WorldWideScience

Sample records for super typhoon haitang

  1. Quantitative analysis of torrential rainfall associated with typhoon landfall: A case study of typhoon Haitang (2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caijun Yue

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of torrential rainfall associated with typhoon Haitang (2005) is carried out using a modified moist ageostrophic Q vector and data from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation.Four major factors determining the ascending motion associated with torrential rainfall have been studied:large-scale and convective condensational heating,topographic lifting and friction.The results show that the convective condensational heating plays a major role in the torrential rainfall process,and the large-scale condensational heating is secondary before the landfall of typhoon Haitang,and vice versa after the landfall.The topographic lifting affects the formation of rainfall,whereas the topographic friction has important impacts on torrential rainfall after the landfall.The rainfall amounts forced by the topographic friction and lifting have similar horizontal distributions,but the magnitudes of the former are 2-3 times larger than those of the latter.The rainfall amounts forced by topography (lifting and friction) and modified moist ageostrophic Q vector have different horizontal distributions,and the magnitudes of the former are 2-5 times larger than those of the latter.Synthetic analysis shows that the typhoon rainfall may be motivated by modified moist ageostrophic Q vector and enhanced further by the topographic effects.

  2. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TAIWAN ISLAND TERRAIN ON TYPHOON HAITANG (0505) TRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhen-shou; HOU Qiu-feng; WANG Hai-dong; WU Xian-du; LI Huai-chun

    2008-01-01

    The track of Typhoon Haitang (0505), which passed through the Taiwan Island and landed again,has been successfully simulated by using the non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model MM5. Itsstructure is analyzed on the landing stage, and it is found that there exist good relationships between thetyphoon abnormal moving track and its asymmetry structure. The effect of terrain of Taiwan Island on thetyphoon Haitang, which made it rotate before landing and present a "V" type abnormal moving track inTaiwan straits, has also been simulated. Further analysis shows that the terrain of Taiwan Island not onlydirectly affects the typhoon moving track, but also changes the typhoon track by affecting its asymmetricstructure. Therefore, the typhoon asymmetric structure and the effect of terrain of Taiwan Island togetherresults in the abnormal rotating track. The terrain of Taiwan Island tends to increase the SW-NEasymmetric structure of the typhoon and has different effect on SE-NW asymmetric structure during thelandfall process of typhoon Haitang before entering and moving out of the Taiwan straits.

  3. A Numerical Study of the Severe Heavy Rainfall Associated with Typhoon Haitang (2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhenshou; NI Donghong; GAO Shouting; MIN Jinzhong; REN Hongxiang

    2008-01-01

    Typhoons landing in the central and north of Fujian Province often seriously impact Zhejiang Province. Much attention has been given to exceptionally torrential rain in the South/North Yandang mountainous regions in the southeast of Zhejiang Province associated with typhoon-landing. Typhoon Haitang (2005) is a typical case of such a category, which landed in Huangqi Town of Lianjiang County in Fujian Province, and meanwhile greatly impacted Southeast Zhejiang. A numerical simulation has been performed with the PSU/NCAR non-hydrostatic model MM5V3 to study the torrential rain associated with Typhoon Haitang. The comparison of simulated and observed rainfalls shows that the MM5V3 was able to well simulate not only the intensity but also the locations of severe heavy rain of Typhoon Haitang, especially the locations of the south/north heavy rain center areas in the South/North Yandang mountainous regions. Meanwhile, the diagnostic analysis has been also carried out for better understanding of the severe heavy rain mechanism by using the model output data of high resolution. The diagnostic analysis indicates that the westward tilt of the axis of vorticity from lower layer to upper layer over the south heavy rain center area and the coupled structure of convergence in the lower layer and divergence in the upper level over the north heavy rain center area, were both propitious to stronger upward motion in the layers between the mid and upper atmosphere, and the secondary circulation induced by the vertical shear of the ambient winds further strengthened the upward motion in the heavy rain areas. After Haitang passed through Taiwan Island into the Taiwan Strait, the water vapor east of Taiwan Island was continuously transferred by typhoon circulation towards South Wenzhou, leading to the torrential rainfall in the South Yandang mountainous region south of Wenzhou. Subsequently, Haitang moved northwards, the water vapor belt east of Taiwan Island slowly advanced northwards

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INTENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY RAINS IN ZHEJIANG PROVINCE CAUSED BY TYPHOONS HAITANG AND MATSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-hai; ZHU Xiao-ming; WANG Li-hua

    2007-01-01

    Study was carried out on two landfall typhoons Haitang and Matsa, which affected Zhejiang province seriously in 2005. Firstly, the similarity and difference between the two typhoon-induced heavy rains were compared and it was pointed out that both of them brought strong large-scale precipitation and the maximum centers of rainfall were located on the north side of the landfall site. Making landfall on Fujian, Haitang was weaker than Matsa in intensity but surpassed it in rainfall. Then with focus on intensity,moving speed, structure of typhoon, circulation and terrain, the two typhoon-related heavy rains were compared and analyzed. Results show that the asymmetrical distribution of rainfall was closely related to the structure of typhoons themselves, moisture transportation and mesoscale terrain. In contrast to the south side, the north side was hotter and wetter and water vapor was also more abundant. The phenomenon of more rainfall induced by Haitang was in connection with the following reasons. Invading cold air led to rainfall increases, weakened dynamic field and slower movement both benefited precipitation. For the last part, the cold characteristic of air mass over Zhejiang was also a favorable factor for the rain.

  5. Typhoon effects on super-tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wu, J. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. N.

    2008-06-01

    Full-scale measurement is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating wind effects on buildings and structures. This paper presents selected results of wind characteristics and structural responses measured from four super-tall buildings, The Center (350 m high, 79 floors) in Hong Kong, Di Wang Tower (384 m high, 78 floors) in Shenzhen, CITIC Plaza Tower (391 m high, 80 floors) in Guangzhou and Jin Mao Building (421 m high, 88 floors) in Shanghai, during the passages of three typhoons. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were continuously measured from the super-tall buildings during the typhoons. Detailed analysis of the field data was conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind and wind-induced vibrations of these super-tall buildings under typhoon conditions. The dynamic characteristics of the tall buildings were determined from the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the finite element (FE) models of the structures were made. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in the wind tunnel tests. The results presented in this paper are expected to be of considerable interest and of use to researchers and professionals involved in designing super-tall buildings.

  6. The lightning activities in super typhoons over the Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of lightning activities have been studied in seven super typhoons from 2005 to 2008 over the Northwest Pacific, using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The results indicated that there were three distinct lightning flash regions in mature typhoon, a significant maximum in the eyewall regions (20-80 km from the center), a minimum from 80-200 km, and a strong maximum in the outer rainbands (out of 200 km from the center). The lightning flashes in the outer rainbands were much more than those in the inner rainbands, and less than 1% of flashes occurred within 100 km of the center. Each typhoon produced eyewall lightning outbreak during the periods of its intensification, usually several hours prior to its maximum intensity, indicating that lightning activity might be used as a proxy of intensification of super typhoon. Little lightning occurred near the center after landing of the typhoon.

  7. Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Tsai, Ho Fang; Sun, Yang Yi; Liu, Jann Yenq; Chen, Chia Hung

    2017-02-01

    Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances (CTIDs) in total electron content triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti on 13 September 2016 are detected by using the ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems network in Taiwan. The CTIDs emanated outward before the typhoon landfall and lasted for more than 10 h. The characteristics of CTIDs agree with the gravity wave theory and exhibit spatial and temporal scales in wave periods of 8-30 min, horizontal wavelengths of 160-200 km, and horizontal phase velocities of 106-220 m/s. We also observe the CTIDs showing the stationary wave character. Broad spectra of CTIDs are excited after the rainbands of typhoon impinged on Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The ray-tracing technique confirms that the CTIDs were excited by convective clouds, spiral rainbands, and the eyewall of Typhoon Meranti. This study provides new evidence of typhoon-induced concentric gravity waves in the ionosphere.

  8. Track of Super Typhoon Haiyan Predicted by a Typhoon Model for the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子通; 张诚忠; 黄燕燕; 冯业荣; 钟水新; 戴光丰; 徐道生; 杨兆礼

    2014-01-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan was the most notable typhoon in 2013. In this study, results from the operational prediction of Haiyan by a tropical regional typhoon model for the South China Sea are analyzed. It is shown that the model has successfully reproduced Haiyan’s rapid passage through the Philippines and its northward deflection after its second landfall in Vietnam. However, the predicted intensity of Haiyan is weaker than the observed. An analysis of higher-resolution model simulations indicates that the storm is characterized by an upper-level warm core during its mature stage and a deep layer of easterly flow. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to study the impact of certain physical processes such as the interaction between stratus and cumulus clouds on the improvement of the typhoon intensity forecast. It is found that appropriate boundary layer and cumulus convective parameterizations, and orographic gravity-wave parameterization, as well as improved initial conditions and increased horizontal grid resolution, all help to improve the intensity forecast of Haiyan.

  9. An analysis of Super typhoon Rammasun's(2014) peak intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinbo; Xu, Yinglong

    2016-04-01

    Super typhoon Rammasun (2014) made landfall over Hainan Island, China, at 0730UTC 18 July 2014. Due to the damage of the anemometers, the Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and the bouy which by Rammasun passed, failed to obtain its peak wind. Lack of the direct evident, in real-time monitoring, its peak intensities were given by 110kts (.i.e. 60m/s)/910hPa,135kts/922hPa , and 90kts/935hPa based on Dvorak technique , which were made by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),Joint Typhoon Warning Center(JTWC), and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) respectively. However, a minimum pressure of 881.2hPa recorded by a barometer which located at Qixhou island (19.982︒N,111.269︒E) while Rammasun approaching, indicates that its intensity was under estimated. By using observation data such as AWS, satellite, Doppler radar and wind tower near the ground, this study performs a detail evaluation to obtain its actual intensity. At 0521UTC, Qizhou Island station recorded 881.2hPa of the minimum station pressure and 899.2hPa of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) while the anemometer had been destroyed. These are the lowest records in Chinese history and also are ones of the global lowest pressures obtained directly by barometer. It is evident that Rammasun's eyewall did not pass across Qizhou Island directly, so the actual MSLP should be lower than 899.2hPa. By applying wind-pressure relationship, it is reckoned that the reasonable MSLP and peak wind of Rammasun should be 888hPa and 70-76m/s, which makes Rammasun the strongest typhoon ever made landfall in China's history. In order to intuitively investigate the real intensity of Ramasun, eyewall structures are compared with some historical extreme typhoons (hurricanes) such as Saomai(2006), Haiyan(2013) and Katrina(2005). Satellite images show that the dense overcast convection strength of Rammasun is stronger than those when Saomai and Katrina were in their peak intensities and before landing, but weaker than Haiyan. The

  10. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, Ruby L.; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-11-25

    The northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean receives a substantial amount of rainfall and, consequently, has some of the freshest surface waters in the global tropics (Cravatte et al.,2009). With the hydrological cycle projected to strengthen in a warming world (Held and Soden, 2006), a corresponding amplification of the near-surface salinity stratification is expected (Cravatte et al. (2009), Durack et al. (2012)}. These changes have the potential to affect the intensity of `super typhoons', violent storms with deep upper-ocean mixing, strong sea surface cooling, and enhanced sensitivity to ocean stratification effects (Vincent et al., 2013). In this study, observations and coupled climate model simulations are used to examine the impacts of a changing hydrological cycle on the near-surface salinity stratification and the intensity of super typhoons in the northwestern Pacific. Analysis of 30 years of observations over the post-satellite period of 1979-2008 shows that the surface ocean freshened considerably at an average rate of about 0.06 psu/decade, causing a strengthening of upper-ocean salinity stratification and a reduction in the magnitude of super typhoon cold wakes. These changes increased the `Dynamic Potential Intensity (DPI)' (Balaguru et al., 2015), a variant of potential intensity that accounts for ocean stratification, for super typhoons. Averaged over the typhoon season and over the region 130E-150E and 5N-25N, the DPI increased at a rate of 0.13 m/s/decade, which is about 23% of the increasing trend due to changes in the upper-ocean thermal structure alone. Further, examination of the 100-year changes from a suite of coupled climate simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario reveals a continued freshening of the upper ocean. These salinity changes act to reduce the magnitudes of cold wakes and increase the DPI for super typhoons by 0.14 m/s/decade throughout the 21st century.

  11. Technology for a Social Cause: Formulated Emergency Relief Foods for Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.; Emil Emmanuel C. Estilo

    2015-01-01

    This study details how ready-to-eat (RTE) rice and rice-cornstarch noodle (bihon) product formulations of the College of Home Economics (CHE) of the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) were used to produce emergency relief foods for the survivors of super typhoon Yolanda (international name: Haiyan) in the Philippines. The RTE products were developed using established pasteurization technologies covered with commercial sterility test certifications from the Pilot Food Plant (PFP) of U...

  12. Damage and recovery assessment of the Philippines' mangroves following Super Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jordan; Giri, Chandra; Primavera, Jurgenne; Trivedi, Mandar

    2016-08-30

    We quantified mangrove disturbance resulting from Super Typhoon Haiyan using a remote sensing approach. Mangrove areas were mapped prior to Haiyan using 30m Landsat imagery and a supervised decision-tree classification. A time sequence of 250m eMODIS data was used to monitor mangrove condition prior to, and following, Haiyan. Based on differences in eMODIS NDVI observations before and after the storm, we classified mangrove into three damage level categories: minimal, moderate, or severe. Mangrove damage in terms of extent and severity was greatest where Haiyan first made landfall on Eastern Samar and Western Samar provinces and lessened westward corresponding with decreasing storm intensity as Haiyan tracked from east to west across the Visayas region of the Philippines. However, within 18months following Haiyan, mangrove areas classified as severely, moderately, and minimally damaged decreased by 90%, 81%, and 57%, respectively, indicating mangroves resilience to powerful typhoons.

  13. Field survey report and satellite image interpretation of the 2013 Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Bricker, J.; Kure, S.; Adriano, B.; Yi, C.; Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.

    2015-04-01

    Three weeks after the deadly Bohol earthquake of Mw 7.2, which claimed at least 222 victims, another disaster struck the Philippines. This time, Super Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, devastated the Eastern Visayas islands on 8 November 2013. Its classification as a super typhoon was based on its maximum sustained 1 min surface wind speed of 315 km h-1, which is equivalent to a strong Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. This was one of the deadliest typhoon events in the Philippines' history, after the 1897 and 1912 tropical cyclones. At least 6268 individuals have been reported dead and 1061 people are missing. In addition, a wide area of destruction was observed in the Eastern Visayas, on Samar and Leyte islands. The International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, has deployed several teams for damage recognition, relief support and collaboration with regard to this disaster event. One of the teams, the hazard and damage evaluation team, visited the affected areas in the Eastern Visayas in mid-January 2014. In this paper, we summarize the rapid damage assessment from satellite imagery conducted days after the event and report on the inundation measurements and the damage surveyed in the field. Damage interpretation results by satellite images were qualitatively confirmed for the Tacloban city area on Leyte Island, the most populated city in the Eastern Visayas. During the survey, significant damage was observed from wind and storm surges on poorly designed housing on the east coast of Leyte Island. Damage, mainly from surface waves and winds, was observed on the east coast of Samar Island.

  14. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Nepartak (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chang, Loren C.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Two remarkable typhoon-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with concentric and northwest-southeast (NW-SE) alignments, respectively, associated with concentric gravity waves (CGWs) and ionosphere instabilities possibly seeded by CGWs, were observed in total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System networks in Taiwan and Japan when the Category 5 Super Typhoon Nepartak approached Taiwan on 7 July 2016. The concentric TIDs (CTIDs) first appear with horizontal phase velocities of 161-200 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 160-270 km, and periods of 15-22 min during 08:00-11:20 UT. Following the CTIDs, the NW-SE aligned nighttime medium-scale TIDs (MSTIDs) are formed on the west edge of the CTIDs over the Taiwan Strait during 11:30-14:00 UT. It is suggested that the MSTIDs are produced by the electrodynamical coupling of Perkins instability and CGW-induced polarization electric fields. This study proposes connections of typhoon-induced CTIDs and subsequently occurring MSTIDs in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  15. The December 2012 Mayo River debris flow triggered by Super Typhoon Bopha in Mindanao, Philippines: lessons learned and questions raised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S.; Lagmay, A. Mahar F.; Eco, Rodrigo C.; Herrero, Tatum Miko L.; Mendoza, Jerico E.; Minimo, Likha G.; Santiago, Joy T.

    2016-12-01

    Category 5 Super Typhoon Bopha, the world's worst storm of 2012, formed abnormally close to the Equator, and its landfall on Mindanao set the record proximity to the Equator for its category. Its torrential rains generated an enormous debris flow in the Mayo River watershed that swept away much of the village Andap in the New Bataan municipality, burying areas under rubble as thick as 9 m and killing 566 people. Established in 1968, New Bataan had never experienced super typhoons and debris flows. This unfamiliarity compounded the death and damage. We describe Bopha's history, debris flows and the Mayo River disaster, and then we discuss how population growth contributed to the catastrophe, as well as the possibility that climate change may render other near-Equatorial areas vulnerable to hazards brought on by similar typhoons. Finally, we recommend measures to minimize the loss of life and damage to property from similar future events.

  16. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2016-11-01

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ~53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  17. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R; Leung, L Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A

    2016-11-25

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ∼53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  18. Technology for a Social Cause: Formulated Emergency Relief Foods for Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia V. Azanza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study details how ready-to-eat (RTE rice and rice-cornstarch noodle (bihon product formulations of the College of Home Economics (CHE of the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD were used to produce emergency relief foods for the survivors of super typhoon Yolanda (international name: Haiyan in the Philippines. The RTE products were developed using established pasteurization technologies covered with commercial sterility test certifications from the Pilot Food Plant (PFP of UPD-CHE and published food safety considerations for acidified foods. They do not require any cooking or reheating before consumption. They were prescribed with a one-month shelflife at ambient storage temperature (28±2°C during deployment as relief foods. About 5,000 and 3,000 production units of the RTE cooked rice (200 g/pack and bihon (150 g/pack, respectively, were produced at the PFP. Around 300 volunteers composed of faculty, staff, alumni, students, and acquaintances of UPD-CHE’s departments and organizations manned the two-week staggered production, scheduled from late November to the f irst week of December 2013. In cooperation with organizations and private entities, the RTE products were deployed without cost from UPD to the stricken areas of Aklan, Iloilo, and Leyte. Feedback from the recipients of the products was favorable, indicating that the RTE foods are useful as emergency relief ration.

  19. Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for Selected Areas in the Philippines Severely affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Raquel; Rabonza, Maricar; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Alejandrino, Ian Kaye; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan, considered as one of the most powerful storms recorded in 2013, devastated the central Philippines region on 8 November 2013. In its wake, Haiyan left 6,190 fatalities, 28,626 injured and 1,785 missing, as well as damage amounting to more than USD 823 million. To mitigate damage from similar events in the future, it is imperative to characterize hazards associated with tropical cyclones such as those brought by Haiyan, with detailed studies of storm surges, landslides and floods. Although strong winds and powerful storm surges up 15-17 feet were the primary causes of damage, landslides studies are also vital in the rehabilitation of typhoon damaged areas. Cities and municipalities of Leyte (7,246.7 sq. km) and Samar (13,121 sq. km) provinces, the heaviest cities area during the onslaught of Haiyan, require detailed and up-to-date hazard maps for their rebuilding and disaster mitigation programs. In order to delineate areas susceptible to rainfall induced shallow landslides, Stability INdex MAPping (SINMAP) software was used over a 6-meter Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived DEM grid. Soil calibration parameters from previous studies were used as parameter input to generate a worst-case scenario hazard map of the two provinces. Topographic, hydrologic and soil parameters (cohesion, angle of friction, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity) were used for each pixel of a given digital elevation model (DEM) grid to compute for the corresponding factor of safety. The landslide maps generated using SINMAP are found to be consistent with the landslide inventory derived from high-resolution satellite imagery 2003-2013. The landslide susceptibility classification found in the landslide hazard maps are useful to identify no-build zones, areas that can be built upon but with slope intervention and monitoring as well as places that are safe from shallow landslides. These maps complement the debris flow and structurally-controlled landslide hazard maps

  20. Evaluations on Profiles of the Eddy Diffusion Coefficients through Simulations of Super Typhoons in the Northwestern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Chi Hung Fung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the eddy diffusion coefficients (also known as eddy diffusivity in the first-order turbulence closure schemes is important for the typhoon simulations, since the coefficients control the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and the latent heat flux, which are energy sources for the typhoon intensification. Profiles of the eddy diffusion coefficients in the YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL scheme are evaluated in the advanced research WRF (ARW system. Three versions of the YSU scheme (original, K025, and K200 are included in this study. The simulation results are compared with the observational data from track, center sea-level pressure (CSLP, and maximum surface wind speed (MWSP. Comparing with the original version, the K200 improves the averaged mean absolute errors (MAE of track, CSLP, and MWSP by 6.0%, 3.7%, and 23.1%, respectively, while the K025 deteriorates the averaged MAEs of track, CSLP, and MWSP by 25.1%, 19.0%, and 95.0%, respectively. Our results suggest that the enlarged eddy diffusion coefficients may be more suitable for super typhoon simulations.

  1. Remote sensing observations and numerical studies of a super typhoon-induced suspended sediment concentration variation in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangdong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    By integrating remote sensing observations and a numerical modeling technique, we studied the influences of super Typhoon Saomai on the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent coastal areas in the East China Sea. First, three consecutive Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images acquired during the post-typhoon stage were used to estimate the SSC. Then, we implemented a hydrodynamic model, including a sediment transport module, based on Delft3D to simulate the sediment erosion, re-suspension, transport and deposition processes in the study area during the passage of Typhoon Saomai. The model-simulated water level was validated against the in situ station data to show the feasibility of the model. The simulated SSC results agree reasonably well with the satellite observations. Time series of the simulation results showed that the model revealed the whole SSC variations during this extreme weather event and made up for the scarcity of in-situ and satellite observations. SSC significantly increased during the passage of the typhoon and decreased gradually during the post-typhoon stage. Modeled results also reveal that the spring-neap tidal effect significantly controlled the distribution and variation of SSC in the shallower coastal water (<20-30 m in depth) and the typhoon-induced re-suspension is evident in most of the study area, especially in the coastal waters near the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay during the passage of the typhoon. Finally, based on the simulation results, we discuss the dynamic mechanisms including turbulent energy, bed shear stress and vertical mixing that caused the SSC variation.

