysing magnet.70Zn beam was still supplied for the new super-heavy element search experiment with insertion method.Intense beam of 70Zn16+ was produced for long term (~43 days)without vacuum break and remarkably low material consumption rate(~100μgr/h).We already supplied Zn beam longer than 200 days for this experiment.48Ca ion was also produced by insertion method using 48CaO rod for the anclear physics experiment.In this contribution,we will present ion source parameter and techniques for production of each of the metal ions.

  17. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  18. Peat and its modification products as sorbents for remeval of metals, metalloids and nonmetallic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Ansone, Linda; Robalds, Artis; Dudare, Diana

    2013-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of waters biosorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. We have demonstrated the possibilities to use peat and its thermal treatment products for oil sorption. Peat as an oil sorbent has poor buoyancy characteristics, relatively low oil sorption capacity and low hydrophobicity. However, thermal treatment (low-temperature pyrolysis and synthesis of peat-based active coal) helps to significantly improve its sorptive characteristics. The processes and structural changes taking place during low-temperature pyrolysis have been studied by means of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Peat can be used also as an efficient sorbent for sorption of metallic elements as it has been demonstrated on example of Tl+, Cu2+, Cr3+, however sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. To develop such application possibilities peat, peat modified with iron compounds, iron humates were prepared and tested for sorption of arsenic and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption process and its endothermic nature.

  19. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  20. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  1. N-Reactor co-product target element rupture detection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, D.O.

    1964-04-27

    At present there seem to be some uncertainties concerning the needs of rupture detection for the co-producer programs Also in question is the method by which ruptures of the target elements should be detected and located. The purpose of this report is to discuss the waste and hazard control of tritium (H{sup 3}) (the product of the co-producer program), which will determine rupture detection needs, and to discuss methods by which rupture detection and location may be accomplished. The scope of the report considers first, adaptation of the present rupture monitoring system, and second, monitoring systems using H{sup 3} analyzers, together with the costs and time required to develop and use each method of rupture detection.

  2. CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVITY ELEMENTS IN CORIANDER (CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykolay Hristov Dyulgerov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to generate information on interrelationships of some important productivity elements, direct and indirect effects of these characters on fruit yield of 1 plant in coriander. The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture - Karnobat, during the period 2006-2008 and included 81 coriander accessions. Phenotypic correlations of fruit weight per plant were highly significant and positive with number of branches per plant, number of umbels per plant, number of fruits per 1 umbel, fruit weight per umbel and 1000-fruits weight. Maximum direct contribution to fruit weight per plant was made by 1000-fruits weight, followed by fruit weight per umbel and number of umbels per plant. Therefore, these traits can be used as selection criteria to increase plant yield in coriander.

  3. Distribution of Some Elements in Biosubstrates of Workers Occupied in the Production of Mineral Nitrogenous Phosphate Fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Pavlov, S S; Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and biosubstrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in biosubstrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made.

  4. Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praplan, A. P.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Ehn, M.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Adamov, A.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Duplissy, J.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Heinritzi, M.; Kangasluoma, J.; Kirkby, J.; Krapf, M.; Kürten, A.; Lehtipalo, K.; Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sarnela, N.; Simon, M.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Ye, P.; Curtius, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Donahue, N. M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition of oxidation products and their clustering behaviour, several instruments must be used. We compare oxidation products containing 10 and 20 carbon atoms and show that highly oxidised organic compounds are formed in the early stages of the oxidation.

  5. Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Praplan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1 pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH scavenger and (2 OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO photolysis by ultraviolet light in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate. Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition of oxidation products and their clustering behaviour, several instruments must be used. We compare oxidation products containing 10 and 20 carbon atoms and show that highly oxidised organic compounds are formed in the early stages of the oxidation.

  6. Microglial production of TNF-alpha is a key element of sustained fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqian; Fukushima, Hotaka; Ono, Chiaki; Sakai, Mai; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Gunawansa, Nicole; Takahashi, Yuta; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Kida, Satoshi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine productions in the brain are altered in a process of fear memory formation, indicating a possibility that altered microglial function may contribute to fear memory formation. We aimed to investigate whether and how microglial function contributes to fear memory formation. Expression levels of M1- and M2-type microglial marker molecules in microglia isolated from each conditioned mice group were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but not of other proinflammatory cytokines produced by M1-type microglia, increased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Administration of inhibitors of TNF-α production facilitated extinction of fear memory. On the other hand, expression levels of M2-type microglia-specific cell adhesion molecules, CD206 and CD209, were decreased in microglia from mice representing retention of fear memory, and returned to basal levels in microglia from mice representing extinction of fear memory. Our findings indicate that microglial TNF-α is a key element of sustained fear memory and suggest that TNF-α inhibitors can be candidate molecules for mitigating posttraumatic reactions caused by persistent fear memory.

  7. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  8. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  9. PROCUREMENT IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN: AN ELEMENT OF HOTEL PRODUCT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Mrnjavac

    2016-12-01

    organization is essential for the application of the supply-chain principles, but it can also have the opposite effect. The principles of supply chain organization and management are present in all investigated hotels, but to varying degrees. While obtaining the lowest price is singled out as the primary goal of procurement, the need to take into account other elements, such as the quality of procurement, products and services, is also emphasized because this makes it possible to create a hotel product that guests will be satisfied with. Conclusion: The presence of supply-chain elements in hotel procurement correlates with the size of the hotel enterprise, but not with the type of hotel or its location (type of tourist destination. The organizational basis of stand-alone hotels is better suited for the development of supply chains. Their less-formal business organization and decentralized procurement provide a suitable environment for focusing on and effectively managing the business process to enhance product quality. In contrast, centralized procurement embedded in the more rigid organization of hotel enterprises contains a number of barriers that go against the supply chain concept. Partly for this reason, the primary goal of hotel enterprises is price, while quality is only a secondary goal. Networked supply-chain structures are present in both cases, and high on the list of procurement goals is the importance of building sound relationships with prominent suppliers. Also important is that procurement organized in this way focuses on the long term; the supplier market and procurement terms are analyzed periodically and, if necessary, changes are made regarding suppliers and supplier relationships.

  10. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H., E-mail: michael.evangelou@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Deram, Annabelle, E-mail: annabelle.deram@univ-lille2.fr [Laboratoire des sciences vegetales et fongiques - EA4483, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques-ILIS, Universite Lille Nord de France - 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59006 Lille Cedex (France); Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg{sup -1}) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg{sup -1}), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg{sup -1}) and K (320-1250 mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  11. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  12. Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Stahre, Nanna; Mäkitalo, Maria; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2017-07-13

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through.

  13. Production characteristics of the complex "SLS-vegetables" as the element of bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Previously we had shown possibility of long-term cultivation of wheat and radish uneven-aged conveyer on the soil-like substrate (SLS) with periodic introduction in the SLS of edible (in the form of a mineral solution after physicochemical burning) and inedible biomass of the plants grown on it. The given work was aimed at the study of production characteristics of the plants cultivated on the SLS with a periodic introduction of plant biomass, which consisted of harvested inedible biomass and wheat straw. The wheat straw was introduced in the SLS to compensate carrying out of mineral elements from the SLS with the edible biomass of the harvested plants. Also possibility of joint cultivation of the chosen vegetable plants under the given way of plant inedible biomass introduction in the SLS was estimated. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were taken as the objects of research. Plants were grown in the regime of the three-species uneven-aged conveyer. Before each next planting of plants we introduced in the SLS all inedible biomass of earlier harvested plants and wheat straw. The amount of introduced wheat straw depended on nitrogen content in edible biomass of the harvested plants. Plants irrigation was performed by means of common nutrient solution containing mineral elements extracted from the SLS. 2 concentration in a vegetation chamber was maintained in limits from 0.1The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS grant 05-1000008-8010

  14. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunMei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  15. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  16. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  17. Conjugate $p$-elements of full support that generate the wreath product $C_{p}wr C_{p}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For a symmetric group $G:=Sym(n$ and a conjugacy class $mathcal{X}$ of involutions in $G$, it is known that if the class of involutions does not have a unique fixed point, then - with a few small exceptions - given two elements $a,x in mathcal{X}$, either $angbrac{a,x}$ is isomorphic to the dihedral group $D_{8}$, or there is a further element $y in mathcal{X}$ such that $angbrac{a,y} cong angbrac{x,y} cong D_{8}$ (P. Rowley and D. Ward, On $pi$-Product Involution Graphs in Symmetric Groups. MIMS ePrint, 2014. One natural generalisation of this to $p$-elements is to consider when two conjugate $p$-elements generate a wreath product of two cyclic groups of order $p$. In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for this in the case that our $p$-elements have full support. These conditions relate to given matrices that are of circulant or permutation type, and corresponding polynomials that represent these matrices. We also consider the case that the elements do not have full support, and see why generalising our results to such elements would not be a natural generalisation.

  18. Feedbacks between element availability, (diel) cycling and assimilatory uptake in a biologically productive spring-fed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Marie J.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Nifong, Rachel L.

    2016-04-01

    The metabolism of submerged aquatic vegetation directly and indirectly controls the cycling of solutes in streams at diel (24-hour) frequencies. Photosynthesis and respiration induce diel variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH which, in turn, mediate elemental concentrations via a host of geochemical reactions. Plant metabolism also directly exerts control on water composition via assimilatory uptake, creating diel variation in major nutrients. Trace elements can be essential micronutrients, suggesting their assimilatory uptake could also contribute to diel variation in element concentrations in streams. If diel element variation is indicative of metabolic processing, assessing the magnitude and timing of this diel variation relative to other inorganic controls could be used to estimate the ecosystem demand for those elements, infer ecosystem function, and predict how stream ecosystems may respond to changes in environmental element availability. We evaluated the relationship between the elemental requirements of submerged vegetation and the availability and cycling of elements in streams by comparing spatial and diel variation in stream chemistry with measurements of tissue stoichiometry from submerged vascular plants and algae in the Ichetucknee River (Q = 8 m3/s) , a highly productive spring-fed system in north-central Florida. Diel variations were observed in the concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Sr, Ba, and U. Autotrophic assimilation, estimated using the measured stoichiometry and calculations of primary production from diel DO variation, accounted for a significant portion of the in-stream diel variation of some elements, including approximately 100% for K and >30% for Fe and Mn. However, the exact timing of assimilation of these elements remains uncertain relative to the other inorganic controls. Correcting the observed SRP diel signal for the effect of calcite co-precipitation revealed

  19. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  20. ONLINE PRODUCT PURCHASE WITH DONATION PURPOSES: THE ROLE OF DONATION MOTIVATIONS AND ONLINE PURCHASE ELEMENTS ON PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ali TİLTAY

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.

  1. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  2. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Marini, C. D.; Suraya, S.; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc.

  3. Domain- and nucleotide-specific Rev response element regulation of feline immunodeficiency virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hong; Huisman, Willem; Ellestad, Kristofor K; Phillips, Tom R; Power, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Computational analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA sequences indicated that common FIV strains contain a rev response element (RRE) defined by a long unbranched hairpin with 6 stem-loop sub-domains, termed stem-loop A (SLA). To examine the role of the RNA secondary structure of the RRE, mutational analyses were performed in both an infectious FIV molecular clone and a FIV CAT-RRE reporter system. These studies disclosed that the stems within SLA (SA1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of the RRE were critical but SA6 was not essential for FIV replication and CAT expression. These studies also revealed that the secondary structure rather than an antisense protein (ASP) mediates virus expression and replication in vitro. In addition, a single synonymous mutation within the FIV-RRE, SA3/45, reduced viral reverse transcriptase activity and p24 expression after transfection but in addition also showed a marked reduction in viral expression and production following infection.

  4. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate

  5. 水平井、氮气及降黏剂辅助蒸汽吞吐技术——以准噶尔盆地春风油田浅薄层超稠油为例%Horizontal well, nitrogen and viscosity reducer assisted steam huff and puff technology:Taking super heavy oil in shallow and thin beds, Chunfeng Oilfield, Junggar Basin,NW China, as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠; 王金铸; 乔明全

    2013-01-01

    针对准噶尔盆地春风油田埋藏浅(400~570 m)、地层温度低(22~28℃)、储集层薄(2~6 m,平均3.5m)、地下原油黏度高(50000~90000 mPa·s)但热敏性好、适合热采的特点,提出了综合水平井、降黏剂、氮气、蒸汽的复合开发稠油方式(HDNS),并在排601砂体北部实施了HDNS开发先导试验.结果表明:油套环空注氮气,可起到隔热作用;利用氮气膨胀性高的特点,补充地层能量;地层内氮气向上超覆,对地层有保温作用.HDNS各要素的综合作用显著提高了蒸汽波及体积、驱油效率和原油流动能力,降低了原油黏度.春风油田应用HDNS技术已经建成产能40×104t,采油速度3.0%,实现了低品位浅薄层超稠油的高速高效开发.图2表6参19%Chunfeng Oilfield in the Junggar Basin has shallow burial depth (400-570 m), low formation temperature (22-28℃), thin reservoirs (2-6 m, averaging 3.5 m), high underground crude oil viscosity (50 000-90 000 mPa · s), but high sensitivity to heat, it is suitable for thermal recovery. In view of these features, a development method for this oilfield combining horizontal well, viscosity reducer, nitrogen and steam flooding (HDNS) was put forward, and pilot test was carried out in Northern Pai 601 sand body. The results show: injecting nitrogen through annulus can insulate thermal, high expansibility of nitrogen works to compensate formation energy, and nitrogen overlapping in reservoir has insulation effect. The combination effect of all parts of HDNS significantly increased steam sweep volume, oil displacement efficiency and crude oil flow ability, and reduced oil viscosity. Thanks to this technique, Chunfeng Oilfield has built up a production capacity of 40×104t, with an oil recovery rate of 3%, marking the successful high-speed and high-efficiency development of low-grade shallow thin super heavy oil.

  6. Inhibition of Exotoxin Production by Mobile Genetic Element SCCmec-Encoded psm-mec RNA Is Conserved in Staphylococcal Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Ikuo; Gentaro Nagano; Yuki Saito; Han Mao; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Chikara Kaito

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal species acquire antibiotic resistance by incorporating the mobile-genetic element SCCmec. We previously found that SCCmec-encoded psm-mec RNA suppresses exotoxin production as a regulatory RNA, and the psm-mec translation product increases biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we examined whether the regulatory role of psm-mec on host bacterial virulence properties is conserved among other staphylococcal species, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, both of which are...

  7. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  8. Production of Curved Precast Concrete Elements for Shell Structures and Free-form Architecture using the Flexible Mould Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grünewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and well-performing precast concrete structures can be manufactured. In this paper, a method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milling two expensive

  9. Evaluation of wastewater treatment by-products as soil amendment: Growth of sorghum-sudan grass and trace elements concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapatham, Paramasivam; Potts, Mariel C; Delise, Jeffrey A; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, Ashok K; Jayaraman, Kuppuswamy; Chakraborty, Paromita

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by-products (WTBP), such as sewage sludge (SS) may be used to enhance soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. These enhanced soil properties, in turn, could from its source of production to its site of application. These concerns may be mitigated by incineration of the SS to produce ash (SSA) and dissolved in water and stored in ponds as contribute to an increase in plant growth, production, mineral nutrition. Some SS is difficult to handle due to bad odor in its raw state and has large mass, hence expensive for transportation weathered SSA (WSSA). A greenhouse study was conducted using Candler fine sand CFS; (CFS; pH = 6.8) and Ogeechee loamy sand OLS; (pH = 5.2) with application of either 0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, or 148.2 Mg ha(-1) as either SS, SSA, or WSSA to evaluate the biomass production and elemental composition responses of sorghum-sudan grass (Sorghum vulgaris var. Sudanese hitche). Shoot and root biomass were 2 to 3 fold greater in the soil amended with SS, than either SSA or WSSA. Concentrations of nutrient and trace elements in the shoots and roots increased with increasing rates of amendments. Application of these by-products up to 98.8 Mg ha(-1) rate did not adversely affect growth or accumulation of trace elements in sorghum-sudan grass. Long-term field studies are recommended to investigate the potential leaching of various elements from the amended soils in addition to evaluation of plant growth and production responses to determine the acceptable rates of these by-products as amendments to agricultural soils.

  10. Enhancing biogas production from vinasse in sugarcane biorefineries: Effects of urea and trace elements supplementation on process performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Batista, Karla; Silva, Witan; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate and trace elements supplementation were investigated in a semi-continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system to enhance process stability and biogas production from sugarcane vinasse. Phosphate in form of KH2PO4 induced volatile fatty acids accumulation possibly due to potassium inhibition of the methanogenesis. Although nitrogen in form of urea increased the reactor's alkalinity, the process was overloaded with an organic loading rate of 6.1gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 3.6days. However, by supplementing urea and trace elements a stable operation even at an organic loading rate of 9.6gCODL(-1)d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 2.5days was possible, resulting in 79% higher methane production rate with a stable specific methane production of 239mLgCOD(-1).

  11. Elements improvement of system approach of new trademark for promotion according to the dependence product «price-quality»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Onyskiv

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic elements of competitiveness such as quality and price of a new product on market are explored and highlighted. The main principle which is used by commercial enterprises as marketing approach to promote a new trademark depending on price-quality has been grounded. Nine price sub-strategies that manufacturers use to achieve their marketing goals on the market have been considered. An effective pricing strategy for the new product depending on price-quality has been created. There are some methods of prices policy for new products depending on the level of their quality.

  12. Development of a laser induced breakdown spectrometer for detection of toxic elements in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganda, Yasin Wandhami

    In this research work we developed a highly sensitive analytical Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer to detect toxic elements in commercially available cosmetic products. These products are frequently used by many all over the world, therefore there is an increasing demand to determine concentration levels of toxic elements present in them because they cause dangerous diseases and most of them are highly carcinogenic and life threatening. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for spectroscopic analysis of cosmetic products such as tooth paste, synthetic hair dye, kohl eyeliners and talcum powder samples. These samples were purchased from the local market within the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The LIBS method is based on spectroscopic analysis of plasma resulting from the interaction of a high power pulsed laser radiations with a sample medium. In order to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer, the dependence of the LIBS signal intensity and plasma parameters such as temperature (T) and electron density (ne) on gate/time delay, laser fluence and wavelength of the excitation source for plasma generated under ambient conditions were studied. During this work Nd: YAG lasers having 266nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths operating in Q-switch mode were used as the excitation sources in combination with a spectrograph having a gated ICCD camera. Boltzmann plots and stark broadening for the recorded spectral lines were used to estimate the plasma temperature and electron density respectively. Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature and electron density showed a t-2 dependence. On the other hand plasma temperature and electron density increased with increase in laser fluence but leveled off at higher fluencies. It is worth noting that in both cases 266 nm and 1064 nm excitation wavelengths consistently had the highest and lowest values respectively. Therefore a 266 nm wavelength Nd: YAG laser excitation source was selected to develop a highly

  13. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  14. Leaching Gold Using Oxidation Products of Elemental Sulfur in Ca(OH)2 Solution under Oxygen Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方兆珩; 韩宝玲

    2002-01-01

    A gold leaching process by using in situ oxidation products of added elemental sulfur in Ca(OH)2 solution was investigated. A gold concentrate containing 45 g/t Au was tested and 85%~87% of gold were leached. The leached gold depends mainly on the initial molar ratio of elemental sulfur to the hydroxyl ion, the consumption of oxygen and the reaction temperature. Adding some surfactants, such as lignosulfonic calcium, at lower concentration increased the leached Au but at higher concentration decreased it. Both of thermodynamic analysis and experimental results show that thiosulfate is the major complexing agent for gold in the process.

  15. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  16. Improved recombinant antibody production by CHO cells using a production enhancer DNA element with repeated transgene integration at a predetermined chromosomal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinori; Inao, Takanori; Komatsu, Shodai; Huang, Guan; Ito, Akira; Omasa, Takeshi; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most useful host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Although a series of production processes have been refined to improve protein productivity and cost performance, establishing producer cells is still time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recombinase-mediated site-specific gene integration into a predetermined chromosomal locus may enable predictable protein expression, reducing the laborious process of cell screening. We previously developed an accumulative site-specific gene integration system (AGIS) using Cre recombinase and mutated loxP sites for transgene integration and amplification in the CHO cell genome. Epigenetic modifier elements such as insulators are effective DNA cis-regulatory elements for stabilizing transgene expression. Here, we attempted to enhance transgene expression in recombinant CHO cells generated by AGIS using a production enhancer DNA element (PE) derived from the CHO genome. The PE was introduced into an expression unit for a recombinant scFv-Fc antibody. The effect on scFv-Fc productivity of PE position and orientation within the transgene was evaluated, while keeping the background chromosomal structure constant. For the optimal PE arrangement, scFv-Fc productivity was enhanced 2.6-fold compared with an expression unit without a PE. The enhancing effect of the PE on transgene expression was also observed when two or three PE-flanked expression units were inserted as tandem repeats. These results indicate that AGIS using the PE-flanked expression unit is a promising approach for establishing producer cell lines for biopharmaceutical protein production.

  17. Marine Primary Productivity as a Potential Indirect Source of Selenium and Other Trace Elements in Atmospheric Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, Tim; Läderach, Alexander; Jones, Gerrad D; Sodemann, Harald; Wernli, Heini; Kirchner, James W; Winkel, Lenny H E

    2017-01-03

    Atmospheric processes play an important role in the supply of the trace element selenium (Se) as well as other essential trace elements to terrestrial environments, mainly via wet deposition. Here we investigate whether the marine biosphere can be identified as a source of Se and of other trace elements in precipitation samples. We used artificial neural network (ANN) modeling and other statistical methods to analyze relationships between a high-resolution atmospheric deposition chemistry time series (March 2007-January 2009) from Plynlimon (UK) and exposure of air masses to marine chlorophyll a and to other source proxies. Using ANN sensitivity analyses, we found that higher air mass exposure to marine productivity leads to higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rainfall. Furthermore, marine productivity was found to be an important but indirect factor in controlling Se as well as vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and aluminum (Al) concentrations in atmospheric deposition, likely via scavenging by organic compounds derived from marine organisms. Marine organisms may thus play an indirect but important role in the delivery of trace elements to terrestrial environments and food chains.

  18. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  19. Lithium Production in Companions of Accreting X-Ray Binaries by Neutron Spallation of C, N, O Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Guessoum, N; Guessoum, Nidhal; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1999-01-01

    We examine the processes which could lead to the observed enhancement of Li and possibly other light elements (Be, B) in the companions of a number of X-ray novae. We conclude that one of the most promising mechanisms is the spallation of CNO elements on the surface of the companion induced by the neutron flux produced in the hot accretion flow onto the compact object. Direct production of the observed Li and its deposition onto the dwarf companion seem less likely, mainly because of the possibility of its destruction in the production region itself and difficulties in its deposition associated with the configuration of the companion's magnetic field. We discuss other potential observables of the above scenario.