  2. “鲇鱼”超强台风过程分析%The analysis of the track and intensity of the super typhoon “MEGI”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海鹏; 邓小花

    2011-01-01

    通过对超强台风“鲇鱼”几个阶段路径的特点和NCEP再分析资料分析发现:台风的引导流场始终由中高层气流提供,因此要用中高层引导气流来分析其动向;其次,台风的强度有海温、高低层流场、暖湿气流的供应共同作用;再次,台风由南口进入台湾海峡后特殊的地形往往有利于台风强度的维持.%Using the NCEP reanalysis data, the characteristics of the path of super typhoon "MEGI" have been studied. We conclude that, firstly, because the steering flow is provided by the mid-high level airflow, we should discuss the trends of the typhoon by analysising the mid-high level steering flow; Secondly, the intensity of the typhoon is formed by the interaction of SST, high-level airflow and worm -moist flow; Finally, the special land-forms are of benefit to the maintenance of typhoon intensity after typhoon enter Taiwan Strait from south.

  3. High-resolution WRF simulation of cloud properties over the super typhoon Haiyan: physics parameterizations and comparison against MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tanvir; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Dai, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models can complement the satellite technology in simulating the cloud properties, especially in extreme storm events, when gathering new data becomes more than essential for accurate weather forecasting. In this study, we investigate the capability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to realistically simulate some important cloud properties in high-resolution grids, such as cloud phase (e.g., liquid or ice) and cloud water path. The sensitivity of different combinations of physics parameterizations to the simulated cloud fields is studied. The experiment is conducted on a super typhoon event by configuring the WRF model in two domains, with two-way nesting, allowing bidirectional information exchange between the parent and the nest. In order to do the assessment, the simulated cloud fields are compared against MODIS-derived cloud properties from one overpass scene. While the simulations have been able to capture the spatial distribution of cloud properties reasonably well, produced cloud quantities such as ice water path has been significantly overestimated when compared to the MODIS optical cloud information. The microphysics parameterizations are found to be more sensitive than the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations.

  4. A discussion on improving typhoon observation through radar by scanning the negative elevation angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaLin Xu; ShaoHui Miao; LiPing Liu; ChangDao Wu; GaiLi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Certain feasibilities and features were discussed in typhoon detection by radar with a negative elevation angle according to the relationship between the remote detecting range and the elevation angle of the new generation weather radar, in order to rectify the disadvantages of detecting capability for remote low-level echo with a lowest elevation angle of 0.5° in the common detecting mode. The data obtained from detecting the typhoon of Haitang and Changmi with radar for their negative elevation angles and the observed data for the common lowest elevation angle of 0.5° were compared to each other. The results showed that the detection of remote low level cloud system with radar could be improved by using the negative elevation angle, and the structure and the evolution trend of a typhoon could be better judged. The increasing degree of detection for negative elevation angles in the current volume scanning mode should be helpful for predicting the intensity and developing trend of windstorms, to further improve the capability of warning and nowcasting. The detection of negative elevation angle could also help reveal the development and change of typhoon’s low level cloud system. As far as the typhoons of Haitang and Changmi were concerned, the detecting area of Changmi was increased by 1.09 times with the negative elevation angle of 0.31°, compared with the elevation angle of 0.48° if the threshold value for the sea echo within 100 km was eliminated. Several volume scans of Haitang were increased by 2.1%-7.9%for the negative elevation angle of 0.36° compared with the elevation angle of 0.49°. Therefore, the radar detecting capability of typhoons could be improved by the detection of negative elevation angles to some extent. This could make up for the disadvantages of a low detecting capability for remote low-level echo in the common detecting mode. At the same time, a negative elevation angle could be easily influenced by the ground clutter and the close

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOUBLE VORTICES SELF-ORGANIZATION AND TYPHOON FORMATION IN BAROCLINIC ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Dai-gao; LUO Zhe-xian; PAN Jing-song; YU Hui

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the self-organization of double vortices(SODVs)and the formation of typhoons was discussed based on six numerical experiments with the Fifth-Generation National Center for Atmospheric Research/Penn State Mesoscale Model(MM5)and further discussion was made with a real typhoon case.The results showed that there is a critical distance dc for SODVs in baroclinic atmosphere.When the distance between separated vortices is smaller than or equal to dc,the double vortices self-organize into a typhoon-like vortex with two spiral bands.But the double vortices cannot have such organization if the distance between them is larger than dc.The value of dc is about 380 km in the context of ideal conditions in this paper,larger than that achieved in a barotropic model.A typical typhoon case in2005(Haitang)was selected to verify the above-mentioned conclusions.It was found that the SODV is one of the important and typical ways for the formation of typhoons.

  6. Observational Features of Super Typhoon Saomai (2006) over Coastal Water of China%超强台风“桑美”(0608)近海观测特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余贞寿; 闵锦忠; 钟建锋; 倪东鸿

    2012-01-01

    利用气象现代化手段观测的数据进行分析.从风云2C红外云图可以发现,在近海“桑美”台风强度加强过程中,台风外围云系被台风外核区吸收,风暴直径明显减小,结构更为密实,台风眼由模糊发展为清晰;在迅速加强阶段,台风迅速向内收缩,呈现眼壁上螺旋雨带的发展特征.根据温州新一代天气雷达CINRAD/SA的组合反射率和径向速度产品揭示了直到登陆前1h,桑美台风的强度仍在加强的事实,从组合反射率可见,台风从单眼壁发展成双眼壁,之后发展成具备更加深厚眼壁的台风结构,此过程对应于雷达径向速度图表现为,从一个大速度区发展为二个大速度区,直至更大的速度区.从登陆前后几小时地面测站的变压计算气压梯度可以判断强风区大小,结合变压及小时极大风风向变化可判断登陆点,以及作出登陆后移动路径的短时预报;小时累计降水分布表明,其具有明显不对称分布特征,前进方向右侧大于左侧,强降水主要集中在台风环流主体区,外围降水不明显.%Typhoon Saomai (0608) is the strongest typhoons landed in China mainland nearly 50 years,which is characterized by very low central pressure,very great wind speed, particularly concentrative precipitation and energy,rapid development, fast movement and so on. It has a particularly strong destructive power in the energy concentration area, which is irresistible and cause direct economic losses over 111 billion Yuan in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces because its intensity is extremely strong. Thus, it is very significant to analyse observational features and causes of explosive development of super typhoon Saomai (2006) over coastal water of China. This paper takes full advantage of meteorological observations from modern means. FY-2C infrared images show that, in the process of typhoon Saomai strengthening, the typhoon outer clouds was absorbed by the typhoon outer core region

  7. Influence of Wind Vector Structure Variation of Typhoon "Catfish" Circulation on Its Pathway Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the wind vector structure variation of No.1013 strong typhoon "catfish",and its influence on typhoon pathway mutation.[Method] According to the theory that the asymmetric structure of typhoon vortex had influence on typhoon movement,the center of No.1013 super typhoon "catfish" was as the coordinate origin,and 850,500 hPa tangential rotation speeds within 300-500 km were decomposed into u and v components.The composite force movement tendency of typhoon was analyzed.T...

  8. The characteristic analysis of the north-turning track of super typhoon “Megi " (1013)%1013号超强台风“鲇鱼”北折路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段朝霞; 苏百兴

    2011-01-01

    应用日本JMA数值产品的格点资料和实况场分析资料,重点对1013号超强台风“鲇鱼”西行进入南海后发生近90°直角转向偏北移动,直至登陆福建的这一阶段路径进行分析.“鲇鱼”先是受位于华南的西环大陆副高引导,向西南西移动,之后转受加强北上的赤道高压引导,折向北到北偏东方向移动,最后受东环副高引导北偏西行至登陆福建.在这3个主要影响系统的先后转换过程中,分析500 hPa台风环流风场不对称分布可明显看到,“鲇鱼”受到不同天气系统的影响时,台风风场中最大风速区的位置也随之发生相应变化,因此“鲇鱼”出现了曲折多变的复杂路径.%Based on the JMA reanalysis data and the observational data, the north-turning track characteristics of super typhoon "Megi" were analyzed here. "Megi"moved towards west-southwest leaded by the west part of continental subtropical high at first. Then "Megi" turned towards north to northeast under the guidance of intensified equatorial high which moved towards north. "Megi" moved towards northwest leaded by east part of subtropical high until "Megi" landed on Fujian. The analysis of asymmetric wind structure of the 500hPa level typhoon showed that the region of maximum wind speed centre of "Megi" changing under different weather system. Hence typhoon "Megi" moved with many twists and turns.

  9. Climate mechanism for stronger typhoons in a warmer world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Young; Elsner, James B.; Shin, Dong-hyun

    2016-04-01

    Violent typhoons continue to have catastrophic impacts on economies and welfare but how they are responding to global warming has yet to be fully understood. Here we use an empirical framework to explain physically why observations support a tight connection between increasing ocean warmth and the increasing intensity of super typhoons in the western North Pacific. We show that the energy needed for deep convection is on the rise with greater heat and moisture in the lower tropical troposphere but that this energy remains untapped when air pressure is high. Accordingly, tropical cyclone formation is becoming less common but those that do form are likely to reach extreme intensities from the discharge of stored energy. These thermodynamic changes to the environment most significantly influence the upper portion of extreme typhoon intensities indicating that super typhoons are likely to be stronger at the expense of overall tropical cyclone occurrences in the western North Pacific.

  10. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  11. A Study of Typhoon Intensity Change by Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-Y.; Kuo, N.-J.; Huang, S.-J.

    2012-04-01

    The western North Pacific is the area of the most frequent typhoons strikes over the world. Each year, about 6-10 typhoons of Category 4 or 5 in the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale emerging in the western North Pacific. These severe typhoons not only bring drastic impact for the coastal area through powerful winds and torrential rain, but also stir the ocean surface and cause upper ocean response along its passage. The ocean response plays one of the most important roles in air-sea interaction. The primary purpose of this study is employing a data mining technique in retrieving passible influence parameters on typhoon intensity change. The possible influence parameters include sea surface temperature, atmospheric water vapour, rain rate, sea surface height anomaly, and air-sea temperature difference. The sea surface temperature data is derived from the Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer. The atmospheric water vapour and rain rate data are from TMI. The sea surface height anomaly is a blended data accessed from satellite altimetry, and the air temperature data is from National Centre for Environmental Prediction. Totally 14 Category-5 typhoons occurred between 2003 and 2007 in the western North Pacific are analyzed in this study, which decision tree algorithm is applied as the data mining technique. The results show that air-sea temperature difference and sea surface temperature intensify the typhoon most. Due to higher sea surface temperature can provide more heat potential to the atmosphere, and the larger temperature difference between sea and air can also provide more heat energy to the atmosphere, once a typhoon passes over the ocean where sea surface temperature is higher than air temperature, about 88% of typhoon intensity is enhanced. This data mining model is further validated by using the data of super typhoon JANGMI (2008). It shows 82.3% of accuracy prediction and 85.7% for precision.

  12. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model dev...... of the building portfolio remains unchanged. Based on these results, the assumptions and inputs to the assessment are critically reviewed. Thereby, the needs of further research efforts toward more credible and comprehensive assessment are addressed.......This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...

  13. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  14. Perspectives on the linkage between typhoon activity and global warming from recent research advances in paleotempestology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN DaiDu; LIU Kam-biu

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase in typhoon (tropical cyclone) activity has attracted great interest and induced heated debates over whether it is linked to global warming or only a return to an active phase of the well-known multi-decadal variability. Due to the short instrumental record, our knowledge is quite scarce on the complex processes and mechanism of typhoon generation, development, and evolution, especially for the rare but highly destructive super-typhoons. It is therefore very important to extend the time span of typhoon activity records. Paleotempestology, a young science that emerged in the early 1990s, studies past typhoon activity spanning several centuries to millennia before the instru-mental era through the use of geological proxies and historical documentary records. This paper pre-sents a brief review and synthesis on the major research advances and findings of paleotempestology with an emphasis on proxy technique development and applications. The methodology has been evolving from single geologic proxy to multi-proxy techniques by integrating microfossils, sedimentary organic elemental ratios, and stable isotopes, together with typical sedimentary textures and structures, for the diagnosis of storm deposits. A newly-developed proxy technique is employing oxygen isotopes preserved in growing laminae of tree rings, cave stalagmites, and reef corals to diagnose typhoon rainwater impacts. Historical documentary records have been systematically compiled and analyzed to reconstruct the history of typhoon activity in some regions. The extracted typhoon-proxy data show that there does not exist a simple linear relationship between typhoon frequency and Holocene climate (temperature) change. Typhoon activity should have a secular and constant linkage with ENSO fluc-tuations, in that more typhoons and hurricanes make landfalls in China, Central and North America during La Nina years than El Niho years. This finding is consistent with that derived from recent in

  15. Prediction of Typhoon Wind Speeds under Global Warming Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ju Whan; Kim, Yang Seon [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The continuous increase of SST by global warming conditions in the western North Pacific Ocean results in an increased occurrence of supertyphoons in East Asia and the Korean Peninsula. Recent numerical experiments have found that the central pressures of two historical typhoons, Maemi (2003) and Rusa (2002), which recorded the highest storm surges along the coasts of the Korean Peninsula, dropped about 19 and 17 hPa, respectively, when considering the future SST (a warming of 3.9 .deg. C for 100 years) over the East China Sea. The maximum wind speeds increase under global warming conditions. The probability of occurrence of super-typhoons increases in the future. The estimated return period for supertyphoons affecting the Younggwang site is about 1,000,000 years.

  16. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  17. Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    the formation of a sufficiently intense typhoon to begin the cold-wake survey. 1 RESULTS The planning for the ...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observing the Evolution of Typhoon Wakes Steven R. Jayne Woods Hole Oceanographic

  18. Numerical prediction experiment on Typhoon Maggie (9903)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The movement of Typhoon Maggie (9903) in June 1999 is one of the rare cases ever seen in the history. At 00U on June 6 Maggie was located at about 70 km to the southwest of Taiwan. When it arrived at the coastal region of Shanwei City (22.8°N, 116.5°E), it turned suddenly to move south westward along the southern China coastal line. On June 7 Maggie finally turned to move northward,making landfall to the north of Shangchuan Island. The experimental numerical prediction system on typhoon movement that was designed based on MM5 is proved quite successful for the 48h prediction of Maggie' s movement and rainfall. The mean prediction error of typhoon track is 81 km for 0~24 h and 74 km for 24~48 h.The location of typhoon center in the initial field of the model is approximately 100 km away from the actual observations. In order to modify the location of typhoon center, a bogus typhoon was introduced into the model and the prediction of typhoon track was improved in 0~24 h time interval. But the prediction error was enlarged in 24~36 h.We also performed a sensitivity experiment of changing the land of southern China into the ocean.It is found that the orientation of South China coastal line and the topography have no obvious effect on the movement of Typhoon Maggie.

  19. Observed Near-Surface Currents Four Super Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    Chu et al., 2000; Jacob and Shay, 2003; Olabarrieta et al., 2012; Price, 1981; Price et al., 1994; Warner et al., 2010; Yablonsky and Ginis , 2009...results indicated a saturation value of CD at the wind speed of 28–33 m s−1 (Donelan et al., 2004; Jarosz et al., 2007; Powel et al., 2003). Three semi...Chu et al., 1990; Chu and Garwood, 1991). Ardhuin et al. (2009) indicated that the surfacewind-related Lagrangian velocity is the sum of the strongly

  20. Simulation of the extreme waves generated by typhoon Bolaven (1215) in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN Ki Cheon; JEONG Weon Mu; CHOI Jin Yong; PARK Kwang Soon; JUNG Kyung Tae; KIM Mee Kyung; CHAE Jang Won; QIAO Fangli

    2015-01-01

    Record-breaking high waves occurred during the passage of the typhoon Bolaven (1215) (TYB) in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) although its intensity did not reach the level of a super typhoon. Winds and directional wave measurements were made using a range of in-situ instruments mounted on an ocean tower and buoys. In order to understand how such high waves with long duration occurred, analyses have been made through measurement and numerical simulations. TYB winds were generated using the TC96 typhoon wind model with the best track data calibrated with the measurements. And then the wind fields were blended with the reanalyzed synoptic-scale wind fields for a wave model. Wave fields were simulated using WAM4.5 with adjustment ofCd for gust of winds and bottom friction for the study area. Thus the accuracy of simulations is considerably enhanced, and the computed results are also in better agreement with measured data than before. It is found that the extremely high waves evolved as a result of the superposition of distant large swells and high wind seas generated by strong winds from the front/right quadrant of the typhoon track. As the typhoon moved at a speed a little slower than the dominant wave group velocity in a consistent direction for two days, the wave growth was significantly enhanced by strong wind input in an extended fetch and non-linear interaction.

  1. Micropaleontology of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan overwash sediments from the Leyte Gulf, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Switzer, Adam D.; Siringan, Fernando; Fritz, Hermann M.; Khan, Nicole S.; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon; Doctor, Angelique A.; Garcia, Mikko L.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal geologic records allow for the assessment of long-term patterns of tropical cyclone variability. However, the accuracy of geologic reconstructions of tropical cyclones is limited by the lack of modern analogues. We describe the microfossil (foraminifera and testate amoebae) assemblages contained within overwash sediments deposited by Typhoon Haiyan when it made landfall on the islands of Leyte and Samar in the Philippines on 7 November 2013 as a Category 5 super typhoon. The overwash sediments were transported up to 1.7 km inland at four study sites. The sediments consisted of light brown medium sand in a layer energy mixed-carbonate tidal flat located on Samar Island (Basey transect); and (2) a higher-energy clastic coastline near Tanauan on Leyte Island (Santa Cruz, Solano, and Magay transects). The assemblages and the taphonomy suggest a mixed provenance, including intertidal and subtidal sources, as well as a contribution of sediment sourced from deeper water and terrestrial environments.

  2. Upper ocean response to typhoon Kalmaegi (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Dake; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Xiaohui; Ding, Tao; Zhou, Beifeng

    2016-08-01

    Typhoon Kalmaegi passed over an array of buoys and moorings in the northern South China Sea in September 2014, leaving a rare set of observations on typhoon-induced dynamical and thermohaline responses in the upper ocean. The dynamical response was characterized by strong near-inertial currents with opposite phases in the surface mixed layer and in the thermocline, indicating the dominance of the response by the excitation of the first baroclinic mode. The thermohaline response showed considerable changes in the mean fields in addition to a near-inertial oscillation. In particular, temperature and salinity anomalies generally exhibited a three-layer vertical structure, with the surface layer becoming cooler and saltier, the subsurface layer warmer and fresher, and the lower layer cooler and saltier again. The response in the surface and subsurface layers was much stronger to the right of the typhoon track, while that in the lower layer was stronger along the track and to the left. These features of the upper ocean response were grossly reproduced by a three-dimensional numerical model. A model-based heat budget analysis suggests that vertical mixing was mainly responsible for the surface cooling and subsurface warming, while upwelling was the cause of cooling from below. Both observations and model results indicate that the whole upper ocean experienced an overall cooling in the wake of typhoon Kalmaegi.

  3. Guiding Principle 27 and Philippine typhoon response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara McHattie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxfam GB’s response to the devastation and displacementcaused by Typhoon Durian included advocacy withPhilippine state, NGO, community and private sectoractors to raise awareness of Principle 27 – obligingproviders of humanitarian assistance to “give due regardto the protection needs and human rights” of IDPs.

  4. APPLICATION OF BDA SCHEME IN TYPHOON TRACK PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gen-sheng; FEI Jian-fang; HUANG Xiao-gang; LU Long

    2006-01-01

    The MM5, which is the PSU/NCAR mesoscale nonhydrostatic limited-area model, and its adjoining modeling system are used in this paper. Taking T106 analysis data as background field the authors generate an optimal initial condition of a typhoon by using two bogus data assimilation schemes, and conduct some numerical simulating experiments. The results of No.9608 typhoon (Gloria) show that the optimal initial field have some dramatic improvements, such as inaccurate position of typhoon center, weaker typhoon circulation and incomplete inner structure of the typhoon, which are caused by shortage of data over the sea.Some improvements have been made in the track forecast. Through several comparing experiments, the initialization optimized by BDA scheme is found to be more reasonable than GFDL scheme and its typhoon track forecast is better.

  5. Western North Pacific Typhoons with Concentric Eyewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-19

    Pacific CE typhoons between 1997 and 2006. Section 2 describes the data, the analysis method, and the clima - tology. The results regarding the...Willoughby, H. E., 1990: Temporal changes of the primary circu- lation of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 242–264. 3770 M O N T H L Y W E A T H E R R E V I E W VOLUME 137

  6. Typhoon generated surface gravity waves measured by NOMAD-type buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clarence O., III

    This study examines wind-generated ocean surface waves as measured by NOMAD-type buoys during the ONR-sponsored Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) field experiment in 2010. 1-D measurements from two new Extreme Air-Sea Interaction (EASI) NOMAD-type buoys were validated against measurements from established Air-Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys. Also, during ITOP, 3 drifting Miniature Wave Buoys, a wave measuring marine radar on the R/V Roger Revelle, and several overpasses of JASON-1 (C- and Ku-band) and -2 (Ku-band) satellite altimeters were within 100 km of either EASI buoy. These additional measurements were compared against both EASI buoys. Findings are in line with previous wave parameter inter-comparisons. A corroborated measurement of mean wave direction and direction at the peak of the spectrum from the EASI buoy is presented. Consequently, this study is the first published account of directional wave information which has been successfully gathered from a buoy with a 6 m NOMAD-type hull. This result may be applied to improve operational coverage of wave direction. In addition, details for giving a consistent estimate of sea surface elevation from buoys using strapped down accelerometers are given. This was found to be particularly important for accurate measurement of extreme waves. These technical studies established a high level of confidence in the ITOP wave measurements. Detailed frequency-direction spectra were analyzed. Structures in the wave field were described during the close passages of 4 major tropical cyclones (TC) including: severe tropical storm Dianmu, Typhoon Fanapi, Super Typhoon Megi, and Typhoon Chaba. In addition, significant swell was measured from a distant 5th TC, Typhoon Malakas. Changes in storm direction and intensity are found to have a profound impact on the wave field. Measurements of extreme waves were explored. More extreme waves were measured during TCs which coincided with times of increased wave

  7. Impact of Typhoon-induced sea surface cooling on the track of next Typhoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Horiguchi, M.; Kodera, K.; Tachibana, Y.; Yamazaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoons (TCs) MATMO, HALONG, and NAKRI (2014), which caused Japan catastrophic disaster, landed the western part of Japan. The TCs came to Japan one after another during late July to early August 2014. The tracks of these TCs were similar, i.e., the TCs followed the western edge of the subtropical northwestern Pacific high (SNPH). However, the tracks gradually reached to Japan, which were associated with weakening the westward expansion of the SNPH. It was found that the changes in westward expansion of the SNPH were associated with TC-induced sea surface cooling of previous Typhoon. It has previously been reported that TC-induced sea surface cooling is mainly caused by Ekman upwelling and vertical turbulent mixing. The TCs MATMO, HALONG, and NAKRI passed around the Philippines, and induced sea surface cooling of this area. The sea surface temperatures of this area are important for Pacific-Japan pattern, which was associated with the westward expansion of the SNPH. Consequently, previous Typhoon induced sea surface cooling around the Philippines, which weakening the westward expansion of the SNPH. Then, the tracks of next Typhoon were changed, and gradually reached to Japan.