  20. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  1. Potential of Cultivated Ganoderma lucidum Mushrooms for the Production of Supplements Enriched with Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom species and there is continuous interest in its bioactive properties. This study evaluated whether it may additionally serve as a nutritional supplement for the trace elements: selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Mushrooms were cultivated on substrates enriched with 0.1 to 0.8 mM of inorganic Se alone or in combination with Zn and/or Cu. Supplementation increased accumulation of the elements in fruiting bodies regardless of the applied cultivation model. G. lucidum demonstrated the ability to accumulate significant amounts of organic Se, maximally amounting to (i) over 44 mg/kg when the substrate was supplemented only with Se, (ii) over 20 mg/kg in the Se+Cu model, (iii) over 25 mg/kg in the Se+Zn model, and (iv) 15 mg/kg in the Se+Cu+Zn model. The accumulation of Cu and Zn steadily increased with their initial substrate concentrations. Maximum concentrations found after supplementation with 0.8 mM amounted to over 55 mg/kg (Se+Zn) and 52 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Zn, and 29 mg/kg (Se+Cu) and over 31 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Cu. The greater the supplemented concentration and number of supplemented elements, the lower the biomass of G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Nevertheless, it still remained high when the substrate was supplemented up to 0.4 mM with each element. These results highlight that G. lucidum can easily incorporate elements from the substrate and that, when biofortified, its dried fruiting bodies may serve as a nutritional source of these essential elements.

  2. MAXIMAL ELEMENTS OF A FAMILY OF GB-MAJORIZED MAPPINGS IN PRODUCT FC-SPACES AND APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xie-ping

    2006-01-01

    A new family of GB-majorized mappings from a topological space into a finite continuous topological spaces (in short, FC-space) involving a better admissible set-valued mapping is introduced. Some existence theorems of maximal elements for the family of GB-majorized mappings are proved under noncompact setting of product FCspaces. Some applications to fixed point and system of minimax inequalities are given in product FC-spaces. These theorems improve, unify and generalize many important results in recent literature.

  3. A Stringent Limit on the Mass Production Rate of $r$-Process Elements in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from several studies of metal-poor stars in the Milky Way, focusing on both strong (Eu) and weak (Sr) $r$-process elements. Because these elements were injected in an explosion, we calculate the mass swept up when the blast wave first becomes radiative, yielding a lower limit for the dilution of such elements and hence a lower limit on the ejecta mass which is incorporated into the next generation of stars. Our study demonstrates that in order to explain the largest enhancements in [Eu/Fe] observed in stars at low [Fe/H] metallicities, individual $r$-process production events must synthesize a minimum of $10^{-3.5} M_{\\odot}$ of $r$-process material. We also show that if the site of Mg production is the same as that of Eu, individual injection events must synthesize up to $ \\sim 10^{-3} M_{\\odot}$ of $r$-process material. On the other hand, demanding that Sr traces Mg production results in $r$-process masses per event of $\\sim 10^{-5} M_{\\odot}$. This suggests that the astrophysical sites resp...

  4. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  5. Inhibition of exotoxin production by mobile genetic element SCCmec-encoded psm-mec RNA is conserved in staphylococcal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuo, Mariko; Nagano, Gentaro; Saito, Yuki; Mao, Han; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal species acquire antibiotic resistance by incorporating the mobile-genetic element SCCmec. We previously found that SCCmec-encoded psm-mec RNA suppresses exotoxin production as a regulatory RNA, and the psm-mec translation product increases biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we examined whether the regulatory role of psm-mec on host bacterial virulence properties is conserved among other staphylococcal species, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, both of which are important causes of nosocomial infections. In S. epidermidis, introduction of psm-mec decreased the production of cytolytic toxins called phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and increased biofilm formation. Introduction of psm-mec with a stop-codon mutation that did not express PSM-mec protein but did express psm-mec RNA also decreased PSM production, but did not increase biofilm formation. Thus, the psm-mec RNA inhibits PSM production, whereas the PSM-mec protein increases biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. In S. haemolyticus, introduction of psm-mec decreased PSM production, but did not affect biofilm formation. The mutated psm-mec with a stop-codon also caused the same effect. Thus, the psm-mec RNA also inhibits PSM production in S. haemolyticus. These findings suggest that the inhibitory role of psm-mec RNA on exotoxin production is conserved among staphylococcal species, although the stimulating effect of the psm-mec gene on biofilm formation is not conserved.

  6. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  7. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on the nuclear sciences of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro; Haba, Hiromitsu; Ikezoe, Hiroshi [eds.

    2000-03-01

    The workshop on the nuclear sciences of the heaviest elements took place on July 21-22, 1999 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Tokai. Approximately 40 scientists and 15 graduate students participated in the workshop which was organized by the Advanced Science Research Center, JAERI. The successful syntheses of three new super-heavy elements in 1999, Z=114 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and Z=118 (with Z=116 following from {alpha}-decay of Z=118) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in USA, are tremendous progress in the field of the heavy element research. The 1st International Conference on the Chemistry and Physics of the Transactinide Elements (TAN99) was held in Germany from September 26 to 30, 1999 to discuss in a larger context all scientific aspects of the heaviest elements. Thus, it was timely to hold the present domestic workshop to summarize what has been done in recent years, to see what has come true, and to discuss the perspectives in the near feature. The subjects in the workshop were classified into; (1) synthesis of heavy elements, (2) decay properties of heavy nuclei, (3) chemistry of the heaviest elements, and (4) future plans of the heavy element research in Japan. This volume contains the papers presented in the workshop. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Production method of photovoltaic element. Hikari kidenryoku soshi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Noriyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiaki; Omura, Kuniyoshi; Murosono, Mikio.

    1990-01-17

    CdS/CdTe printing method photovoltaic element is generally produced by printing carbon paste in which a very small amount of CuO is added on CdTe calcined film, which is then dried and calcinated in inert gas atomosphere. However, it has a big shortcoming of large contact resistance between the CdTe film and the carbon paste film. This invention relates to a method of adding CuO and Te simultaneously to carbon paste, burning the applied carbon paste to near the fusing temperature of Te for making CdTe film to p type, lowering contact resistance between the CdTe film and carbon paste film, and improving the properties of photovoltaic element for stabilization. The properties, however, are degraded if 5wt% or more Te is added, and the preferable amount of Te addition is from 0.3 to 1.0wt%. 2 figs.

  10. Building a Relationship between Elements of Product Form Features and Vocabulary Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic feature parameterization and the superiority evaluation method (SEM) in extension engineering, a product-shape design method was proposed in this study. The first step of this method is to decompose the basic feature components of a product. After that, the morphological chart method is used to segregate the ideas so as…

  11. Production of elemental sulfur and bentonite clay granules in a rotary drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ian Wallace

    Biological oxidation of sulfur granules is a critical component in elemental sulfur fertilizers since it converts sulfur to plant available sulfate. The level of biological oxidation is, in turn, regulated by the size and surface area of the sulfur granules. The aim of this research was to produce coarse sulfur granules that disintegrate to the correct particle size for biological oxidation, as well as the correct size for ballistic distribution from a spreader. Thus the interaction between mineral powders such as serpentine rock was investigated to get a better understanding of how these types of minerals react at different size fractions in granulation. Sulfur granules were developed from mixtures of 10% sodium bentonite clay with molten elemental sulfur. This was accomplished by sprayed a mixture bentonite and elemental sulfur into a falling curtain of fine material powder within a rotating drum. When comparing the seed materials, the serpentine rock showed sufficiently lower electrostatic build-up than phosphate rock. Serpentine rock also appears to help facilitate the disintegration of the granules when they are exposed to water. The outcome of the research was that it is possible to make a granulated sulfur fertilizer that had the correct size fraction and disintegration characteristics suitable for agronomic use.

  12. [Effect of beryllium on chemical elements of cell membrane and H2O2 production of Streptococcus oralis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-song; Fan, Zhen; Ma, Jian-feng; Gao, Ning

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of beryllium (Be(2+)) on chemical elements of cell membrane and H2O2 production of Streptococcus oralis (S.oralis), thus to explore the microbiologic mechanisms of periodontal diseases which may occur after prosthodontic treatment. S.oralis was put into artificial saliva with different Be(2+) concentration (5mg/L, 10mg/L, 20mg/L and 40mg/L) and anaerobic cultured for 24 hours. The amount of chemical elements in the membrane of S.oralis were tested with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the H(2)O(2) produced by S.oralis was detected with ABTS-HRP. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA using SPSS 11.0 software package. The amount of calcium in the cell membrane of beryllium treated S. oralis decreased, while the amount of phosphorus increased. Natrium increased with the increase of Be(2+) in the culture, but changed contrarily when S. oralis was treated with 20mg/L Be(2+). H(2)O(2) produced by S. oralis reduced when the concentration of Be(2+) was at 40mg/L(Pchemical elements in cell membrane and H(2)O(2) production of S. oralis, which may result in a disturbance in the microecologic balance of subgingival microbes after proshodontic treatments and eventually contribute to periodontal diseases.

  13. Elements of product service systems as a potential to achieve a sustainable development: bibliometry and content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ariente Neto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of product-service systems (PSS is presented as an innovative strategy when offering products and services. It aims at for minimizing environmental impacts through sustainable business models. This study aims to identify which potentialities can be explored with regard to the elements of a PSS in a configuration that favor to offer answers on sustainable issues. To do so, the literature was analyzed by a structured process of bibliographic review. Among the results, three aspects are highlighted: (i the wideness of product concept to add services through PSS life-cycle, (ii the configuration of infra-structure to support a PSS by establishing the necessary communication relatively to logistics services. Finally, the net of actors should be explored to obtain organizational proposals that contribute to PSS performance.

  14. Integrated Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Coal Gangue for Cement Clinker Products: Promoting Tricalcium Silicate Formation and Trace Elements Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study firstly proposed a method of integrated utilization of sewage sludge (SS and coal gangue (CG, two waste products, for cement clinker products with the aim of heat recovery and environment protection. The results demonstrated that the incremental amounts of SS and CG addition was favorable for the formation of tricalcium silicate (C3S during the calcinations, but excess amount of SS addition could cause the impediment effect on C3S formation. Furthermore, it was also observed that the C3S polymorphs showed the transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure as SS addition was increased to 15 wt %. During the calcinations, most of trace elements could be immobilized especially Zn and cannot be easily leached out. Given the encouraging results in the present study, the co-process of sewage sludge and coal gangue in the cement kiln can be expected with a higher quality of cement products and minimum pollution to the environment.

  15. Production of cosmogenic radionuclides at great depth: A multi element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucher, R.; Merchel, S.; Borgomano, J.; Bourlès, D. L.

    2011-09-01

    For the last two decades, in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides are increasingly applied in Earth sciences to quantify surface processes. In parallel, significant reduction of the analytical uncertainties linked to advances in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) allows more precise measurements. However, among all the published works on cosmogenic nuclides, only few studies are dedicated to a better understanding of their production systematic or to a better constrain of the physical parameters involved in their production. Thus, an approach to investigate in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl along a single 11-meter long core drilled from the surface and composed of carbonates and quartzose conglomerates has been launched. These measurements have been used to quantify muon-induced productions based on natural samples for each studied nuclide. Contrary to the current most oftenly used calculation of muon-induced production parameters which are based on irradiation experiments at discrete energies, productions based on natural samples are considering the entire energy range of particles reaching the ground surface. The evolution of 36Cl concentrations with depth needs to agree with those parameters deduced from 10Be and 26Al data. This is optimized when considering a fast muon-induced 36Cl production contribution and a spallation production rate at Sea Level High Latitude (SLHL) of (42.0 ± 2.0) atoms 36Cl·g·Ca - 1 ·a - 1 (1 sigma uncertainty).

  16. Specific elements of communication on agri-food products resulting from EU legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Timiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.

  17. Chemical thermodynamics of complex systems: fission product behavior in LWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed thermodynamic assessment has been made of the chemical reactions of fission products in LWR fuel rods. Using recent thermodynamic data and the in-reactor oxygen potential and temperature range of LWRs, equilibrium thermodynamic calculations were performed for the most plausible reactions of the fission products. The emphasis in this model is on the chemistry of cesium and rubidium and their reactions with the fuel, other fission products, and the zircaloy cladding. The model predictions are discussed for their implications in fuel-cladding interactions.

  18. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  19. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Heavy and Trace Elements on Safety and Stability of Confectionery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vītola Vineta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa beans kernels were tested making trials as milk chocolate prototype.

  20. Distributions of rare-earth elements in two Chinese coals and their burnt products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Duo-xi; ZHI Xia-chen

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of two fresh Chinese coals (lignitie and fatty coal ) from different geological origin and the corresponding fly and bottom ashes were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The ranges and means of concentrations of these elemennts were given. Based on the combustion simulating experiment in the one-dismensional boiler, the contents of REE (rare-earth element) of 18samples in lignite, fatty coal and their fly and bottom ashes in different combustion condition were determined, and geochemical feature of REE were analyzed.

  1. Strong stimulation of recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli by combining stimulatory control elements in an expression cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwick Friederike

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The XylS/Pm expression system has been used to produce recombinant proteins at industrial levels in Escherichia coli. Activation of transcription from the Pm promoter takes place in the presence of benzoic acid or derivatives of it. Previous mutagenesis studies resulted in identification of several variants of the expression control elements xylS (X, Pm (P and the 5'-untranslated region (U that individually gave rise to strongly stimulated expression. The goal of this study was to test if combination of such stimulatory mutations in the same expression vectors would lead to further increase of expression levels. Results We combined X, P and U variants that were originally identified due to their ability to strongly stimulate expression of the reporter gene bla (resistance to penicillin. Combination of optimized elements stimulated bla expression up to 75-fold (X, P and U combined relative to the wild-type system, while accumulated transcript levels increased about 50-fold. This is much more than for the elements individually. We also tested combination of the variant elements on two other and unrelated genes, celB (encoding phosphoglucomutase and the human growth factor gene gm-csf. Protein production from these genes is much more efficient than from bla in the wild-type system, but expression was still significantly stimulated by the combination of X, P and U variants, although not to the same extent as for bla. We also integrated a single copy of the expression cassette with each gene into the E. coli chromosome and found that the expression level from this single copy was higher for bla than for the wild-type plasmid system, while it was lower for celB and gm-csf. Conclusion Our results show that combination of stimulatory expression control elements can be used to further increase production of different proteins in E. coli. For one reporter gene (bla this allowed for more protein production from a single gene copy

  2. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle

    Non-treated wastewater is used for irrigation of aquatic food production systems in the peri-urban areas of the major cities in Southeast Asia. Therefore concern is that potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may accumulate in foods produced. Hanoi and Phnom Penh, the capitals of Vietnam and Cambodia...... polluted with As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. The sediment concentrations of Pb and Sb were also high. Of most concern was the observed Cd concentration in To Lich River which has a maximum of 427 mg kg-1 d.w. The Hanoi river sediment had a high retention capacity for PTEs. Logarithm to the maximum observed...

  3. Productive Second elements in nominal compounds: the matching of Englis and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Hietsch

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the treasured reminders of my postgraduate years in England, I cherish a sizable sheaf of manuscript pages, now yellow with age. They are in the hand of Sir William Craigie, that venerable pioneer of lexicographical study. The neat and delicate lines trace out the beginnings of a new venture. Sir William was making a record of the nominal compounds in Beowulf: they are arrayed under the banners of various headwords, each of which, as a glance will show, is a   s e c o n d element of composition. Alas, work on the project was never completed, nor are the present generation of Anglo-Saxonists aware of the particular line of argument Sir William had in mind when he set out to re-list the Beowulf compound vocabu­ lary.

  4. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  5. submitter Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Praplan, A P; Bianchi, F; Rissanen, M P; Ehn, M; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Adamov, A; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Duplissy, J; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Krapf, M; Kürten, A; Lehtipalo, K; Riccobono, F; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Simon, M; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Ye, P; Curtius, J; Baltensperger, U; Donahue, N M; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). Natural chemical ionisation takes place in the CLOUD chamber and organic oxidised compounds form clusters with nitrate, bisulfate, bisulfate/sulfuric acid clusters, ammonium, and dimethylaminium, or get protonated. The results from this study show that this process is selective for various oxidised organic compounds with low molar mass and ions, so that in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the elemental composition o...

  6. Measurement of spin correlation in tt production using a matrix element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2011-07-15

    We determine the fraction of tt events with spin correlation, assuming that the spin of the top quark is either correlated with the spin of the top antiquark as predicted by the standard model or is uncorrelated. For the first time we use a matrix-element-based approach to study tt spin correlation. We use tt → W+ b W- b → ℓ+ νbℓ- ν b final states produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=1.96  TeV, where ℓ denotes an electron or a muon. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4  fb(-1) and were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The result agrees with the standard model prediction. We exclude the hypothesis that the spins of the tt are uncorrelated at the 97.7% C.L.

  7. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...

  8. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for three industrial cases how a newly developed...

  9. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...

  10. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LC...

  11. Chemical Identification of Dubnium as a Decay Product of Element 115 Produced in the Reaction $\\rm {^{48}Ca}+{^{243}Am}$

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Utyonkov, V K; Shishkin, S V; Eremin, A V; Lobanov, Yu V; Chepigin, V I; Sokol, E A; Tsyganov, Yu S; Vostokin, G K; Aksenov, N V; Hussonnois, M; Itkis, M G; Aggeler, H W; Schumann, D; Bruchertseifer, H; Eichler, R; Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F

    2004-01-01

    The results of an experiment designed to identify $^{268}$Db as the terminal isotope in the $\\alpha $-decay chain of element 115 produced via the ${\\rm {^{243}Am}}({\\rm {^{48}Ca}},3n){\\rm {^{288}115}}$ reaction are presented. The $^{243}$Am target was bombarded with a beam dose of $3.4\\cdot 10^{18}$ $^{48}$Ca projectiles at an energy of 247 MeV at the center of the target. The reaction products were collected in the surface layer of a copper catcher block, which was removed with a lathe and then dissolved in concentrated HNO$_{3}$. The group-5 elements were separated by sorption onto Dowex $50{\\times} 8$ cation-exchange resin with subsequent desorption using 1 M HF, which forms anionic fluoride complexes of group-5 elements. The eluent was evaporated onto a 0.4 $\\mu$m thick polyethylene foil that was placed between a pair of semiconductor detectors surrounded by $^{3}$He neutron counters for measurement of $\\alpha$ particles, fission fragments, and neutrons. In the course of the experiment, we observed 15 spo...

  12. Simultaneous preconcentration of toxic elements in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri by cloud point extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem

    2013-06-01

    It has been extensively investigated that smokeless tobacco chewing can lead mainly to inflammation of oral cavity. In present study, the total and artificial saliva extracted toxic elements, arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead were estimated in smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri. Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead in artificial saliva extract, using complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Total and extractable toxic elements were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The chemical variables of cloud point extraction were optimized. The validity of methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference material (Virginia tobacco leaves) and spike recovery test. The artificial saliva extractable levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead ranged from 15-22, 45-70, 35-58, and 18-32%, respectively, of total elemental contents in mainpuri samples. It was estimated that intake of 10g of different brands of mainpuri contributing the 5.88, 55.0, 45.0 and 40.3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead, respectively for adults of ~60kg.

  13. Effects of Rare Earth Elements on Promoting Isoflavonoid Production and Release of Pueraria Lobata Hairy Roots in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传飞; 金乐红; 刘翠清

    2004-01-01

    The effects of various rare earth elements on growth and isoflavonoid production in hairy root cultures of Pueraria lobata(Willd.) Ohwi(strain TR2) cultured in 500 ml flasks were studied. After 32 days of culture,the biomass of hairy roots increase 15 times and reach 3.2 g dry weight. Hairy root growth was inhibited by Y2O3,NaSeO3 and Sm3+ because of brown formation. But significant promoting effect on root growth due to callus formation was observed in La3+ treatments. It is the most noteworthy that the production of total isoflavonoids and puerarin was enhanced greatly by La3+ treatment. A major portion of increased total isoflavonoids and puerarin was released into medium in La3+ treatment while the hairy root viabilities were preserved. Some specific secondary metabolite release processes could be induced by La3+ and their possible mechanism is discussed.

  14. PRODUCTION WORKSHOP AT HOME: CULTURAL ELEMENT AND SURVIVAL STRATEGY IN THE REGION P'URHEPECHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Sandoval-Contreras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze, characterize and give a definition of home workshop production from wood craft activities performed by residents of San Juan Pamatácuaro, Michoacán. For its realization, from an ethnographic perspective had to live for a time in the community study and thus directly observe workspaces artisans and learn in their own words of their organization in different ways, as the establishment of a workshop is given in the domestic space, the tools that are used have certain peculiarities, labor usually takes familiar, coupled required part marketing or networking. Furthermore, learning from each of the trades is through socialization and observation. Thus the formation of these productive activities turn out to be a survival strategy just for families to meet their needs because they do not generate surpluses.

  15. Elements in the Development of a Production Process for Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Sandig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of several viral vaccines depends on chicken embryo fibroblasts or embryonated chicken eggs. To replace this logistically demanding substrate, we created continuous anatine suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX, developed chemically-defined media, and established production processes for different vaccine viruses. One of the processes investigated in greater detail was developed for modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. MVA is highly attenuated for human recipients and an efficient vector for reactogenic expression of foreign genes. Because direct cell-to-cell spread is one important mechanism for vaccinia virus replication, cultivation of MVA in bioreactors is facilitated if cell aggregates are induced after infection. This dependency may be the mechanism behind our observation that a novel viral genotype (MVA-CR accumulates with serial passage in suspension cultures. Sequencing of a major part of the genomic DNA of the new strain revealed point mutations in three genes. We hypothesize that these changes confer an advantage because they may allow a greater fraction of MVA-CR viruses to escape the host cells for infection of distant targets. Production and purification of MVA-based vaccines may be simplified by this combination of designed avian cell line, chemically defined media and the novel virus strain.

  16. Magnetic properties and element concentrations in lichens exposed to airborne pollutants released during cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Winkler, Aldo; Guttová, Anna; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Grassi, Alice; Lackovičová, Anna; Senko, Dušan; Loppi, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    The content of selected elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn) was measured in samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri exposed for 30, 90 and 180 days around a cement mill, limestone and basalt quarries and urban and agricultural areas in SW Slovakia. Lichens transplanted around the investigated quarries and the cement mill rapidly (30 days) reflected the deposition of dust-associated elements, namely Ca (at the cement mill and the limestone quarry) and Fe, Ti and V (around the cement mill and the basalt quarry), and their content remained significantly higher throughout the whole period (30-180 days) with respect to the surrounding environment. Airborne pollutants (such as S) progressively increased in the study area from 30 to 180 days. The magnetic properties of lichen transplants exposed for 180 days have been characterized and compared with those of native lichens (Xanthoria parietina) and neighbouring bark, soil and rock samples, in order to test the suitability of native and transplanted samples as air pollution magnetic biomonitors. The magnetic mineralogy was homogeneous in all samples, with the exception of the samples from the basalt quarry. The transplants showed excellent correlations between the saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs) and the content of Fe. Native samples had a similar magnetic signature, but the values of the concentration-dependent magnetic parameters were up to two orders of magnitude higher, reflecting higher concentrations of magnetic particles. The concentrations of As, Ca and Cr in lichens correlated with Mrs values after neglecting the samples from the basalt quarry, which showed distinct magnetic properties, suggesting the cement mill as a likely source. Conversely, Ti and Mn were mostly (but not exclusively) associated with dust from the basalt quarry. It is suggested that the natural geological characteristics of the substrate may strongly affect the magnetic properties of lichen thalli

  17. Monash Chemical Yields Project (Monχey) Element production in low- and intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Carolyn; Lattanzio, John; Angelou, George; Campbell, Simon W.; Church, Ross; Constantino, Thomas; Cristallo, Sergio; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Stancliffe, Richard

    The Monχey project will provide a large and homogeneous set of stellar yields for the low- and intermediate- mass stars and has applications particularly to galactic chemical evolution modelling. We describe our detailed grid of stellar evolutionary models and corresponding nucleosynthetic yields for stars of initial mass 0.8 M⊙ up to the limit for core collapse supernova (CC-SN) ~ 10 M⊙. Our study covers a broad range of metallicities, ranging from the first, primordial stars (Z = 0) to those of super-solar metallicity (Z = 0.04). The models are evolved from the zero-age main-sequence until the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the nucleosynthesis calculations include all elements from H to Bi. A major innovation of our work is the first complete grid of heavy element nucleosynthetic predictions for primordial AGB stars as well as the inclusion of extra-mixing processes (in this case thermohaline) during the red giant branch. We provide a broad overview of our results with implications for galactic chemical evolution as well as highlight interesting results such as heavy element production in dredge-out events of super-AGB stars. We briefly introduce our forthcoming web-based database which provides the evolutionary tracks, structural properties, internal/surface nucleosynthetic compositions and stellar yields. Our web interface includes user- driven plotting capabilities with output available in a range of formats. Our nucleosynthetic results will be available for further use in post processing calculations for dust production yields.