  8. TYPHOON TRACK PREDICTION EXPERIMENTS USING T106L19

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻素红; 万丰; 陈德辉; 王诗文

    2003-01-01

    A series of 96-h typhoon track prediction experiments were carried outusing medium range forecasting system of NMC by adding BOGUS typhoon (simplified as B-TC) into the first guess field or the analysis field in order to provide longer time typhoon track forecast. The results show that T106L19 could provide a better forecast to typhoon tracks when the B-TC was added, especially when thetyphoon vortex is even weaker. The sensitive experiments on where to add the B-TC show that the results from adding the B-TC into the first guess field are better. The results also show that the initialization smoothes the B-TC a lot and this will affect the typhoon track prediction.

  9. Strong enhancement of chlorophyll a concentration by a weak typhoon

    CERN Document Server

    SUN, Liang; Xian, Tao; Lu, Zhu-min; Fu, Yun-Fei; 10.3354/meps08477

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations in the surface ocean can be significantly enhanced due to typhoons. The present study investigated chl a concentrations in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) from 1997-2007. Only the Category1 (minimal) Typhoon Hagibis (2007) had a notable effect on the chl a concentrations. Typhoon Hagibis had a strong upwelling potential due to its location near the equator, and the forcing time of the typhoon (>82 h) was much longer than the geostrophic adjustment time (~63 h). The higher upwelling velocity and the longer forcing time increased the depth of the mixed-layer, which consequently induced a strong phytoplankton bloom that accounted for about 30% of the total annual chl a concentration in the middle of the SCS. The implication is that the forcing time of a typhoon should be long enough to establish a strong upwelling and consequently for the induction of significant upper ocean responses.

  10. Analysis of Risks in Hainan Island Typhoon Hazard Factor Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this paper was to analyze the risks in the typhoon hazard factors in Hainan Island. [Method] Taking the theory and method of natural disasters evaluation as starting point and supporting point, and selecting Hainan province as the research target, where the typhoon disaster occurred relatively serious, based on the typhoon data during 1958-2008, with happening frequency of typhoon hazard-formative factors, maximum rainfall, potentially devastating effects of typhoon winds as evaluatio...

  11. Statistics-based investigation on typhoon transition modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuoyun; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    and the seasonality are taken into account by developing the models for different spatial grids and seasons separately. An appropriate size of spatial grids is investigated. The statistical characteristics of the random residual terms in the models are also examined. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are performed......The present study revisits the statistical modeling of typhoon transition. The objective of the study is to provide insights on plausible statistical typhoon transition models based on extensive statistical analysis. First, the correlation structures of the typhoon transition are estimated in terms...

  12. Typhoon-Induced Magnetic Disturbances: Cases in the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three typhoons occurred over the western Pacific in September 2008 and were enhanced beyond category 3 as they approached Taiwan. The geomagnetic total intensity field recorded at 2 local monitoring stations in Taiwan and 1 remote station in Japan was utilized to examine the magnetic disturbances induced by these typhoons. Analytical results show that amplitude changes in the frequency domain, which are retrieved from the total intensity data via the Fourier transform, at the monitoring and remote stations were consistent, even though magnetic storms strongly affected the magnetic field. However, obvious discrepancies were repeatedly found in the amplitudes in the frequency band between 0.0025 - 0.007 Hz, when typhoons of category > 3 were the closest to the monitoring stations. The frequency band is different from the induction fields from either oceanic storm waves or swells, and is consistent with that of magnetic pulsations triggered by acoustic waves from upward air motion during typhoons.

  13. Typhoon-Induced Magnetic Disturbances: Cases in the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three typhoons occurred over the western Pacific in September 2008 and were enhanced beyond category 3 as they approached Taiwan. The geomagnetic total intensity field recorded at 2 local monitoring stations in Taiwan and 1 remote station in Japan was utilized to examine the magnetic disturbances induced by these typhoons. Analytical results show that amplitude changes in the frequency domain, which are retrieved from the total intensity data via the Fourier transform, at the monitoring and remote stations were consistent, even though magnetic storms strongly affected the magnetic field. However, obvious discrepancies were repeatedly found in the amplitudes in the frequency band between 0.0025 - 0.007 Hz, when typhoons of category > 3 were the closest to the monitoring stations. The frequency band is different from the induction fields from either oceanic storm waves or swells, and is consistent with that of magnetic pulsations triggered by acoustic waves from upward air motion during typhoons.

  14. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine N. White

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef.

  15. Different responses of the upper ocean to typhoon Namtheun

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuan-Jian; Fu, Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The responses of the upper ocean to typhoon Namtheun in July 2004 are investigated by sea surface measurements and vertical profiles. Pre-typhoon ocean environment played an important role in this case. There were two extreme cooling regions located at cyclonic eddy A and typhoon wake B. Although the magnitudes of SST cooling at A and B were similar, other physical and biophysical responses were quite different. Combining multi-satellite data with vertical profile data, it is found that the upwelling dominated the responses at A and the vertical mixing dominated the responses at B. This study implies that to insight into the ocean surface responses to typhoon, the subsurface dynamics need to be analyzed via both the in situ and satellite-based observations, and the physical and biological models.

  16. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  17. Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Jiayi; Devlin, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Phytoplankton blooms in the Western North Pacific, triggered by two successive typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds under different pre-existing oceanic conditions, were observed and analyzed using remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data, as well as typhoon parameters and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiles. Typhoon Sinlaku, with relatively weaker intensity and slower translation speed, induced a stronger phytoplankton bloom than Jangmi with stronger intensity and faster translation speed (Chl-a>0.18 mg•m‒3 versus ChlaTranslation speed may be one of the important mechanisms that affect phytoplankton blooms in the study area. Pre-existing cyclonic circulations provided a relatively unstable thermodynamic structure for Sinlaku, and therefore cold water with rich nutrients could be brought up easily. The mixed-layer deepening caused by Typhoon Sinlaku, which occurred first, could have triggered an unfavorable condition for the phytoplankton bloom induced by Typhoon Jangmi which followed afterwards. The sea surface temperature cooling by Jangmi was suppressed due to the presence of the thick upper-ocean mixed-layer, which prevented the deeper cold water from being entrained into the upper-ocean mixed layer, leading to a weaker phytoplankton augment. The present study suggests that both wind (including typhoon translation speed and intensity) and pre-existing conditions (e.g., mixedlayer depths, eddies, and nutrients) play important roles in the strong phytoplankton bloom, and are responsible for the stronger phytoplankton bloom after Sinlaku's passage than that after Jangmi's passage. A new typhooninfluencing parameter is introduced that combines the effects of the typhoon forcing (including the typhoon intensity and translation speed) and the oceanic precondition. This parameter shows that the forcing effect of Sinlaku was stronger than that of Jangmi.

  18. Impacts of Typhoon Megi (2010) on the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Doney (1994), Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer param- eterization, Rev. Geophys., 32, 363–403. Lee, I.-H...satellite data, in situ measurements and numerical modeling based on the East Asian Seas Nowcast/ Forecast System (EASNFS), we performed detailed...investigations. To obtain realistic typhoon-strength atmospheric forcing, the EASNFS applied typhoon-resolving Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model wind

  19. Prediction of Typhoon Tracks Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-Tae SOHN; H. Joe KWON; Ae-Sook SUH

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the statistical forecasts of typhoon tracks. Numerical models havetheir own systematic errors, like a bias. In order to improve the accuracy of track forecasting, a statisticalmodel called DLM (dynamic linear model) is applied to remove the systematic error. In the analysis oftyphoons occurring over the western North Pacific in 1997 and 2000, DLM is useful as an adaptive modelfor the prediction of typhoon tracks.

  20. Sedimentary records of Typhoon Haiyan in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Chen, Y. H.; Chang, J. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Yu, P. S.; Liu, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    South China Sea (SCS), which is located at the boundary of the Eurasian, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates, is the largest marginal sea of the northwest Pacific and also on the North Western Pacific corridor of typhoons. The unique tectonic setting and climatic conditions make it has to face the severe natural hazards, like submarine landslides, and high sediment discharges which induced by typhoon. On November 8, 2013, the Typhoon Haiyan, which was one of the largest tropical cyclones ever recorded in western Pacific, devastated Philippines and caused catastrophic destruction. Before the Typhoon Haiyan reached Hainan Province, China and Quangninh Province, Vietnam, it emerged over the SCS. How was the large amount of terrestrial materials distributed and recorded in deep sea sediments by such intense typhoon? Is it possible for us to reconstruct the history of extreme tropical cyclones by using deep sea cores? In this study, twelve gravity cores were collected in the Central SCS Basin and around Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island) from 2014 to 2015 and a series of analysis including Multi-Sensor Core Logger, XRF Core Scanner, core surface and X-radiograph images, grain size, and excess 210Pb chronology were conducted for modern extreme event records in cores and attempt to evaluate the possibility of reconstructed extreme typhoon records in cores from the SCS. On core surface images, an obvious brownish oxidized layer exist in core top with higher 210Pb activities beneath the layer. According to the sampling time, we conjecture the oxidized layer might formed by Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. In addition, the Itrax data shows high manganese content only exist in this layer which might related to the modern industrial pollution delivered by typhoon induced flooding from Philippines. The Power Barge 103 of Napocor in Estancia IIoilo was dislodged from its mount by Typhoon Haiyan and the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination Team reported 600,000 liters of bunker

  1. Analysis of Spatial Distribution And Statistical Characteristics of Typhoon In The Western Pacific Based On Spatial Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingmei; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Chen, Yanling

    2017-04-01

    Typhoon is a kind of strong weather system formed in tropical or subtropical oceans. China, located on the west side of the Pacific Ocean, is the country affected by the typhoon most frequently and seriously. To provide theoretical support for effectively reducing the damage caused by typhoon, the variation law of typhoon frequency is explored by analyzing the distribution of typhoon path and landing sites, sphere of influence, and the statistical characteristics of typhoon for every 5 years. In this study, the typhoon point data set was formed using the Best Path Data Set (0.1 ° × 0.1 °) compiled by China Meteorological Administration from 1950 to 2014. By using the tool of Point to Line in software ArgGIS, the typhoon paths are produced from the point data set. The influence sphere of typhoon is calculated from Euclidean distance of typhoon, whose threshold is set to 1°.The typhoon landing site was extracted by using the Chinese vector layer provided by the research group. By counting the frequency of typhoons, the landing sites, and the sphere of influence, some conclusions can be drawn as follows. In recent years, the number of typhoons generated has been reduced, typhoon intensity is relatively stable, but the impact of typhoon area has increased. Specific performance can be seen from the typhoon statistical and spatial distribution characteristics in China. In terms of frequency of typhoon landing, the number of typhoons landing in China has increased while the total number of typhoons is reduced. In terms of distribution of landing sites, the range of typhoon landing fluctuates. However, during the process of fluctuation, the range is gradually expanding. For example, in south of China, Hainan Island is affected by typhoon more frequently meanwhile China's northeast region is also gradually affected, which is extremely unusual before. Key words: spatial point model, distribution of typhoon, frequency of typhoon

  2. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  3. AN SENSITIVITY SIMULATION ABOUT CLOUD MICROPHYSICAL PROCESSES OF TYPHOON CHANCHU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wen-shi; WU Jian-bin; LI Jiang-nan; LIANG Xu-dong; FANG Xing-qin; XU Sui-shan

    2010-01-01

    With the Reisner-2 bulk microphysical parameterization of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-U.S.National Center for Atmospheric Research(PSU-NCAR)Mesoscale Model(MMS),this paper investigates the microphysical sensitivities of Typhoon Chanchu.Four different microphysical sensitivity experiments were designed with an objective to evaluate their respective impacts in modulating intensity forecasts and microphysics budgets of the typhoon.The set of sensitivity experiments were conducted that comprised(a)a control experiment(CTL),(b)NEVPRW from which evaporation of rain water was suppressed,(c)NGP from which graupel was taken,and(d)NMLT from which melting of snow and graupel was removed.We studied the impacts of different cloud microphysical processes on the track,intensity and precipitation of the typhoon,as well as the kinematics,thermodynamics and vertical structural characteristics of hydrometeors in the inner core of the typhoon.Additionally,the budgets of the cloud microphysical processes in the fine domain were calculated to quantify the importance of each microphysical process for every sensitivity experiment.The primary results are as follows:(1)It is found that varying cloud microphysics parameters produce little sensitivity in typhoon track experiments.(2)The experiment of NGP produces the weakest storm,while the experiment of NMLT produces the strongest storm,and the experiment of NEVPRW also produces stronger storms than CTL.(3)Varying parameters of cloud microphysics have obvious impacts on the precipitation,kinematics,and thermodynamics of the typhoon and the vertical structural characteristics of hydrometeors in the typhoon's inner core.(4)Most budgets of cloud microphysics in NMLT are larger than in CTL,while they are 20%-60% smaller in NEVPRW than in CTL.

  4. Parameterization of typhoon-induced ocean cooling using temperature equation and machine learning algorithms: an example of typhoon Soulik (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Jiang, Guo-Qing; Liu, Xin

    2017-09-01

    This study proposed three algorithms that can potentially be used to provide sea surface temperature (SST) conditions for typhoon prediction models. Different from traditional data assimilation approaches, which provide prescribed initial/boundary conditions, our proposed algorithms aim to resolve a flow-dependent SST feedback between growing typhoons and oceans in the future time. Two of these algorithms are based on linear temperature equations (TE-based), and the other is based on an innovative technique involving machine learning (ML-based). The algorithms are then implemented into a Weather Research and Forecasting model for the simulation of typhoon to assess their effectiveness, and the results show significant improvement in simulated storm intensities by including ocean cooling feedback. The TE-based algorithm I considers wind-induced ocean vertical mixing and upwelling processes only, and thus obtained a synoptic and relatively smooth sea surface temperature cooling. The TE-based algorithm II incorporates not only typhoon winds but also ocean information, and thus resolves more cooling features. The ML-based algorithm is based on a neural network, consisting of multiple layers of input variables and neurons, and produces the best estimate of the cooling structure, in terms of its amplitude and position. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the typhoon-induced ocean cooling is a nonlinear process involving interactions of multiple atmospheric and oceanic variables. Therefore, with an appropriate selection of input variables and neuron sizes, the ML-based algorithm appears to be more efficient in prognosing the typhoon-induced ocean cooling and in predicting typhoon intensity than those algorithms based on linear regression methods.

  5. Cause Resolving of Typhoon Precipitation Using Principle Component Analysis under Complex Interactive Effect of Terrain, Monsoon and Typhoon Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study develops a novel methodology to resolve the cause of typhoon-induced precipitation using principle component analysis (PCA) and to develop a long lead-time precipitation prediction model. The discovered spatial and temporal features of rainfall are utilized to develop a state-of-the-art descriptive statistical model which can be used to predict long lead-time precipitation during typhoons. The time series of 12-hour precipitation from different types of invasive moving track of typhoons are respectively precede the signal analytical process to qualify the causes of rainfall and to quantify affected degree of each induced cause. The causes include: (1) interaction between typhoon rain band and terrain; (2) co-movement effect induced by typhoon wind field with monsoon; (3) pressure gradient; (4) wind velocity; (5) temperature environment; (6) characteristic distance between typhoon center and surface target station; (7) distance between grade 7 storm radius and surface target station; and (8) relative humidity. The results obtained from PCA can detect the hidden pattern of the eight causes in space and time and can understand the future trends and changes of precipitation. This study applies the developed methodology in Taiwan Island which is constituted by complex diverse terrain formation and height. Results show that: (1) for the typhoon moving toward the direction of 245° to 330°, Causes (1), (2) and (6) are the primary ones to generate rainfall; and (2) for the direction of 330° to 380°, Causes (1), (4) and (6) are the primary ones. Besides, the developed precipitation prediction model by using PCA with the distributed moving track approach (PCA-DMT) is 32% more accurate by that of PCA without distributed moving track approach, and the former model can effectively achieve long lead-time precipitation prediction with an average predicted error of 13% within average 48 hours of forecasted lead-time.

  6. Rainfall-enhanced blooming in typhoon wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Oey, L.-Y.

    2016-08-01

    Strong phytoplankton blooming in tropical-cyclone (TC) wakes over the oligotrophic oceans potentially contributes to long-term changes in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet blooming has traditionally been discussed using anecdotal events and its biophysical mechanics remain poorly understood. Here we identify dominant blooming patterns using 16 years of ocean-color data in the wakes of 141 typhoons in western North Pacific. We observe right-side asymmetric blooming shortly after the storms, attributed previously to sub-mesoscale re-stratification, but thereafter a left-side asymmetry which coincides with the left-side preference in rainfall due to the large-scale wind shear. Biophysical model experiments and observations demonstrate that heavier rainfall freshens the near-surface water, leading to stronger stratification, decreased turbulence and enhanced blooming. Our results suggest that rainfall plays a previously unrecognized, critical role in TC-induced blooming, with potentially important implications for global biogeochemical cycles especially in view of the recent and projected increases in TC-intensity that harbingers stronger mixing and heavier rain under the storm.

  7. Typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan and climate justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji; Galat, Absalon

    2014-10-01

    The extreme weather events that the world is experiencing are consistent with the effects of anthropogenic climate change. The western North Pacific is the area of the world with the most intense tropical cyclones. Increased sea surface temperatures directly contribute to the wind speed of storms. The 2013 Typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan was the strongest tropical cyclone in recorded history to make landfall-causing more than 6000 deaths in the Philippines, mostly from storm surge. This event represents a climate injustice. On one hand, disaster prevention and preparedness were inadequate for impoverished populations in the Philippines who lived in poorly constructed housing. While the international community assisted with the response, recovery was hampered by inadequate and inequitable investment. On the other hand, climate change has been driven by the carbon emissions of industrialized states. Those who call for climate justice argue for more robust measures to control carbon emissions responsible for climate change and worsening global health security. As global citizens and as health professionals, we examine the implications for all of us as moral actors.

  8. The first Sentinel-1 SAR image of a typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we present the first Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) typhoon image acquired in the northwest Pacific on October 4, 2014. The eye shape and sea surface wind patterns associated with Typhoon Phanfone are clearly shown in the high-quality SAR image. SAR winds retrieval procedure was given but the actual wind estimates will only be available after the European Space Agency (ESA) releases the official calibration coefficients in order to accurately derive the SAR-measured normalized radar cross section. This study demonstrates the advantage of Sentinel-1 SAR with regards to imaging fine scale typhoon patterns on the sea surface beneath storm clouds. This paper also advocates the use of Sentinel-1 SAR data that is made freely and openly available worldwide for the first time in civilian SAR history.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon flood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The flood after a typhoon may lead to increase in patients with cellulitis of lower limbs. However, the microbiological features of these cases are rarely reported. We conducted a study of patients with lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon followed in southern Taiwan to study the risk factors of cellulitis and the bacteriological features of the patients. METHODS: We reviewed all the medical records of cellulitis at emergency departments of two teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan 30 days before and after the landing of Typhoon Morakot and collected data on the demographic and bacteriological characteristics. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the daily number of patients and the rainfall in the Tainan area. RESULTS: The number of cellulitis patients increased from 183 to 344 during the 30-day period after the typhoon. The number peaked in the third and fourth days and lasted for 3 weeks. The proportion of patients with water immersion of the affected limb was higher after the typhoon (6% vs. 37%, odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 4.7-17.2. We found cultures from the infected limbs with immersion had more polymicrobial (73% vs. 26%, OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.2-19.2 and Gram-negative bacilli infection (86% vs. 34%, OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.1-34.5. CONCLUSIONS: Flood arose from Typhoon Morakot caused increases in cellulitis patients, which lasted for 3 weeks. Antibiotic treatment that were effective to both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli are recommended for patients with limbs emerged in the water.

  10. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE ABNORMAL TRACK OF TYPHOON MAGGIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-feng; LIU Qi-han; TUO Rui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Typhoon Maggie (1999) interacted with another tropical depression system and moved along a west-southwest track that is somewhat abnormal during its pre-landing stage. Two numerical experiments are carried out in this paper to study the effect of the interaction on the track of typhoon Maggie using the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model system with a tropical cyclone bogusing scheme developed by Center for Coastal and Atmospheric Research, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Results show that the cyclone system interacting with Maggie is the main factor for the abnormal track of Maggie.

  11. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  12. Assimilation analysis of Rammasun typhoon structure over Northwest Pacific using satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; CHOU Jifan; QIU Chongjian

    2004-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic structure of typhoon Rammasun (No. 0205) over the Northwest Pacific has been analyzed, using NOAA-16 polar orbiting Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data collected on 2 July, 2002. The three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation technology is used to assimilate the satellite observation. The results show that the characteristics of the 3D typhoon structure can be more reasonably described from the assimilated data. The warm-cored structure of the typhoon is enhanced in the analyzed field, which corresponds to strong typhoon. The typhoon cyclonic circulation in the middle and lower layers is apparently strengthened, and the strong anticyclonic circulation appears at the top of the typhoon. The water vapor and its supply in the typhoon are enhanced. The microwave assimilation data may be used to supply the lack of the conventional observation data over the tropical ocean.

  13. Typhoon disaster zoning and prevention criteria——A double layer nested multi-objective probability model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For prevention and mitigation of typhoon disasters in China, in this paper a double layer nested multi-objective probability model of typhoon disaster zoning and prevention criteria is proposed. The multivariate compound extreme value distribution (MCEVD) is used to predict the joint probability of seven typhoon characteristics and corresponding typhoon induced disasters. Predicted results can be used for both typhoon disaster zoning and corresponding prevention criteria along China coast.

  14. Typhoon disaster zoning and prevention criteria——A double layer nested multiobjective probability model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DeFu; PANG Liang; XIE BoTao; WU YuanKang

    2008-01-01

    For prevention and mitigation of typhoon disasters in China,in this paper a double layer nested multi-objective probability model of typhoon disaster zoning and prevention criteria is proposed.The multivariate compound extreme value distri-bution (MCEVD) is used to predict the joint probability of seven typhoon charac-teristics and corresponding typhoon induced disasters.Predicted results can be used for both typhoon disaster zoning and corresponding prevention criteria along China coast.

  15. Seismologically determined bedload flux during the typhoon season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-An; Wu, Yih-Min; Zhao, Li; Tsai, Victor C; Chen, Chi-Hsuan

    2015-02-05

    Continuous seismic records near river channels can be used to quantify the energy induced by river sediment transport. During the 2011 typhoon season, we deployed a seismic array along the Chishan River in the mountain area of southern Taiwan, where there is strong variability in water discharge and high sedimentation rates. We observe hysteresis in the high-frequency (5-15 Hz) seismic noise level relative to the associated hydrological parameters. In addition, our seismic noise analysis reveals an asymmetry and a high coherence in noise cross-correlation functions for several station pairs during the typhoon passage, which corresponds to sediment particles and turbulent flows impacting along the riverbed where the river bends sharply. Based on spectral characteristics of the seismic records, we also detected 20 landslide/debris flow events, which we use to estimate the sediment supply. Comparison of sediment flux between seismologically determined bedload and derived suspended load indicates temporal changes in the sediment flux ratio, which imply a complex transition process from the bedload regime to the suspension regime between typhoon passage and off-typhoon periods. Our study demonstrates the possibility of seismologically monitoring river bedload transport, thus providing valuable additional information for studying fluvial bedrock erosion and mountain landscape evolution.

  16. Impact of Atmospheric Forcing on the Ocean Prediction under Typhoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, D. S.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of atmospheric forcing on the ocean prediction under Typhoon Fanapi and Typhoon Megi (2010) is investigated applying an ocean nowcast/forecast system (EASNFS) that covers the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the East Asian marginal seas. The model resolution is ~ 8 km at the study area. There are 40 vertical layers with dense upper layers to better resolve upper ocean variations. Ocean model assimilates the altimetry data to produce important subsurface oceanic mesoscale features for the impact study. The atmospheric forcing is provided by an atmospheric model on a triple (54/18/6 km) nested grid that moves with typhoon. The 10-m wind and sea level air pressure are applied to drive ocean model. The wind and air pressure are interpolated onto the ocean model grid and meshed with prediction from NOGAPS (Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) to account for the area that the triple nested grid does not cover. The simulation is conducted for the time period from September 1 to October 1, 2010 for the duration of Typhoon Fanapi and from October 1 to November 1, 2010 for Megi. To compare, a parallel simulation driven by NOGAPS forcing alone for the same periods is also conducted. The impact of atmospheric forcing is examined by comparison of ocean model predictions with remote sensing and in-situ data taken during ITOP 2010 Intensive Observation Period.

  17. Optimization of multi-model ensemble forecasting of typhoon waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-qi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately forecasting ocean waves during typhoon events is extremely important in aiding the mitigation and minimization of their potential damage to the coastal infrastructure, and the protection of coastal communities. However, due to the complex hydrological and meteorological interaction and uncertainties arising from different modeling systems, quantifying the uncertainties and improving the forecasting accuracy of modeled typhoon-induced waves remain challenging. This paper presents a practical approach to optimizing model-ensemble wave heights in an attempt to improve the accuracy of real-time typhoon wave forecasting. A locally weighted learning algorithm is used to obtain the weights for the wave heights computed by the WAVEWATCH III wave model driven by winds from four different weather models (model-ensembles. The optimized weights are subsequently used to calculate the resulting wave heights from the model-ensembles. The results show that the Optimization is capable of capturing the different behavioral effects of the different weather models on wave generation. Comparison with the measurements at the selected wave buoy locations shows that the optimized weights, obtained through a training process, can significantly improve the accuracy of the forecasted wave heights over the standard mean values, particularly for typhoon-induced peak waves. The results also indicate that the algorithm is easy to implement and practical for real-time wave forecasting.

  18. Multifractal Analysis of Typhoons: the case study of Bolaven (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisun; Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Lee, Dong-In; Kuo, Hung-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Multifractals have become rather standard tools to analyze and simulate meteorological and hydrological data, especially radar data that have the rare advantage of providing space-time (3D+1) fields. However, in spite of their inherent capacity to deal with extreme multiscale phenomena like typhoons, as well as an increased availability of higher quality data, there had been not so many multifractal studies of typhoons since pioneering studies (Chygyrynsakaia et al 1994, Lazarev et al 1994), which relied on time series data obtained from 1D aircraft or balloon trajectories. This lack of new developments might have impeded significant progress in predicting typhoon evolution prediction. We therefore decided to jointly understand the dynamics and rainfall by multifractal space-time analysis with the help of the joint measurements of the Typhoon Bolaven by three Doppler S-band radars. This experimental set-up not only provided accurate estimates of the rainfall intensity, but also of the 3 components of the wind velocity. Typhoon Bolaven is one of the typhoons that caused the largest damages with severe rainfall all over Korea including Jeju Island with more than 250 mm in 2 days in 2012. It was regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade, with wind gusts measured up to 186 km h-1. The three radars were respectively located in Gosan, and Seongsan, in Jeju Island, and Jindo, in southwest of Korea peninsula, i.e. all around the region where the typhoon intensity was the largest. The largest distance between the radars was approximately 100km, and the rainfall and wind velocity were estimated on a grid of 360×360×60 every ten minutes. The multifractal analysis of this large amount of data (space time Trace Method and Double Trace Method) was performed to better understand through scales the fast transformation of potential energy into kinetic energy and the premier role of convection. In particular, this analysis confirms power

  19. The effect of tropical cyclones (typhoons) on emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Hou, Sen-Kuang; Shih, Frank Fuh-Yuan; Su, Syi

    2013-09-01

    Case reports have indicated that a tropical cyclone may increase Emergency Department (ED) visits significantly. To examine emergency health care demands across a series of tropical cyclones, and to build a predictive model to analyze a cyclone's potential effect. This was an observational non-concurrent prospective study performed in Taiwan. Twenty hospitals were included. The number of daily ED visits in each hospital was our primary end point, and data were retrieved from the database provided by the National Health Insurance Research Database. Our study examined the period from 2000 to 2008. A total of 22 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that had passed over eastern Taiwan and covered the area under study were included. Multiple linear regression time-series models were employed to estimate the effects of "days since typhoon landfall" and various characteristics of the typhoons on the end point of daily ED visits to each hospital. The final multiple linear regression time-series model showed that the number of daily ED visits increased in areas where a strong typhoon had landed directly, with the increase being evident during the first 2 days since landfall. Our model also indicated that the three most important variables to predict a change in the pattern of daily ED visits were intensity of typhoon, simultaneous heavy rain, and direct landfall. During tropical cyclones, emergency services were under increased demand in selected time periods and areas. Health care authorities should collect information to build local models to optimize their resources allocation in preparation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A discussion on typhoon occurred in the Haikou Bay and impact mechanism on seawater quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water quality parameters such as pH, DO, COD, PO4 - P, SiO3 - Si, NO2 - N, NO3 -N in the Haikou Bay were monitored respectively before and after Typhoon 9618 occurring on Sep. 18,1996. Based on the statistics of typhoon in the Haikou Bay and numerical calculation of stormy current,the mechanism of water quality variation caused by typhoon is discussed. The typhoon impact on the Haikou Bay usually appears between July and November, most usually between August and October.The monitoring results before a typhoon were different from that. The stormy wave and windstorm cur rent stir up the sediment in near-shore bottom and make the bottom water mix with the surface water strongly, specially windstorm current with strong velocity at the head of the bay stirs up higher pollu tants sediment near sea area of sewage outfall, and heavy rain with typhoon carries the pollutants from land through the Nandu River to the Haikou Bay, so the contents of COD, PO4 - P, NO2 - N, NO3 -N, SiO3 after a typhoon are higher than those before. Windstorm current is violent, which makes offshore high DO water exchange more frequently with inner bay water and oxygen in the air dissolves in sea water faster, so DO content after typhoon is higher than that before typhoon. This strong action of water exchange also causes lower pH change before and after the typhoon.

  1. A 300-Year Typhoon Record in Taiwan and the Relationship with Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have identified possible linkages between solar activity and tropical cyclone activity in the United States and Caribbean. This study used historical typhoon records dating back to the early 1700s, the Central Weather Bureau records (since 1897, and the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center (since 1945 to investigate the relationship between solar activity and the number of typhoons in Taiwan. The results show that a negative relationship exists between solar activity and typhoon frequency in Taiwan at decadal time scales. Fewer typhoons occurred during the periods 1770 to 1790 and 1930 to 1960, with a higher number of typhoons occurring during 1810 to 1830 and 1870 to 1930. A likely mechanism for the relationship is that more intense solar activity can warm the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere through absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric ozone. This would decrease the convective available potential energy and reduce the frequency of typhoon occurrence. As a consequence, fewer typhoons form over the western North Pacific with fewer affecting Taiwan. The negative correlation between solar activity and the number of typhoons affecting Taiwan is important to understand changes in the frequency and behavior of typhoons resulting from climate change.

  2. Dynamical Downscaling of Typhoon Vera (1959) and related Storm Surge based on JRA-55 Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, J.; Takemi, T.; Mori, N.; Shibutani, Y.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoon Vera in 1959 is historical extreme typhoon that caused severest typhoon damage mainly due to the storm surge up to 389 cm in Japan. Vera developed 895 hPa on offshore and landed with 929.2 hPa. There are many studies of the dynamical downscaling of Vera but it is difficult to simulate accurately because of the lack of the accuracy of global reanalysis data. This study carried out dynamical downscaling experiment of Vera using WRF downscaling forced by JRA-55 that are latest atmospheric model and reanalysis data. In this study, the reproducibility of five global reanalysis data for Typhoon Vera were compered. Comparison shows that reanalysis data doesn't have strong typhoon information except for JRA-55, so that downscaling with conventional reanalysis data goes wrong. The dynamical downscaling method for storm surge is studied very much (e.g. choice of physical model, nudging, 4D-VAR, bogus and so on). In this study, domain size and resolution of the coarse domain were considered. The coarse domain size influences the typhoon route and central pressure, and larger domain restrains the typhoon strength. The results of simulations with different domain size show that the threshold of developing restrain is whether the coarse domain fully includes the area of wind speed more than 15 m/s around the typhoon. The results of simulations with different resolution show that the resolution doesn't affect the typhoon route, and higher resolution gives stronger typhoon simulation.

  3. Effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Hong; He Hai-Lun; Liu Xiao-Hui; Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    We use the WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ model to quantify the effect of oceanic current on typhoon-wave modeling in the East-China-Sea (ECS).Typhoons Jelawat and Saomai in the autumn of 2000 are hindcasted.The oceanic currents in the ECS are mainly constituted of Kuroshio and typhoon-generated currents.The results show distinguishable differences in wave height and wave period under the typhoon conditions.The oceanic current causes the maximum differences,of up to a 0.5 m significant wave height and a 1 s mean wave period.Comparisons between typhoons Jelawat and Saomai show the dependence of the current effect on the typhoon characteristics.

  4. Health Consequences of Typhoon Haiyan in the Eastern Visayas Region Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Law, Ronald; Pesigan, Arturo; Winkler, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan was the strongest storm recorded in Philippine history. Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED) was activated during the typhoon response. This study analyzes the health impact of different diseases during different timeframes post-disaster during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 using a syndromic surveillance database. Methods: SPEED reports medical consultations based on 21 syndromes covering a range of conditions from three syndrome groups: communi...

  5. Simulation of operational typhoon rainfall nowcasting using radar reflectivity combined with meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a practical typhoon effective rainfall nowcasting (TERN) model was developed for use in real-time forecasting. The TERN model was derived from a data-driven adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The model inputs include meteorological data and radar reflectivity data. The model simulation process begins with an online typhoon warning issued by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan. It is then determined whether the typhoon approaches the study area according to the typhoon track predicted by the CWB. When a typhoon hits Taiwan, various data are received from sensor instruments, including the ground precipitation data, typhoon climatological data, and radar reflectivity factor by using Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) products. The study site was Shihmen Catchment. A maximum of 10 typhoon events from 2000 to 2010 were collected. Regarding the model construction, the input combinations of the ground precipitations and reflectivity factors over the catchment functioned as optimal input variables. To verify the practicability of the ANFIS-based TERN model, Typhoon Krosa, which hit Taiwan in 2007, was simulated. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology of real-time rainfall forecasts during typhoon warning periods yielded favorable performance levels, reliably predicting results regarding 1 h to 6 h forecasting horizons.

  6. Typhoons exert significant but differential impact on net carbon ecosystem exchange of subtropical mangrove ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but litter information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during typhoon season. Daily total NEE values were decreased by 26–50% following some typhoons (e.g. W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan, but were significantly increased (43–131% following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP and ecosystem respiration (RE. Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings not only indicate that mangrove ecosystems have strong resilience to the frequent typhoon disturbances, but also demonstrate the damage of increasing typhoon intensity and frequency on subtropical mangrove ecosystems under future global climate change scenarios.

  7. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  8. Estimating Winds from Synthetic Aperture Radar under Typhoon Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    affect typhoons. The NATO Undersea Research Centers ( NURC ) activities within ITOP are related to extracting high resolution wind fields as well as...forcasting. OBJECTIVES NURC is part of the ITOP SAR Team working on extracting wind and wave information from satellite borne SAR data. One of the...retrieved information into numerical models in particular with respect to tropical cyclone forecasting. The main objectives for NURC within ITOP

  9. The vorticity budget of developing Typhoon Nuri (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Raymond

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of west Pacific tropical cyclone Nuri (2008 was observed over four days from easterly wave to typhoon stage by aircraft using scanning Doppler radar and dropsonde data. This typhoon intensified rapidly in a significantly sheared environment. In spite of the shear, overlapping closed circulations existed in the storm frame of reference in the boundary layer and at 5 km elevation, providing a deep region protected from environmental influences. The vorticity budget was analyzed and it was found that vorticity convergence dominated vortex tilting on the storm scale in the lower troposphere. At times vorticity convergence also greatly exceeded frictional spindown in the boundary layer. Thus, the Ekman pumping hypothesis was found to be a poor approximation in the early stages of the development of this typhoon. As Nuri developed, convective sources of boundary layer vorticity became fewer but more intense, culminating in a single nascent eyewall at the tropical storm stage. A non-developing tropical wave case was also analyzed. This system started with much weaker circulations in the boundary layer and aloft, leaving it unprotected against environmental intrusion. This may explain its failure to develop.

  10. ENTROPY FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF TYPHOON MATSA (0509)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; LIU Chong-jian

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of Typhoon Matsa (0509) is examined in terms of entropy flow through an entropy balance equation derived from the Gibbs relation, according to the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy flows in the various significant stages of (genesis, development and decaying) during its evolution are diagnosed based on the outputs of the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model (known as MM5). The results show that: (1) the vertical spatial distribution of entropy flow for Matsa is characterized by a predominantly negative entropy flow in a large portion of the troposphere and a positive flow in the upper levels; (2) the fields of entropy flows at the middle troposphere (500 hPa) show that the growth of the typhoon is greatly dependent on the negative entropy flows from its surroundings; and (3) the simulated centres of heavy rainfall associated with the typhoon match well with the zones of large negative entropy flows, suggesting that they may be a significant indicator for severe weather events.

  11. Observational study of daytime ionospheric irregularities associated with typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO SaiGuan; SHI JianKui; ZHANG DongHe; HAO YongQiang; HUANG WeiQuan

    2012-01-01

    Spread-F is a manifestation of ionospheric irregularities and generally takes place at nighttime.However,it can also be observed seldom at daytime.It is recognized that acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) play an important role in triggering plasma instability which results in spread-F in the ionosphere.The typhoon is a main source of the AGWs.In this paper,two cases of ionospheric daytime spread-F in the period of typhoon were analyzed.One case was on July 29,1988 and the other was on August 01,1989.The results showed the following:1) There were some wave-like disturbances appearing in the HF Doppler records firstly,consequently the Doppler echo traces became scattered,which indicated that the ionospheric spread-F was triggered; 2) the blurred echo traces in the both two cases appeared in the morning (08:30-11:30 Beijing time) and lasted for more than two hours; 3) with the blurred echoes gradually weakening,the traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) still existed and became clearer; 4) the frequency shifts in the two cases were both positive,implying the effective reflecting surface of the radio wave in the ionosphere moved downwards.These results provide good observational evidence for daytime spread-F during the typhoon period in Asian region.

  12. The effect of typhoon on particulate organic carbon flux in the southern East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, but the extent to which such storms influence carbon flux from the euphotic zone is unclear. In 2008, typhoon Fengwong provided a unique opportunity to study the in situ biological responses including phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic carbon fluxes associated with a severe storm in the southern East China Sea (SECS. After passage of the typhoon, the sea surface temperature (SST in the SECS was markedly cooler (~25 to 26 °C than before typhoon passage (~28 to 29 °C. The POC flux 5 days after passage of the typhoon was 265 ± 14 mg-C m−2 d−1, which was ~1.7-fold that (140–180 mg-C m−2 d−1 recorded during a period (June–August, 2007 when no typhoons occurred. A somewhat smaller but nevertheless significant increase in POC flux (224–265 mg-C m−2 d−1 was detected following typhoon Sinlaku which occurred approximately 1 month after typhoon Fengwong, indicating that typhoon events can increase biogenic carbon flux efficiency in the SECS. Remarkably, phytoplankton uptake accounted for only about 5% of the nitrate injected into the euphotic zone by typhoon Fengwong and it is likely that phytoplankton population growth was presumably constrained by a combination of light limitation and grazing pressure. Modeled estimates of new/export production were remarkably consistent with the average of new and export production following typhoon Fengwong. The same model suggested that during non-typhoon conditions approximately half of the export of organic carbon occurs via convective mixing of dissolved organic carbon, a conclusion consistent with earlier work at comparable latitudes in the open ocean.

  13. The effect of typhoon on particulate organic carbon flux in the southern East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, but the extent to which such storms influence biogenic carbon flux from the euphotic zone is unclear. In 2008, typhoon Fengwong provided a unique opportunity to study the in situ biological responses including phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic carbon fluxes associated with a severe storm in the southern East China Sea (SECS. After passage of the typhoon, the sea surface temperature (SST in the SECS was markedly cooler (∼25 to 26 °C than before typhoon passage (∼28 to 29 °C. The POC flux 5 days after passage of the typhoon was 265 ± 14 mg C m−2 d−1, which was ∼1.7-fold that (140–180 mg C m−2 d−1 recorded during a period (June–August, 2007 when no typhoons occurred. A somewhat smaller but nevertheless significant increase in POC flux (224–225 mg C m−2 d−1 was detected following typhoon Sinlaku which occurred approximately 1 month after typhoon Fengwong, indicating that typhoon events can increase biogenic carbon flux efficiency in the SECS. Remarkably, phytoplankton uptake accounted for only about 5% of the nitrate injected into the euphotic zone by typhoon Fengwong. It is likely that phytoplankton population growth was constrained by a combination of light limitation and grazing pressure. Modeled estimates of new/export production were remarkably consistent with the average of new and export production following typhoon Fengwong. The same model suggested that during non-typhoon conditions approximately half of the export of organic carbon occurs via convective mixing of dissolved organic carbon, a conclusion consistent with earlier work at comparable latitudes in the open ocean.

  14. Application of Direct Assimilation of ATOVS Microwave Radiances to Typhoon Track Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 薛纪善; 朱国富; 庄世宇; 吴雪宝; 张风英

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the difficult problem of typhoon track prediction due to the sparsity of conventional data over the tropical ocean, in this paper, the No. 0205 typhoon Rammasun of 4-6 July 2002 is studied and an experiment of the typhoon track prediction is made with the direct use of the Advanced TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) microwave radiance data in three-dimensional variational data assimilation. The prediction result shows that the experiment with the ATOVS microwave radiance data can not only successfully predict the observed fact that typhoon Rammasun moves northward and turns right, but can also simulate the action of the fast movement of the typhoon, which cannot be simulated with only conventional radiosonde data. The skill of the typhoon track prediction with the ATOVS microwave radiance data is much better than that without the ATOVS data. The typhoon track prediction of the former scheme is consistent in time and in location with the observation. The direct assimilation of ATOVS microwave radiance data is an available way to solve the problem of the sparse observation data over the tropical ocean, and has great potential in being applied to typhoon track prediction.

  15. Aiding Young Children in Taiwan's Typhoon Disaster: How an NAEYC Interest Forum Takes Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When devastating natural disasters struck Asia last year--typhoons in Taiwan and the Philippines and an earthquake in Indonesia--members of the Asian Interest Forum (AIF) worried about basic living environments and the emotional needs of children in these regions. AIF decided to focus on helping victims of Morakot, the deadliest typhoon in…

  16. Modeled Oceanic Response and Sea Surface Cooling to Typhoon Kai-Tak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ocean response to typhoon Kai-Tak is simulated using an accurate fourth-order, basin-scale ocean model. The surface winds of typhoon Kai-Tak were obtained from QuikSCAT satellite images blended with the ECMWF wind fields. An intense nonlinear mesoscale eddy is generated in the northeast South China Sea (SCS with a Rossby number of O(1 and on a 50 - 100 km horizontal scale. Inertial oscillation is clearly observed. Advection dominates as a strong wind shear drives the mixed layer flows outward, away from the typhoon center, thus forcing upwelling from deep levels with a high upwelling velocity (> 30 m day-1. A drop in sea surface temperature (SST of more than _ is found in both observation and simulation. We attribute this significant SST drop to the influence of the slow moving typhoon, initial stratification and bathymetry-induced upwelling in the northeast of the SCS where the typhoon hovered.

  17. The Impact of Microphysics and Model Resolution on Precipitation Associated with Typhoon Morakot 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pay-Liam; Chen, D.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn J.; Chang, Mei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the heavy rainfall that was associated with severe weather events (e.g., typhoons, local heavy precipitation events) has caused significant damages in the economy and loss of human life throughout Taiwan. Especially, the extreme heavy rainfall (over 2500 mm over 24 hours) associated with Typhoon Morakot 2009 caused more than 600 human beings lost and more than $100 million US dollar damage. In this paper, we are using WRF to simulate the precipitation processes associated Typhoon Morakot 2009. The preliminary results indicated that the wrf model with using 2 km grid size and with utilizing the 310E scheme (cloud ice, snow and hail) can simulate more than 2500 mm rainfall over 24 hour integration. In this talk, we will evaluate the performance of the microphysical schemes for the Typhoon Morakot case. In addition, we will examine the impact of model resolution (in both horizontal and vertical) on the Typhoon Morakot case.

  18. Impact of Cloud Microphysical Processes on the Simulation of Typhoon Rananim near Shore.Part Ⅱ:Typhoon Intensity and Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锐; 宇如聪; 徐幼平; 傅云飞

    2011-01-01

    The impact of cloud microphysical processes on the simulated intensity and track of Typhoon Rananim is discussed and analyzed in the second part of this study.The results indicate that when the cooling effect due to evaporation of rain water is excluded,the simulated 36-h maximum surface wind speed of Typhoon Rananim is about 7 m s-1 greater than that from all other experiments; however,the typhoon landfall location has the biggest bias of about 150 km against the control experiment.The simulated strong outer rainbands and the vertical shear of the environmental flow are unfavorable for the deepening and maintenance of the typhoon and result in its intensity loss near the landfall.It is the cloud microphysical processes that strengthen and create the outer spiral rainbands,which then increase the local convergence away from the typhoon center and prevent more moisture and energy transport to the inner core of the typhoon.The developed outer rainbands are supposed to bring dry and cold air mass from the middle troposphere to the planetary boundary layer (PBL).The other branch of the cold airflow comes from the evaporation of rain water itself in the PBL while the droplets are falling.Thus,the cut-off of the warm and moist air to the inner core and the invasion of cold and dry air to the eyewall region are expected to bring about the intensity reduction of the modeled typhoon.Therefore,the deepening and maintenance of Typhoon Rananim during its landing are better simulated through the reduction of these two kinds of model errors.