  18. Caed Interactions During A Product Life Cycle Oriented Towards the Decision-Making in the Design of Polymeric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present the real case of an industrial product was placed prematurely on the market without having checked the different stages of its life cycle. This type of products must be validated by numerical methods and by mechanical tests to verify their rheological behavior. In particular, the product consists of two small pieces in contact, one made of HDPE and the other one corresponding to a stainless steel. The polymeric piece supports the metal pressure under a constant static load over time. As a result of normal operation, the polymer experienced a “crazing” breakdown, which caused the failure to occur. In the study, design methods and computer assisted analysis software (CAED) have been used. These methods were complemented by scanning electron microscopy that confirmed the initial failure hypothesis. Using the finite element method (FEM), a series of load scenarios were carried out, where the different load hypothesis the product must go through prior to its placing on the market were simulated. It is shown that the failure was initiated by stress concentration on one of the edges of the polymeric piece. The proposed solution of the problem based on the analysis focuses on a simple redesign of the piece, which should have been round, or to the reduction of the thickness of the metal piece. As a result of the alteration of its natural life cycle, the company assumed both monetary costs and the definitive loss of customer confidence.

  19. CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

  20. Care production for tuberculosis cases:analysis according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daiane Medeiros da; Farias, Hérika Brito Gomes de; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Sá, Lenilde Duarte de; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the care provided to tuberculosis cases in primary health care services according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model. Cross-sectional study conducted in a capital city of the northeastern region of Brazil involving 83 Family Health Strategy professionals.A structured tool adapted to tuberculosis-related care in Brazil was applied.Analysis was based on the development of indicators with capacity to produce care varying between limited and optimum. The organization of care for tuberculosis and supported self-care presented reasonable capacity.In the coordination with the community, the presence of the community agent presented optimum capacity.Partnership with organizations of the community and involvement of experts presented limited capacity.The qualification of professionals, the system for scheduling and monitoring tuberculosis in the community, and the clinical information system presented basic capacity. The capacity of the primary health care services to produce tuberculosis-related care according to the elements of the Chronic Care Model is still limited.Overcoming the fragmentation of care and prioritizing a systemic operation between actions and services of the health care network remains as a major challenge. Analisar,segundo os elementos doChronicCareModel,a produção do cuidado aos casos de tuberculose nos serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Estudo transversal, realizado em capital do nordeste brasileiro, envolvendo 83 profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Aplicou-se um instrumento estruturado, adaptado para atenção à tuberculose no Brasil. A análise pautou-se na construção de indicadores, cujacapacidade para produção de cuidados variou entre limitada a ótima. A organização da atenção à tuberculose e o autocuidado apoiado apresentaram capacidade razoável. Na articulação com a comunidade, a presençadoagente comunitário de saúde apresentou capacidade ótima. A parceria com organizações da

  1. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Raquel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Todolí, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Lienemann, Charles-Philippe [IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Mermet, Jean-Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2013-10-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described.

  2. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p units were increased linearly (p production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  3. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory

  4. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  5. Production and decay of element 114: high cross sections and the new nucleus 277Hs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullmann, Ch.E.; Schadel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Turler, A.; Eberhardt, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Bruchle, W.; Dvorak, J.; Essel, H.G.; Ellison, P.A.; Even, J.; Gates, J.M.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hild, D.; Hubner, A.; Jager, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lahiri, S.; Liebe, D.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Parr, E.; Rudolph, D.; Runke, J.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Semchenkov, A.; Steiner, J.; Thorle-Pospiech, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.

    2009-12-22

    The fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 244}Pu({sup 48}Ca,3-4n){sup 288,289}114 was studied at the new gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. Thirteen correlated decay chains were observed and assigned to the production and decay of {sup 288,289}114. At a compound nucleus excitation energy of E* = 39.8-43.9 MeV, the 4n evaporation channel cross section was 9.8{sub -3.1}{sup +3.9} pb. At E* = 36.1-39.5 MeV, that of the 3n evaporation channel was 8.0{sub -4.5}{sup +7.4} pb. In one of the 3n evaporation channel decay chains, a previously unobserved {alpha} branch in {sup 281}Ds was observed (probability to be of random origin from background: 0.1%). This {alpha} decay populated the new nucleus {sup 277}Hs, which decayed by spontaneous fission after a lifetime of 4.5 ms.

  6. Trace element contents in raw materials and products of the confectionary industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, J. (Edesipari Vallalat, Szerencs (Hungary)); Kiss, B. (Allategeszseguegyi es Elelmiszerellenoerzoe Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary))

    Based on measurements by X-ray radiation analysis, the zinc content of raw ingredients for the confectionary industry varies between 27,2 and 56,4 mg/kg and their copper content between 6,2 and 34,3 mg/kg. The same values for bitter chocolates: 22,3 to 28,8 mg/kg for zinc and 10,8 to 18,8 mg/kg for copper resp.; values in milk chocolates: 15,9 to 19,8 mg/kg (zinc) and 2,6 to 6,1 mg/kg (copper). Contents of zinc and copper in cocoa powders are much higher than the above values: 78,1 to 102,5 mg/kg (zinc) and 45,9 to 48,6 mg/kg (copper), resp. Zinc and copper contents in the end products depend in the first place on the raw ingredients; contamination during manufacturing is unlikely. 8 refs.

  7. Investigation on high temperature vapor pressure of UO 2 containing simulated fission-product elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Ohtsubo, A.; Ishii, T.

    1984-06-01

    During the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), the temperature of the fuel would rise above 3000 K. The experimental data concerning the saturated fuel vapor pressure are necessary for the analysis of the HCDA. In this study, the UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn was used to simulate the irradiated fuel in the FBR. The saturated vapor pressure of pure UO 2 and UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag, or Sn at 3000 to 5000 K was measured dynamically with a pulse laser and a torsion pendulum. The surface of a specimen on the pendulum was heated to eject vapor by the injection of a giant pulse ruby laser beam. The pressure of the ejected vapor was measured by both the maximum rotation angle of the pendulum and the duration of vapor ejection. The saturated vapor pressure was theoretically calculated by using the ejected vapor pressure. The surface temperature of the specimen was estimated from the irradiated energy density measured with a laser energy meter. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 at 3640 to 5880 K measured in this study was near the extrapolated value of Ackermann's low temperature data. The vapor pressure of UO 2 containing Cs, Ba, Ag or Sn was higher than that of UO 2. The saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 and a solid fission products system was calculated by using these experimental data.

  8. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  9. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1959-06-29

    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  10. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  11. The materials and elements production practice of counter-erosional and thermal protection system of the SPR-solid-propellant sustainer nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurenko, V. M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the production scheme for heat- and erosion-protective carbon plastic materials for heat shield elements of solid-propellant nozzles. Attention is also given the method of manufacturing adhesive joint assemblies, and the production scheme is included.

  12. Priority Processing of Effective Packing Elements on Increasing Greenhouse Products Exports in Viewpoint of Russian Reporters (Case Study of Greenhouse Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Fahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed Priority processing of effective packing elements on increasing greenhouse products exports in viewpoint of Russian reporters. Statistics society of the research includes 44 people. Provided questionnaire was distributed among them which 30 questionnaire were returned. This is a questionnaire research in which questionnaire comprises two sections. To process the priority of packing elements from greenhouse products average index was used. To answer the main question of research, “Weather packing elements of goods influences increasing greenhouse products exports to Russia in viewpoint of Russian reports?” We examined five equations which are explained in the form of five hypotheses. In this research we try to determine that in view point of Russia reporter which elements of packing greenhouse cucumber has a meaningful relation to increasing exports and in other words, between which element and increasing exports to Russia there is no special relation. After doing some studies, interviews and distributing questionnaires, results showed that elements of package color, package weight and facility of opening the package influence increasing exports and in other side, two elements of package quality and package compatibility with environment don’t influence increasing exports.

  13. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  14. Classification of wines according to their production regions with the contained trace elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng; Li, Hua; Yu, Jialu; Bernard, Jérôme; Chen, Li; Martin, Serge; Delepine-Gilon, Nicole; Bocková, Jana; Veis, Pavel; Chen, Yanping; Yu, Jin

    2017-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to classify French wines according to their production regions. The use of the surface-assisted (or surface-enhanced) sample preparation method enabled a sub-ppm limit of detection (LOD), which led to the detection and identification of at least 22 metal and nonmetal elements in a typical wine sample including majors, minors and traces. An ensemble of 29 bottles of French wines, either red or white wines, from five production regions, Alsace, Bourgogne, Beaujolais, Bordeaux and Languedoc, was analyzed together with a wine from California, considered as an outlier. A non-supervised classification model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was first developed for the classification. The results showed a limited separation power of the model, which however allowed, in a step by step approach, to understand the physical reasons behind each step of sample separation and especially to observe the influence of the matrix effect in the sample classification. A supervised classification model was then developed based on random forest (RF), which is in addition a nonlinear algorithm. The obtained classification results were satisfactory with, when the parameters of the model were optimized, a classification accuracy of 100% for the tested samples. We especially discuss in the paper, the effect of spectrum normalization with an internal reference, the choice of input variables for the classification models and the optimization of parameters for the developed classification models.

  15. Calculation of L shell production cross sections for the elements with 40{<=}Z{<=}92 at 1-1500 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Hasan E-mail: herdogan@pamukkale.edu.tr; Sade, Keziban; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    In this study, L shell X-ray production cross sections for the elements atomic number between 40{<=}Z{<=} 92 were calculated for the energy 1-1500 keV. Calculated values were tabulated. Using these tables, we drew the graphics of production cross sections against the atomic numbers and energies. As a result, production cross sections increases with atomic number increase and decrease with energy increases.

  16. Behaviour of the elements introduced with the fuels in their distribution and immobilization between the coal-petroleum coke IGCC solid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon Alvarez-Rodriguez; Carmen Clemente-Jul; Juan A. Martin-Rubi [Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Mining School

    2007-09-15

    In this research on the solid products of the Elcogas IGCC plant (Puertollano, Spain) the influence of the two fuels, coal and pet coke, on the composition of the fly ashes and slag is demonstrated and how the majority of the elements are provided by the coal and only some as V, Ni and Mo are provided by the pet coke. The different nature of slag and fly ashes is highlighted and how the different elements are distributed between them that in general follow the indications of the mathematical models. The passage of the elements into gaseous phase is calculated. The fly ashes are some products of very fine granulometry that present problems of solubilization of a series of elements and therefore of deposition. Their inertization has been investigated by calcination at 1000{sup o}C and with additives. Some good results have been obtained. 20 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. A.S.P.E.N. position paper: recommendations for changes in commercially available parenteral multivitamin and multi-trace element products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Vincent W; Borum, Peggy; Buchman, Alan; Fessler, Theresa A; Howard, Lyn; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Kochevar, Marty; Shenkin, Alan; Valentine, Christina J

    2012-08-01

    The parenteral multivitamin preparations that are commercially available in the United States (U.S.) meet the requirements for most patients who receive parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a separate parenteral vitamin D preparation (cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol) should be made available for treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiency unresponsive to oral vitamin D supplementation. Carnitine is commercially available and should be routinely added to neonatal PN formulations. Choline should also be routinely added to adult and pediatric PN formulations; however, a commercially available parenteral product needs to be developed. The parenteral multi-trace element (TE) preparations that are commercially available in the U.S. require significant modifications. Single-entity trace element products can be used to meet individual patient needs when the multiple-element products are inappropriate (see Summary/A.S.P.E.N. Recommendations section for details of these proposed modifications).

  18. Measurement of the electroweak top quark production cross section and the CKM matrix element Vtb with the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Matthias [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2009-06-29

    At particle accelerators the Standard Model has been tested and will be tested further to a great precision. The data analyzed in this thesis have been collected at the world's highest energetic-collider, the Tevatron, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, USA. There, protons and antiprotons are collided at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The discovery of the top quark was one of the remarkable results not only for the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron collider, but also for the Standard Model, which had predicted the existence of the top quark because of symmetry arguments long before already. Still, the Tevatron is the only facility able to produce top quarks. The predominant production mechanism of top quarks is the production of a top-antitop quark pair via the strong force. However, the Standard Model also allows the production of single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. This process features the unique opportunity to measure the |Vtb| matrix element of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix directly, without assuming unitarity of the matrix or assuming that the number of quark generations is three. Hence, the measurement of the cross section of electroweak top quark production is more than the technical challenge to extract a physics process that only occurs one out of ten billion collisions. It is also an important test of the V-A structure of the electroweak interaction and a potential window to physics beyond the Standard Model in the case where the measurement of |V{sub tb}| would result in a value significantly different from 1, the value predicted by the Standard Model. At the Tevatron two production processes contribute significantly to the production of single top quarks: the production via the t-channel, also called W-gluon fusion, and the production via the s-channel, known as well as W* process. This analysis searches for the combined s

  19. Measurement of the electroweak top quark production cross section and the CKM matrix element Vtb with the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Matthias [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2009-06-29

    At particle accelerators the Standard Model has been tested and will be tested further to a great precision. The data analyzed in this thesis have been collected at the world's highest energetic-collider, the Tevatron, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in the vicinity of Chicago, IL, USA. There, protons and antiprotons are collided at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The discovery of the top quark was one of the remarkable results not only for the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron collider, but also for the Standard Model, which had predicted the existence of the top quark because of symmetry arguments long before already. Still, the Tevatron is the only facility able to produce top quarks. The predominant production mechanism of top quarks is the production of a top-antitop quark pair via the strong force. However, the Standard Model also allows the production of single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. This process features the unique opportunity to measure the |Vtb| matrix element of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix directly, without assuming unitarity of the matrix or assuming that the number of quark generations is three. Hence, the measurement of the cross section of electroweak top quark production is more than the technical challenge to extract a physics process that only occurs one out of ten billion collisions. It is also an important test of the V-A structure of the electroweak interaction and a potential window to physics beyond the Standard Model in the case where the measurement of |V{sub tb}| would result in a value significantly different from 1, the value predicted by the Standard Model. At the Tevatron two production processes contribute significantly to the production of single top quarks: the production via the t-channel, also called W-gluon fusion, and the production via the s-channel, known as well as W* process. This analysis searches for the combined s

  20. A study on Matrix Element corrections in inclusive Z/ gamma* production at LHC as implemented in PYTHIA, HERWIG, ALPGEN and SHERPA

    CERN Document Server

    Lenzi, P

    2009-01-01

    We study Matrix Element corrections as implemented in four popular event generators for hadron collisions. We compare PYTHIA, HERWIG, ALPGEN and SHERPA in the Z/gamma* inclusive production at LHC. PYTHIA and HERWIG are able to correct the first emission from the shower taking the Matrix Element calculation for one additional parton into account. SHERPA and ALPGEN are able to take into account Matrix Element corrections not only for one, but rather for several hard emissions from the incoming partons. This can be done at the price of introducing a separation cut to distinguish a Matrix Element and a Parton Shower populated regions. In this paper we check the effect of Matrix Element corrections in PYTHIA and HERWIG and we check that results from these two generators are consistent. Then we turn to SHERPA and ALPGEN, that implement two different methods to match Matrix Element calculations and Parton Shower. If we constraint them so that no more than one parton can emerge from the Matrix Element calculations th...

  1. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  2. Electronic Devices, Methods, and Computer Program Products for Selecting an Antenna Element Based on a Wireless Communication Performance Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of operating an electronic device includes providing a plurality of antenna elements, evaluating a wireless communication performance criterion to obtain a performance evaluation, and assigning a first one of the plurality of antenna elements to a main wireless signal reception...

  3. Enhancement of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 in a fed-batch process using trace elements and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nasri Nasrabadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Under fed-batch process conditions, the statistical analysis of trace elements was performed by application of Plackett-Burman design (for screening tests and response surface methodology (for predicting the optimal points to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design was conducted on eleven trace elements (i. e., aluminum, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium and zinc to select out elements that significantly enhance the canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design revealed that Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions had the highest effect on canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1 (P<0.05. These three elements were used for further optimization. By means of response surface methodology for the fed-batch process, the optimum conditions to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin (8923±18 µg/L were determined as follow: Fe3+ 30 ppm, Cu2+ 28.75 ppm and Zn2+ 27 ppm.

  4. The Application of Trace Elements on Dairy Production%微量元素在奶牛生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于倩楠; 黄成竹; 易建明; 隋晨

    2013-01-01

    The important role of trace elements in dairy production has gradually been cognitive, but it is the issue that how to correct and rational use of them. In this paper, the role of common trace elements(including copper, zinc, salt, cobalt) in dairy production, the hazards of lacking and adding excessive, and the effects of different forms(organic or inorganic) on dairy production performance were reviewed, in order to propose theoretical basis for the reasonable use of trace elements for dairy production.%微量元素在奶牛生产中的重要作用已逐渐被人们认知,但如何正确、合理使用仍是有待研究的问题.本文对奶牛生产中常见的微量元素铜、锌、锰、钴的作用,缺乏及添加过量的危害,以及不同使用形式(有机、无机)对奶牛泌乳性能的影响进行了综述,以期为养殖生产者合理使用微量元素提供理论依据.

  5. A study of the kinetics and the effect of trace elements on mixed anaerobic fermentative biogas production by ternary quadratic general rotary unitized design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of trace elements on methanogenesis was investigated during mixed anaerobic fermentation using a single-factor experiment in the present study. The most effective concentrations of Fe0, Fe2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ that were added were 1500, 250, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively. The optimal trace element combination was 0.58 mg/L Ni2+, 1200 mg/L Fe0 and 0.34 mg/L Co2+ by the ternary quadratic general rotary unitized design method. The degree of influence exerted by trace elements on the cumulative methane yields decreased in the order of Ni2+, Fe0 and Co2+, and the maximum CH4 yield was 241.6 mL/g volatile solids (VS, according to a regression equation. The non-dissolved organic carbon hydrolytic process showed a good fit with the first-order kinetic model. The maximum value of CH4 was 312.87 mL/g VS. Compared to the control, the bioconversion efficiencies of CH4 and CO2 production increased by 36.76% and 74.50%, respectively, at the optimal trace element combination. The obtained results provide new knowledge for improvements in the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation biogas production.

  6. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deghfel, B., E-mail: b-deghfel@yahoo.fr [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, M’Sila University, 28000 M’Sila (Algeria); Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj University, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Kahoul, A. [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj University, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); LESIMS laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Nekkab, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, M’Sila University, 28000 M’Sila (Algeria); LESIMS laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  7. Non-essential and essential trace element concentrations in meat from cattle reared under organic, intensive or conventional production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M; Hernández, J; Prieto, F; Shore, R F

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated if differences in non-essential and essential trace element accumulation in beef-cattle reared under different systems (including organic, conventional and intensive management) were reflected in the meat derived from these animals. Diaphragm muscle from 166 calves from nine farms were analysed. Muscle cadmium concentrations were low (organ concentrations that better reflect exposure), except for cobalt (positive association) and zinc (negative association). Non-essential and essential trace element concentrations in muscle in the studied animals did not generally reflect differences in exposure. This is particularly relevant for animals reared in systems (such as organic farms) where cattle are exposed to higher levels of non-essential elements (probably due to soil ingestion when grazing) but also can suffer from mineral deficiencies.

  8. Eleven new heaviest isotopes of elements Z = 105 to Z = 117 identified among the products of 249Bk+48Ca reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yuri Ts. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Abdullin, F. Sh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bailey, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Benker, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bennett, M. E. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Dmitriev, S. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hamilton, J. H. [Vanderbilt University; Henderson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Itkis, M. G. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Lobanov, Yu. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Mezentsev, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Moody, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Nelson, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Polyakov, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Porter, C. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ramayya, A. V. [Vanderbilt University; Riley, F. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Roberto, James B [ORNL; Ryabinin, M. A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad, Russia; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Taylor, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tsyganov, Yu. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Utyonkov, V. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Voinov, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Vostokin, G. K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Wilk, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    The heaviest isotopes of elements Z = 117 to Z = 105, 294117, 293117, 290115, 289115, 286113, 285113, 282Rg, 281Rg, 278Mt, 274Bh, and 270Db, were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator among the products of the 249Bk + 48Ca reaction. The details of the observed six decay chains, indicating the production and decay of isotopes 293117 and 294117, are presented and discussed. The decay energies and resulting half-lives of these new nuclei show a strong rise of stability with increasing neutron number, validating the concept of the island of enhanced stability for superheavy nuclei.

  9. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, Chikara; Saito, Yuki; Nagano, Gentaro; Ikuo, Mariko; Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Han, Xiao; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hishinuma, Tomomi; Baba, Tadashi; Ito, Teruyo; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2011-02-03

    The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strain, or into the MW2 (USA400) and FRP3757 (USA300) strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i) both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii) the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Kaito

    Full Text Available The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strain, or into the MW2 (USA400 and FRP3757 (USA300 strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Analysis and Application of Cultural Expression Elements in Product Design%产品设计中文化的表达要素解析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路得; 李志春

    2011-01-01

    以产品设计中如何表达文化内涵为研究目的,阐述了产品设计中文化因素的作用,解析了文化符号、形态语意、色彩语意、材质语意等设计要素的文化表达思路,在此基础上,提出在产品设计中运用设计要素来表达文化的方法,并通过对内蒙古包头地区文化特色产品的具体设计加以论证。%It took how to express the cultural connotation in product design as the research object, made explanation about the application of the cultural elements in product design, and made analysis about cultural expression thought of cultural signs, form semantics, color semantics, material semantics, etc. Based on these, the method of applying the design elements to express culture in product design is proposed, and the demonstration is made by the product concrete design of Baotou Inner Mongolian cultural features products.

  12. Negative regulation of P element excision by the somatic product and terminal sequences of P in drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A transient in vivo P element excision assay was used to test the regulatory properties of putative repressor-encoding plasmids in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The somatic expression of an unmodified transposase transcription unit under the control of a heat shock gene promoter (phsn) effectivel...