  19. Oceanic response to Typhoon Nari (2007) in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Seok; Kang, Sok-Kuh; Song, Kyu-Min

    2017-02-01

    The oceanic response to a typhoon in the East China Sea (ECS) was examined using thermal and current structures obtained from ocean surface drifters and a bottom-moored current profiler installed on the right side of the typhoon's track. Typhoon Nari (2007) had strong winds as it passed the central region of the ECS. The thermal structure in the ECS responded to Typhoon Nari (2007) very quickly: the seasonal thermocline abruptly collapsed and the sea surface temperature dropped immediately by about 4°C after the typhoon passed. The strong vertical mixing and surface cooling caused by the typhoon resulted in a change in the thermal structure. Strong near-inertial oscillation occurred immediately after the typhoon passed and lasted for at least 4-5 days, during which a strong vertical current existed in the lower layer. Characteristics of the near-inertial internal oscillation were observed in the middle layer. The clockwise component of the inertial frequency was enhanced in the surface layer and at 63 m depth after the typhoon passed, with these layers almost perfectly out of phase. The vertical shear current was intensified by the interaction of the wind-driven current in the upper layer and the background semi-diurnal tidal current during the arrival of the typhoon, and also by the near-inertial internal oscillation after the typhoon passage. The strong near-inertial internal oscillation persisted without significant interfacial structure after the mixing of the thermocline, which could enhance the vertical mixing over several days.

  20. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Marine ecosystem is sensitive to environmental factors, including typhoon. Typhoon's activities have been strengthening in both intensity and spatial coverage in the past several decades, along with global changes; however, our knowledge about the impact of typhoons upon the marine ecosystem is very scarce. To understand how could typhoon/hurricane impact on marine ecosystem, we have conducted a series studies in the South China Sea, by using Satellite remote sensing and in situ observation data to investigate phytoplankton concentration, sea surface temperature (SST) and related factors before, during, and after typhoon. Results show that typhoon can induce large area of phytoplankton blooms with increases of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and decrease of sea surface temperature (SST) about 4 oC. Analysis showed that typhoon can support nutrients to surface phytoplankton by upwelling and vertical mixing, and typhoon rain can also nourish marine phytoplankton. More observations confirmed that typhoon can induce cold eddy, and cold eddy can support eddy-shape phyto-plankton bloom by upwelling. Typhoon can also induce transport of nutrient-rich water from depth and from the coast to offshore regions, nourishing phytoplankton biomass. Comparative study show that slow-moving typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of higher Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), the strong typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of a large area. Therefore, typhoons may have important contribution to the marine primary production. Those studies may help better understand the mechanism of typhoon impacts on marine ecosys-tem, and the role of typhoon in the global environmental changes. The series research were sup-ported by: NSFC (40976091, 40811140533) and GD NSF (8351030101000002); (2) CAS(kzcx2-yw-226 and LYQ200701); (3) The CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (KZCX2-YW-T001). References: Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, P Shi, W Takahashi, T Shimada, F. Sakaida, O

  1. Typhoons exert significant but differential impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange of subtropical mangrove forests in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

    2014-10-01

    Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but little information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during the typhoon season. Daily total NEE values decreased by 26-50% following some typhoons (e.g., W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan), but significantly increased (43-131%) following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings indicate that different types of typhoon disturbances can exert very different effects on CO2 fluxes of mangrove ecosystems and that typhoon will likely have larger impacts on carbon cycle processes in subtropical mangrove ecosystems as the intensity and frequency of typhoons are predicted to increase under future global climate change scenarios.

  2. The prevention and control of dengue after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charito Aumentado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of the areas in the Philippines affected by Typhoon Haiyan are endemic for dengue; therefore, dengue prevention was a priority in the initial post-disaster risk assessment. We describe the dengue prevention and response strategies applied after Haiyan. Methods: The dengue response was implemented by a wide range of national and international stakeholders. Priorities included the rapid re-establishment of an effective surveillance system to quickly identify new dengue cases, monitor trends and determine the geographical distribution of cases. Dengue rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were distributed to sentinel health facilities, and comprehensive vector control activities and entomological surveys were implemented. Several training sessions for key stakeholders and awareness campaigns for communities were organized. Results: There were RDT-positive dengue cases reported from urban and semi-urban areas where entomological surveys also confirmed a high density of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Although there was an increase in dengue cases in January 2014, the number of cases remained below the epidemic threshold throughout the remaining months of 2014. Discussion: There was no large outbreak of dengue after Typhoon Haiyan, possibly due to the targeted, multifaceted and rapid response for dengue after Haiyan. However, surveillance differed after Haiyan, making comparisons with previous years difficult. Multiple players contributed to the response that was also facilitated by close communication and coordination within the Health Cluster.

  3. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  4. The Dynamical Characteristics and Wave Structure of Typhoon Rananim (2004)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Jie; NI Yunqi; SHEN Xinyong

    2009-01-01

    Typhoon Rananim (2004) was one of the severest typhoons landfalling the Chinese mainland from 1996 to 2004. It brought serious damage and induced prodigious economical loss. Using a new generation of mesoscale model, named the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, with 1.667 km grid horizontal spacing on the finest nested mesh, Rananim was successfully simulated in terms of track, intensity, eye, eyewall, and spiral rainbands. We compared the structures of Rananim to those of hurricanes in previous studies and observations to assess the validity of simulation. The three-dimensional (3D) dynamic and thermal structures of eye and eyewall were studied based on the simulated results. The focus was investigation of the characteristics of the vortex Rossby waves in the inner-core region. We found that the Rossby vortex waves propagate azimuthally upwind against the azimuthal mean tangential flow around the eyewall, and their period was longer than that of an air parcel moving within the azimuthal mean tangential flow. They also propagated outward against the boundary layer inflow of the azimuthal mean vortex. Futhermore, we studied the connection between the spiral potential vorticity (PV) bands and spiral rainbands, and found that the vortex Rossby waves played an important role in the formation process of spiral rainbands.

  5. Wavelet-Based Methodology for Evolutionary Spectra Estimation of Nonstationary Typhoon Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form expressions are proposed to estimate the evolutionary power spectral density (EPSD of nonstationary typhoon processes by employing the wavelet transform. Relying on the definition of the EPSD and the concept of the wavelet transform, wavelet coefficients of a nonstationary typhoon process at a certain time instant are interpreted as the Fourier transform of a new nonstationary oscillatory process, whose modulating function is equal to the modulating function of the nonstationary typhoon process multiplied by the wavelet function in time domain. Then, the EPSD of nonstationary typhoon processes is deduced in a closed form and is formulated as a weighted sum of the squared moduli of time-dependent wavelet functions. The weighted coefficients are frequency-dependent functions defined by the wavelet coefficients of the nonstationary typhoon process and the overlapping area of two shifted wavelets. Compared with the EPSD, defined by a sum of the squared moduli of the wavelets in frequency domain in literature, this paper provides an EPSD estimation method in time domain. The theoretical results are verified by uniformly modulated nonstationary typhoon processes and non-uniformly modulated nonstationary typhoon processes.

  6. A Modeling Study of Land Surface Process Impacts on Inland Behavior of Typhoon Rananim (2004)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    On 12 August 2004,Typhoon Rananim (0414) moved inland over China and stagnated over the Poyang Lake area,resulting in torrential rainfall and severe geologic hazards.The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model and its different land surface models (LSMs) were employed to study the impacts of land surface process on the inland behavior of Typhoon Rananim.Results show that simulations,coupled with LSMs or not,have no significant differences in predicting typhoon track,intensity,and largescale circulation.However,the simulations of mesoscale structure,rainfall rate,and rainfall distribution of typhoon are more reasonable with LSMs than without LSMs.Although differences are slight among LSMs,NOAH is better than the others.Based on outputs using the NOAH scheme,the interaction between land surface and typhoon was explored in this study.Notably,typhoon rainfall and cloud cover can cool land surface,but rainfall expands the underlying saturated wetland area,which exacerbates the asymmetric distribution of surface heat fluxes.Accordingly,an energy frontal zone may form in the lower troposphere that enhances ascending motion and local convection,resulting in heavier rainfall.Moreover,the expanded underlying saturated wetlands provide plentiful moisture and unstable energy for the maintenance of Typhoon Rananim and increased rainfall in return.

  7. Intensification of landfalling typhoons over the northwest Pacific since the late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Intensity changes in landfalling typhoons are of great concern to East and Southeast Asian countries. Regional changes in typhoon intensity, however, are poorly known owing to inconsistencies among different data sets. Here, we apply cluster analysis to bias-corrected data and show that, over the past 37 years, typhoons that strike East and Southeast Asia have intensified by 12-15%, with the proportion of storms of categories 4 and 5 having doubled or even tripled. In contrast, typhoons that stay over the open ocean have experienced only modest changes. These regional changes are consistent between operational data sets. To identify the physical mechanisms, we decompose intensity changes into contributions from intensification rate and intensification duration. We find that the increased intensity of landfalling typhoons is due to strengthened intensification rates, which in turn are tied to locally enhanced ocean surface warming on the rim of East and Southeast Asia. The projected ocean surface warming pattern under increasing greenhouse gas forcing suggests that typhoons striking eastern mainland China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan will intensify further. Given disproportionate damages by intense typhoons, this represents a heightened threat to people and properties in the region.

  8. Classification of Slope Collapse and Deposition after Typhoons in Chenyulan Watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chompuchan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan is annually affected by typhoon due to this island located on the main path of the western Pacific typhoons. Numerous landslides and debris flows often occurred in mountainous watershed during typhoon event, resulting in casualties and properties/infrastructures damage. Among the historical disasters, there were a several typhoon events harmed Chenyulan watershed in Nantou County, central Taiwan, particularly Typhoon Herb in 1996 and Typhoon Morakot in 2009 which brought catastrophic destruction. The typhoons caused extreme rainfall and triggered more than 30 large debris flows that buried many houses and deaths. This study selected the SPOT satellite images after those typhoon events to explore the hazard maps. The satellite images interpretation could extract the emergent landslides of each typhoon event. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Spatial Dispersion Index (SDI) were used to categorize collapse and deposition area of the landslides. Then, the total amount of collapse volume could estimate from slope-depth area calculation. The result found that the landslide sites with higher NDVI and lower SPI could be implied the headstream collapse or deep-seated landslide, whereas the landslide sites with lower NDVI and lower SPI could be implied the deposition or debris. In summarize, this study performed effective results for rapid collapse/deposition extraction from the landslide disaster. To ensure the safety from the post-disaster, it could be suggested for the related authorities because the collapse/deposition area should be instantly enclosed and classified as the conservation lands which require difference intensive conservation practices. Keywords: Hazard map, Debris flow, Slope, Normalized difference vegetation index, Spatial dispersion index

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TYPHOON WAVE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WINNIE (NO.9711)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-ping; ZHONG Zhong; ZHANG Jin-shan; LU Wen-feng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the wind field provided by a meso-scale atmospheric model is employed. When main physical processes, including wave-current interactions, are considered, the latest version of the third generation wave model SWAN is applied to simulate the typhoon wave generated by Typhoon Winnie. The model results are compared with the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 satellite altimeter data and analyzed in details. Then the distribution of wave fields are analyzed, with the results showing that applying SWAN to simulate large-scale domain can also fairly reproduce the observed features of waves and realistically reflect the distribution of typhoon waves.

  10. Effects of 4DVAR with multifold observed data on the typhoon track forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunfeng; WANG Bin; MA GANG; WANG Yushun

    2003-01-01

    Effects of 4-dimension variational data assimilation (4DVAR) with multifold observed data on the typhoon track forecast are studied, by using the MM5V3 model, the RTTOVS-5 model and their adjoint models. The data used for assimilation include large-scale background fields data,bogus data, cloud-derived wind data, satellite inverse data,and high resolution infrared radiation sounder data (HIRS).There are 5 typhoon cases are used to perform the numerical experiments and assimilation experiments. The numerical results show that with 4DVAR the initial fields can be greatly improved and the initial typhoon structure can be clearly described.

  11. Field measurement and analysis of turbulence coherence for Typhoon Nuri at Macao Friendship Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of investigating the turbulent and spatial coherent characteristics of strong wind during typhoon landing period,two 3-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer stations were set up 30 m horizontally apart on the Macao Friendship Bridge to caputure the turbulent wind velocities of Typhoon Nuri. Based on the reliable and representative field measured data,the mean wind speed and direction,turbulence intensity,turbulence integral scale,turbulence power spectra,spatial correlation coefficient and coherence function were statistically evaluated. The field measurement analysis have presented the following results: 1) Two anemometer stations provided consistent results. The mean wind speed variation in time domain presented typical M-shape curves. The strong wind (10-minute mean wind speed higher than 8th grade in Beaufort wind scale) direction changed in a big range up to 122-degrees-angle,indicating the field measurements scoped over the typhoon landing period. 2) The ratio of the longitudinal,lateral and vertical turbulence intensities of the strong wind in the typhoon eye wall region was 1:0.96:0.36. Compared with the code defined ratio 1:0.88:0.5,the lateral component was larger and the vertical component was smaller. 3) The value of integral scale increased when the eye wall of Typhoon Nuri passed over the field measurement site. Before the center of Typhoon Nuri arrived,the integral scale of the strong typhoon wind was about twice compared with that for the non-typhoon wind. 4) The spatial correlation of the turbulent wind,coherence function curve and the decay factor had significant differences at different times during the typhoon process. In the eye wall of the typhoon,the horizontal spatial correlation was relatively strong and horizontally spatial correlation spectrum decayed slower with frequency increase. The minimum regressed coefficient C in coherence function model was 4.67,which is lower than the code defined low limit. The maximum decay factor

  12. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  13. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  14. 我国秋季台风与相邻气团相互作用的天气气候特征分析%Interaction between Typhoon and Its Contiguous Air Mass in China in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈博; 周凤才; 徐明; 秦婷

    2016-01-01

    By using typhoon data of China Meterological Administration during 1949-2007, data of China's continental and marine meteoro-logical stations, meteorological data of civil airports with high density and continuity, through climate statistical method and key cases analysis, interaction between typhoon and its contiguous air mass in China coastal areas in autumn was analyzed from aspects of climatic and synoptic. The results showed that the occurrence frequency of strong typhoon and super strong typhoon is more in autumn in China, but the frequency is less, and the stronger the typhoon, the lower the probability of landing, the greater the possibility of turning offshore; in addition to the fre-quency of landing, typhoon landing sites in autumn also has a significant change with time, landing latitude gradually southward as well as the turning point of no landing typhoon.The influence of typhoon close to coastal areas to continental air mass depends on its intensity;the interac-tion among typhoon, continental air mass and marine air mass decides the typhoon’ s track.%利用中国气象局1949—2007年台风年鉴、我国大陆和海上相关气象测站资料,以及密集性和连续性程度较高的民用机场气象资料,通过气候统计方法和重点个例分析,从气候学和天气学2个方面对我国秋季台风及其与相邻气团相互作用的天气气候特征进行了分析。结果表明,受到季节进程影响,我国的秋季台风中强台风和超强台风的发生频次较多,但登陆频次较少,且台风越强,其登陆概率越低,在近海发生转向的可能性也越大;除了登陆频次的变化,秋季台风登陆点的位置也随时间有明显的变化,其登陆纬度随着时间推移逐渐南移,而未登陆台风的转向点随时间变化也逐渐南移。不同强度的台风在靠近我国东南沿海时对大陆气团的影响有显著不同,大陆气团、海上气团与台风自身环流

  15. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  16. Simulation of Storm Surge and Wave Due to Typhoon Isewan (5915)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hee YUK; Kyeong Ok KIM; Han Soo LEE; Byung Ho CHOI

    2015-01-01

    An integrally coupled wave-tide-surge model was developed and then applied to the simulation of the wave-typhoon surge for the typhoon Isewan (typhoon Vera (5915)), which is the strongest typhoon that has struck Japan and caused incalculable damage. An integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model using identical and homogeneous meshes in an unstructured grid system was used to correctly resolve the physics of wave-circulation interaction in both models. All model components were validated independently. The storm surge and wave properties such as the surge height, the significant wave height, wave period and direction were reproduced reasonably under the meteorological forcing, which was reprocessed to be close to the observations. The resulting modeling system can be used extensively for the prediction of the storm surge and waves and the usual barotropic forecast.

  17. EXPERIMENTS OF ENSEMBLE FORECAST OF TYPHOON TRACK USING BDA PERTURBING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-yan; WAN Qi-lin; YUAN Jin-nan; DING Wei-yu

    2006-01-01

    A new method, BDA perturbing, is used in ensemble forecasting of typhoon track. This method is based on the Bogus Data Assimilation scheme. It perturbs the initial position and intensity of typhoons and gets a series of bogus vortex. Then each bogus vortex is used in data assimilation to obtain initial conditions. Ensemble forecast members are constructed by conducting simulation with these initial conditions. Some cases of typhoon are chosen to test the validity of this new method and the results show that: using the BDA perturbing method to perturb initial position and intensity of typhoon for track forecast can improve accuracy, compared with the direct use of the BDA assimilation scheme. And it is concluded that a perturbing amplitude of intensity of 5 hPa is probably more appropriate than 10 hPa if the BDA perturbing method is used in combination with initial position perturbation.

  18. Toward better assessment of tornado potential in typhoons: Significance of considering entrainment effects for CAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.

  19. Preliminary study on impact assessment of climate change on building risks induced by typhoons in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    The present paper investigates possible impacts of the climate change on building risks caused by typhoons. The inputs to this investigation are: (1) outcomes from the numerical simulations with a Global Climate Model (GCM) developed under the framework of the KAKUSHIN program, (2) statistics...... on building damage in the event of Typhoon Songda, and (3) numerical simulation of the wind field induced by the typhoon Songda with the JMA Non- Hydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). The first input is utilized to develop two sets of probabilistic typhoon models; i.e. corresponding to the current climate...... and the future climate subject to the climate change, whereas the other inputs are utilized to develop a model for structural performance of buildings. Taking basis in these models, changes of building risks under the climate change are investigated. The result shows that the building risks slightly decrease...

  20. Super Tomboy Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sparked by Super Girl, the androgynous look is in among Chinese youth On September 8, this year's top six contestants on the Super Girl television show, a singing contest for young women, stepped into the spotlight. Nearly none of them had long black hair or wore evening gowns, traditionally associated with beauty in China. Rather, they

  1. Predictive susceptibility analysis of typhoon induced landslides in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2017-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary, such as 2004 Mindulle and 2009 Morakot, hit Taiwan and induced serious flooding and landslides. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the adopted Wu River watershed in Central Taiwan. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also applied. Different types of rainfall factors were tested in the susceptibility models for a better accuracy. In addition, the routes of typhoons were also considered in the predictive analysis. The results of predictive analysis can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  2. Development of a prototype Typhoon Risk Model over the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Y.; Cocke, S.; Shin, D. W.; CHOI, M.; Kwon, J.

    2016-12-01

    Risk can be defined as probability of a given hazard of a given level causing a particular level of loss of damage (Alexander, 2000). Risk management is important for mitigation and developing plans for emergencies. More effective risk management strategies can help reduce potential losses from natural disasters like typhoon, floods, earthquakes, and so on. We are developing a prototype typhoon risk model to assess the current and potentially future hazard due to typhoons in the Western Pacific. To develop the typhoon risk model, a variety of sources of data over Korea are used such as population, damage to buildings, agriculture, ships, etc. The model is based on proven concepts used in catastrophe models that have been used in the U.S. and other regions of the world. Recently, the sea surface temperatures where typhoons have occurred have tended to increase. According to recent studies of global warming, the intensity of typhoons could increase, and the frequency of typhoons may decrease in the future climate. The prototype risk model can help us determine the change in risk as a consequence of the change in typhoon activity. We focus on Korea and other regions of interest to Korean insurers, re-insurers, and related industries. The model can potentially be coupled to various damage models or emergency management systems for planning and mitigation. In addition, the assessment would be useful for emergency planners, coastal community planners, and private and governmental insurance programs. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA2016-8030.

  3. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding ...

  4. Forest response to increasing typhoon activity on the Korean peninsula: evidence from oak tree-rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Cerný, Tomáš; Song, Jong-Suk

    2013-02-01

    The globally observed trend of changing intensity of tropical cyclones over the past few decades emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the effects of such disturbance events in natural and inhabited areas. On the Korean Peninsula, typhoon intensity has increased over the past 100 years as evidenced by instrumental data recorded from 1904 until present. We examined how the increase in three weather characteristics (maximum hourly and daily precipitation, and maximum wind speed) during the typhoon activity affected old-growth oak forests. Quercus mongolica is a dominant species in the Korean mountains and the growth releases from 220 individuals from three sites along a latitudinal gradient (33-38°N) of decreasing typhoon activity were studied. Growth releases indicate tree-stand disturbance and improved light conditions for surviving trees. The trends in release events corresponded to spatiotemporal gradients in maximum wind speed and precipitation. A high positive correlation was found between the maximum values of typhoon characteristics and the proportion of trees showing release. A higher proportion of disturbed trees was found in the middle and southern parts of the Korean peninsula where typhoons are most intense. This shows that the releases are associated with typhoons and also indicates the differential impact of typhoons on the forests. Finally, we present a record of the changing proportion of trees showing release based on tree-rings for the period 1770-1979. The reconstruction revealed no trend during the period 1770-1879, while the rate of forest disturbances increased rapidly from 1880 to 1979. Our results suggest that if typhoon intensity rises, as is projected by some climatic models, the number of forest disturbance events will increase thus altering the disturbance regime and ecosystem processes.

  5. Wave-Tide-Surge Coupled Simulation for Typhoon Maemi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung Ho Choi; Byung Il Min; Kyeong Ok Kim; Jin Hee Yuk

    2013-01-01

    The main task of this study focuses on studying the effect of wave-current interaction on currents,storm surge and wind wave as well as effects of current induced wave refraction and current on waves by using numerical models which consider the bottom boundary layer and sea surface roughness parameter for shallow and smooth bed area around Korean Peninsula.The coupled system (unstructured-mesh SWAN wave and ADCIRC) run on the same unstructured mesh.This identical and homogeneous mesh allows the physics of wave-circulation interactions to be correctly resolved in both models.The unstructured mesh can be applied to a large domain allowing all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed.There is no nesting or overlapping of structured wave meshes,and no interpolation is required.In response to typhoon Maemi (2003),all model components were validated independently,and shown to provide a faithful representation of the system's response to this storm.The waves and storm surge were allowed to develop on the continental shelf and interact with the complex nearshore environment.The resulting modeling system can be used extensively for prediction of the typhoon surge.The result show that it is important to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect into coastal area in the wave-tide-surge coupled model.At the same time,it should consider effects of depth-induced wave breaking,wind field,currents and sea surface elevation in prediction of waves.Specially,we found that:(1) wave radiation stress enhanced the current and surge elevation otherwise wave enhanced nonlinear bottom boundary layer decreased that,(2) wind wave was significantly controlled by sea surface roughness thus we cautiously took the experimental expression.The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting (prediction) the wave-tide-surge coupled environments at complex coastline,shallow water and fine sediment area like areas around Korean Peninsula.

  6. Encounter probability analysis of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of great significance to study the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin in order to adjust the schemes of design storm and utilize flood resource and make the decision of real-time scheduling for flood control in the Basin. Based upon the existing research findings of description of encounter phenomena of typhoon and plum rain, the initial time of typhoon affecting the Taihu Lake Basin, the start time of plum rain season and the end time of plum rain season were selected as the characteristic indices of typhoon and plum rain, respectively. According to their synchronous data from 1954 to 2009, the distribution functions of the above-mentioned three random variables were identified and a formula expressing the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain was derived. In view of the complexity and solution of this formula, joint distribution functions of typhoon and plum rain were constructed by the use of Gumbel Copula function on the basis of the adaptability comparison among three functions (Gumbel Copula, Clayton Copula and Frank Copula) in Archimedean functions. For the characteristics of the formula with the joint distribution functions based on Gumbel Copula function, two methods, i.e., numerical integration and Monte Carlo simulation, were selected to solve the encounter probability, and the validity of the computed results was analyzed finally.

  7. Rainband Feature Tracking for Wind Speeds around Typhoon Eye Using Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Liu, A. A. K.; Yu, C. K.; He, Z.; Yang, J.; Zheng, G.; Chen, Y.

    2016-02-01

    No direct measurements of surface winds are available now except that by aircraft at a high cost, thus tracking and monitoring ocean features which have short coherent time periods from sequential satellite images is a good option to estimate extreme wind speeds associated with typhoons. In this study, five typhoon cases observed by quasi-concurrent satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and one of the cases also by ground-based Doppler radar observations have been studied. The rainband features around typhoon eyes are first delineated using wavelet analysis, and then the wind speeds are estimated by feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. The resulting wind speeds are reasonable compared with the maximum wind speed reported from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). In a special case, with the aid of the Doppler radar near the coast, the wind speed estimates based on the multi-sensor also show consistent results. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that a reasonable wind speed around typhoon eyes can be derived from the rainband feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. This technique may offer useful wind information for typhoon simulations and forecasts.

  8. Rainband, Feature Tracking for Wind Speeds Around Typhoon Eyes Using Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Liu, A. K.; Yu, C.-K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, five typhoon cases observed by quasi-concurrent satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and one of the cases also by ground-based Doppler radar observations have been studied. The rainband features around typhoon eyes are first delineated using wavelet analysis, and then the wind speeds are estimated by feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images.It was found that the resulting wind speeds are reasonable compared with the maximum wind speed reported by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), which accounts for the radial dependence of wind speed using the Rankine combined vortex approximation. In a specific case, with the aid of Doppler radar near the coast, wind speed estimation based on the multi-sensor also shows consistent results. This study demonstrates that the local wind distribution of cyclonic winds around typhoon eyes at different radial distances from the typhoon centers may be derived from rainband feature tracking using quasi-concurrent multi-sensor images. This technique may offer useful wind information for typhoon simulations and forecasting.

  9. Enhanced Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Temperature and Its Relation to Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Perez, Gay Jane P.; Stock, Larry V.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated the Visayan Islands in the Philippines on November 8, 2013 was recorded as the strongest typhoon ever-observed using satellite data. Typhoons in the region usually originate from the mid-Pacific region that includes the Warm Pool, which is regarded as the warmest ocean surface region globally. Two study areas were considered: one in the Warm Pool Region and the other in the West Pacific Region near the Philippines. Among the most important factors that affect the strength of a typhoon are sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor. It is remarkable that in November 2013 the average SST in the Warm Pool Region was the highest observed during the 1981 to 2014 period while that of the West Pacific Region was among the highest as well. Moreover, the increasing trend in SST was around 0.20C per decade in the warm pool region and even higher at 0.23C per decade in the West Pacific region. The yearly minimum SST has also been increasing suggesting that the temperature of the ocean mixed layer is also increasing. Further analysis indicated that water vapor, clouds, winds and sea level pressure for the same period did not reveal strong signals associated with the 2013 event. The SST is shown to be well-correlated with wind strength of historically strong typhoons in the country and the observed trends in SST suggest that extremely destructive typhoons like Haiyan are likely to occur in the future.

  10. Typhoon induced summer cold shock advected by Kuroshio off eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Zheng, Zhe-Wen; Zheng, Quanan; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chern, Shi-We; Chao, Yan-Hao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we used satellite observations, in-situ measurements, and numerical modelling to investigate an extreme temperature change triggered by a typhoon in the ocean near the Kuroshio region off eastern Taiwan. With the westward passage of Typhoon Morakot in 2009 through Taiwan, a distinct cool wake was generated at the southeastern corner of Taiwan (CWSET) and moved towards the downstream Kuroshio region; it involved a precipitous cooling of at least 4 °C within 10-20 km of the coast. Rapid and drastic temperature drops triggered by the CWSET and advected by the strong conveyor belt effect of the Kuroshio Current are highly probable sources of cold shocks in summer. We clarified the mechanism that generated the CWSET through a series of sensitivity experiments using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System. The cold shock was mainly triggered by local wind stress associated with the typhoon. In addition, the Kuroshio Current was demonstrated to have played a crucial role in both the generation of upwelling off the southeastern coast of Taiwan during the passage of the typhoon and the transporting of this impact downstream. This process was verified through a systematic analysis of all typhoons moving westward through Taiwan from 2005 to 2013. Cold-shock stress is thought to be linked with naturally occurring 'fish kills', and obtaining a more thorough understanding of the CWSET will be helpful for protecting aquaculture off the eastern coast of Taiwan from the impacts of cold shocks triggered by typhoons moving westward through Taiwan in summer.

  11. Predict typhoon-induced storm surge deviation in a principal component back-propagation neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongyang; DAI Xiaoyan; LI Xiaodong; YE Shufeng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce typhoon-caused damages,numerical and empirical methods are often used to forecast typhoon storm surge.However,typhoon surge is a complex nonlinear process that is difficult to forecast accurately.We applied a principal component back-propagation neural network (PCBPNN) to predict the deviation in typhoon storm surge,in which data of the typhoon,upstream flood,and historical case studies were involved.With principal component analysis,15 input factors were reduced to five principal components,and the application of the model was improved.Observation data from Huangpu Park in Shanghai,China were used to test the feasibility of the model.The results indicate that the model is capable of predicting a 12-hour warning before a typhoon surge.

  12. Tropical cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity estimations/forecasts (T-PARCII): A research plan of typhoon aircraft observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons are the most devastating weather system occurring in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Violent wind and heavy rainfall associated with a typhoon cause huge disaster in East Asia including Japan. In 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan struck the Philippines caused a very high storm surge and more than 7000 people were killed. In 2015, two typhoons approached the main islands of Japan and severe flood occurred in the northern Kanto region. Typhoons are still the largest cause of natural disaster in East Asia. Moreover, many researches have projected increase of typhoon intensity with the climate change. This suggests that a typhoon risk is increasing in East Asia. However, the historical data of typhoon include large uncertainty. In particular, intensity data of the most intense typhoon category have larger error after the US aircraft reconnaissance of typhoon was terminated in 1987.The main objective of the present study is improvements of typhoon intensity estimations and of forecasts of intensity and track. We will perform aircraft observation of typhoon and the observed data are assimilated to numerical models to improve intensity estimation. Using radars and balloons, observations of thermodynamical and cloud-microphysical processes of typhoons will be also performed to improve physical processes of numerical model. In typhoon seasons (mostly in August and September), we will perform aircraft observations of typhoons. Using dropsondes from the aircraft, temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind are measured in surroundings of the typhoon inner core region. The dropsonde data are assimilated to a cloud-resolving model which has been developed in Nagoya University and named the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). Then, more accurate estimations and forecasts of the typhoon intensity will be made as well as typhoon tracks. Furthermore, we will utilize a ground-based balloon with microscope camera, X-band precipitation radar, Ka-band cloud radar

  13. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  14. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  15. Sediment dynamic responses of coastal salt marsh to typhoon "KAEMI" in Quanzhou Bay, Fujian Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG AiJun; GAO Shu; GHEN Jian; LI DongYi

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of coastal protection by salt marshes during typhoon events, in situ measurements of water level, tidal current speed and direction, and suspended sediment concen-tration (SSC) were carried out using Electromagnetic Current Meter (EMCM, AEM HR), miniature pres-sure sensor (MkV/D) and Seapoint Turbidity Meter (STM) sensor on a tidal flat in Quanzhou Bay, during the period when the typhoon "KAEMI" was passing through the region. The analysis of the data ob-tained shows that the near-bed current speed within the Spartina alterniflora marsh was generally be-low 5 cm s-1, which was apparently smaller than on the adjacent bare flat (I.e. 5-30 cm s-1). The change in the near-bed current speed in response to the typhoon event was not significant within the S. Al-terniflora marsh, but the current direction was influenced by the typhoon. The effect of the typhoon on the SSC was highly significant, with the SSC reaching 13 to 19 times the values on the bare flat or within the marsh under fair weather conditions; the near-bed SSC within the marsh was higher than on the bare flat, after the typhoon landed. The near-bed suspended sediment fluxes within the marsh and on the bare flat during the typhoon event were both enhanced, I.e., 4 times larger than under fair weather conditions. During the ebb, the bottom shear stress on the bare flat exceeded the critical shear stress for sediment motion for most of the ebb duration of the tide and, therefore, the bed sediment was eroding, with the erosion flux after the typhoon landed being around 2 to 3 times the value associated with fair weather conditions. In contrast, within the S. Alterniflora marsh, the bottom shear stress was mostly lower than the critical shear stress for sediment motion, or lower than the critical shear stress for the maintenance of suspension; hence, the marsh surface was dominated by settling processes, with a settling flux during the typhoon being 3 to 6 times compared

  16. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  17. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current......Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  18. Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  19. The Super Girl Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Changsha,the capital city of Hunan Province, has become famous across China for its innovative TV channel, in particular the cultural phenomenon of the Super Girl talent show. And as far as culture goes, Hunan TV is merely a reflection of a renaissance happening in the city. Animation, music halls, drama festivals and a famous book market are just some of the city's cultural sectors that are benefiting from the fame and notoriety of the Super Girl show.

  20. The formation of super-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1980-01-01

    The author has calculated the collision of a small neutral cloud (surface density approximately 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/) with a constant density galactic disk. Through the collision, a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume of the galaxy, resulting in a supersonic expansion of very hot (10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/K) gas into the Galaxy and out of the galactic disk. The expansion generates a large cavity (a super-ring) with physical characteristics (diameter, velocity of expansion, etc.) in agreement with the observations, and a large volume of hot low-density gas with properties similar to those of the observed coronal gas. (31 refs).

  1. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤福财

    2012-01-01

    We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy.

  2. The study in the frequency of paleo-typhoon hazards and invasion locations since 2000 years ago in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Chen, H. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones often occur in tropical and subtropical ocean, especially in coastal areas in the Northwest Pacific. We can use modern satellite technology to study the tropical cyclones. In order to study the path and the frequency of tropical cyclones in the southeast coast hit in China and Taiwan since two thousand years ago,we have analyzed the data from Chinese historical record from AD 0 to AD 1910 and the statistics from US Joint Typhoon Warning Center from AD 1945 to AD 2013. According to the statistics, there are 532 tropical cyclone events from AD1 to AD 1910. We found that the frequency of typhoons have increased rapidly from AD 700 to AD 850 (the Tang Dynasty) and the Little Ice Age (AD 1400). These two periods just coincides with La Niño-like period. After AD 1700, the region hit by typhoon was moved towards to northward. As a whole, we compared the statistic results of historical typhoons with the core records in Taiwan and South Japan. We may certify that more typhoons hit south China in La Niño-like period, while more typhoons hit Japan in El Niño-like period. Typhoons, which made landfall onto South Korea and Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Fujian in China, concentrated in July and August. On the other hand, the typhoons, which made landfall onto Taiwan and Guangdong in China often, happened during July, August, and September. Japan and Hainan in China were more often hit by typhoons in August and September. Vietnam and Philippines were often hit by typhoons from August to October and from October to November, respectively. Beside, the frequency of typhoon was enhanced in abnormal temperatures.

  3. Variation of surface sediments in the Dongho beach before and after the typhoon Kompasu in 2010, southwestern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; So, Kwang-Suk

    2015-04-01

    The Dongho beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, is marco-tide, open-coast, and pocket-type. In the Dongho beach, this study has focused on the typhoon effects of topography, surface sediment, and sedimentary environment, appeared before and after the typhoon Kompasu in 2010. The typhoon Kompasu moved along the southwestern coasts and across midlands of the Korean Peninsula from 1 to 2 September in 2010. Coastal effect of the moving typhoon was investigated in terms of the surface variations of surface sediment facies and sedimentary environment. Surface topography and sediments before and after the typhoon (August - September 2010) were measured and sampled along the Dongho survey line of 23 sites, respectively. The surface topography in the mid-to-low tidal zone became low after the typhoon rather than that before the typhoon. The lower topographic change is indicative of surface sediment erosion caused by the typhoon wave. The pocket-type Dongho beach is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. Before the typhoon, spatial distribution pattern of sedimentary facies showed a trend of coast-parallel bands of fine sand facies and medium sand facies, whereas that after the typhoon was partly different. Keywords: coastal effect, Typhoon Kompasu in 2010, surface sediment, macro-tide, beach Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education

  4. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-25

    Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the pregnant woman cooperated with

  5. An upper ocean response to Typhoon Bolaven analyzed with Argo profiling floats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zenghong; XU Jianping; SUN Chaohui; WU Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    In situ observations from Argo profiling floats combined with satellite retrieved SST and rain rate are used to investigate an upper ocean response to Typhoon Bolaven from 20 through 29 August 2012. After the passage of Typhoon Bolaven, the deepening of mixed layer depth (MLD), and the cooling of mixed layer temperature (MLT) were observed. The changes in mixed layer salinity (MLS) showed an equivalent number of increasing and decreasing because the typhoon-induced salinity changes in the mixed layer were influenced by precipi-tation, evaporation, turbulent mixing and upwelling of thermocline water. The deepening of the MLD and the cooling of the MLT indicated a significant rightward bias, whereas the MLS was freshened to the left side of the typhoon track and increased on the other side. Intensive temperature and salinity profiles observed by Iridium floats make it possible to view response processes in the upper ocean after the passage of a typhoon. The cooling in the near-surface and the warming in the subsurface were observed by two Iridium floats located to the left side of the cyclonic track during the development stage of the storm, beyond the radius of maxi-mum winds relative to the typhoon center. Water salinity increases at the base of the mixed layer and the top of the thermocline were the most obvious change observed by those two floats. On the right side of the track and near the typhoon center when the typhoon was intensified, the significant cooling from sea surface to a depth of 200×104 Pa, with the exception of the water at the top of the thermocline, was observed by the other Iridium float. Owing to the enhanced upwelling near the typhoon center, the water salinity in the near-surface increased noticeably. The heat pumping from the mixed layer into the thermocline induced by downwelling and the upwelling induced by the positive wind stress curl are the main causes for the different temperature and salinity variations on the different sides of the

  6. Microseisms Generated by the 2010 Typhoon Megi in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling the source locations and initiation process of microseisms are still a subject of considerable debate. Here, we investigate the characteristics and evolution of microseisms generated by Typhoon Megi (Oct 13-23, 2010) using records on both land and offshore stations to investigate the ocean-land coupling process. The typhoon Megi was the strongest typhoon in 2010, being classified as Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. We tracked Typhoon Megi through spectrogram analysis of seismic records at 49 seismic stations in Southeastern China over spatial dimension of about 950 km. The evolution of the microseismic energy was found to be strongly correlated with the spatial proximity of Megi to the recording stations and coastlines. We further analyzed spatial and temporal variations of microseismic energy in three frequency bands of single frequency (SF, 0.05-0.1 Hz), long period double frequency (LPDF, 0.1-0.18 Hz), and short period double frequency (SPDF, 0.18-0.4 Hz), respectively, for which different physical mechanisms have been proposed. Our analysis reveals the following preliminary results: (1) Temporal variations in LPDF and SF are well correlated, implying that LPDF might be excited primarily by the interaction between incoming ocean swells directly induced by the typhoon and the reflected waves by the coastal topography in shallow waters. (2) When the typhoon changed track from the westward to northward direction between Oct 19 and 20, the SPDF signals strengthened while both the SF and LPDF signals weakened, suggesting that SPDF might be generated by the intensified wave-wave interaction around the typhoon "eyes" when the typhoon turned. We further obtained the directivity of the energy source and found two main source regions: one near the typhoon center and another near the coastal region with shallow water depth. The coupling between ocean wave and seafloor depends on bathymetry, coupling coefficient, and the

  7. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-12-12

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  8. Extreme Precipitation Estimation with Typhoon Morakot Using Frequency and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan and produced copious amounts of precipitation in 2009. From the point view of hydrological statistics, the impact of the precipitation from typhoon Morakot using a frequency analysis can be analyzed and discussed. The frequency curve, which was fitted mathematically to historical observed data, can be used to estimate the probability of exceedance for runoff events of a certain magnitude. The study integrates frequency analysis and spatial analysis to assess the effect of Typhoon Morakot event on rainfall frequency in the Gaoping River basin of southern Taiwan. First, extreme rainfall data are collected at sixteen stations for durations of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours and then an appropriate probability distribution was selected to analyze the impact of the extreme hydrological event. Spatial rainfall patterns for a return period of 200-yr with 24-hr duration with and without Typhoon Morakot are estimated. Results show that the rainfall amount is significantly different with long duration with and without the event for frequency analysis. Furthermore, spatial analysis shows that extreme rainfall for a return period of 200-yr is highly dependent on topography and is smaller in the southwest than that in the east. The results not only demonstrate the distinct effect of Typhoon Morakot on frequency analysis, but also could provide reference in future planning of hydrological engineering.

  9. Modelling Air-Sea Fluxes during a Western Pacific Typhoon:Role of Sea Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎伟标

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the evolution of marine storms may be strongly affected by the flux transfer processes over the ocean. High winds in a storm can generate large amounts of spray, which can modify the transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. However, the role of sea spray and air-sea processes in western Pacific typhoons has remained elusive. In this study, the impact of sea spray on air-sea fluxes and the evolution of a typhoon over the western Pacific is investigated using a coupled atmosphere-sea-spray modeling system. Through the case study of the recent Typhoon Fengshen from 2002, we found that: (1) Sea spray can cause a significant latent heat flux increase of up to 40% of the interracial fluxes in the typhoon; (2) Taking into account the effects of sea spray, the intensity of the modeled typhoon can be increased by 30% in the 10-m wind speed, which may greatly improve estimates of storm maximum intensity and, to some extent, improve the simulations of overall storm structure in the atmospheric model; (3) The effects of sea spray are mainly focused over the high wind regions around the storm center and are mainly felt in the lower part of the troposphere.

  10. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the typhoon¡¦s growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon Vamei¡¦s formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  11. Modelling the effects of typhoons on morphological changes in the Estuary of Beinan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei Po

    2017-03-01

    On average, Taiwan is subjected to three or four typhoon invasions each year. As a typhoon approaches, strong ocean waves from the sea, which are accompanied by flash floods on land, can considerably change the morphology of estuaries. Thus, knowing the effect of typhoons is important for coastal management. This study uses simulations and field surveys to analyze the processes of sediment transport near the Beinan Estuary in southeastern Taiwan. A model that is based on Eulerian and Lagrangian methods is used to simulate sediment transport from fluvial flows, waves, and currents. Typhoons of various intensities, different types of fluvial hydrographs, and seasonal effects are used to study their effects on the bathymetry. The relationships among the fluvial sediments, the wave loads, and the evolution of the estuary are derived from the results. The results indicate that the morphology of the Beinan Estuary is governed by typhoon events and that the process of erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment are short. The amount of fluvial sediments that is required to cause changes in the estuary is determined based on these results, and this estimate can be used for erosion protection in the future.

  12. The mechanism of upper-oceanic vertical motions forced by a moving typhoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shin-ichi [National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 3-1, Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0006 (Japan); Niino, Hiroshi [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Kimura, Ryuji, E-mail: ssuzuki@bosai.go.jp [Open University of Japan, 2-11 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi 261-8586 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The upper-oceanic response to a moving typhoon, and the mechanism of the response, are studied based on linear theory and a numerical experiment. The results of the analysis by linear theory are summarized as follows. Three different processes (Ekman pumping, inertial pumping and 'anti-Ekman' pumping) contribute to the upper-oceanic vertical motions caused by a moving atmospheric disturbance. The dominant process depends on the Coriolis parameter f, the moving speed U of the disturbance and the along-track wavenumber spectrum of the wind stress curl. In the case of a typhoon, when the wavenumber spectrum has a dominant amplitude at ktyphoon center, where k is the along-track wavenumber. When the wavenumber spectrum has a significant amplitude near k{approx}f/U, inertial pumping is dominant and upwelling occurs to the rear of the typhoon center. The results of the numerical experiments show that linear theory performs well in explaining the horizontal structures of the upper-oceanic vertical motions and their dependence on the moving speed of the typhoon.

  13. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Christine Tiffany; Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  14. Management of the dead in Tacloban City after Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; De Guzman, Alethea; Sy, Luis; Zapanta, Ma Justina; Avelino, Ferchito; Feliciano, Joselito; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The post-disaster management of the dead involves a series of steps including on-site identification, transfer, storage and examination of bodies and delivery to families for burial. Two weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, a team from the Department of Health (DOH) was tasked with identifying the dead in Tacloban City. Methods A suitable site for the collection of bodies was identified and an algorithm and standard data collection form developed. The retrieval of bodies was coordinated with the Bureau of Fire Protection personnel. Upon receipt of a body, two team members conducted a systematic external examination. Findings were documented, photos were taken and each body was assigned a unique number. Results The DOH team examined 128 bodies. Of these, the majority (86%) were complete bodies; 95% were decomposed and two were skeletonized. Two thirds (66%) were adults, sex was identifiable for 92%, and the male to female ratio was 1:1.4. The majority of adults were females. Only 11% were presumptively identified from documents in clothing; 89% remained unidentified. Conclusion From the limited setting of this study, we describe the process of rapid body processing post-Haiyan. We prioritized rapid processing over more technically complicated means of identification, including DNA testing. Our protocol showed a dignified and efficient way of identifying corpses. As local and regional laboratory capacity increases in the Philippines, the collection of DNA specimens may become part of the identification algorithm. PMID:26767135

  15. A Study of the Extratropical Transformation of Typhoon Winnie (1997)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The complicated evolutive process of how a tropical cyclone transforms into an extratropical cyclone is still an unresolved issue to date, especially one which arises in a weakly baroclinic environment. Typhoon Winnie (1997) is studied during its extratropical transformation stage of extratropical transition (ET)with observational data and numerical simulations. Results show that Winnie experienced its extratropical transformation to the south of the subtropical high without intrusion of the mid-latitude baroclinic zone.This is significantly different from previous studies. Analyses reveal that the cold air, which appeared in the north edge of Winnie circulation, resulted from the precipitation drag and cooling effect of latent heat absorption associated with the intense precipitation there. The cooling only happened below 3 km and the greatest cooling was below 1 km. With the cold air and its advection by the circulation of Winnie, a front was formed in the lower troposphere. The front above is related not only to the cooling in the lower level but also to the warming effect of latent heat release in the middle-upper levels. The different temperature variation in the vertical caused the temperature gradient over Winnie and resulted in the baroclinicity.