  13. Composite UHPC-AAC/CLC facade elements with modified interior plaster for new buildings and refurbishment. Materials and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Miccoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the environmental impact of the building sector is increasing. Steel reinforced concrete is the most commonly used construction material, though with a high-embodied energy and carbon footprint. Large environmental gains may arise if an alternative to steel reinforced concrete is developed. In this context, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC materials are shown to be promising alternatives with advantages such as lower embodied energy and reduced environmental impact. Predictions suggest that UHPC composite elements for building envelopes could have other benefits such as an increased service life, optimised use of building area due to thinner elements and minimised maintenance due to the absence of reinforcement or use of non-corrosive reinforcing materials such as carbon fibres. In the framework of the H-HOUSE project funded by the European Commission, composite elements are developed. The aim is to create facade panels combining an autoclaved aerated concrete or cellular lightweight concrete insulation layer with an external UHPC supporting layer. To enhance occupant comfort and health, hygroscopic materials that are capable to buffer indoor air humidity shall be applied to the inside of such elements. Indoor air humidity levels are expected to be more stable, which shall subsequently improve the indoor climate and minimise potential decay to the construction.  

  14. The pivotal role of chelation as a stereochemical control element in non-Evans anti aldol product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2010-06-18

    The origin of stereoselective formation of Evans syn and non-Evans anti aldol products in the reaction between titanium enolate derived from N-succinyloxazolidinone and benzaldehyde is established by using transition-state modeling. The chelated transition-state model is found to hold the key to otherwise less likely non-Evans anti aldol product, whereas the nonchelated model offers a convincing rationalization toward Evans syn aldol product. The computed results are in agreement with the reported experimental observations.

  15. Distributed Identification of Top-l Inner Product Elements and its Application in a Peer-to-Peer Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inner product computation is an important primitive used in many techniques for feature dependency detection, distance computation, clustering and correlation...

  16. Bibliometric analysis of Spanish journals of education indexed in Journal Citation Report. Scientific production and controversial elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto LÓPEZ GÓMEZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a bibliometric analysis of the Spanish journals of education included in 2010 in Journal Citation Report. These journals are Revista Española de Pedagogía, Infancia y Aprendizaje, Teoría de la Educación. Revista Interuniversitaria, Revista de Psicodidáctica and Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación. Our research focuses on two fundamental elements: first, general data given by the studied journals; second, controversial elements where more arguments arise between experts in scientific journals: the level of inbreeding, the research financing and the degree of internationalization of each journal. Finally, it presents some reflections which can illuminate the current situation of some of the most relevant journals of education in Spain.

  17. A simple and general method for solving detailed chemical evolution with delayed production of iron and other chemical elements

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Spitoni, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new theoretical method for solving the chemical evolution of galaxies, by assuming the instantaneous recycling approximation for chemical elements restored by massive stars and the Delay Time Distribution formalism for the delayed chemical enrichment by Type Ia Supernovae. The galaxy gas mass assembly history, together with the assumed stellar yields and initial mass function, represent the starting point of this method. We derive a very simple and general equation which closely relates the Laplace transforms of the galaxy gas accretion and star formation history, which can be used to simplify the problem of retrieving these quantities in most of current galaxy evolution models. We find that - once the galaxy star formation history has been reconstructed from our assumptions - the differential equation for the evolution of the chemical element $X$ can be suitably solved with classical methods. We apply our model to reproduce the $[\\text{O/Fe}]$ and $[\\text{Si/Fe}]$ vs. $[\\text{Fe/...

  18. Broad-Host-Range Expression Reveals Native and Host Regulatory Elements That Influence Heterologous Antibiotic Production in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Jia; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Michelle; Nguyen, Darlene; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-05

    in Gram-negative proteobacterial expression hosts, and we leverage this platform to uncover regulatory elements that influence violacein expression from Pseudoalteromonas Although it is often assumed that BGCs will be more successfully expressed in more closely related hosts, our work suggests that this may not be a general rule of thumb, as heterologous production of natural products can be influenced by specific host regulatory and/or biosynthetic elements, and the identity and effectiveness of those elements are difficult to predict. We argue for the use of a diverse set of heterologous hosts, which may also provide insights into the BGC biosynthetic mechanism and the biological function of BGCs. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  19. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  20. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  1. Production potential of the soil and the basic elements of productivity of the most widely spred sessil types in the u. N.P. „Đerdap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the results of the soil and its production potential in the types of forests of sessile oaks (Quercus petraea in the area of the National Park „Đerdap” in the community units of Zlatica, Đerdap, Štrbačko korito, Desna reka and Kožica. There are the most widely spread types of the sprout forests of the sessile oaks in the research area, deep deluvium, luvisoil, eutric cambsoils, and a great number of subtypes of acid brown soil. Considering the fact that the production potential of the defined types of soil depends on the depth, skeleton and other physical characteristics which determine acception, keeping and moving of water and this means that the production value of the studied soils is in the direct correlation with physical-geographical conditions of the environment. Taking into account that solum is well developed and the low contents of skeleton, all the studied soil in the most widely spread types of sessile oaks in the area of N.P. „Đerdap”, are very productive natural habitats. The exception is acid brown soil, which characteristics vary as well as their production potential. Apart from a good production potential of the studied soils within this paper, sessile forests in the researched areas irrationally use production potential of the habitat. In the research area in the last 20 years, the processes of devitalizing and the appearance of decaying of sessile oaks are expressed. In the sessile forests of Serbia, there are forests of the production and protection character, and the structure of the sessile forests at global level is characterized by not normal state with domination of middle aged and in great extent mature withering ingredients, what is the main cause of insufficiently used good potential of the soil.

  2. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  3. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from fusion hindrance in reactions leading to the production of superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselsky, M.; Klimo, J.; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter K0=240 -260 MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy (γ >1 ) are rejected.

  4. Rearrangement of mouse immunoglobulin kappa deleting element recombining sequence promotes immune tolerance and lambda B cell production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José Luis; Aït-Azzouzene, Djemel; Duong, Bao Hoa; Ota, Takayuki; Nemazee, David

    2008-02-01

    The recombining sequence (RS) of mouse and its human equivalent, the immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa deleting element (IGKDE), are sequences found at the 3' end of the Ig kappa locus (Igk) that rearrange to inactivate Igk in developing B cells. RS recombination correlates with Ig lambda (Iglambda) light (L) chain expression and likely plays a role in receptor editing by eliminating Igk genes encoding autoantibodies. A mouse strain was generated in which the recombination signal of RS was removed, blocking RS-mediated Igk inactivation. In RS mutant mice, receptor editing and self-tolerance were impaired, in some cases leading to autoantibody formation. Surprisingly, mutant mice also made fewer B cells expressing lambda chain, whereas lambda versus kappa isotype exclusion was only modestly affected. These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells.

  5. Trapped blood elements within the decidua of the rat pregnant uterus generate a lipoxygenase product(s) which inhibits myometrial prostacyclin synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    El Tahir, K.E.H.; Williams, K I

    1981-01-01

    1 Prostacyclin (PGI2) production by chopped segments of rat pregnant uterus was low compared with synthesis by separated myometrial tissue. Incubation of separated myometrium with decidua (2:1 by weight) led to an inhibition of myometrial PGI2 output.

  6. CO2 utilization: an enabling element to move to a resource- and energy-efficient chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2015-03-13

    CO(2) conversion will be at the core of the future of low-carbon chemical and energy industry. This review gives a glimpse into the possibilities in this field by discussing (i) CO(2) circular economy and its impact on the chemical and energy value chain, (ii) the role of CO(2) in a future scenario of chemical industry, (iii) new routes for CO(2) utilization, including emerging biotechnology routes, (iv) the technology roadmap for CO(2) chemical utilization, (v) the introduction of renewable energy in the chemical production chain through CO(2) utilization, and (vi) CO(2) as a suitable C-source to move to a low-carbon chemical industry, discussing in particular syngas and light olefin production from CO(2). There are thus many stimulating possibilities offered by using CO(2) and this review shows this new perspective on CO(2) at the industrial, societal and scientific levels.

  7. Rescue archaeology heritage valuation in Europe’s largest dam - Alqueva: ex‑situ products as elements of creative tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalina Dias Sardinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine how the knowledge obtained from the study of prehistoric heritage found during the construction of the Alqueva dam and irrigation system (Portugal can enhance the current tourist experience of the destination. A new approach is necessary given the inaccessibility of the archeological remains, thus creative tourims and experience economy frame the theoretical basis of this paper. Semi-directed interviews were carried out to 35 tourism stakeholders in order to assess their view of the regional tourism experience, their interest in ex-situ and virtual products based on the archeological knowledge and how these may add to the Alqueva destination. Findings show that stakeholders are still firmly attached to the conventional approach to archaeology but that, even though unaware of the archaeological findings, they believe that they could benefit form the introduction of creative products as a way of complementing the current offer.

  8. Elemental and radionuclides distribution in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil; Distribuicao elementar e de radionuclideos na producao e uso de fertilizantes fosfatados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueia, Catia Heloisa Rosignoli

    2006-07-01

    Fertilizer is considered an essential component for agriculture, because its use increases the natural soil nutrients, which are lost slow waste or erosion. The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition, radionuclides of the U and Th natural series in. During the chemical attack of the phosphate rock, this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides and the elements migrate to intermediate, final products and byproducts, according to their solubility and chemical properties. While the fertilizers are commercialized, the phosphogypsum is disposed in stack piles and can cause an impact in the environment. In order to evaluate the radionuclides and the elements distribution in the industrial process of phosphate fertilizer production, samples of concentrated rock, fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP) and phosphogypsum from three national industries (A, B and C), were analyzed. The characterization of the elements Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr, and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained showed that, in general, the rare earth elements are distributed uniformly in the fertilizers and phosphogypsum, except for Lu. The elemental concentration present in the fertilizers SSP and TSP are of the same order of magnitude of the source rock. The same behavior was observed in the fertilizers MAP and DAP, except for the elements Co, Sc and U. The radionuclides of the U series ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb) and of the Th series

  9. Production and precipitation of rare earth elements in acidic to alkaline coal mine discharges, Appalachian Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.; Hedin, B. C.; Wallrich, I. L. R.; Hedin, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned coal mine discharges are a serious threat to ground and surface waters due to their high metal content and often high acidity. However, these discharges represent a potential source of rare earth elements (REE), many of which are considered to be critical resources. Trace element data from 18 coal mine drainage (CMD) sites within the Appalachian Basin suggest CMD is enriched in total REE by 1-4 orders of magnitude relative to concentrations expected in unaffected surface or ground waters. When normalized to the North American Shale Composite (NASC), the discharges generally show a pattern of enrichment in the middle REE, including several identified as critical resources (Nd, Eu, Dy, Tb). In contrast, shale, sandstone and coal samples from Appalachian Basin coal-bearing units have concentrations and patterns similar to NASC, indicating that the REE in CMD are fractionated during interaction with rock in the mine pool. The highest total REE contents (up to 2800 mg/L) are found in low-pH discharges (acid mine drainage, or AMD). A precipitous drop in REE concentration in CMD with pH ≥6.6 suggests adsorption or precipitation of REE in the mine pool at circumneutral pH. Precipitated solids from 21 CMD active and passive treatment sites in the Appalachian Basin, including Fe oxy-hydroxides, Ca-Mg lime slurries, and Si- and Al-rich precipitates, are enriched in total REE content relative to the average CMD discharges by about four orders of magnitude. Similar REE trends in the discharges and precipitates, including MREE enrichment, suggest minimal fractionation of REE during precipitation; direct comparisons over multiple seasonal cycles are needed to confirm this. Although the data are limited, Al-rich precipitates generally have high REE concentrations, while those in iron oxy-hydroxides tend to be lower. Based on the area of mined coal in the Appalachian Basin, estimated infiltration rates, and the mean REE flux from discharges analyzed in this study and

  10. On the Use of Finite Difference Matrix-Vector Products in Newton-Krylov Solvers for Implicit Climate Dynamics with Spectral Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, David [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Woodward, Carol S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Efficient solution of global climate models requires effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a time step dictated by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability governed by the fastest of the time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton s method is applied for these systems. Each iteration of the Newton s method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but this Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite-difference which may show a loss of accuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite-difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral-element based shallow-water dynamical-core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM).

  11. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design, testing and prototyping of superconducting elements for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project and for the production of spare quadrupole magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design, testing and prototyping of superconducting elements for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project and for the production of spare quadrupole magnets for LHC

  12. New insights into the 243Am + 48Ca reaction products previously observed in the experiments on elements 113, 115, and 117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu Ts; Abdullin, F Sh; Dmitriev, S N; Gostic, J M; Hamilton, J H; Henderson, R A; Itkis, M G; Moody, K J; Polyakov, A N; Ramayya, A V; Roberto, J B; Rykaczewski, K P; Sagaidak, R N; Shaughnessy, D A; Shirokovsky, I V; Stoyer, M A; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Tsyganov, Yu S; Utyonkov, V K; Voinov, A A; Vostokin, G K

    2012-01-13

    Results of a new series of experiments on the study of production cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of element 115 in the reaction (243)Am+(48)Ca are presented. Twenty-one new decay chains originating from (288)115 were established as the product of the 3n-evaporation channel by measuring the excitation function at three excitation energies of the compound nucleus (291)115. The decay properties of all newly observed nuclei are in full agreement with those we measured in 2003. At the lowest excitation energy E*=33 MeV, for the first time we registered the product of the 2n-evaporation channel, (289)115, which was also observed previously in the reaction (249)Bk+(48)Ca as the daughter nucleus of the decay of (293)117. The maximum cross section for the production of (288)115 is found to be 8.5 pb at E*≈36 MeV.

  13. Hf and Nd Isotope Evidence for Production of an Incompatible Trace Element Enriched Crustal Reservoir in Early Earth (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Lapen, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The final significant stage of accretion of the Earth was likely a collision between proto-Earth and a Mars sized impactor that formed the Moon. This event is thought to have produced enough thermal energy to melt all or most of the Earth, with a consequent magma ocean (MO). During subsequent cooling, the Earth would have formed its protocrust and corresponding mantle lithosphere, consisting of solidified basalt-komatiitic melt, in combination with buoyant cumulates and late stage residual melts from the MO. Relative to the convecting mantle, portions of this protolithosphere are likely to have been enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) in sufficient quantities to contain a significant amount of the bulk Earth’s budget for rare earth elements, U, Th, and Hf. If the protolithosphere was negatively buoyant, it may have overturned at or near the final stages of MO crystallization and a significant portion of that material may have been transported into the deep mantle where it resided and remixed into the convecting mantle over Earth history [1,2]. If the protolithosphere remained positively buoyant, its crust would have likely begun to erode from surface processes, and subsequently recycled back into the mantle over time as sediment and altered crust, once a subduction mechanism arose. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of Earth’s earliest rocks support the idea that an early-formed ITE-enriched reservoir was produced. The maxima in 142Nd/144Nd for 3.85 to 3.64 Ga rocks from Isua, Greenland decreases from +20 ppm to +12 ppm relative to the present day mantle value, respectively [3]. This indicates mixing of an early-formed ITE enriched reservoir back into the convecting mantle. In addition, zircons from the 3.1 Ga Jack Hills conglomerate indicate that material with an enriched 176Lu/177Hf of ~0.02 and an age of 4.4 Ga or greater was present at the Earth’s surface over the first 2 Ga of Earth history, supporting the scenario of a positively buoyant

  14. Monitoring transmission routes of Listeria spp. in smoked salmon production with repetitive element sequence-based PCR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunabovic, M; Domig, K J; Pichler, I; Kneifel, W

    2012-03-01

    Various techniques have been used for tracing the transmission routes of Listeria species and for the assessment of hygiene standards in food processing plants. The potential of repetitive element sequence-based PCR (Rep-PCR) methods (GTG₅ and REPI + II) for the typing of Listeria isolates (n = 116), including Listeria monocytogenes (n = 46), was evaluated in a particular situation arising from the relocation of a company producing cold-smoked salmon. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using three restriction enzymes (ApaI, AscI, and SmaI) was used for comparison. Identical transmission scenarios among two companies could be identified by cluster analysis of L. monocytogenes isolates that were indistinguishable by both Rep-PCR and PFGE. The calculated diversity index (DI) indicates that Rep-PCR subtyping of Listeria species with primer sets GTG₅ and REPI + II has a lower discrimination power than does PFGE. When concatenated Rep-PCR cluster analysis was used, the DI increased from 0.934 (REPI + II) and 0.923 (GTG₅) to 0.956. The discrimination power of this method was similar to that of PFGE typing based on restriction enzyme Apa I (DI = 0.955). Listeria welshimeri may be useful as an indicator for monitoring smoked salmon processing environments. Rep-PCR meets the expectations of a reasonable, fast, and low-cost molecular subtyping method for the routine monitoring of Listeria species. The discriminatory power as characterized by the DI sufficiently quantifies the probability of unrelated isolates being characterized as different subtypes. Therefore, Rep-PCR typing based on two primer systems (GTG₅ and REPI + II) may be a useful tool for monitoring industrial hygiene.

  15. Determination of the elemental concentration of uranium and thorium in the products and by-products of amang tin tailings process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Amang or tin tailing is processed into concentrated ores and other economical valuable minerals such as monazite, zircon, xenotime, ilmenite etc. Besides that, the tailings from these ores may have a significant potential source of radiation exposure to amang plants' workers. This study was conducted to determine the elemental concentration of uranium and thorium in mineral samples collected from five amang tailing factories. The concentration of uranium and thorium was carried out by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) relative technique. The concentration of uranium and thorium in ppm obtained in this study are as follows: raw (189-1064) and (622-4965); monazite (1076-1988) and (3467-33578); xenotime 4053 and 5540; zircon (309-3090) and (387-6339); ilmenite (104-583) and (88-1205); rutile (212-889) and (44-1119); pyrite (7-43) and (9-132); and waste (5-338) and (9-1218) respectively. The analysis results shows that the monazite, xenotime and zircon have high content of uranium and thorium, whereas ilmenite, rutile, pyrite and waste have lower concentration compare with raw materials after tailing process. The highest values of uranium and thorium concentrations (4053 ± 428 ppm and 33578 ± 873 ppm, respectively) were observed in xenotime and monazite; whereas the lowest value was 5.48 ± 0.86 ppm of uranium recorded in waste (sand) and 9 ± 0.32 ppm of thorium for waste (sand) and pyrite.

  16. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste.

  17. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Rafael [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , E-21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , E-21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100 Mt (approximately 1200 ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1 km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77 t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste.

  18. Foundations & principles of distributed manufacturing elements of manufacturing networks, cyber-physical production systems and smart automation

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent description of distributed manufacturing, providing a solid base for further research on the subject as well as smart implementations in companies. It provides a guide for those researching and working in a range of fields, such as smart manufacturing, cloud computing, RFID tracking, distributed automation, cyber physical production and global design anywhere, manufacture anywhere solutions. Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing anticipates future advances in the fields of embedded systems, the Internet of Things and cyber physical systems, outlining how adopting these innovations could rapidly bring about improvements in key performance indicators, which could in turn generate competition pressure by rendering successful business models obsolete. In laying the groundwork for powerful theoretical models, high standards for the homogeneity and soundness of the suggested setups are applied. The book especially elaborates on the upcoming competition in online manu...

  19. L shell x ray production in high-Z elements using 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Udai; Oswal, M.; Singh, G.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Nandi, T.; Lapicki, G.

    2017-03-01

    L shell line and total x ray production cross sections in 78Pt, 79Au, 82Pb, 83Bi, 90Th, and 92U targets ionized by 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions were measured. These cross sections are compared with available theories for L shell ionization using single- and multiple-hole fluorescence and the Coster-Kronig yields. The ECPSSR and the ECUSAR theories exhibit good agreement with the measured data, whereas, the FBA theory overestimates them by a factor of two. Although for the F ion charge states q = 6-8 the multiple-hole atomic parameters do not significantly differ from the single-hole values, after an account for the multiple-holes, our data are better in agreement with the ECUSAR than the ECPSSR theory.

  20. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  1. Precision predictions for Z-production at the CERN LHC: QCD matrix elements, parton showers, and joint resummation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Benjamin; Klasen, Michael; Ledroit, Fabienne; Li, Qiang; Morel, Julien

    2008-07-01

    We improve the theoretical predictions for the production of extra neutral gauge bosons at hadron colliders by implementing the Z-bosons in the MC@NLO generator and by computing their differential and total cross sections in joint p and threshold resummation. The two improved predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with each other for mass spectra, p spectra, and total cross sections, while the PYTHIA parton and "power" shower predictions usually employed for experimental analyses show significant shortcomings both in normalization and shape. The theoretical uncertainties from scale and parton density variations and non-perturbative effects are found to be +6/-3%, +/-5%, and less than +3/-6%, respectively, and thus under good control. The implementation of our improved predictions in terms of the new MC@NLO generator or resummed K factors in the analysis chains of the Tevatron and LHC experiments should be straightforward and lead to more precise determinations or limits of the Z-boson masses and/or couplings.

  2. Precision predictions for Z'-production at the CERN LHC QCD matrix elements, parton showers, and joint resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, B; Ledroit, F; Li, Q; Morel, J

    2007-01-01

    We improve the theoretical predictions for the production of extra neutral gauge bosons at hadron colliders, which are currently based on the leading order Monte Carlo generator PYTHIA, by implementing the Z' bosons in the MC@NLO generator and by computing their differential and total cross sections in joint p_T and threshold resummation. The two improved predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with each other for mass spectra, p_T spectra, and total cross sections, while the PYTHIA parton and ``power'' shower predictions show significant shortcomings both in normalization and shape. The theoretical uncertainties from scale and parton density variations are found to be 9 and 2%, respectively, and thus under good control. The implementation of our improved predictions in terms of the new MC@NLO generator or resummed K factors in the analysis chains of the Tevatron and LHC experiments should be straightforward and lead to more precise determinations or limits of the Z' boson masses and/or couplings.

  3. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal elements supply to the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past ∼1Ma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J N Pattan; Toshiyuki Masuzawa; D V Borole; G Parthiban; Pratima Jauhari; Mineko Yamamoto

    2005-02-01

    A 2 m-long sediment core from the siliceous ooze domain in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB; 13° 03′S: 74° 44′E; water depth 5099 m) is studied for calcium carbonate, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic opal, major and few trace elements (Al, Ti, Fe, K, Mg, Zr, Sc,V, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, and Ba) to understand the productivity and intensity of terrigenous supply. The age model of the sediment core is based on U-Th dating, occurrence of Youngest Toba Tuff of ∼74 ka and Australasian microtektites of ∼770ka. Low carbonate content (> 1%) of sediment core indicates deposition below the carbonate compensation depth. Organic carbon content is also very low, almost uniform (mean 0.2 wt%) and is of marine origin. This suggests a well-oxygenated bottom water environment during the past ∼1100 ka. Our data suggest that during ∼1100 ka and ∼400 ka siliceous productivity was lower, complimented by higher supply of terrigenous material mostly derived from the metasedimentary rocks of High Himalayan crystalline. However, during the last ∼400ka, siliceous productivity increased with substantial reduction in the terrigenous sediment supply. The results suggest that intensity of Himalayan weathering, erosion associated with monsoons was comparatively higher prior to 400 ka. Manganese, Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Co have around 90% of their supply from noncrustal (excess) source and their burial to seafloor remained unaffected throughout the past ∼1100ka.