  16. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tiffany Cool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  17. Research on Cold Core Eddy Change and Phytoplankton Bloom Induced by Typhoons: Case Studies in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 8 typhoons which passed by coldcore eddy (CCE areas in the South China Sea (SCS from 1997 to 2009 were observed and evaluated. The changes in the preexisting CCE acted upon by typhoons were described by eddy kinetic energy (EKE and eddy available gravitational potential energy (EAGPE. The mechanical energy of CCE was estimated from a two-layer reduced gravity model. Comparing with the scenario that typhoon passes by the region without CCEs, the preexisting CCE area plays an important role in the increase of chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentration in the CCEs impacted by the typhoons. The preexisting chl-a in CCE is about 25%~45% (8%~25% of postexisting chl-a in CCE for higher (slower transit speed typhoons. If the EAGPE of CCE increases greatly after typhoon passing by with slow transit speed, so does the chl-a in the CCE area. The EKE (EAGPE changes of the preexisting CCE are in the order of O(1014~1015 J. EKE and EAGPE of CCE are dominantly enhanced by typhoon with slow transit speed (<3 m/s and the posttyphoon EAGPE is always larger than posttyphoon EKE for 8 cases. The maximum EAGPE change of the preexisting CCE reaches 5.11×1015 J, which was induced by typhoon Hagibis.

  18. Responses of thermal structure and vertical dynamic structure of South China Sea to Typhoon Chanchu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宜展; 詹杰民; 罗莹莹; 唐灵; 韦永康

    2014-01-01

    The response of the South China Sea (SCS) to Typhoon Chanchu (2006) was examined using the MM5 and POM model. In the POM model, sea surface boundary conditions were forced by the simulation wind field from MM5, the velocity forcing was introduced in the eastern boundary and the computational schemes of heat fluxes at the surface were introduced. Comparison with the observation data shows that the simulated results are reliable. In the response process of the SCS to Typhoon Chanchu, the influence of the heat fluxes on thermal structure of the SCS was regionally different. Strong wind forcing would lead to upwelling phenomenon in the lateral boundary of deep water basin. Furthermore, the Ekman pumping theory was used to discuss subsurface upwelling and downwelling phenomenon in typhoon forced stage.

  19. Local Spiral Curves Simulating Based on Hough Transformation and Center Auto-Locating of Developing Typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the developing phase of typhoon formation, the spiral belt partly emerges in satellite cloud images. This research starts from images and moves on to graphics and then to representation and recognition. Following this route, local spiral cloud belt is segmented from the raw images using image segmentation, the spiral information is extracted using mathematic morphology, and local spiral curves are detected using Hough transformation. The problem of center locating of developing typhoon has finally been solved through a search algorithm of spiral curve. For No.99082008 cloud image, the result produced by the algorithm in this paper is at 122.3 degree west longitude, 17.5 degree north latitude. The real typhoon center location was at 122.4 degree west longitude, 18 degree north latitude.

  20. Numerical Experiments for Typhoon Dan Incorporating AMSU-A Retrieved Data with 3DVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying; WANG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Two sets of assimilation experiments on a landfalling typhoon--Typhoon Dan (1999) over the western North Pacific were designed to compare the performances of two kinds of variational data assimilation schemes that are the 3-Dimensional Variational data assimilation of Mapped observation (3DVM) and the 4-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVar). Results show that: (1) both the 3DVM and 4DVar successfully improved the simulations of typhoon intensity and track incorporating the satellite AMSU-A retrieved temperature and wind data into the initial conditions, and the 3DVM more significantly due to the flow-dependent of background error covariance matrix and observation error covariance matrix like 3- dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) circle; (2) inclusions of extra model integration iterations at each observation time in the 3DVM make it more consistent with prediction model; (3) the 3DVM is much more time-saving due to the exclusion of the adjoint technique in it.

  1. The Impact of Assimilating Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Observation on the Forecast of Typhoon Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ben Chou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the effects of assimilating atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS observations on typhoon prediction using the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR and forecasting system of the weather research and forecasting (WRF model. Two major parameters in the data assimilation scheme, the spatial decorrelation scale and the magnitude of the covariance matrix of the background error, are varied in forecast experiments for the track of typhoon Sinlaku over the Western Pacific. The results show that within a wide parameter range, the inclusion of the AIRS observation improves the prediction. Outside this range, notably when the decorrelation scale of the background error is set to a large value, forcing the assimilation of AIRS data leads to degradation of the forecast. This illustrates how the impact of satellite data on the forecast depends on the adjustable parameters for data assimilation. The parameter-sweeping framework is potentially useful for improving operational typhoon prediction.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEA SURFACE DIRECTIONAL WAVE SPECTRA UNDER TYPHOON WIND FORCING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Numercial simulation of sea surface directional wave spectra under typhoon wind forcing in the South China Sea (SCS) was carreid out using the WAVEWATCH-III wave model. The simulation was run for 210 h until the Typhoon Damrey (2005) approached Vietnam. The simulated data were compared with buoy observations, which were obtained in the northwest sea area of Hainan Island. The results show that the significant wave height, wave direction, wave length and frequency spetra agree well with buoy observations. The spatial characteristics of the signifciant wave height, mean wave period, mean wave length, wave age and directional spectra depend on the relative position from the typhoon center. Also, the misalignment between local wind and wave directions were investigated.

  3. Wave glider observations of surface winds and currents in the core of Typhoon Danas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, S.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of surface winds and currents is essential to understand oceanic responses to tropical cyclones. We used a new platform, a Wave Glider (Liquid Robotics) to observe air-sea processes during a typhoon, equivalent to a category 4-hurricane, at peak strength, near Okinawa, Japan. Surface winds showed strong asymmetry in both speed and direction, faster fore than aft. Rotations of surface winds and currents were not coupled; currents rotated clockwise in the wake of the typhoon eye after passage of rapid wind rotations. Wind work was mostly done ahead of the eye, amplifying prior inertial motions with a phase shift. Wind-induced energy was nearly balanced with an increase in estimated kinetic energy of the upper ocean current, relative to prior inertial oscillations. This study provides a newer, more complete view of actual atmosphere-ocean interactions in a typhoon.

  4. Roles of Mesoscale Terrain and Latent Heat Release in Typhoon Precipitation: A Numerical Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mesoscale orographic effects on typhoon Aere's precipitation are simulated using an Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM) version 3.0. In particular, the effects of the latent heat release are studied by two comparable experiments: with and without condensational heating. The results show that the typhoon rainfall is tripled by the southeastern China mesoscale terrain, and the condensational heating is responsible for at least half of the increase. One role of the latent heat release is to warm the atmosphere,leading to a depression of the surface pressure, which then causes a larger pressure difference in the zonal direction. This pressure gradient guides the water vapour to flow into the foothills, which in turn amplifies the water vapour flux divergence amplified, causing the typhoon rainfall to increase eventually. The other role of the latent heat release is to make the convection more organized, resulting in a relatively smaller rain area and stronger precipitation.

  5. Relationships between the North Pacific Oscillation and the typhoon/hurricane frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and the typhoon as well as hurricane frequencies are documented. The correlation between NPO index in June-July-August-September and the annual typhoon number in the western North Pacific is 0.37 for the period of 1949―1998. The NPO is correlated with the annual hurricane number in the tropical Atlantic at - 0.28 for the same period. The variability of NPO is found to be concurrent with the changes of the magnitude of vertical zonal wind shear, sea-level pressure patterns, as well as the sea surface temperature, which are physically associated with the typhoons and hurricanes genesis. The NPO associated atmospheric circulation variability is analyzed to explain how NPO is linked with variability of the tropical atmospheric circulation in the western Pacific and the tropical Atlantic, via the atmospheric teleconnection.

  6. ANALYSES OF THE ANNUAL FREQUENCY ANOMALIES OF TYPHOONS AND HURRICANES IN 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曾中; 程明虎; 杨振斌; 孙除荣; 薛建军

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the annual frequency of typhoon (including tropical storms) genesis created a minimum value - 14, far lower than the minimum of 20 in 1950 over North-West Pacific, while in the Atlantic Ocean, the annual frequency of hurricanes (including the tropical storm) created a maximum value - 14, far higher than the average number - 9.2. In this paper, an analysis on the relationship between the generation of Typhoon, Hurricane and the Cross-Equatorial Flow was done by using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for 1979 - 1995. It is pointed out that the anomalies of the CEF over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean is the main cause for the 1998 annual frequency anomalies of Typhoon and Hurricane, respectively.

  7. Precise Sediment Yield and Riverbed Change Detected by using LiDAR DTMs before and after a Typhoon Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.; Chan, Y.; Hu, J.; Lin, C.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment yield and riverbed change from watersheds greatly influence the conservation of water and soil, the planning of hydraulic engineering, and the river habitat, etc. At present, sediment yield calculation often used empirical or theoretical formula as well as data collected at hydrological stations, and rarely had the actual measured value through high-resolution topography. The Lanyang river is one of main rivers in Taiwan and often suffers the influence of typhoon during summer. In 2008, there are four significant typhoon events influencing this area, including the Kalmaegi, Fung-wong, Sinlaku, and Jangmi typhoons. This study of topographic variations surveyed the terrain of the Lanyang River before and after the 2008 typhoon season using airborne LiDAR technique. The variations of the terrain on the riverbed may be regarded as the sediment yield of the bed load transported during the typhoon season. This research used high-resolution terrain models to compute sediment yield of the bed load, and further discussed sediment yield volume in the watershed during the typhoon season. In the Lanyang river we discovered that the upstream and midstream channels had significant characteristics of erosion and transportation during the typhoon season. The sediment on the riverbed reduced approximately 2.3 million cubic meters; and the erosion rate of the bed load sediments were estimated about 3.4 mm during the 2008 typhoon season. The results indicate that considerable sediment yield and transportation in the Lanyang river during only a single typhoon season in which cumulated rain falls are high. Further analysis of the collected data in the Lanyang river are needed to better understand the typhoon influence and apply the results to the prevention of the common flash flooding hazards.

  8. Mitigating mass movement caused by earthquakes and typhoons: a case study of central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Typhoons caused huge damages to Taiwan at the average of 3.8 times a year in the last 100 years, according to Central Weather Bureau data. After the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 at the magnitude of Richard Scale 7.3, typhoons with huge rainfall would cause huge debris flow and deposits at river channels. As a result of earthquakes, loose debris falls and flows became significant hazards in central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and data about the sites of slope failure show that damage from natural hazards was enhanced in the last 20 years, as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. There are three main types of mass movement in Central Taiwan: landslides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and river channel banks. Many dams, check dams, housing structures and even river channels can be raised to as high as 60 meters as a result of stacking up floating materials of landslides. Debris flows occurred mainly through typhoon periods and activated ancient debris deposition. New gullies were thus developed from deposits loosened and shaken up by earthquakes. Extreme earthquakes and typhoon events occurred frequently in the last 20 years. This paper analyzes the geological and geomorphologic background for the precarious areas and typhoons in central Taiwan, to make a systematic understanding of mass movement harzards. The mechanism and relations of debris flows and rainfall data in central Taiwan are analyzed. Ways for mitigating mass movement threats are also proposed in this paper. Keywords: mass movement, earthquakes, typhoons, hazard mitigation, central Ta

  9. Demarcation of Typhoon-induced Sedimentary Layers from Lake Records in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Liu, Zhifei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the frequency and cyclicity of extreme events such as tropical storms, heat waves, floods and droughts in monsoon-governed Asia is crucial for the adaptation and mitigation of climate-driven troubles and post-event consequences. Such studies are also critical for the development of future climate-related policies, given that the loss of life and properties during such events in Asia are always many-folds higher than that of the effect of similar disasters in the developed world. Lakes located along the path of typhoons in East Asia may preserve an evidence of storm intensity, because an increased erosion in the confined catchment may increase the clastic sedimentation. Here we investigate ca. 90 cm-long sediment core retrieved from Tian Lake, a coastal island lake located off SE China, for sedimentological, radiometric and geochemical parameters, aiming to reconstruct the effect of past typhoons on the sedimentation history of the lake. We found 4-5 sand-dominated layers in between the regular fine sediments deposition and these sand layers show a close consistency with periods of intense typhoons in the instrumental record. Although the instrumental record suggests an average of 16 typhoons/year in the western North Pacific, the preservation of only 4-5 sand-dominated layers during the last ca. 100 years of accumulation in our core indicates that the sedimentation pattern in Tian Lake may be very sensitive to intense typhoons with category 3 and above. This study will attempt to compare our lacustrine records with the suitable instrumental and other proxy records for understanding mechanisms responsible for intense typhoons and related environmental changes in SE China in the past century.

  10. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  11. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accura...... of the same proteins were close to the values typical for other precursor ion-based quantification methods. The raw data is deposited to ProteomeXchange (PXD001907). The developed node is available for testing at https://github.com/caetera/SuperQuantNode....

  12. Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teshiba

    Full Text Available Typhoon 9707 (Opal was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR, and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde

  13. A Study on a Heavy Rainfall Event Triggered by an Inverted Typhoon Trough in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; CUI Xiaopeng; WANG Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    A heavy rainfall event that occurred in Shandong Province in 26-28 August 2004 was caused mainly by Typhoon Aere and cold air activities related to a westerly trough. The event was triggered by an inverted typhoon trough, which was closely associated with the intensification of the low-level southeasterly flow and the northward transport of heat and momentum in the periphery of the typhoon low. A numerical simulation of this event is performed using the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model MM5 with two-way interactive and triply-nested grids, and the structure of the inverted typhoon trough is studied. Furthermore, the formation and development mechanism of the inverted typhoon trough and a mesoscale vortex are discussed through a vorticity budget analysis. The results show that the heavy rainfall was induced by the strong convergence between the strong and weak winds within the inverted typhoon trough. Dynamic effects of the low-level jet and the diabatic heating of precipitation played an important role in the development of the inverted typhoon trough and the formation of the mesoscale vortex.The vorticity budget analysis suggests that the divergence term in the low troposphere, the horizontal advection term, and the convection term in the middle troposphere were main contributors to positive vorticity. Nonetheless, at the same pressure level, the effect of the divergence term and that of the advection term were opposite to each other. In the middle troposphere, the vertical transport term made a positive contribution while the tilting term made a negative contribution, and the total vorticity tendency was the net result of their counteractions. It is found that the change tendency of the relative vorticity was not uniform horizontally. A strong positive vorticity tendency occurred in the southeast of the mesoscale vortex, which is why the heavy rainfall was concentrated there. The increase of positive vorticity in the low (upper) troposphere was caused by horizontal

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE CLOUD CLUSTERS IN TYPHOONS AND MESOSCALE HEAVY RAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林毅; 刘爱鸣; 林新彬

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, time and space distribution regularity of meso-scale heavy rains in five selected typhoons which landed at Fujian from 1996 to 1998 hasbeen analyzed. Besides, with hourly digitized satellite infrared imagery, the features of the mesoscale are revealed for the genesis and evolution of mesoscaleconvective systems in typhoons. It indicates that the intensity of mesoscale storms is closely connected with the temperature and the area of the coldest cloudcluster. The heavy rainfall usually emerges on the eastern side of the mesoscale convective cloud clusters, where the cloud mass is developing and with a densegradient and big curvature of isoline of the cloud top temperature.

  15. A typhoon-like vortex solution of incompressible 3D inviscid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This letter obtains a typhoon-like vortex solution by solving the Bragg-Hawthorne equation.The solution describes spiral paths of fluid material element on the Bernoulli surface,whereas some new exact solutions are obtained which are bounded in the whole region.The first one is a continued umbrella vortex solution,which is a typhoon-like vortex.The second one is a multi-planar solution,which is periodic in z-coordinate.Within each layer,there is an umbrella vortex solution similar to the first one.The above...

  16. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  17. Improving the wind and wave estimation of dual-frequency altimeter JASON1 in Typhoon Shanshan and considering the rain effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Le; LIN Mingsen; ZOU Juhong; LI Zhenghua; PAN Delu

    2008-01-01

    Altimetry data have been widely used in various fields of oceanography, including the extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, typhoons, and hurricanes. The performance of JASONI in Typhoon Shanshan is assessed by examining the sensor geophysical data record and illustrates how the measured return waveform, significant wave height, and backscatter are all affected by various factors associated with the typhoon, with details by the rain are illustrated. The correction method to maintain accurate wave height and wind speed measurements in Typhoon Shanshan and the results are presented. Furthermore, the additional results of rain rate and typhoon eye diameter can be retrieved. Because of the lack of in-situ measurements of wind, wave, and rain rate at Typhoon Shanshan, results are compared with the forecasted typhoon data and a good agreement is found.

  18. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  19. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  20. Scale interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and associated remote effects during the Baiu/Meiyu season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawamura, Ryuichi

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and the associated remote impact on East Asian and North Pacific anomalous weather during the Baiu/Meiyu season have been investigated using the Japanese long-term Reanalysis project data aided by the Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System. The typhoons that appeared in July have been categorized into two primary tracks, the Hainan Island course (HC) and the Okinawa Island course (OC). A typhoon gives rise to negative absolute vorticity advection along its eastern periphery, which locally reinforces the western ridge of the North Pacific subtropical high, whereas the resultant anomalous high stimulates the westward (northward) migration of the HC (OC) typhoon through its combination with the background flow. A combined effect of the typhoon and its induced anomalous anticyclonic circulation increases the transportation of moisture into the Baiu/Meiyu frontal zone in the vicinity of Japan. Over the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, northward or northeastward moisture flux is pronounced along the western periphery of the typhoon-induced anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the HC category, triggering heavy rainfall on central Japan's Sea of Japan coast. Similar remote effects also operate in the OC category, which is responsible for the occurrence of extremely heavy rainfall along the Pacific coast of western Japan. When an OC typhoon approaches the Asian jet, it is capable of giving rise to anticyclonic vorticity within the jet, leading to the downstream development of stationary Rossby wave packets via the North Pacific waveguide.

  1. Impacts of Two Types of El Niño and La Niña Events on Typhoon Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The HadISST (Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset is used to define the years of El Niño, El Niño Modoki, and La Niña events and to find out the impacts of these events on typhoon activity. The results show that the formation positions of typhoon are farther eastward moving in El Niño years than in La Niña years and much further eastward in El Niño Modoki years. The lifetime and the distance of movement are longer, and the intensity of typhoons is stronger in El Niño and in El Niño Modoki years than in La Niña years. The Accumulated Cyclone Energy of typhoon is highly correlated with the Oceanic Niño Index with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. We also find that the typhoons anomalously decrease during El Niño years but increase during El Niño Modoki years. Besides, there are two types of El Niño Modoki, I and II. The intensity of typhoon in El Niño Modoki I years is stronger than in El Niño Modoki II years. Furthermore, the centroid position of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is strongly related to the area of typhoon formation with a correlation coefficient of 0.95.

  2. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the _ growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon _ formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  3. East China Sea Storm Surge Modeling and Visualization System: The Typhoon Soulik Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengan Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea (ECS Storm Surge Modeling System (ESSMS is developed based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. Case simulation is performed on the Typhoon Soulik, which landed on the coastal region of Fujian Province, China, at 6 pm of July 13, 2013. Modeling results show that the maximum tide level happened at 6 pm, which was also the landing time of Soulik. This accordance may lead to significant storm surge and water level rise in the coastal region. The water level variation induced by high winds of Soulik ranges from −0.1 to 0.15 m. Water level generally increases near the landing place, in particular on the left hand side of the typhoon track. It is calculated that 0.15 m water level rise in this region can cause a submerge increase of ~0.2 km2, which could be catastrophic to the coastal environment and the living. Additionally, a Globe Visualization System (GVS is realized on the basis of World Wind to better provide users with the typhoon/storm surge information. The main functions of GVS include data indexing, browsing, analyzing, and visualization. GVS is capable of facilitating the precaution and mitigation of typhoon/storm surge in ESC in combination with ESSMS.

  4. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu [Dept. of Emergency Preparedness, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day{sup -1} of air, 0.004%·day{sup -1} of noble gas and 3.7×10{sup -5}%·day{sup -1} of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m{sup 3}·hr{sup -1} , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr{sup -1} under the condition of 20 m·sec{sup -1} wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor.

  5. A clear link connecting the troposphere and ionosphere: ionospheric reponses to the 2015 Typhoon Dujuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Yao, Yibin; Xu, Yahui; Kuo, Chungyen; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Lei; Zhai, Changzhi

    2017-09-01

    The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) total electron content (TEC) sequences were used to capture the arrival time and location of the ionosphere disturbances in response to the 2015 Typhoon Dujuan. After removing the de-trended TEC variation, the clear ionosphere disturbances on the typhoon landing day could be distinguished, and these disturbances disappeared from the TEC sequences before and after the typhoon landing day. The foF2 data observed by Xiamen ionosonde station also show ionosphere disturbances. Based on the advantages of GNSS multi-point observations, the disturbances horizontal velocity in the ionosphere were estimated according to the linear theory for a dispersion relation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in an isothermal atmosphere. The average horizontal velocity (˜ 240 m/s) and the radial velocity (˜ 287 m/s) were used in the two-dimensional grid search for the origin point on the Earth's surface. The origin area was determined to be on the eastern side of Taiwan. Lastly, a possible physical mechanism is discussed in this study. When typhoons land on Taiwan, the severe convective storms and the drag effect from the Central Mountains create an ideal location for development of AGWs. Topographic conditions, like the high lapse rate, contribute to the formation of AGWs, which then propagates into the ionosphere altitude.

  6. Simulation of Typhoon-Driven Waves in the Yangtze Estuary with Multiple-Nested Wave Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fu-min; Will Perrie; ZHANG Jun-lun; SONG Zhi-yao; Bechara Toulany

    2005-01-01

    Typhoon-generated waves are simulated with two numerical wave models, the SWAN model for the coastal and Yangtze Estuary domain, nested within the WAVEWATCHIII (WW3) for the basin-scale East China Sea domain. Typhoon No. 8114 is chosen because it was very strong, and generated high waves in the Estuary. WW3 was implemented for the East China Sea coarse-resolution computational domain, to simulate the waves over a large spatial scale and provide boundary conditions for SWAN model simulations, implemented on a fine-resolution nested domain for the Yangtze Estuary area. The Takahashi wind model is applied to the simulation of the East China Sea scale (3-hourly) and Yangtze Estuary scale (1-hourly) winds. Simulations of significant wave heights in the East China Sea show that the highest waves are on the right side of the storm track, and maxima tend to occur at the eastern deep-water open boundary of the Yangtze Estuary. In the Yangtze Estuary, incoming swell is dominant over locally generated waves before the typhoon approaches the Estuary. As the typhoon approaches the Estuary, wind waves and swell coexist, and the wave direction is mainly influenced by the swell direction and the complex topography.