  4. Using ground data of the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) for the evaluation of ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost remote sensing derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, K.; Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Paulik, Ch.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Soliman, A.; Boike, J.; Langer, M.; Lantuit, H.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost is one of the essential climate variables addressed by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GCOS). Remote sensing data provide area-wide monitoring of e.g. surface temperatures or soil surface status (frozen or thawed state) in the Arctic and Subarctic, where ground data collection is difficult and restricted to local measurements at few monitoring sites. The task of the ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project is to build-up an Earth observation service for northern high-latitudinal permafrost applications with extensive involvement of the international permafrost research community (www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost). The satellite-derived DUE Permafrost products are Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, Surface Frozen and Thawed State, Digital Elevation Model (locally as remote sensing product and circumpolar as non-remote sensing product) and Subsidence, and Land Cover. Land Surface Temperature, Surface Soil Moisture, and Surface Frozen and Thawed State will be provided for the circumpolar permafrost area north of 55° N with 25 km spatial resolution. In addition, regional products with higher spatial resolution were developed for five case study regions in different permafrost zones of the tundra and taiga (Laptev Sea [RU], Central Yakutia [RU], Western Siberia [RU], Alaska N-S transect, [US] Mackenzie River and Valley [CA]). This study shows the evaluation of two DUE Permafrost regional products, Land Surface Temperature and Surface Frozen and Thawed State, using freely available ground truth data from the Global Terrestrial Network of Permafrost (GTN-P) and monitoring data from the Russian-German Samoylov research station in the Lena River Delta (Central Siberia, RU). The GTN-P permafrost monitoring sites with their position in different permafrost zones are highly qualified for the validation of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products. Air and surface temperatures with high-temporal resolution from eleven GTN-P sites in Alaska

  5. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  6. Prospects of heavy and superheavy element production via inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions - from 238U+238U to18O+254Es

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Multi-nucleon transfer reactions, frequently termed deep-inelastic, between heavy-ion projectiles and actinide targets provide prospects to synthesize unknown isotopes of heavy actinides and superheavy elements with neutron numbers beyond present limits. The 238U on 238U reaction, which revealed essential aspects of those nuclear reactions leading to surviving heavy nuclides, mainly produced in 3n and 4n evaporation channels, is discussed in detail. Positions and widths of isotope distributions are compared. It is shown, as a general rule, that cross sections peak at irradiation energies about 10% above the Coulomb barrier. Heavy target nuclei are essential for maximizing cross sections. Experimental results from the 238U on 248Cm reaction, including empirical extrapolations, are compared with theoretical model calculations predicting relatively high cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei. Experiments to test the validity of such predictions are proposed. Comparisons between rather symmetric heavy-ion reactions like 238U on 248Cm (or heavier targets up to 254Es) with very asymmetric ones like 18O on 254Es reveal that the ones with 238U as a projectile have the highest potential in the superheavy element region while the latter ones can be advantageous for the synthesis of heavy actinide isotopes. Concepts for highly efficient recoil separators designed for transfer products are presented.

  7. Continuous thermochromatographic separation of carrier-free radioisotopes of platinum elements in air flow from products of nuclear reactions in beam of heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanov, V.P.; Zvara, I.

    1984-01-01

    The thermochromatographic behaviour of volatile oxygen-containing compounds of platinum group metals in on-line regime in an accelerator beam has been studied to evaluate possibilities of chemical separation of the Z=108-110 elements. Volatile compounds of radioplatinoids were prepared while decelerating the recoil atoms - nuclear reaction products - in a flow of dry (partial water vapour pressure below 10/sup -4/ Pa) or humid air (saturated with H/sub 2/O vapours at 0 deg C) and they were extracted on the walls of a quartz thermochromatographic column. Under certain experimental conditions the maximum of /sup 173/OsO/sub 4/ precipitation zone is located at -88 +- 10 deg C, and that for sup(183, 184)IrO/sub 3/ - at 80 +- 10 deg C. It is shown that the fast response of the method for Os is not worse than 1 s. A high volatility of sup(99, 100)Rh has been observed for the first time, being evidently related to the RhO/sub 3/ formation. Ir and /sup 187/Pt in the humid air flow were precipitated at 20-10 deg C. Possible composition of compounds formed is being discussed. Possibility of using, in principle, oxygen-containing compounds for chemical identification of Z=108-110 elements is pointed out.

  8. Finemet nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy: Investigation of glass forming ability, crystallization mechanism, production techniques, magnetic softness and the effect of replacing the main constituents by other elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T.; Hosseini, H.R. Madaah, E-mail: madaah@sharif.ir

    2016-06-15

    Finemet soft magnetic alloy has been in the focus of interest in the last years due to its high saturation magnetization, high permeability and low core loss. The great quantity of papers has been devoted to the study of its structural and magnetic properties, confirms this claim. This paper reviews the different researches performed on Finemet up to now. The criteria that should be satisfied in order to have the high glass forming ability in an alloy and also the techniques applied for production of Finemet ribbons, powders and bulk samples have been explained. In addition, the mechanism of devitrification, nanocrystallization and magnetic softness in this applicable magnetic alloy has been discussed in detail. Finally, the effect of different elements substituted with the main constituents in Finemet has been summarized through the studies on the characterization and magnetic properties of different Finemet-type alloys. - Highlights: • The criteria for getting high glass forming ability in an alloy have been reviewed. • Techniques applied to make Finemet ribbons and bulk samples have been explained. • Mechanism of devitrification and nanocrystallization has been discussed in detail. • The mechanism of magnetic softness in this magnetic alloy has been demonstrated. • The effect of main elements substitution in Finemet has been summarized.

  9. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products.

  10. Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections by 400-700 keV proton impact for elements with 34{<=}Z{<=}53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J. E-mail: miranda@fenix.ifisicacu.unam.mx; Ledesma, R.; Lucio, O.G. de

    2001-03-01

    Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections induced by protons with energies between 400 and 700 keV were measured for elements with atomic number Z between 34 and 53. The ECPSSR theory describes appropriately the results. This model modifies the plane wave born approximation by considering projectile energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection of the incoming ion (C), polarization and change in electron binding energies through a perturbed stationary states method (PSS) and relativistic values of target electron mass (R). A comparison is given with previously published data for proton energies below 1 MeV and 26 {<=} Z {<=} 53, based on a scaling obtained from a reduced velocity parameter {xi}{sub L}{sup R}. The results show that the scaling for these atomic numbers and energy ranges is adequate and a semi-empirical expression to calculate those cross sections is proposed.

  11. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  12. Direct Evidence of Washing out of Nuclear Shell Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, A; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Bhattacharya, C; Kundu, S; Meena, J K; Mukherjee, G; Pandey, R; Rana, T K; Roy, P; Roy, T; Srivastava, V; Bhattacharya, P

    2015-01-01

    Constraining excitation energy at which nuclear shell effect washes out has important implications on the production of super heavy elements and many other fields of nuclear physics research. We report the fission fragment mass distribution in alpha induced reaction on an actinide target for wide excitation range in close energy interval and show direct evidence that nuclear shell effect washes out at excitation energy ~40 MeV. Calculation shows that second peak of the ?fission barrier also vanishes around similar excitation energy.

  13. Trace-element budgets in the Ohio/Sunbury shales of Kentucky: Constraints on ocean circulation and primary productivity in the Devonian-Mississippian Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R.B.; Piper, D.Z.; Mason, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrography of the Appalachian Basin in late Devonian-early Mississippian time is modeled based on the geochemistry of black shales and constrained by others' paleogeographic reconstructions. The model supports a robust exchange of basin bottom water with the open ocean, with residence times of less than forty years during deposition of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale. This is counter to previous interpretations of these carbon-rich units having accumulated under a stratified and stagnant water column, i.e., with a strongly restricted bottom bottom-water circulation. A robust circulation of bottom waters is further consistent with the palaeoclimatology, whereby eastern trade-winds drove upwelling and arid conditions limited terrestrial inputs of siliciclastic sediment, fresh waters, and riverine nutrients. The model suggests that primary productivity was high (~ 2??g C m- 2 d- 1), although no higher than in select locations in the ocean today. The flux of organic carbon settling through the water column and its deposition on the sea floor was similar to fluxes found in modern marine environments. Calculations based on the average accumulation rate of the marine fraction of Ni suggest the flux of organic carbon settling out of the water column was approximately 9% of primary productivity, versus an accumulation rate (burial) of organic carbon of 0.5% of primary productivity. Trace-element ratios of V:Mo and Cr:Mo in the marine sediment fraction indicate that bottom waters shifted from predominantly anoxic (sulfate reducing) during deposition of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale to predominantly suboxic (nitrate reducing) during deposition of the Cleveland Shale Member and the Sunbury Shale, but with anoxic conditions occurring intermittently throughout this period. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  15. Mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol® HX photopolymer film in a roll-to-roll copy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept and discuss the mechanical construction of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we treat aspects like master design, effects of vibration and suppression of noise gratings. Furthermore, digital vHOEs are introduced as master holograms. They enable new ways of optical design and paths to large scale vHOEs.

  16. Measurement of key resonance states for the P30(p,γS31 reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kankainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the P30(p,γS31 reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The P30(d,nS31 reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2− resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T≈0.10–0.17 GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  17. Measurement of key resonance states for the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P. J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Estrade, A.; Gade, A.; José, J.; Kontos, A.; Langer, C.; Lotay, G.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Noji, S.; Nunes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Pereira, J.; Recchia, F.; Redpath, T.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Stevens, J.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Zegers, R.

    2017-06-01

    We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the 30P (p , γ)31S reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The 30P (d , n)31S reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3 /2- resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T ≈ 0.10- 0.17 GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  18. Measurement of key resonance states for the P-30(p, gamma)S-31 reaction rate, and the production of intermediate -mass elements in nova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P. J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Seweryniak, D.

    2017-06-10

    We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the P-30(p, gamma)S-31 reaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The P-30(d,n)S-31 reaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA gamma-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2(-) resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T approximate to 0.10-0.17 GM, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.

  19. Experimental study of the formation of super-heavy compound nuclei in the reaction {sup 58}Fe + {sup 244}Pu {yields} {sup 302} 120; Etude experimentale de la formation de noyaux composes super-lourds dans la reaction {sup 58}Fe + {sup 244}Pu {yields} {sup 302} 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amar, N

    2003-11-01

    This work deals with the nuclear mechanisms that take place in the collision of an incident Fe{sup 58} nucleus with a Pu{sup 244} nucleus for an energy that nears that of the Coulomb barrier. The compound nucleus is Z = 120, A 302. We have studied the specificities of the main reaction products and we have taken into account the information conveyed away by the neutrons released in the collision. Measurements have been performed at the U-400 accelerator in Dubna (Russia). 2 detecting systems have been necessary to detect fission fragments and neutrons: the Corset system is made up of 2 telescopes measuring the time of flight of the nuclear fragments and the Demon multi-detector able to draw the energy spectrum of the neutrons detected in coincidence with the fragments. We know that mass asymmetry is no longer a point of difference between fusion-fission and quasi-fission. It seems that fusion-fission fragments have more kinetic energy than quasi-fission fragments. We have made various analysis concerning the neutron emission in order to find the values of temperatures and multiplicities at pre- and post-scission stages with a view to tell fusion-fission events from quasi-fission events. We have deduced that the contribution of fusion-fission events to symmetric partitioning is about 10%. (A.C.)

  20. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 2. Exploratory studies on the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Huang, W.; White, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The topical report describes the results of Phase 2 research to determine the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Many of the contaminants present in coal emerge from the gasification process in the product gas. Much effort has gone into the development of high temperature metal oxide sorbents for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas. The oxides of zinc, iron, manganese, and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is desired. Elemental sulfur, which is the typical feed to sulfuric acid plants, may be easily separated, stored, and transported. Although research to convert SO{sub 2} produced during sorbent regeneration to elemental sulfur is on-going, additional processing steps are required and the overall process will be more complex. Clearly, the direct production of elemental sulfur is preferred. Desulfurization utilizing a cerium oxide based sorbent is discussed.

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of different products from the sugarcane industry in Pakistan--part 1: essential elements for nutritional adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Shahida; Ahmad, Shujaat

    2008-01-01

    Jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar, and molasses collected from the local sugarcane industry of Pakistan have been analyzed for essential elements in order to estimate their nutritional adequacy. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ca, CI, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn through sequential, short, medium, and long irradiation times. Maximum concentrations for most of these elements were determined in molasses, with lower concentrations determined in jaggery and brown sugar; white sugar contained trace amounts of all essential elements. Contributions to the weekly Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for the elements were estimated only for jaggery, brown sugar, and white sugar because molasses in Pakistan is not consumed as a dietary item. Jaggery contributes the highest percentages of Cr, Mg, Mn, and Zn, whereas the highest percentages of Cl, Fe, K, and Na can be acquired from brown sugar. The contribution of white sugar to the weekly RDAs for these elements is negligible, indicating that white sugar is a poor source of the essential elements. However, the introduction of molasses to the diet can contribute to an adequate intake of these elements.

  2. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  3. Spatially resolved modelling of the fission product behaviour in a HTR-core with spherical or prismatic fuel elements; Raeumlich hoch aufgeloeste Modellierung des Spaltproduktverhaltens in einem HTR-Core mit kugelfoermigen oder prismatischen Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhonneux, Andre

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important aspects during the licensing procedure of nuclear facilities is the release of radioactive isotopes. The transport from the origin to the environment is called release chain. In the scope of this work, the spatially distributed fission product release from both spherical and prismatic fuel elements, the transport with the coolant as well as the deposition on reactor internals are simulated in detail. The fission product release codes which were developed at Forschungszentrum Juelich are analyzed, shortcomings are identified and resolved. On this basis, a consistent simulation module, named STACY, was developed, which contains all capabilities of the stand-alone codes and at the same time exceeds the methodology towards new aspects. The physics models were extended, for example to take the radial temperature profile within the fuel element and the realistic time-depending nuclide inventory into account. A central part of this work is the automated treatment of the release behavior of a representative number of fuel elements. This allows for a spatially resolved release calculation, where an individual release rate is calculated for each space region. The coupling with the depletion code Topological Nuclide Transmutation (TNT) allows for conducting an individual depletion calculation for each considered fuel element. It is shown, that the released inventory is representative for a certain number of fuel elements. By using this model, the fission product release is being studied for a reference plant (HTR-Modul). Both the releases from the equilibrium core as well as the release during a core heat-up after a fast depressurization accident are being studied. In comparison to former studies, the cumulative release of long-lived nuclides during the core heat-up phase is lower and the release of short-lived nuclides is about two times higher. The release calculation can also be conducted for prismatic fuel elements (e.g. those of the Japanese

  4. Light element ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR

    1988-01-01

    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  5. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  6. Peculiarities of electron energy spectrum in Coulomb field of super heavy nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Gitman, D M; Ferreira, R; Levin, A D

    2015-01-01

    Just after the Dirac equation was established, a number of physicists tried to comment on and solve the spectral problem for the Dirac Hamiltonian with the Coulomb field of arbitrarily large charge $Z$, especially with $Z$ that is more than the critical value $Z_{\\mathrm{c}}=\\alpha^{-1}\\simeq137,04$, making sometimes contradictory conclusions and presenting doubtful solutions. It seems that there is no consesus on this problem up until now and especially on the way of using corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation in calculating physical processes. That is why in the present article, we turn once again to discussing peculiarities of electron energy spectrum in the Coulomb field of superheavy nucleus. In the beginning, we remind the reader of a long story with a wrong interpretation of the problem in the case of a point nucleus and its present correct solution. We then turn to the spectral problem in the case of a regularized Coulomb field. Under a specific regularization, we derive an exact spectrum equa...

  7. Ultra - High Energy Cosmic Rays from decay of the Super Heavy Dark Matter Relics

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we briefly discuss the problem of the origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays in the framework of Top-Down models. We show that, for high energy of decays and in a wide range of spectra of injected protons, their extragalactic flux is consistent with the observed fluxes of cosmic rays in the energy range 0.1 E_{GZK}< E < 10E_{GZK}. For suitable energy and spectra of injected protons, the contribution of galactic sources is moderate, in this energy range, but it dominates at smaller and larger energies. In such models we can expect that at these energies the anisotropy of cosmic rays distribution over sky will be especially small. Some possible manifestations of decays of super massive particles such as, for example, primordial black holes with masses M_{pbh} ~ 10^{-5} g, are considered. In particular, we show that partial conversion of energy released during these decays at redshifts z ~ 1000 to Ly-alpha photons can delay the hydrogen recombination and distort the spectrum of fluctuations ...

  8. Element Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  9. Fission product release model for failed plate-type fuel element and storage under water; Modelo para liberacao de produtos de fissao por placa combustivel falhada e armazenada sob agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da; Castanheira, M.; Lucki, G.; Silva, A.T. e; Teodoro, C.A.; Damy, M. de A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Plate-type fuel elements burned-up inside the core of nuclear research reactors are stored mainly under deionized water of storage pools. When cladding failure occurs in such elements, radioactive fission products are released into the storage pool water. This work proposes a model to describe the release mechanism considering the diffusion through a postulated small cylindrical failure. As a consequence, an analytical expression is obtained for the activity released into the water as a function of the total storage time of a failed fuel plate. The proposed model reproduces the linear increasing of {sup 137}Cs specific activity observed in sipping tests already performed on failed plate-type fuel elements. (author)

  10. Measurement of the electroweak top quark production cross section and the CKM matrix element V{sub tb} with the DOe experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Matthias

    2009-06-29

    This analysis presents a measurement of the combined s+t-channel electroweak top quark production cross section at the Tevatron collider. An integrated luminosity of nearly 1 fb{sup -1} of Run{proportional_to}II data has been analyzed. After the selection of single top quark-like events, a Multi-Process Factory has been used to analyze each event under several physics process hypotheses. The novelty in this analysis is that an event is not only studied under the assumption of the signal process decay chain, but also under the assumption to originate from one of the major background physics processes. In three jet multiplicity bins a total of 13 decay chains are reconstructed and evaluated. The implementation and optimization of this technique is a first step towards analysis methods which are able to actively identify an event as a signal or background event. In this analysis the most likely decay chain of an event for each signal and background process under investigation is used to obtain decay chain dependent observables. The close connection of the observables to the partons of a physics process decay chain leads to an intuitive interpretation of the resulting distributions. Observables gained in the Multi-Process Factory are used as input to a state-of-the-art multivariate analysis technique, Boosted Decision Trees. The configuration of these Boosted Decision Trees has been optimized with the goal to maximize the separation of the expected signal contribution from the overwhelming background. Using a Bayesian approach the discriminant distributions of the twelve independent analysis channels are fitted simultaneously. This analysis measures the combined s+t channel production cross section to be {sigma}(p anti p{yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 5.51{sub -1.31}{sup +1.62} pb for a top mass of 175 GeV and assuming a Standard Model s-channel to t-channel cross section ratio of {sigma}{sub s}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0.44. The significance of the cross section measurement is 4

  11. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  12. Development of realtime monitoring technology for laser photoreaction product - Study on spectroscopy of rare earth elements by using diode laser and hollow cathode glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chun [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea); Lee, Gea Ho [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Lee, Yong Il [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Kim, Hyo Jin [Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea); Huh, Yong Dck [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-05-01

    Currently, fast and precise analysis of rare earth and actinide elements are much concerned and required for the safe treatments and storage of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear power plants. However, current technology is still far from the requirements for accurate realtime monitoring and measurement of radioactive elements. This project is of development of new technology of realtime monitoring and analysis of rare earth elements by using glow discharge and diode laser spectroscopy, and the study of spectroscopic characteristics of rare earth elements in glow discharge plasma. And, saturated absorption spectroscopy of rare earth elements was investigated with diode lasers. A see-through hollow cathode glow discharge (st-HCGD) cell was developed for the purpose of a portable atomizer and and its characteristics were investigated. High resolution spectroscopy was achieved with diode laser assisted saturated absorption spectroscopy. it is considered for major improvement of radioactive isotope detection technology. We expect a portable high resolution spectrometry with a see-through HCGD atomizer and diode lasers in near future. (Author). 63 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  14. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

  15. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Perfect your photos and images with this "focused" guide to the latest version of Photoshop Elements For most of us, the professional-level Photoshop is overkill for our needs. Amateur photographers and photo enthusiasts turn to Photoshop Elements for a powerful but simpler way to edit and retouch their snapshots. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies, fully updated and revised for the latest release of this software product, helps you navigate Elements to create, edit, fix, share, and organize the high-quality images you desire. Full color pages bring the techniques to life and make taking great

  16. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-Capture Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.62+/-0.09) star HD94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process; e.g., [Pb/Fe]=+0.79+/-0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r-process; e.g., [Eu/Fe]=+0.22+/-0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe]=+0.97+/-0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe]=+0.69+/-0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe]=-0.06+/-0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process pa...

  17. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  18. THE DIVERSE ORIGINS OF NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 94028: POSSIBLE DETECTION OF PRODUCTS OF i-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Pignatari, Marco [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Herwig, Falk, E-mail: iur@umich.edu, E-mail: amanda.karakas@monash.edu, E-mail: mpignatari@gmail.com, E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE) (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = −0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy.

  19. Continuous-flow thermochromatographic separation of unsupported radioisotopes of platinum elements in a stream of air from nuclear reaction products in an accelerator heavy-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanov, V.P.; Zvara, I.

    1985-07-01

    Upon deceleration of recoil atoms in a stream of dry air (partial pressure of H/sub 2/O vapors below 10 Pa) and moist air (saturated H/sub 2/O vapors at 0 degrees C), the authors obtain volatile compounds of radioplatinides and isolate them on the walls of a quartz thermochromatographic column. They show that the speed of response for the technique for Os is not worse than 1 sec. They observe for the first time high volatility of Rh, apparently connected with formation of RhO. They note the possibility of using oxygen-containing compounds for chemical identification of elements with Z = 108-110.

  20. Improvement of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for the determination of nine nutritional elements in food products by Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after microwave digestion: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric; Nicolas, Marine; Graveleau, Laetitia; Richoz, Janique; Andrey, Daniel; Monard, Florence

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in order to improve and update AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed or open vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proved through a successful internal RT using experienced food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD and HorRat values) regarding SLV and RT. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an improved version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula.

  1. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  2. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the 238U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  3. 微量元素对ABR发酵产氢产甲烷的影响%Effect of Trace Elements on Fermentative Co-production of Hydrogen and Methane in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国臣; 赵峰; 李建政; 张照韩; 昌盛; 闫志成; AJAYKumarJha

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve fermentative co-production of hydrogen and methane in a 4-compart-ment anaerobic baffled reactor ( ABR) , the effects of trace elements on fermentative production of hydrogen in the front compartment and fermentative production of methane in the rear compartment were investigated. Under the conditions of influent COD of 6 000 mg/L and ALK of 1 900 mg/L, before addition of trace elements, the COD removal rate was 51% , the hydrogen production capacity was 0.46 m /(m ? D) , and the methane production capacity was 0.68 mV( m3 ? D), with low dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic sludge. While under the same conditions, after addition of trace elements, the COD removal rate increased to above 62% , the hydrogen production capacity decreased to 0. 37 m /( m ? D), and themethane production capacity increased to 1. 66 m /( m ? D). As a result, the addition of trace elements could effectively stimulate the activity of anaerobic sludge in fermentative co-production of hydrogen and methane in the ABR. The increase in the activity of hydrogen-consuming bacteria like methanogenic bacteria leaded to inhibition of the hydrogen production, but enhanced the methanogenic activity, which significantly improved the treatment efficient.%为构建厌氧折流板反应器(ABR)发酵联合产氢产甲烷系统,考察了微量元素对ABR系统前端格室发酵产氢、后端格室发酵产甲烷的影响.在进水COD为6 000 mg/L、碱度为1 900 mg/L的条件下,当未投加微量元素时,系统对COD的去除率为51%,产氢能力为0.46 m3/(m3·d),产甲烷能力为0.68 m3/(m3·d),四格室的厌氧污泥脱氢酶活性均较低;而在相同运行条件下,当投加微量元素后,系统对COD的去除率提高到62%以上,产氢能力为0.37 m3/(m3·d),产甲烷能力达到1.66 m3/( m3·d)..研究表明,投加微量元素可有效刺激ABR发酵联合产氢产甲烷系统中厌氧污泥的活性,由于ABR中产甲烷菌等耗氢菌群活性的增强导致发

  4. Constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter from competition of fusion and quasi-fission in the reactions leading to production of the superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Ma, Yu-Gang; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of fusion hindrance, an effect preventing the synthesis of superheavy elements in the reactions of cold and hot fusion, is investigated using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation, where Coulomb interaction is introduced. A strong sensitivity is observed both to the modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, controlling the competition of surface tension and Coulomb repulsion, and to the stiffness of the density-dependence of symmetry energy, influencing the formation of the neck prior to scission. The experimental fusion probabilities were for the first time used to derive constraints on the nuclear equation of state. A strict constraint on the modulus of incompressibility of nuclear matter $K_0 = 240 - 260$ MeV is obtained while the stiff density-dependences of the symmetry energy ($\\gamma>1.$) are rejected.

  5. Measurement of the Electroweak Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and the CKM Matrix Element $|V_{tb}|$ at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larana, Bruno Casal [Univ. of Cantabria (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the electroweak single top quark production at CDF is experimentally challenging. The small single top signal hidden under large uncertain background processes makes it necessary an excellent understanding of the detector and a detailed study of the processes involved. Moreover, simple counting experiments are not sufficient to extract enough information from the candidate event sample and multivariate analysis techniques are crucial to distinguish signal from background. This thesis presents the world’s most sensitive individual search, together with CDF’s Neural Network analysis, for the combined s- and t-channel single top production. This analysis uses a dataset that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.2fb-1, and is based on a Boosted Decision Tree method that combines information from several input variables to construct a final powerful discriminant, reaching a sensitivity to the combined single top quark production equivalent to 5.2σ. The measured combined single top quark production cross section is 2.1+0.7 -0.6 pb assuming a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c2. The probability that this result comes from a background-only fluctuation (p-value) is 0.0002, which corresponds to 3.5σ.

  6. Circular economy: To be or not to be in a closed product loop? A Life Cycle Assessment of aluminium cans with inclusion of alloying elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    Packaging, representing the second largest source of aluminium scrap at global level, deserves a key role in the transition towards the circular economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of aluminium products has been typically based on one life cycle considering pure aluminium flows and neglecting...

  7. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  8. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  9. 机械产品造型设计中的情感要素研究%Analysis of emotional elements in mechanical product modeling design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雅莉; 钟蕾

    2011-01-01

    People's aesthetic ability has been improving gradu-ally along with the continuous advances of technology, therefore,the stiff and awkward mechanical product modeling can not satisfy people's aesthetic needs any more. And the products with the emo-tional and aesthetic factors have been becoming more and more at-tractive. In this paper, the role played by the emotional design in beautifying mechanical product appearance modeling was analyzed.It points out it is inevitable for integrating the emotional design fac-tors into the mechanical product design. Starting from the point of view of design psychology, how to turn your emotion into the prod-uct design so as to make the 'attractive items' easier to use was deeply analyzed.%随着现代社会科技不断进步,人们的审美能力也在逐步提高,生硬、笨拙、冰冷的机械产品造型已经不能满足人们的生活审美需求,而具有情感和美感因素的产品很受关注.文中分析了情感化设计在美化机械产品外观造型中的作用,指出在机械造型设计中融入情感设计要素的必然性,并从设计心理学出发,深刻地分析了如何把情感融入产品设计,使“有魅力的物品更好用”.

  10. Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Wenatchee, WA

    2009-03-31

    We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales

  11. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  12. Elementos para la evaluación eficaz de productos naturales con posibles efectos antihipertensivos Elements for the effective evaluation of natural products with possible antihypertensive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francisco Guerrero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde el contexto de la farmacología experimental, en este ensayo se discuten algunos criterios que pueden ser útiles para estimar el potencial de productos naturales con posible actividad farmacológica para el tratamiento de la hipertensión, una de las enfermedades de mayor impacto epidemiológico en Colombia y en el mundo. Se acude para ello al análisis de algunas pruebas farmacológicas accesibles en nuestro medio: modelos de hipertensión arterial en la rata de laboratorio, pruebas in vitro e in vivo, y análisis microscópicos, que implementados con los protocolos adecuados y cotejadas en conjunto, pueden arrojar información valiosa a la hora de considerar las perspectivas de un producto natural en el campo de la hipertensión arterial.Within the context of experimental pharmacology, some criteria are discussed for estimating the potential of natural products with possible pharmacological activity for the treatment of hypertension. This disorder has great epidemiological impact in Colombia as well as elsewhere. Discovery of these products can be accomplished by use of accessible pharmacological tests such as the following: developing models of arterial hypertension in the laboratory rat, in vitro tests, in vivo tests and microscopic analysis. Suitable protocols associated with these techniques can capture valuable information about possible effects on hypertension during the evaluation phase of a natural product.

  13. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  14. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in Schisandra and Fermentation Products%五味子及其发酵品中微量元素含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小雨; 葛红娟; 刘敏; 宋春梅

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of trace element in schisandra, Schisandra wine and fructus schisandrae pomace fermentation by Air-acetylene atomic absorption spectrometry.Sample was pre-treated using microwave digestion method. All element standard solution was diluted stepwise. Absorbance value of standard series was tested and standard curve was drawn. The results of standard curve correlation coefficient was R 2>0.997 3. Potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper were tested in schisandra and potassium.which Potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese content was higher, Iron, copper and zinc content is relatively low. The results provided the referance and support for the further research and devel-opment of schisandrae chinensis and potassium.%采用空气-乙炔原子吸收法测定五味子、五味子酒以及五味子发酵果渣中微量元素的含量。用微波消解法对样品进行前处理,各元素标准溶液逐级稀释,测定标准系列的吸光度值,绘制标准曲线。结果表明:对于所测元素,标准曲线回归方程相关系数R2>0.9973;测得五味子及其发酵品中钾、钙、钠、镁、铁、锌、锰、铜8种微量元素,其中钾、镁、钙、钠、锰元素含量较高,铁、铜、锌元素含量相对较低。所得数据为五味子药材及其发酵品的进一步研究及开发提供了数据参考及支持。

  16. ADDITIVE MAPS ON SOME OPERATOR ALGEBRAS BEHAVING LIKE (α,β)-DERIVATIONS OR GENERALIZED (α,β)-DERIVATIONS AT ZERO-PRODUCT ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoger GHAHRAMANI

    2014-01-01

    Let A be a subalgebra of B(X ) containing the identity operator I and an idem-potent P . Suppose that α,β :A→A are ring epimorphisms and there exists some nest N on X such thatα(P )(X ) andβ(P )(X ) are non-trivial elements of N . Let A contain all rank one operators in AlgN and δ :A→B(X ) be an additive mapping. It is shown that, if δ is (α,β)-derivable at zero point, then there exists an additive (α,β)-derivation τ : A→ B(X ) such that δ(A) = τ(A)+α(A)δ(I ) for all A ∈ A. It is also shown that if δ is generalized (α,β)-derivable at zero point, then δ is an additive generalized (α,β)-derivation. Moreover, by use of this result, the additive maps (generalized) (α,β)-derivable at zero point on several nest algebras, are also characterized.

  17. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  18. Superheavy Element Research at Tasca at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düllmann, Christoph E.

    2014-09-01

    Experiments on the synthesis of the heaviest elements are in the center of the current research program on superheavy elements at GSI Darmstadt. At the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA, search experiments for the new elements 119 and 120 have been performed in the reactions 50Ti + 249Bk and 50Ti + 249Cf, respectively, and the production of element 117 in the reaction 48Ca + 249Bk was studied. The experiments were performed successfully and the data are currently under analysis.

  19. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  20. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G; D'Agostini, F

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  1. L shell x-ray production in high-Z elements using 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sunil; Oswal, M; Singh, G; Singh, N; Mehta, D; Lapicki, G; Nandi, T

    2016-01-01

    L shell line and total x-ray production cross sections in 78Pt, 79Au, 82Pb, 83Bi, 90Th, and 92U targets ionized by 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions were measured. These cross sections are compared with available theories for L shell ionization using single- and multiple-hole fluorescence and the Coster-Kronig yields. The ECPSSR and the ECUSAR theories exhibit good agreement with the measured data, whereas, the FBA theory overestimates them by a factor of two. Although for the F ion charge states q = 6-8 the multiple-hole atomic parameters do not significantly differ from the single-hole values, after an account for the multiple-holes, our data are better in agreement with the ECUSAR than the ECPSSR theory.

  2. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  3. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.; D'Agostini, F.

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Product Based on NX and ANSYS%基于NX和ANSYS的机械产品有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱焱

    2011-01-01

    对有限元分析的关键技术网格划分的理论方法进行了总结,采用UG NX7进行机械产品的三维建模、网格划分和载荷施加,通过图形数据转换接口将数模导入ANSYS中,利用ANSYS对机械产品进行仿真分析.最后以水平定向钻关键部件为例展示了建模及分析过程.%It summerizes the FEA key technology and mesh methods, builds the 3D and meshing model based on UG NX7, transformes the CAD model file into ANSYS through the interface of graph - transform and analyzes the key component of mechanical product. It takes the horizontal orientation drilling machine to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Precision predictions for Z{sup '}-production at the CERN LHC: QCD matrix elements, parton showers, and joint resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, Benjamin [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79106 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Klasen, Michael [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: klasen@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Ledroit, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Li, Qiang [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Postfach 6980, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Morel, Julien [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    We improve the theoretical predictions for the production of extra neutral gauge bosons at hadron colliders by implementing the Z'-bosons in the MC-NLO generator and by computing their differential and total cross sections in joint p{sub T} and threshold resummation. The two improved predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with each other for mass spectra, p{sub T} spectra, and total cross sections, while the PYTHIA parton and 'power' shower predictions usually employed for experimental analyses show significant shortcomings both in normalization and shape. The theoretical uncertainties from scale and parton density variations and non-perturbative effects are found to be +6/-3%, +/-5%, and less than +3/-6%, respectively, and thus under good control. The implementation of our improved predictions in terms of the new MC-NLO generator or resummed K factors in the analysis chains of the Tevatron and LHC experiments should be straightforward and lead to more precise determinations or limits of the Z'-boson masses and/or couplings.

  6. Evidence for single top-quark production in the s-channel in proton–proton collisions at s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector using the Matrix Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents evidence for single top-quark production in the s-channel using proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The analysis is performed on events containing one isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two b-tagged jets in the final state. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb−1. The signal is extracted using a maximum-likelihood fit of a discriminant which is based on the matrix element method and optimized in order to separate single-top-quark s-channel events from the main background contributions, which are top-quark pair production and W boson production in association with heavy-flavour jets. The measurement leads to an observed signal significance of 3.2 standard deviations and a measured cross-section of σs=4.8±0.8(stat.−1.3+1.6(syst. pb, which is consistent with the Standard Model expectation. The expected significance for the analysis is 3.9 standard deviations.

  7. Evidence for single top-quark production in the $s$-channel in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using the Matrix Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2016-05-10

    This Letter presents evidence for single top-quark production in the $s$-channel using proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $8\\,$TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The analysis is performed on events containing one isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two $b$-tagged jets in the final state. The analysed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\,$fb$^{-1}$. The signal is extracted using a maximum-likelihood fit of a discriminant which is based on the matrix element method and optimized in order to separate single-top-quark $s$-channel events from the main background contributions, which are top-quark pair production and $W$ boson production in association with heavy-flavour jets. The measurement leads to an observed signal significance of $3.2$ standard deviations and a measured cross-section of $\\sigma_s\\!=\\!4.8\\!\\pm\\!0.8$(stat.)$^{+1.6}_{-1.3}$(cyst.) pb, which is consistent with the Standard Model expectation...

  8. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a W Boson Using a Matrix Element Technique at CDF in p-bar{p} Collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a $W$ boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb-1. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production rate. The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between 100 and 150 GeV. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studie...

  9. 企业产品品牌构成要素及其培育策略探析%The Research of Enterprise Product Brand Elements and the Cultivation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煌强

    2014-01-01

    分析企业产品品牌特质及其注重培育产品品牌的重要性,并基于品牌构成条件的基础上提出了企业产品品牌构成要素,利用实证研究的方法对产品品牌的构成要素与作用机理进行了分析,并提出了加强产品品牌内涵挖掘、夯实产品品质、加大对产品品牌的管理水平提升等的策略。%This paper analyzes the characteristics of enterprise product brands and the importance of cultivating them,and on the basis of conditions consisting of product brands,the paper proposes the elements. By employing the empirical research method,the paper has an analysis,and proposes we should strengthen brand connotation mining,solid products quality,enforce the promotion of management levels.

  10. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Elementals in Aquatic Products by Microwave Digestion-ICP/MS%微波消解-ICP/MS法同时测定水产品中13种元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静; 王亚林; 汤洁

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously determine 13 elementals by microwave digestion -ICP/MS in aquatic products with Cesium and Indium as internal standards .HNO3 -H2 O2 was used to digest the samples.The method detection limits of the 13 elementals ranged from 0.05 ng/g to 0.064 μg/g and the RSDs of 4 parallel determination were less than 5%. The spiked recoveries of silver carp were between 81%and 117%.%用硝酸-双氧水体系微波消解,以In、Sc为内标,采用电感耦合等离子体质谱法( ICP/MS)同时测定水产品中V、Cr、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Se、Cd、Sb、Ba、Tl、Pb等13种元素。各元素的检出限在0.05 ng/g~0.064μg/g之间,样品平行测定4次的RSD<5%,鲢鱼样品的加标回收率在81%~117%之间。

  12. Proton induced K X-ray production cross sections of the elements Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Ni in the 0.7–2.0 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti [Programa de Pós Graduação em Física, PPGFis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hinrichs, Ruth [PPGFis and Instituto de Geociências, UFRGS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marcos A.Z. [PPGFis and Instituto de Física, UFRGS (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Proton induced K-shell ionization cross sections were obtained for the elements Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Ni in the 0.7–2.0 MeV energy range. The accuracy of these fundamental parameters is essential for PIXE analysis and the data in the literature present a considerable spread, mainly for Al and Si. The values obtained for Ti, Fe and Ni are compatible with the current theories and the experimental results reported in the literature. However, Al and Si cross sections present important differences from theoretical and experimental data. We propose values for the fluorescent yields of Al and Si that are compatible with recent results and can be incorporated in the computations of K X-ray production cross sections.

  13. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  14. APPLICATION OF MODIFYING ALLOYING ALLOY CONTAINING NANOSIZED POWDERS OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS IN PRODUCTION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH GLOBULAR GRAPHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical interest is the application of alloying alloy-modifiers for secondary treatment of high-strength cast iron to stabilize the process of spheroidization graphite and achieving higher physical-mechanical properties of castings. The peculiarity of the high-strength cast irons manufacturing technology is their tendency to supercooling during solidification in the mold. This leads to the formation of shrinkage defects and structurally free cementite, especially in thin-walled sections of the finished castings. To minimize these effects in foundry practice during production of ductile iron the secondary inoculation is widely used. In this regard, the question of the choice of the additives with effective impact not only on the graphitization process but also on the formation of the metallic base of ductile iron is relevant. The aim of the present work is to study the peculiarities of structure formation in cast iron with nodular graphite when alloying alloy-modifier based on tin with additions of nanoparticles of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano-pipes is used for secondary treatment. Melting of iron in laboratory conditions was performed in crucible induction furnace IST-006 with an acid lining held. Spheroidizing treatment of melt was realized with magnesium containing alloying alloy FeSiMg7 by means of ladle method. Secondary treatment of high strength cast iron was carried out by addition of alloying alloy-modifier in an amount of 0.1% to the bottom of the pouring ladle. Cast samples for chemical composition analysis, study of microstructure, technological and mechanical properties of the resultant alloy were made. Studies have shown that the secondary treatment of high strength cast iron with developed modifier-alloying alloy results in formation of the perlite metallic base due to the tin impact and nodular graphite with regular shape under the influence of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in Aquatic Products by Different Metheds and Analysis Instruments%不同测定技术与分析仪器对水产品中重金属元素的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伶俐; 刘丽; 洪波; 陈湘艺; 黄向荣

    2013-01-01

    建立电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)同时测定水产品成分分析标准物质中铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)、铅(Pb)、镉(Cd)、铬(Cr)、汞(Hg)和砷(As)等7种重金属元素.采用不同的消解方法(电热板消解、微波消解)及不同的分析仪器(原子吸收光谱法、ICP-MS法)进行测定,结果表明,电热板消解法的处理时间长、稳定性差、测定值偏低;微波消解法的消解完全,操作简单,快速,污染少,效率高.与原子吸收光谱法测定的结果相比,ICP-MS法测定的干扰少、精密度高、速度快,可满足多元素的同时测定.%We established a method for simultaneous determination of trace elements including Cu.Zn、Pb、Cd、Cr、Hg and As in aquatic products composition andlysis standard material by ICP-MS,which was determined by different digestion methods (electric heating plate digestion and microwave digestion) and different analysis instruments (atomic absorption spectrometric method and ICP-MS method).The results showed that there had long treatment time,poor stability and lower determination value by electric heating plate digestion.Then the microwave digestion method had completely digested,simple operation,fast,less pollution and high efficiency.Compared with atomic absorption spectrometry,ICP-MS detection technology had less interference,high precision,fast speed,and could meet the measuring element at the same time.=Keywords:aquatic product; trace element; microwave digestion; ICP-MS; Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

  16. PERAN UNSUR CUACA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG LADA DI SENTRA PRODUKSI LADA DAERAH SULAWESI TENGGARA (The Role of Weather Elements Toward Increased Foot Rot Disease on Black Pepper in the Production Center of Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Santiaji Bande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengendalian penyakit tanaman di sentra produksi lada melalui modifikasi lingkungan merupakan pilihan bijak dalam upaya pengurangan penggunaan pestisida. Penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada telah menyebabkan penurunan produksi lada di berbagai daerah sentra rempah. Penyakit ini semakin meningkat dengan adanya pergeseran cuaca yang tidak menentu. Interaksi antar unsur cuaca dan kondisi agroekosistem diduga mempengaruhi perkembangan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung antar unsur cuaca (suhu udara, kelembapan udara, jumlah hari hujan, total curah hujan, suhu tanah, dan lengas tanah terhadap terjadinya peningkatan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada berbagai kondisi agroekosistem lada. Penelitian dilaksanakan di sentra pertanaman lada di Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Analisis lintas digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antar unsur cuaca dengan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa unsur cuaca mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Unsur cuaca yang secara langsung menyebabkan peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada tiap daerah bervariasi dan paling dominan adalah curah hujan. Unsur cuaca yang mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit di Kabupaten Konawe Selatan adalah curah hujan dan lengas tanah, di Kabupaten Konawe oleh suhu udara, kelembapan udara, dan curah hujan, sedangkan di Kabupaten Kolaka oleh jumlah hari hujan, dan curah hujan. ABSTRACT Control of plant diseases in black pepper production centers through environmental modification is a wise choice in efforts to reduce the use of pesticides. The foot rot disease causes production of black pepper has been undergoing a decrease in center spices. The irregular change of the weather was strongly assumed to be the cause of the occurrence of the black pepper foot-rot disease. The interactions between

  17. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  18. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuchang; Ruban, Ludmila; Wang, Yaohe; Zhou, Yuhong; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2017-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h(-1) and 0.044 h(-1) were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h(-1) in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU) per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  19. Search for Standard Model Higgs Boson Production in Association with a $W$ Boson Using a Matrix Element Technique at CDF in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a search for standard model Higgs boson production in association with a W boson using events recorded by the CDF experiment in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb{sup -1}. The search is performed using a matrix element technique in which the signal and background hypotheses are used to create a powerful discriminator. The discriminant output distributions for signal and background are fit to the observed events using a binned likelihood approach to search for the Higgs boson signal. We find no evidence for a Higgs boson, and 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits are set on {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} WH) x {Beta}(H {yields} b{bar b}). The observed limits range from 3.5 to 37.6 relative to the standard model expectation for Higgs boson masses between m{sub H} = 100 GeV/c{sup 2} and m{sub H} = 150 GeV/c{sup 2}. The 95% C.L. expected limit is estimated from the median of an ensemble of simulated experiments and varies between 2.9 and 32.7 relative to the production rate predicted by the standard model over the Higgs boson mass range studied.

  20. The influence of the crop rotation, the nutrition regime and the herbicides on production and several productivity elements in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated on acid soils in the Western Plain of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The crop rotation plant is a decisive factor influencing the growth and development of wheat .The choice of an appropriate crop rotation of plants, for instance, maintains a normal C/N ratio of 40-70 (assimilative C versus assimilative N. Bacterial N fixation in the soil and a normal C/N ratio are conditions that offer the forerunner plant ameliorative properties [11].The influence of plant cultivation technologies is expressed in the yield obtained per ha. The economic efficiency is quantifiedby the cost per ha or product unit.At present, this quantification is irrelevant due to the fact that products’ prices oscillate dramatically as a consequence of the inflation which is a characterisic of the present period. Thus, the most recommended method is to express the efficiency of the applied agrotechnical measures throught a different indicator, more stable and synthetic: KWh. This indicator is more realistic in respect to the investments and benefits of a cultivated crop and also makes possible the application of adequate measures leading to production increase per surface unit [1].

  1. Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials of boolean elements

    CERN Document Server

    Mongelli, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    We give closed combinatorial product formulas for Kazhdan-Lusztig poynomials and their parabolic analogue of type q in the case of boolean elements, introduced in [M. Marietti, Boolean elements in Kazhdan-Lusztig theory, J. Algebra 295 (2006)], in Coxeter groups whose Coxeter graph is a tree.

  2. Explicit free‐floating beam element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    via scalar products of the element related vectors. This leads to a homogeneous quadratic strain definition in terms of the generalized displacements, whereby the elastic energy becomes at most bi‐quadratic. Additionally, the use of independent equilibrium modes to set up the element stiffness avoids...

  3. Stability of superheavy elements around Z=120 probed by the study of their fission time obtained by the crystal blocking method; Stabilite d'elements superlourds au voisinage de Z=120 testee par l'etude de leurs temps de fission deduits par la methode du blocage cristallin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laget, M

    2007-10-15

    While the existence of an island of stability beyond Z=110 is theoretically acquired, the location of this island ranges from Z=114 to Z=126 depending on models. In this work, the stability of super-heavy nuclei is probed through the study of their fission time. The chosen experimental method, the crystal blocking method, is sensitive to the presence of possible long time components in the fission time distribution which indicates a fission mechanism occurring after the formation of a compound nucleus. The blocking dips were therefore constituted for the various products of the reaction U{sup 238} + Ni (6.6 MeV/A) {yields} 120, the experimental set-up allowing us to clearly identify and select the reaction mechanisms. The comparison of the blocking dip constituted for quasi-elastic scattering events with the one obtained for the fission fragments of a Z=120, combined with the study of kinematical properties of these fission fragments, give evidences of the existence of very long fission times (> 10{sup -18} s) only compatible with a fusion-fission mechanism implying a non vanishing fission barrier height for Z=120. The second part outlines microscopic calculations of fission barrier heights, carried out in the framework of the finite temperature of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. Because of the progressive vanishing of the pairing correlation with T, which happens differently at the ground state and at the top of the barrier, B{sub f} first grows until T {approx_equal} 0.8 MeV before dropping with T owing to shell-effects damping with temperature. (author)

  4. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metal Elements in Substrates for Needle Mushroom Products Quality and Safety%培养料中重金属元素对金针菇产品质量安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 孟东; 葛冬梅; 林茜

    2016-01-01

    为了进一步提高金针菇产品的质量安全,对工厂化栽培下,培养料中存在的As、Hg、Pb和Cd的含量对金针菇子实体重金属浓度对金针菇产品食用安全的影响展开深入研究。结果表明,金针菇子实体中As、Hg、Pb、Cd含量与培养料中各元素浓度呈现正相关关系;而金针菇培养料中各重金属安全限定值在1.000、0.100、10.000、1.000 mg/kg以下时,食用较为安全。%In order to further improve the quality and safety of needle mushroom products, the factory under cultivation substrates of As, Hg, Pb and Cd on needle mushroom fruiting body yield and content of heavy metal concentration influences on edible safety of needle mushroom products launched was in-depth studied. The results showed that mushroom fruiting bodies of As, Hg, Pb, Cd content showed a positive correlation between each element of substrates concentration; Eat was more security, when the heavy metal material safety culture mushroom was limitted in 1.000, 0.100, 10.000, 1.000 mg/kg.

  6. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Its Applications on Element Detections of Agriculture Products%激光诱导击穿光谱技术在农产品检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于巧玲; 谭文波; 石少明; 覃俊达

    2015-01-01

    激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)技术是一种利用原子发射光谱定性、定量测定物质组成元素的分析技术。随着激光技术、光谱技术以及相关领域的仪器的发展,激光诱导击穿光谱技术已经成为光谱学领域的研究热点。文章介绍了激光诱导击穿光谱发展、装置和原理,分析了该项技术在农产品检测方面的应用。%Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a convenient and sensitive analysis approach based on atomic emission spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative detection of elements. The LIBS has become a hot topic in the spectrometric research field with the development of laser technique, spectrum technique and related instruments. This paper reviewed the history, mechanism and experimental setup of LIBS, and its recent applications on agriculture products detections.

  7. Effects of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein Gene Polymorphisms on Milk Production, Composition and Coagulation Properties of Individual Milk of Brown Swiss Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maurmayr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1 gene polymorphisms and milk production, composition (fat, protein, and casein content, acidity (pH and titratable acidity and coagulation properties (MCP, namely rennet coagulation time (RCT, min and curd firmness (a30, mm were investigated on individual Brown Swiss milk. A total of 294 cows from 16 herds and progeny of 15 sires were milk-sampled once. Th e additive effects of SCD and SREBP-1 genotypes on the aforementioned traits were analyzed through Bayesian linear models. The SCD gene was associated with protein content, casein content and a30. Lower protein, casein and a30 was observed for milk yielded by SCD V than A cows, whereas for other traits the effect was trivial. Animals carrying the L allele of SREBP-1 showed higher fat content than animals carrying the S allele. These results suggest a possible use of these loci in gene-assisted selection programs for the improvement of milk quality traits and MCP in Brown Swiss cattle, although large scale studies in different breeds are required.

  8. Effects of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein Gene Polymorphisms on Milk Production, Composition and Coagulation Properties of Individual Milk of Brown Swiss Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maurmayr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1 gene polymorphisms and milk production, composition (fat, protein, and casein content, acidity (pH and titratable acidity and coagulation properties (MCP, namely rennet coagulation time (RCT, min and curd firmness (a30, mm were investigated on individual Brown Swiss milk. A total of 294 cows from 16 herds and progeny of 15 sires were milk-sampled once. Th e additive effects of SCD and SREBP-1 genotypes on the aforementioned traits were analyzed through Bayesian linear models. The SCD gene was associated with protein content, casein content and a30. Lower protein, casein and a30 was observed for milk yielded by SCD V than A cows, whereas for other traits the effect was trivial. Animals carrying the L allele of SREBP-1 showed higher fat content than animals carrying the S allele. These results suggest a possible use of these loci in gene-assisted selection programs for the improvement of milk quality traits and MCP in Brown Swiss cattle, although large scale studies in different breeds are required.

  9. 中国元素在国际运动品牌产品外观设计中的应用与思考--以网球系列产品为例%Application and Consideration of Chinese Element in International Sports Brand’s Product Appearance De-sign:For Example Tennis Series Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陕威; 孙娣

    2015-01-01

    The use of literature, case analysis and others research methods to study of the application that the Chi-nese elements in international sports brand’s product de-sign. Research shows that the international sports brand product design for the Chinese market often use of Chi-nese color create a consumption atmosphere,cause the e-motional resonance with consumers;use of Chinese graph-ic symbols to build brand image of the personality,to en-hance the efficiency of brand appeal, narrow the psycho-logical distance with consumers;clever use of Chinese characters enhance the implications of brand cultural,en-hance the cultural identity with consumers. The major is-sues about the international sports brand product design is that split the link between“inside”and“outside”on Chi-nese element and the use of representation,this brings me some enlightenment in our local sports brand. Through this research to provide a theoretical reference for our local sports brand to accurate develop and reasonable use of Chinese elements in product design.%运用文献资料和案例分析等研究方法,对国际运动品牌产品外观设计中中国元素的应用进行分析。研究表明国际运动品牌针对中国市场的产品外观设计,常常使用中国色彩营造消费氛围,引起消费者的情感共鸣;运用中国图形符号塑造品牌个性形象,提升品牌诉求效率,拉近同消费者的心理距离;巧用中国汉字提升品牌文化意蕴,增进消费者的文化认同。当前国际运动品牌产品外观设计中主要存在割裂中国元素“内”与“外”之间的联系及运用表象化问题,这带给我国本土运动品牌一些启示。以期为我国本土运动品牌在产品外观设计中准确的开发与合理的运用中国元素提供理论参考。

  10. Photoshop Elements 8 After the Shoot

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A handy, full-color reference for using Photoshop Elements 8 while on the go. Photoshop Elements combines an easy-to-use set of features and enhancements with image editing power in an affordable program. The newest version—Photoshop Elements 8—features more online integration with products like the new Flash-based Web galleries. Featuring a convenient trim size that goes where you go, this portable guide is essential reading for Elements users and especially suited if you are a mobile user who wants to edit and post your digital photographs while on the go.: Serves as a portable reference for

  11. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  12. Element-ary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  13. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan

    2009-01-01

    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  14. Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is expanding because of environmental issues and the efficiency and cost savings achieved compared with use of traditional incandescent lighting. The longer life and reduced power consumption of some LEDs have led to annual energy savings, reduced maintenance costs, and lower emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from powerplants because of the resulting decrease in energy consumption required for lighting applications when LEDs are used to replace less-energy-efficient sources. Metals such as arsenic, gallium, indium, and the rare-earth elements (REEs) cerium, europium, gadolinium, lanthanum, terbium, and yttrium are important mineral materials used in LED semiconductor technology. Most of the world's supply of these materials is produced as byproducts from the production of aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc. Most of the rare earths required for LED production in 2011 came from China, and most LED production facilities were located in Asia. The LED manufacturing process is complex and is undergoing much change with the growth of the industry and the changes in demand patterns of associated commodities. In many respects, the continued growth of the LED industry, particularly in the general lighting sector, is tied to its ability to increase LED efficiency and color uniformity while decreasing the costs of producing, purchasing, and operating LEDs. Research is supported by governments of China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Because of the volume of ongoing research in this sector, it is likely that the material requirements of future LEDs may be quite different than LEDs currently (2011) in use as industry attempts to cut costs by reducing material requirements of expensive heavy rare-earth phosphors and increasing the sizes of wafers for economies of scale. Improved LED performance will allow customers to reduce the number of LEDs in automotive, electronic

  15. A Method to Site-Specifically Identify and Quantitate Carbonyl End Products of Protein Oxidation Using Oxidation-Dependent Element Coded Affinity Tags (O-ECAT) and NanoLiquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Young, N L; Whetstone, P A; Cheal, S M; Benner, W H; Lebrilla, C B; Meares, C F

    2005-08-25

    Protein oxidation is linked to cellular stress, aging, and disease. Protein oxidations that result in reactive species are of particular interest, since these reactive oxidation products may react with other proteins or biomolecules in an unmediated and irreversible fashion, providing a potential marker for a variety of disease mechanisms. We have developed a novel system to identify and quantitate, relative to other states, the sites of oxidation on a given protein. A specially designed Oxidation-dependent carbonyl-specific Element-Coded Affinity Mass Tag (O-ECAT), AOD, ((S)-2-(4-(2-aminooxy)-acetamido)-benzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid, is used to covalently tag the residues of a protein oxidized to aldehyde or keto end products. After proteolysis, the resulting AOD-tagged peptides are affinity purified, and analyzed by nanoLC-FTICR-MS, which provides high specificity in extracting co-eluting AOD mass pairs with a unique mass difference and affords relative quantitation based on isotopic ratios. Using this methodology, we have mapped the surface oxidation sites on a model protein, recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in its native form (as purchased) and after FeEDTA oxidation. A variety of modified amino acid residues including lysine, arginine, proline, histidine, threonine, aspartic and glutamic acids, were found to be oxidized to aldehyde and keto end products. The sensitivity of this methodology is shown by the number of peptides identified, twenty peptides on the native protein and twenty-nine after surface oxidation using FeEDTA and ascorbate. All identified peptides map to the surface of the HSA crystal structure validating this method for identifying oxidized amino acids on protein surfaces. In relative quantitation experiments between FeEDTA oxidation and native protein oxidation, identified sites showed different relative propensities towards oxidation independent of amino acid

  16. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  17. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph for short-lived and super-heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schury, P., E-mail: schury@riken.jp [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); New Mexico State University, Dept. of Chem. and BioChem., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wada, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ito, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Naimi, S.; Sonoda, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Mita, H. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Takamine, A. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Okada, K. [Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wollnik, H. [New Mexico State University, Dept. of Chem. and BioChem., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Chon, S. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Haba, H.; Kaji, D. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Koura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyatake, H. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Morimoto, K.; Morita, K. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Demonstrated very fast mass measurements with a multi-reflection time of flight mass spectrograph. • Mass resolving power of R{sub m}≈150,000 was achieved in 1.2-ms for A/q=39 ions. • Mass precision of (δm)/m =7.7×10{sup 8} was demonstrated for {sup 40}Ca{sub +}. • Effects of thermal and voltage instabilities are described. • Effects of thermal and voltage instabilities are described. -- Abstract: A multi-reflection time-of-flight (MRTOF) mass spectrograph has been implemented at RIKEN to provide high-precision mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Of particular interest are mass measurements of r-process nuclei and trans-uranium nuclei. In such nuclei, the MRTOF can perform on par with or better than traditional Penning trap systems. We demonstrate that the MRTOF-MS is capable of accurately attaining relative mass precision of δm/m<10{sup -7} and describe it’s utility with heavy, short-lived nuclei.

  18. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  19. Musikalske elementer i musikaler

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linnea Reitan

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven undersøker hvordan musikalske elementer kan bli brukt i musikaler for å påvirke den dramaturgiske helheten. Gjennom både musikalsk og dramaturgisk analyse viser jeg hvordan elementer i musikk kan ha innvirkning på forestillingens dramaturgi. In this master thesis I am aiming to examine the musical elements used in the songs in musicals. Music is an important element in the musical, and therefore I want to look at how some musical elements can contribute to the musical'...

  20. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em subprodutos da soja, algodao, milho, trigo, sorgo e arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Jose Cleto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Ciencias Animais; Silva, Aliomar G. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    1999-11-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. 样品采集和储存所用耗材对微量元素定量分析的影响%Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳双; 顾永恩; 巴特; 翟敏; 濮吉; 沈臻霖; 唐仕川; 贾光

    2012-01-01

    底值有差异,差异较大的元素包括铬、锰、镍、铅、锡和锌.%Objective This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis.Methods Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes ( Brand A,B,C and D,2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO3 volume fraction for 2 - 4 h ;blood taking device ( Brand O,P and Q,3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters ( Brand X,Y and Z,2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h,followed by microwave digestion.Then cadmium,cobalt,chromium,copper,iron,manganese,molybdenum,nickel,lead,selenium,stannum,titanium,vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.Results For the urine collection and storage consumable products,background values of elements were discribed as mean of parellel samples.The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials ( brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml.The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes( brand A),chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials( brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high,which were 1.900,1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml,respectively.Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were discribed as (x) ± s.Background values of chromium for brand O,P and Q were(0.120 ±0.017),(0.337 ±0.093) and (0.360 ±0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ±0.001),(0.017 ±0.012) and (0.103 ±0.015) ng/ml;for lead were (0.057 ±0.072),(0.183 ±0.118)and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml;for titanium were (7.883 ±0.145),(8.863 ±0.190) and (8.613 ±0.274) ng/ml ;zinc

  2. A NOVEL ELLIPSOIDAL ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-liang; WANG Hong-zhen

    2005-01-01

    A novel ellipsoidal acoustic infinite element is proposed. It is based a new pressure representation, which can describe and solve the ellipsoidal acoustic field more exactly. The shape functions of this novel acoustic infinite element are similar .to the Burnett's method, while the weight functions are defined as the product of the complex conjugates of the shaped functions and an additional weighting factor. The code of this method is cheap to generate as for 1-D element because only 1-D integral needs to be numerical. Coupling with the standard finite element, this method provides a capability for very efficiently modeling acoustic fields surrounding structures of virtually any practical shape. This novel method was deduced in brief and the conclusion was kept in detail. To test the feasibility of this novel method efficiently, in the examples the infinite elements were considered, excluding the finite elements relative. This novel ellipsoidal acoustic infinite element can deduce the analytic solution of an oscillating sphere. The example of a prolate spheroid shows that the novel infinite element is superior to the boundary element and other acoustic infinite elements. Analytical and numerical results of these examples show that this novel method is feasible.

  3. Production of elemental sulfur and methane from H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} derived from a coal desulfurization process. Final report, September 1, 1993--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally and theoretically investigate the feasibility of producing elemental sulfur, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and possible methane from hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide through catalytic reactions. A novel experimental system that could evaluate potential catalysts and adsorbents under controlled laboratory conditions was designed and constructed. Additionally an effective simulation program capable of providing valuable thermodynamic information on the reaction system was compiled. The following tasks have been performed: (1) design and construction of an experimental system for the catalyst preparation and catalyst screening studies including frequent modifications of the experimental setup to meet specific application needs; (2) installation and calibration of related analytical instruments, and investigation of the temperature distribution profile inside the reactor; (3) preparation, reduction, sulfidation of potential catalysts, and measurements of specific surface area of catalysts; (4) decomposition of H{sub 2}S under both non-catalytic condition and catalytic condition with the CoO-MoO{sub 3}-alumina catalyst at moderate temperatures around 550 C. Analyses of the product gas by gas chromatograph; and (5) thermodynamic studies on the theoretical conversions of H{sub 2}S for various temperatures, pressures and ratios of H{sub 2}S to CO{sub 2}. Based on the results of the above tasks, bench scale experiments were performed with the CoO-MoO{sub 3}-alumina catalyst at moderate temperatures around 550 C to investigate the adsorption effects of solid sorbents in order to remove sulfur from the reaction environment. Four kinds of adsorbents have been tested along with several designs of solid adsorbent feed systems.

  4. The Fate of Exploding Carbon-Oxygen Chandrasekhar-Mass White Dwarfs: The Production of Stable Iron-Peak Elements in the Type Ia Supernova Remnant 3C 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Dave, Pranav; Kashyap, Rahul; Timmes, Francis; Townsley, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are important across many astrophysical domains, serving as standardizable candles for cosmology, sources of cosmic rays, turbulence, and enriched isotopes for the interstellar medium, and endpoints of binary evolution. Yet, the nature of their stellar progenitors remains elusive. For decades, the leading model to explain the relative uniformity of Type Ia supernovae properties consisted of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs accreting material to near-Chandrasekhar mass from a stellar companion, in the single-degenerate channel. It has slowly become apparent that there are likely several diverse ways in which carbon-oxygen white dwarfs may explode and produce a range of outcomes, including both normal and peculiar Type Ia supernovae. Indeed, it is only very recently that strong observational evidence supporting the single-degenerate channel has emerged, and that numerous questions surrounding it have begun to be unraveled.In this talk, I will focus upon the use of multidimensional numerical simulations in modeling the stable iron-group elemental abundances inferred from the hard X-ray spectrum of the galactic supernova remnant 3C 397. Because the electron capture rates involved in the production of these stable iron-group abundances are very sensitive functions of density, we now have an exquisite probe into the internal structure and composition of the progenitor near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf, as well as of the physics of the ignition and detonation, which gave rise to the observed remnant. I will conclude with an outlook on some of the many exciting prospects for future observational and theoretical investigation, which will have the potential of helping crack the mystery of the Type Ia supernovae progenitors.

  5. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  6. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  7. Human productivity program definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  8. Main: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT S000122 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Present upstream of the promot...er from the B-hordein gene of barley and the alpha-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight glutenin... genes of wheat; See S000001 -300CORE; See S000002 -300MOTIF; -300 element; hordein; gliadin; glutenin; seed; wheat (Triticum aestivum) TGHAAARK ...

  9. A dry element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.; Ota, A.

    1983-08-11

    The agglomerate for the element is made from activated charcoal powder, an electrically conducting additive and a neutral electrolyte. The activated charcoal makes up 30 to 50 percent of the weight of the agglomerate. It is a mixture of hydrophobized and unhydrophobized powder in a ratio of 85 to 70 to 15 to 30. The element has high discharge characteristics.

  10. A battery element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, M.; Koboyasi, S.; Oisi, K.; Okadzaki, R.; Ota, A.

    1983-07-29

    An anode made of an alkaline or an alkaline earth metal and an electrolyte based on an organic solvent are used in the element. A mixture of Mn203 and Mn304 in a 9 to 1 to 3 to 7 ratio serves as the cathode. The element has a stable discharge curve at a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts.

  11. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half...... of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  12. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  13. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  14. Photoshop Elements 5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Anyone still think that Adobe Photoshop Elements is a toy version of the real thing? As the most popular photo-editing program on the market, Photoshop Elements not only has Photoshop's marvelous powers, but also has capabilities the mothership lacks. Each new version includes more tools designed specifically for today's consumer digital photo enthusiasts. The latest edition, Photoshop Elements 5, solidifies the reputation of this superb and inexpensive product with new scrapbook features, a link to online photo services, and many other improvements. In fact, there's so much to Photoshop Ele

  15. Separation of transuranic elements and some fission products in irradiated spent fuels. Program 2005; Separacion de elementos transuranicos y algunos productos de fision presentes en los combustibles nucleares irradiados Programa 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. G.; Cordoba, G. de; Gascon, J. L.; Pina, G.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Uriarte, A.

    2006-07-01

    This technical publication of ENRESA refers to Partitioning of some chemical elements containing longlived radionuclides (actinides and fission products), from spent nuclear fuels. The Partitioning includes the different processes developed or on R and D way, from the middle of the past century to the present. These processes are of two types, wet (hydro-metallurgical) and dry (pyro-metallurgical). Among the hydro-metallurgical processes the most important is the PUREX process, developed in the U.S.A. at the middle of the past century, used for the separation of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuels, previous dissolution with nitric acid of the irradiated fuels. Later other hydrometallurgical processes have been developed for the separation of some TRUs and long-lived fission products from the high activity liquid (HLW) coming from PUREX reprocessing. Among the most important countries and institutions that are developing new hydrometallurgical processes are USA, Japan, China, Russia and the European Union, fundamentally France, the Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Spain and the JRC-ITU. In the case of Spain it is possible to remark the works of synthesis of new extractants, developed by the group of the Prof. Javier de Mendoza of the Dept. of Organic Chemistry of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and by the group of Prof. Teixidor of the Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB) of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) and the activities carried out by the CIEMAT from 1999, based fundamentally on a collaboration agreement with ENRESA, that are related to the characterization and tests of the new extractants synthesized in Spain and also abroad, mainly by the CEA (France). All these activities are included in the Projects PARTNEW and EUROPART of the European Union. About Pyro-metallurgical Processes, they started in the ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) by the 60' is of the

  16. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ELEMENTS IN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOCARIU Liliana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial design represents an important 20th century phenomenon, which contributed to the spectacular development of human society. There are a lot of domains in which the insertion of the industrial design methods and theories is extremely necessary, becoming common practice. Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view of penetrating a certain market or of appealing to a large number of consumers.

  17. Development of Junction Elements from Study of the Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wilson Kindlein Junior; Luis Henrique Alves C(a)ndido; André Canal Marques; Sandra Souza dos Santos; Maurício da Silva Viegas

    2007-01-01

    The applications of bionic methodology developed by the Laboratory of Design and Material Selection as basis in the creation of junction elements were demonstrated.These elements favor the application of Ecodesign in reference to the effectiveness of product dismount aiming the reduction of ambient impact in all its phases of use.The creation,the development and the confection of new junction elements were described,and case studies of new products developed specificallv with this purpose were presented.

  18. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  19. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  20. Finite element mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Daniel SH

    2014-01-01

    Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques

  1. Fe-15Ni-13Cr austenitic stainless steels for fission and fusion reactor applications - Part 1: Effects of minor alloying elements on precipitate phases in melt products and implication in alloy fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. H.; Mansur, L. K.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to develop alloys for fission and fusion reactor applications, 28Fe-15Ni-13Cr base alloys were fabricated by adding various combinations of the minor alloying elements, Mo, Ti, C, Si, P, Nb, and B. The results showed that a significant fraction of undesirable residual oxygen was removed as oxides when Ti, C, and Si were added. Accordingly, the concentrations of the latter three essential alloying elements were reduced also. Among these elements, Ti was the strongest oxide former, but the largest oxygen removal (over 80%) was observed when carbon was added alone without Ti, since gaseous CO boiled off during melting. This paper recommends an alloy melting procedure to mitigate solute losses while reducing the undesirable residual oxygen. In this work, 14 different types of precipitate phases were identified. Compositions of precipitate phases and their crystallographic data are documented. Finally, stability of precipitate phases was examined in view of Gibbs free energy of formation.

  2. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  3. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  4. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-06-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  5. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  6. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  7. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  8. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  9. A battery element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatanabe, U.; Aoki, K.; Ito, K.; Ogava, K.; Okadzaki, R.

    1983-07-29

    An anode made of a light metal is used in the element, along with an anhydrous liquid electrolyte and a cathode made of CuC12(CFn)x or another material. The current tap of the anode is made from aluminum, gold, silver or another metal of the platinum group and the current tap may be coated with this metal. The thickness of the coating is 0.1 to 1 micrometer. The element has a long storage life.

  10. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  11. Trace elements in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  12. Changes of surface structure and elemental composition of Pd rod and collector of nuclear reaction products irradiated with 10-MeV γ-quanta in dense deuterium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska-Kitowska, T.

    2013-12-01

    A high-pressure chamber is filled with 1.2 kbar molecular deuterium (DHPC). The palladium rod saturated with deuterium is loaded inside the DHPC and irradiated with 10-MeV bremsstrahlung γ-quanta for 18 h with a 11-13 μA electron beam using the MT-25 electron accelerator. The elemental compositions of all surfaces of the DHPC element inside the dense deuterium gas were studied using scanning electronic microscopes with X-ray microelement microprobe analysis. It is found that all surfaces, including the surface of a high-purity palladium rod (99.995%), are covered with a partly homogeneous layer or large microparticles of lead. Also, light elements such as 6C, 8O, 11Na, 12Mg, 13Al, 14Si, 22Ti, 25Mn, 26Fe, 29Cu, and 30Zn and heavy metals such as 47Ag, 73Ta, 74W, 78Pt, 79Au, and 82Pb are observed. Possible processes that can cause the anomalies observed in the newly formed chemical elements are briefly discussed.

  13. Recovery of trans-plutonium elements; Recuperation des elements transplutoniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, J.Y.; Poncet, B.; Simon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the recovery of americium and curium from the fission-product solution obtained from the processing of irradiated fuel elements made of natural metallic uranium alloyed with aluminium, iron and silicon; these elements have been subjected to an average irradiation of 4000 MW days/ton in a gas-graphite type reactor having a thermal power of 3.7 MW/ton of uranium. The process used consists of 3 extraction cycles and one americium-curium separation: - 1) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: extraction of actinides and lanthanides; elimination of fission products; - 2) extraction cycle in 8 per cent D2EHPA: decontamination from the fission products, decontamination of actinides from lanthanides; - 3) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: separation of the complexing agent and concentration of the actinides; - 4) americium-curium separation by precipitation. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet, la recuperation de l'americium et du curium de la solution de produits de fission provenant du traitement de combustibles irradies a base d'uranium naturel metallique allie a l'aluminium, le fer, et le silicium, et ayant subi une irradiation moyenne de 4000 MWj/t dans une pile du type graphite-gaz, dont la puissance thermique est de 3.7 MW/t d'uranium. Le procede utilise comprend 3 cycles d'extraction et une separation americium-curium: - 1. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: extraction des actinides et des lanthanides, elimination des produits de fission; - 2. cycle d'extraction dans le D2EHPA a 8 pour cent: decontamination en produits de fission, decontamination des actinides en lanthanides; - 3. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: separation du complexant et concentration des actinides; - 4. separation americium-curium par precipitation. (auteurs)

  14. Origin of the Biologically Important Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    The chemical elements most widely distributed in terrestrial living creatures are the ones (apart from inert helium and neon) that are commonest in the Universe - hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. A chemically different Universe would clearly have different biology, if any. We explore here the nuclear processes in stars, the early Universe, and elsewhere that have produced these common elements, and, while we are at it, also encounter the production of lithium, gold, uranium, and other elements of sociological, if not biological, importance. The relevant processes are, for the most part, well understood. Much less well understood is the overall history of chemical evolution of the Galaxy, from pure hydrogen and helium to the mix of elements we see today. One implication is that we cannot do a very good job of estimating how many stars and which ones might be orbited by habitable planets.

  15. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia

    2002-07-01

    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  16. 价值工程在清代文化元素产品开发与服务决策中的应用%Application of Value Engineering in Development and Decision-making of Product with Cultural Elements of the Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣

    2012-01-01

    清代文化元素文化产品设计与开发的设计师和工艺师都希望设计的艺术产品能在市场竞争中获得成功.这就需要运用价值分析方法改进现有产品,降低材料费用.清代元素文化旅游产品开发的目的就是为社会提供更多的令人满意的产品,增加产品的销售量、多盈利,最有效的方法是改进设计、改进结构、提高产品质量,从而降低成本,而VE方法正是降低成本、增加利润的最有效方法之一.%All the designers and craftsmen for the design and development of product with Qing Dynasty cultural elements want their products to succeed in market competition, so it is necessary to use value analysis method to improve existing products and reduce the cost of materials. The development of tourism product with the Qing Dynasty cultural elements is to provide more satisfactory products, increase product sales, and get more profit, and the most effective way is to improve the design, structure and quality of product, so as to reduce costs. VE method is one of the most effective methods to reduce the cost and increase the profit.

  17. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  18. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  19. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  20. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  1. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  2. Light element synthesis in baryon isocurvature models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D L P

    2006-01-01

    The prejudice against baryon isocurvature models is primarily because of their inconsistency with early universe light element nucleosynthesis results. We propose that incipient low metallicity (Pop II) star forming regions can be expected to have environments conducive to Deuterium production by spallation, up to levels observed in the universe.

  3. 76 FR 256 - Informed Consent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... elements which align with various ethics codes and apply to all clinical investigations regulated by FDA and clinical investigations that support applications for research or marketing permits for products... ethical research, patient advocacy organizations, health care attorneys, pharmacy and law students,...

  4. Research Development of MOX Fuel Element Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Qi-fa; YANG; Ting-gui; SHANG; Gai-bin; YIN; Bang-yue; ZHOU; Guo-liang; LI; Qiang; JIANG; Bao-jun

    2015-01-01

    The project of"MOX Fuel Element Research"led by China Institute of Atomic Energy,404Company Ltd.and CNPE Zhengzhou Branch are members of the project research team.The research task of 2015had been accomplished successfully,and the research productions of this year build up a basis for the future research,also

  5. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  6. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  7. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts.......Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...

  8. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  9. Finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  10. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  11. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  12. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  13. Annihilators of nilpotent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Klein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Let x be a nilpotent element of an infinite ring R (not necessarily with 1. We prove that A(x—the two-sided annihilator of x—has a large intersection with any infinite ideal I of R in the sense that card(A(x∩I=cardI. In particular, cardA(x=cardR; and this is applied to prove that if N is the set of nilpotent elements of R and R≠N, then card(R\\N≥cardN.

  14. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...

  15. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, F.

    1983-09-29

    A current tap pressed into the anode is installed in the central part of the top of the element. There is an internal top made of plastic under the top. There is a projection in the center of the top with an opening, through which the current tap is passed. The edge of the plastic top serves as an insulation lining between the metallic top and the body, which serves as the current tap for the cathode. A separator is placed between the anode and the cathode. Electrolyte leaks are prevented in the slotted disk elements.

  16. The atomic structure and the properties of Ununbium (z=112) and Mercury (Z=80)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; JiGuang

    2007-01-01

    A super heavy element Uub (Z = 112) has been studied theoretically in conjunction with rela-tivistic effects and the effects of electron correlations. The atomic structure and the oscillator strengths of low-lying levels have been calculated, and the ground states have also been determined for the singly and doubly charged ions. The influence of relativity and correlation effects to the atomic properties of such a super heavy element has been investigated in detail. The results have been compared with the properties of an element Hg. Two energy levels at wave numbers 64470 and 94392 are suggested to be of good candidates for experimental observations.……

  17. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalenko, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  18. Distribution and Enrichment of Trace Elements in Coal Combustion Products from Southwestern Guizhou%黔西南煤燃烧产物微量元素分布特征及富集规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓飞; 张国平; 李玲; 项萌; 蔡永兵

    2012-01-01

    通过对黔西南高砷煤及燃烧产物(底灰、粗飞灰、细飞灰和烟气)中微量元素含量、水溶性及赋存状态的测定,分析了微量元素在燃煤产物中的分布特征及富集规律,探讨了燃煤过程中微量元素迁移转化机制.结果表明,As和Sb是黔西南高砷煤的主要危害元素,含量分别为(256±195)μg.g-1和(26±21)μg.g-1.根据元素在燃煤产物中富集程度的差异,将其分为4类:Ⅰ底灰富集型(Cr和W);Ⅱ均匀富集型(Cu和Ba);Ⅲ飞灰富集型(Mn和Mo);Ⅳ细飞灰超富集型(As、Cd、Sb和Pb).As的挥发性强于Sb和Pb.As在细飞灰上表现出强烈的富集;而Sb和Pb在原煤和燃烧产物中的分配具有明显的正相关关系(R2=0.990 1,P〈0.05).亲石元素容易在底灰沉积或组成飞灰颗粒基质,亲硫元素燃烧后易于吸附在飞灰颗粒表面.而飞灰颗粒粒径越小,比表面积越大,所吸附的微量元素含量越高.%The main aim of this study was to research the distribution and enrichment of trace elements in the high arsenic coal and the combustion products(bottom ash,coarse fly ash,fine fly ash and flue gas) from southwestern Guizhou.The characteristics of enrichment behavior,elements transformation mechanism during combustion were analyzed.The results indicated that arsenic and antimony were the main toxic elements,their concentrations were(256±195)μg·g-1 and(26±21)μg·g-1,respectively.The elements were classified into four groups based on their enrichment behavior in combustion products: ClassⅠ,Enriched in the bottom ash(Cr,W);Class Ⅱ,Equally distributed between bottom ash and fly ash(Cu,Ba);Class Ⅲ,Enriched in the fly ash(Mn,Mo);Class Ⅳ,Enriched in the fine fly ash(As,Cd,Sb,Pb) strongly.The volatile of arsenic is stronger than that of antimony and lead.Arsenic shows a strong enrichment in fine fly ash,while the distribution of antimony and lead shows a positive

  19. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  20. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  1. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  2. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the hydro(geo)lo

  3. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  4. The elements of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Fedotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Article "Elements of Life" offers a hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine with the physical laws. It shows the principle of forming a sequence of daily activity of the acupuncture meridians as a consequence of the Doppler effect in the process of flowing around the planet Earth by cosmic wind (by Ether. In accordance with this specification the daily structure of meridians had been built. It is suggested that the essence of the Chinese Qi (Chi are vibrations of a certain range in the medium. Consequently, it became possible to set the interrelation of frequencies of the visible spectrum with certain meridians. It is shown that the topological relationship of ancient (barrier points of the Five Elements (Wu-Shu points are associated with the wave lengths of the so-called Qi. It is shown also that the essence of the Wu-Xing law is based on daily circulation patterns of meridians. The examples of the surrounding world, including pulses processes in the human body, are confirming the above mentioned theses. A correlation diagram between the main elements by Dr. Samohotsky A.S. (dissertation "The experience of the definition of medical laws", 1946 and the Five Elements of traditional Chinese philosophy is established. The above represented hypotheses are yet introduced in practice in form of pulse spectral analysis system.

  5. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  6. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  7. Elemental Chem Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  8. Reference: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT Kreis M, Williamson MS, Forde J, Schmitz D, Clark J, Buxton B, Pywell J..., Marris C, Henderson J, Harris N, Shewry PR, Forde BG, Miflin BJ Differential gene expression in the developing barley endosperm. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B314:355-365 (1986) ...

  9. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  10. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  11. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  12. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  13. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  14. Analysis of the Design Elements of Children Electronic Product under Experience Design%体验设计下儿童电子产品设计要素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祎雪; 曹巨江

    2012-01-01

    以体验设计对儿童电子产品潜移默化的影响为源,分析了体验设计下儿童电子产品的设计因素,并结合儿童生理心理特点,使用电子产品时的喜好,论证了体验设计应用于儿童电子产品的价值,进而分析了儿童电子产品利用体验感受进行设计的可行性。在此基础上,提出了体验设计应用于儿童电子产品的设计关注点。%Taking the experience design to the subtle influence of children electronic products as the source,it analyzed the factors under experience design of children electronic product. Combined with physiological and psychological characteristics of children, the preferences of the use of electronic products, it demonstrated the value of experience design applications in the children electronic products, and then analyzed the feasible of use the experience feelings to design children electronic products. On this basis, it proposed the design concerns of experience design used in the children electronic products.

  15. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    on the notion that reuse and encapsulation of platform elements are fundamental characteristics of a product platform. Reuse covers the desire to reuse and share certain assets across a family of products and/or across generations of products. Product design solutions and principles are often regarded...... as important assets in a product platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  16. Analyzing effective elements in agile supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Jamshidi Navid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile supply chain plays an important role on having efficient production planning. There are different factors affecting the efficiency of a supply chain and the attempt of this paper is to find the most important elements in agile supply chain. The proposed model of this paper gathers decision makers' opinions and based on DEMATEL technique determines the most important items. The preliminary results of this survey indicate that we could divide the factors into four groups and two elements including automation and utilization of technical tools of relations and information play the most important roles among other factors.

  17. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  18. PERCEPTUAL EXPRESSION EVALUATION STUDIES OF PRODUCT DESIGN ELEMENTS BASED ON THE ORTHOGONAL ANALYSIS%基于正交分析的产品设计要素感性表达评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 周蕾; 张强; 薛澄岐

    2015-01-01

    It applies orthogonal analysis for improving over-evaluation problems which prevalently exist in today’s user perceptual investigation based on scale analysis. Method It applied seat design elements which affect users’ comfortable feeling as the research objective. First, it applied morphological analysis to extract product’s design elements, and constructed entity model for 3D visual appearance. Second, it applied orthogonal experiment method to minimize the number of samples for evaluation as more as possible, in order to avoid excessive evaluation that might lead to evaluation distortion. Third, it used relative evaluation method to intuitively reflect design differences, to avoid the defect of the low sensitivity of absolute evaluation. Result Orthogonal analysis can confirm every design element in perceptual word dimension conspicuousness, and can compute the expressive element and significance that influence user perception. Conclusion Orthogonal analysis can effectively reduce experiment process and data, the result can accurately exhibit perceptual design evaluation result, it’s a practical method in evaluating design element perceptual expression.%目的:是运用正交分析改善当前基于量表分析的用户感性调查中普遍存在的过度评价问题。方法以“影响用户舒适感体验的座椅设计要素”为研究对象。首先,运用形态分析法对产品设计要素进行提取,建立实体模型对设计要素进行三维视觉呈现。其次,采用正交实验法最大限度地减少待评价的样本数量和相似度,避免过度评价可能带来的评估失真。第三,采用相对评价法直观地体现设计差异,避免了绝对评价敏感度低的缺陷。结果正交分析可以确定各个设计要素在某一感性词维度上的显著性,并能够计算出影响用户感性的表达因素及其重要性。结论正交分析方法能够有效减少实验的过程和数据量,所得结论

  19. Elements of String Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Notation, units and conventions; 1. A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology; 2. The basic string cosmology equations; 3. Conformal invariance and string effective action; 4. Duality symmetries and cosmological solutions; 5. Inflationary kinematics; 6. The string phase; 7. The cosmic background of relic gravitational waves; 8. Scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the CMB radiation; 9. Dilaton phenomenology; 10. Elements of brane cosmology; Index.

  20. Quantum theory elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, David Robert

    1962-01-01

    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  2. A sealing element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, F.; Takada, K.

    1983-09-22

    A sealing lining made of a mixture of polyethylene or polypropylene with an additive which prevents destruction of the lining is used in the element. The content of the additive in the mixture is 10 to 30 percent by mass. The additive basically consists of polyethylene. Carboxyl groups are introduced into the polymer as an anion and sodium, potassium and molybdenum are introduced as the cation.

  3. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  4. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  5. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  6. Elements of topology

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Topological SpacesMetric Spaces Topologies Derived Concepts Bases Subspaces Continuity and ProductsContinuityProduct TopologyConnectednessConnected Spaces Components Path-Connected Spaces Local ConnectivityConvergence Sequences Nets Filters Hausdorff SpacesCountability Axioms 1st and 2nd Countable Spaces Separable and Lindelöf SpacesCompactnessCompact Spaces Countably Compact Spaces Compact Metric Spaces Locally Compact Spaces Proper Maps Topological Constructions Quotient Spaces Identification Maps Cones, Suspensions and Joins Wedge Sums and Smash Products Adjunction Spaces Coherent Topologie

  7. Endangered Elements of the Periodic Table

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that nearly 40% of the 118 elements thatmake up everything – from the chemist’s arsenal to a varietyof consumer products, are facing depleting supplies. Basedon this data, in 2011, Mike Pitts and his colleagues at theChemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network developeda new type of periodic table. Their analysis revealedthat 44 elements are facing limited supply, or are under thethreat of becoming scarce or inaccessible. These includes allof the rare earth elements, as well as zinc, gallium, germanium,helium, silver, and even phosphorus. The Royal Societyof Chemistry has also published a color-coded periodictable, indicating the ‘endangered elements’. The objective ofthis article is to draw attention to this issue, and create awarenessabout the scientific, social and economic impacts of thisproblem.

  8. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  9. Nanoscience and nanotechnology of f elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.br; Brito, Hermi F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Medicaments that are carried via blood flow to sick organs; an electronic equipment capable of evaluating quality of beverages twice more sensitive than the human palate; magnets inside plastic micro-spheres that could help remove oil stains from the sea. Products that seem to have been taken from science fiction films, things that could never be part of our grandfather's imagination, they are actually the marvels of one more technological revolution: the nanotechnology. In this context, lanthanides and actinides elements play a fundamental role due to their singular chemical and physical properties. They appear as fundamental materials in a large range of areas such as, new materials applied to fuel element, sensors, electronics, drugs and markers (radio isotope), probes etc. The aim of this work is to review the chemistry and physics properties of these elements approaching this new technology point of view, emphasizing their nuclear applications. (author)

  10. Finite element stress analysis of a compression mold. Final report. [Using SASL and WILSON codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watterson, C.E.

    1980-03-01

    Thermally induced stresses occurring in a compression mold during production molding were evaluated using finite element analysis. A complementary experimental stress analysis, including strain gages and thermocouple arrays, verified the finite element model under typical loading conditions.

  11. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  12. It is elemental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reich, Peter B.; Khachane, Amit N.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that resource quantity and elemental stoichiometry play major roles in shaping below and aboveground plant biodiversity, but their importance for shaping microbial diversity in soil remains unclear. Here, we used statistical modeling on a regional database covering 179...... diversity and composition were primarily driven by variation in soil resource stoichiometry (total C:N:P ratios), itself linked to different land uses, and secondarily driven by other important biodiversity drivers such as climate, soil spatial heterogeneity, soil pH, root influence (plant-soil microbe...

  13. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  14. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  15. Elements of probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rumshiskii, L Z

    1965-01-01

    Elements of Probability Theory presents the methods of the theory of probability. This book is divided into seven chapters that discuss the general rule for the multiplication of probabilities, the fundamental properties of the subject matter, and the classical definition of probability. The introductory chapters deal with the functions of random variables; continuous random variables; numerical characteristics of probability distributions; center of the probability distribution of a random variable; definition of the law of large numbers; stability of the sample mean and the method of moments

  16. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  17. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  18. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  19. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...... and affective impacts, of these material remains. The contributions in this volume investigate the way time, performance and movement, both physically and emotionally, are central aspects of understanding architectural assemblages. It is a book about the constellations of people, places and things that emerge...

  20. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  1. Elemental analysis of samples of rare earths; Analisis elemental de muestras de tierras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, R.A.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lugo L, M.F. [IFUNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Applying the PIXE technique (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) it was analyzed the purity of the samples that will be used to measure the production section of X rays with Li and B beams. It is not necessary to determine the concentrations of the pollutant elements. (Author)

  2. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  3. Greening elements in the distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Opetuk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change and the increase in environmental awareness in the world, the concept of Green Supply Chain Management appeared. The concept is aimed at the reduction of several elements: energy, materials, the pollution and the waste in production and logistics processes. Power networks are a part of a supply chain of production and distribution of electrical energy, and similar principles of greening could be applied. Currently, the losses within the distribution networks in the whole world are between 3.7 to 26.7 % and they primarily occur due to the losses in the conductors and the losses within distribution transformers. After an overview of the losses in the power networks and related CO2 emission, some solution of how to reduce the above mentioned losses are given. Such improvements, apart from the significant economic repercussions, in the same time represent non-negligible greening element in the area of electrical energy distribution.

  4. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  5. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  6. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  7. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  8. 硫化砷渣全湿法制备单质砷的研究%Experimental Study of Elemental Arsenic Production by the Wet Process of Arsenic Sulfide Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯汉娜; 陈甜甜

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, arsenic sulfide residue was used as raw material and wet process of arsenic slag extraction with copper dichloride acid solution was applied. The research focused on the influences of the dose of copper dichloride, pH of the solution and leaching time on the leaching yield of arsenic during the leaching process with copper dichloride. Besides, the method of producing elemental arsenic from arsenic sulfide residue by reduction of arsenic acid solution with stannous chloride was also discussed.%以硫化砷渣为原料,用氯化铜酸性溶液浸出砷渣的全湿法进行实验,着重研究氯化铜浸出砷的过程中氯化铜用量、溶液pH和浸出时间对砷浸出率的影响,探讨用氯化亚锡还原砷盐酸溶液从硫化砷渣得到单质砷的方法。

  9. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd Thin–Long Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40°C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  10. Research of Stamp Forming Simulation Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xaio-ping; XU Lian

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the finite element method offers a greta functional improvement for analyzing the stamp forming process of an automobile panel. Using the finite element theory and the simulation method of sheet stamping forming, the element model of sheet forming is built based on software HyperMesh,and the simulation of the product's sheet forming process is analyzed based on software Dynaform. A series of simulation results are obtained. It is clear that the simulation results from the theoretical basis for the product's die design and are useful for selecting process parameters.

  11. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  12. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  13. 金属元素分析技术在酒类产品品质分析与鉴定中的应用%The Metallic Element Analysis Technique Applied to Alcoholic Products Quality Analysis and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦琪

    2015-01-01

    酒中存在多种金属元素,重金属的检测技术具有简捷、快速、准确、性价比高的特点,被广泛应用于酒类产品理化分析和品质鉴定.%Because of various metal content in alcohol ,the heavy metal detection technology with simple, rapid, accurate and cost-effective features, are widely applied to quality identification and physical and chemical analysis of alcohol products.

  14. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  15. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  16. COLOR- SENSITIZED SOLAR ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gish R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices are a promising solution to the energy crisis, because they generate electricity directly from sunlight, without producing CO2. While color-sensitized batteries are the most studied element, mainly due to its low cost and high efficiency solar energy conversion into electricity. Until recently, the color-sensitized solar cells performance was less than 1%, however, the use of titanium dioxide as the anode material have greatly raised their efficiency. The advantages of titanium dioxide is primarily in the low cost, but its use provides high light capture efficiency, with external quantum efficiency (efficiency incident photon - charge, usually in the range of 60-90% using nanocrystal forms in comparison with

  17. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  18. The fantastic four.. elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  19. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  20. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production......, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study...