  7. Observation and numerical experiments for drag coefficient under typhoon wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiqiu; Zhou, Liangming; Li, Shuiqing; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a study on drag coefficients under typhoon wind forcing based on observations and numerical experiments. The friction velocity and wind speed are measured at a marine observation platform in the South China Sea. Three typhoons: SOULIK (2013), TRAMI (2013) and FITOW (2013) are observed at a buoy station in the northeast sea area of Pingtan Island. A new parameterization is formulated for the wind drag coefficient as a function of wind speed. It is found that the drag coefficient ( C d ) increases linearly with the slope of 0.083×10-3 for wind speed less than 24 m s-1. To investigate the drag coefficient under higher wind conditions, three numerical experiments are implemented for these three typhoons using SWAN wave model. The wind input data are objective reanalysis datasets, which are assimilated with many sources and provided every six hours with the resolution of 0.125°×0.125°. The numerical simulation results show a good agreement with wave observation data under typhoon wind forcing. The results indicate that the drag coefficient levels off with the linear slope of 0.012×10-3 for higher wind speeds (less than 34 m s-1) and the new parameterization improvese the simulation accuracy compared with the Wu (1982) default used in SWAN.

  8. Impacts of sea spray on the boundary layer structure of Typhoon Imbudo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jie; LI Weibiao; CHEN Shumin; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    High winds in a typhoon over the ocean can produce substantial amounts of spray in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer, which can modify the transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. However, the consequent effects on the boundary layer structure and the evolution of the typhoon are largely unknown. The focus of this paper is on the role of sea spray on the storm intensity and the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. The case study is Typhoon Imbudo in July 2003. The results show that sea spray tends to intensify storms by increasing the sea surface heat fluxes. Moreover, the effects of sea spray are mainly felt in boundary layer. Spray evaporation causes the atmospheric boundary layer to experience cooling and moistening. Sea spray can cause significant effects on the structure of boundary layer. The boundary-layer height over the eyewall area east to the center of Typhoon Imbudo was increased with a maximum up to about 550 m due to sea spray, which is closely related with the enhancements of the heat fluxes, upward motions, and horizontal winds in this region due to sea spray.

  9. A New Typhoon Bogus Data Assimilation and its Sampling Method: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Dong; LIU Juan-Juan; WANG Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new bogus data assimilation method based on the dimension-reduced projection 4-DVar, which can resolve the cost function directly in low-dimensional space. The authors also try a new method to improve the quality of samples, which are the base of dimension-reduced space projection bogus data assimilation (DRP-BDA). By running a number of numerical weather models with different model parameterization combinations on the typhoon Sinlaku, the authors obtained two groups of samples with different spreads and similarities. After DRP-BDA, the results show that, compared with the control runs, the simulated typhoon center pressure can be deepened by more than 20 hPa to 30 hPa and that the intensity can last as long as 60 hours. The mean track error is improved after DRP-BDA, and the structure of the typhoon is also improved. The wind near the typhoon center is enhanced dramatically, while the warm core is moderate.

  10. Marine C2 in Support of HA/DR: Observations and Critical Assessments Following Super-Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Xpress . Retrieved from: http://www.inmarsat.com/service-group/ global - xpress /. O3B (2014). Our Technology. Retrieved from: http...the use of the Broadband Global Access Network (BGAN) ground terminals. These terminals, about the size of a small laptop, provided Internet access...years in support of the Global War on Terror (GWOT). The thought of having platoons and companies geographically separated by large distances and

  11. Distributions of landslides, vegetation, and related sediment yields during typhoon events in northwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Chen, Hongey; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    This study examined landslides caused by typhoon events in the upstream area of the Tao-Cheng River in northwestern Taiwan during a 13-year period, 1996 to 2008. Data from six typhoon events were compiled to analyze the relevant characteristics of landslides, vegetation, and changes in sediment discharge with particulate carbon in rivers in this area. The landslide ratio, the ratio of the landslide area to the total study area, was determined to be between 0.60% and 1.29%, and a high new generation ratio and low reactivated ratio of landslides were noted. Analysis of different bands of satellite images taken over a 10-year period disclosed that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the upstream area of the Tao-Cheng River ranged from 0.47 to 0.63 before typhoon events and from 0.38 to 0.46 after typhoon events. The low landslide ratio and high new generation ratio in this area indicated that sporadic landslides tend to occur in new areas and do not have a great impact on vegetation conditions. Thus, the decrease in NDVI after typhoon events was caused by the seasonal effect with withering of vegetation. On the other hand, landslides in this area tend to occur on nonforest land because of the interventions of external forces, such as human developments and reclamation. Geological materials produced by landslides and vegetation flushed by heavy rainfall during typhoon periods have a great effect on the amount of sediment discharge and particulate carbon discharge in the rivers. Furthermore, during typhoon periods, the amount of accumulated rainfall has a greater impact than the peak rainfall intensity on the increase of sediment and particulate carbon in rivers and on the decrease in the NDVI. Analysis of the particulate carbon from the rivers in this area revealed that in the rainy season, high strength and accumulated rainfall will lead to more sediment discharge and particulate carbon discharge in rivers. However, the particulate carbon is limited

  12. Extratropical transitioning in the RMS Japan typhoon wind field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loridan, Thomas; Scherer, Emilie; Khare, Shree

    2013-04-01

    Given its meridional extent and location within the Pacific basin, Japan is regularly impacted by strong winds from cyclones at different stages of their lifecycle. To quantify the associated risk of damage to properties, catastrophe models such as the ones developed by RMS aim to simulate wind fields from thousands of stochastic storms that extrapolate historical events. In a recent study using 25 years of reanalysis data, Kitabatake (2011) estimated that 40 % of all Pacific tropical cyclones completed their transition as an extra tropical system. From a cat modelling point of view it is the increase in wind field asymmetry observed during these transitioning episodes that is critical, with examples like typhoon Tokage in 2004 showing the potential for damaging gusts on both sides of the storm track. In this context a compromise has to be found between the need for complex numerical models able to simulate wind field variability around the cyclone during its entire evolution, and obvious running time constrains. The RMS wind field model is based on an optimized version of the Willoughby parametric profile (Willoughby et al., 2006) which requires calibration against targets representative of cyclone wind fields throughout their lifecycle. We here present the different sources of data involved in the development of this model. This includes (1) satellite products to characterize wind fields from fully tropical storms, (2) high resolution simulations of key transitioning events using the WRF mesoscale model to complement the database at other stages (i.e. for transitioning and fully extra tropical wind fields), and (3) reanalysis data which can be used with Hart (2003)'s cyclone phase space methodology to provide an estimate of the mean duration of transitioning episodes in the Pacific. Kitabatake, N., 2011: Climatology of extratropical transition of tropical cyclones in the Western North Pacific defined by using cyclone phase space. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89, 309

  13. Effects of typhoon events on chlorophyll and carbon fixation in different regions of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongxing; He, Lei; Liu, Fenfen; Yin, Kedong

    2017-07-01

    Typhoons play an important role in the regulation of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the ocean. Data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on 35 typhoon events during 2002-2011 are analyzed to examine the effects of typhoon events on variations in sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and depth-integrated primary productivity (IPP) in the East China Sea (ECS). For all 35 typhoon cases, the average SST drops by 0.1 °C in the typhoon influenced regions, and the maximal decrease is 2.2 °C. During the same period, average Chl-a increases by 0.1 mg m-3, with the maximal increase reaching up to 1 mg m-3, and average IPP increases by 32.9 mg C m-2·d-1, with the largest increase being 221 mg C m-2·d-1. The IPP are significantly correlated with SST and Chl-a data, and the correlations become stronger after typhoon passage. On average, nearly one-third of the ECS is affected by typhoons during the 10 year period, and the resident time of the typhoons in the area reach to 38.2 h. Effects of the typhoon events on SST, Chl-a, and IPP manifest differently in the three key sea areas, namely, the coastal water (depths 200 m) regions in the ECS. Specifically, stronger responses are observed in shallow water than in deeper depths. The comparisons between the pre- and post-typhoon periods show that IPP in the post-typhoon period increases by 19.7% and 12.2% in the coastal and continental shelf regions, respectively, but it decreases by 9.4% in the open sea region. Overall, our results reveal that there is a close coupling between Chl-a, SST, and IPP in shallow areas and that typhoon events can have strong effects on carbon fixation in coastal regions.

  14. Estimation of Rainfall Associated with Typhoons over the Ocean Using TRMM/TMI and Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Ching Yeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study quantitatively estimated the precipitation associated with a typhoon in the northwestern Pacific Ocean by using a physical algorithm which included the Weather Research and Forecasting model, Radiative Transfer for TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder model, and data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and TRMM/Precipitation Radar (PR. First, a prior probability distribution function (PDF was constructed using over three million rain rate retrievals from the TRMM/PR data for the period 2002–2010 over the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, brightness temperatures for 15 typhoons that occurred over the northwestern Pacific Ocean were simulated using a microwave radiative transfer model and a conditional PDF was obtained for these typhoons. The aforementioned physical algorithm involved using a posterior PDF. A posterior PDF was obtained by combining the prior and conditional PDFs. Finally, the rain rate associated with a typhoon was estimated by inputting the observations of the TMI (attenuation indices at 10, 19, 37 GHz into the posterior PDF (lookup table. Results based on rain rate retrievals indicated that rainband locations with the heaviest rainfall showed qualitatively similar horizontal distributions. The correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of the rain rate estimation were 0.63 and 4.45 mm·h−1, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error for convective rainfall were 0.78 and 7.25 mm·h−1, respectively, and those for stratiform rainfall were 0.58 and 9.60 mm·h−1, respectively. The main contribution of this study is introducing an approach to quickly and accurately estimate the typhoon precipitation, and remove the need for complex calculations.

  15. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hu

    Full Text Available Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål. The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km. This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  16. A Study of Extratropical Transition and Re-Intensification of Typhoon Mindulle (2004)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiande; WANG Qi; FU Gang; LIU Yulong; TIAN Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this study,the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate Typhoon Mindulle (2004) at high resolution (3-km grid size).The data from measurements show that in the upper atmosphere the existence of an upper jet is important to the transition cyclone.When Mindulle moved to the area of the upper jet entrance,where high-altitude divergence existed,the pumping of the high-altitude divergence would enhance the vertical motion and low-level cyclone convergence.The enhanced vertical motion was confirmed by the simulation results and indicated that the existence of upper divergence enhanced the vertical motion which was favorable for the maintenance of Typhoon Mindulle.The process of extratropical transition (ET) and re-intensification always accompanies the process of cold air invasion.This process enhances the baroclinicity of the atmosphere and the formation of front at high altitudes,which converts baroclinic potential energy into kinetic energy and strengthens the cyclone vortex.The distributions of equivalent potential temperature (θe) and temperature anomalies show that the warm-core of the typhoon at the tropopause aids the re-intensification of the system.As the typhoon reenters the ocean,latent heat flux (LHF) increases in the north and west and the strong reflectivity and vertical motion occur in the east and southeast,and the west.With the re-intensification of the typhoon the wind field evolves from an oval to a circle at the lower atmosphere,the area coverage by high winds increases,and the distribution of the tangential wind shows an asymmetric pattern.

  17. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  18. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  19. Super-diversité

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.; Lelie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Le concept de super-diversité, en cernant les conditions d'un scénario 'avenir optimiste, offre un nouvel éclairage au débat sur l'intégration. Nous sommes à la croisée des chemins. Cette étude comparative internationale montre qu'un avenir souriant se profile dans les villes qui donnent des chances

  20. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  1. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  2. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  3. Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.

  4. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    CERN Document Server

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce $\\beta$-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated $\\alpha/\\beta$-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  5. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  6. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  7. Observation of wave generation and non-local perturbations in the atmosphere during the passage of a typhoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Anandan; V N Sureshbabu; C J Pan; S Vijayabhaskara Rao

    2013-06-01

    During the passage of typhoon Kujira in April 2003 near to the northeast of Taiwan, atmospheric radar at Chung-Li (24° 58′N, 121° 11′E) was continuously operated. The data collected from profiler radar was used to investigate the impact of typhoon on generating waves and other atmospheric disturbances. Result showed that the typhoon and the associated wind disturbances can generate atmospheric waves with varied periodicity even when the core was far away from the land. The waves were quite prominent when the core was closer to the mountain. Observations show that these waves propagate vertically upward for many kilometers and getting trapped in higher altitudes. The radar reflectivity at the tropopause during the event showed that stable layer structure was very weak. Further, the enhancement in ozone measurement at the ground level was observed when the typhoon was near to radar site.

  8. Delft3D Storm Surge Simulation of Typhoon Haiyan for Projection of Coastal Inundation in the Visayas Islands, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, John Kenneth; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cuadra, Camille; Santiago, Joy; Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines is geographically prone to tropical cyclones with an annual average of 20 typhoons entering the country's area of responsibility. Majority of these typhoons pass through the central part of the archipelago in the Visayas Region. On 08 November 2013, a Category 5 Typhoon Haiyan with maximum ten-minute sustained wind speed of 230 kph hit the Visayas region causing damage amounting to two billion US dollars with 6,300 reported casualties. The adverse impacts of future storm surge events in the Philippine archipelago, specifically in the Visayan region, can be mitigated if a storm surge model that will include the inundation of coastal areas is generated. The hydrodynamic modeling software, Delft3D, was used in creating hydrodynamic models for areas in the Visayas Islands. High resolution hydrodynamic models of the hardly stricken areas with 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model and General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans bathymetry were nested to an overall model of Visayas with a coarse grid cell size. Due to the lack of observed water level data during the onslaught of Typhoon Haiyan, the overall Visayas model was calibrated by creating hydrodynamic models for the same Haiyan-affected areas using previous typhoons with recorded data acquired from tide stations as wind forcing. Several simulations were carried out to generate the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. This was done by translating the actual typhoon track vertically and horizontally with a specified increment. The output of the study is a storm surge inundation map showing the worst case scenario of inundation for a Category 5 typhoon. This storm surge inundation map can be used to determine safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  9. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  10. Development of Safe Taiwan Information System (SATIS for Typhoon Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ray Su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan is constantly attacked by typhoons, flood, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Those natural hazards had caused huge loss of lives and properties. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an integrated and complete decision support system for decision makers is necessary. In this study, Safe Taiwan information system (SATIS, which includes two subsystems, response operation subsystem for staff members and decision support subsystem for commanders, is developed for preparedness and response of typhoon hazards. It is based on the Web- GIS framework that the disaster information can be distributed via internet technology. When typhoon is approaching, response operation subsystem is used by National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR staffs to integrate real-time monitoring information, hazard models and graphical user interfaces to analyze and manage the disaster information such as the current position and possible path of typhoon, the spatial distribution of rainfalls, and potential areas of flooding, landslides and debris flows. The input data of this subsystem includes the basic maps, the real-time information of typhoon and rainfall issued by the Central Weather Bureau, the real-time water information from the Water Resources Agency, and the hazard maps indicating areas of potential landslide, debris flow and flooding made by NCDR herself to estimate endangered areas under the current typhoon. There are four main modules integrated into the subsystem including the rainfall monitoring and forecasting, the estimation of potential inundation areas, the estimation of potential landslide and debris flows, and the management of disaster information. The results of hazard risk analysis which include potential rainfall distribution, inundation and landslide risk areas, early warning messages, and total suggestion over the

  11. Development of Safe Taiwan Information System (SATIS for Typhoon Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ray Su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan is constantly attacked by typhoons, flood, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Those natural hazards had caused huge loss of lives and properties. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an integrated and complete decision support system for decision makers is necessary. In this study, Safe Taiwan information system (SATIS, which includes two subsystems, response operation subsystem for staff members and decision support subsystem for commanders, is developed for preparedness and response of typhoon hazards. It is based on the Web- GIS framework that the disaster information can be distributed via internet technology. When typhoon is approaching, response operation subsystem is used by National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR staffs to integrate real-time monitoring information, hazard models and graphical user interfaces to analyze and manage the disaster information such as the current position and possible path of typhoon, the spatial distribution of rainfalls, and potential areas of flooding, landslides and debris flows. The input data of this subsystem includes the basic maps, the real-time information of typhoon and rainfall issued by the Central Weather Bureau, the real-time water information from the Water Resources Agency, and the hazard maps indicating areas of potential landslide, debris flow and flooding made by NCDR herself to estimate endangered areas under the current typhoon. There are four main modules integrated into the subsystem including the rainfall monitoring and forecasting, the estimation of potential inundation areas, the estimation of potential landslide and debris flows, and the management of disaster information. The results of hazard risk analysis which include potential rainfall distribution, inundation and landslide risk areas, early warning messages, and total suggestion over the

  12. Comparison between the response of the Northwest Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea to Typhoon Megi (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Liang; Wen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The upper-ocean responses to Typhoon Megi (2010) are investigated using data from ARGO floats and the satellite TMI. The experiments are conducted using a three-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to assess the storm, which affected the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) and the South China Sea (SCS). Results show that the upwelling and entrainment experiment together account for 93% of the SST anomalies, where typhoon-induced upwelling may cause strong ocean cooling. In addition, the anomalous SST cooling is stronger in the SCS than in the NWP. The most striking feature of the ocean response is the presence of a two-layer inertial wave in the SCS—a feature that is absent in the NWP. The near-inertial oscillations can be generated as typhoon wakes, which have maximum flow velocity in the surface mixed layer and may last for a few days, after the typhoon's passage. Along the typhoon tracks, the horizontal currents in the upper ocean show a series of alternating negative and positive anomalies emanating from the typhoon.

  13. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  14. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  15. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  16. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lapidez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948–2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  17. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lapidez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH, the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST, Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948–2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  18. Data analysis of the high frequency surface wave radar during typhoon Chan-hom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jia; Li, Huan; Wang, Guosong; Pan, Song; Fan, Wenjing; Liu, Kexiu; Zhao, Chen; Qi, Anxiang

    2017-01-01

    Multi-frequency high frequency radar with small circular array was deployed in Zhujiajian and Shengshan to detect the winds, waves, and currents in the overlapping area operationally in 2007. No. 1509 typhoon Chan-hom landed in the coastal areas of Jujiajian, and then moved north by east, passing the radar detection area. This paper compared the radar observed data to anchored-buoy observed data and ASCAT satellite remote sensing large area wind data respectively. The results of comparison indicated that radar basically reflected the real distribution of wind and current of Zhoushan area during typhoon Chan-hom, showing the radar is qualified to detect the winds and currents under complex marine conditions.

  19. Integrating a Typhoon Event Database with an Optimal Flood Operation Model on the Real-Time Flood Control of the Tseng-Wen Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2012-04-01

    Typhoons which normally bring a great amount of precipitation are the primary natural hazard in Taiwan during flooding season. Because the plentiful rainfall quantities brought by typhoons are normally stored for the usage of the next draught period, the determination of release strategies for flood operation of reservoirs which is required to simultaneously consider not only the impact of reservoir safety and the flooding damage in plain area but also for the water resource stored in the reservoir after typhoon becomes important. This study proposes a two-steps study process. First, this study develop an optimal flood operation model (OFOM) for the planning of flood control and also applies the OFOM on Tseng-wun reservoir and the downstream plain related to the reservoir. Second, integrating a typhoon event database with the OFOM mentioned above makes the proposed planning model have ability to deal with a real-time flood control problem and names as real-time flood operation model (RTFOM). Three conditions are considered in the proposed models, OFOM and RTFOM, include the safety of the reservoir itself, the reservoir storage after typhoons and the impact of flooding in the plain area. Besides, the flood operation guideline announced by government is also considered in the proposed models. The these conditions and the guideline can be formed as an optimization problem which is solved by the genetic algorithm (GA) in this study. Furthermore, a distributed runoff model, kinematic-wave geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (KW-GIUH), and a river flow simulation model, HEC-RAS, are used to simulate the river water level of Tseng-wun basin in the plain area and the simulated level is shown as an index of the impact of flooding. Because the simulated levels are required to re-calculate iteratively in the optimization model, applying a recursive artificial neural network (recursive ANN) instead of the HEC-RAS model can significantly reduce the computational burden of

  20. Quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkes, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Super-Resolution Microscopy is an optical fluorescence technique. In this thesis we focus on single molecule super-resolution, where the position of single molecules is determined. Typically these molecules can be localized with a 10 to 30nm precision. This technique is applied in four different s

  1. Improving the Taiwan Military’s Disaster Relief Response to Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    time and location: prepositioning, preemptive federal action, time-phased deployment, and surge transportation. His approach employs an earlier...emergency supplies after disasters strike . They use a combination of optimization tools for modeling the supply chain and distribution method, and link...typhoon strikes . Figure 5. Monthly distribution of the study data set. The direction of a typhoon’s movement is generally subject to the control

  2. Upper Ocean Thermal Responses to Sea Spray Mediated Turbulent Fluxes during Typhoon Passage

    OpenAIRE

    Lianxin Zhang; Changlong Guan; Chunjian Sun; Siyu Gao; Shaomei Yu

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional turbulent model is used to investigate the effect of sea spray mediated turbulent fluxes on upper ocean temperature during the passage of typhoon Yagi over the Kuroshio Extension area in 2006. Both a macroscopical sea spray momentum flux algorithm and a microphysical heat and moisture flux algorithm are included in this turbulent model. Numerical results show that the model can well reproduce the upper ocean temperature, which is consistent with the data from the Kuroshio Ex...

  3. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and earl...

  4. Haeundae beach in Korea: Seasonal-to-decadal wave statistics and impulsive beach responses to typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Do, Jong-Dae; Kim, Sun Sin; Park, Won-Kyung; Jun, Kicheon

    2016-12-01

    Haeundae Beach represents Korean pocket beaches that are currently erosional and dominated by summertime typhoons. The decadal wave characteristics 9 km offshore of Haeundae Beach were analyzed using the WAM model that was validated through the 2007 wave observations. The wave statistics modelled for 1979-2007 indicates that the seasonal mean significant wave height (H s) is highest (0.6-0.7 m) in summer due to typhoons, in contrast to the lowest (around 0.5 m) autumn analog. The wave direction is also pronouncedly seasonal with the principal bearings of SSW and NE in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The WAM results additionally show that the H s has gradually increased over the region of Haeundae Beach since 1993. Beach profiling during June-November 2014 shows the opposite processes of the typhoon and fair-weather on beach sands. During a typhoon, foreshore sands were eroded and then accumulated as sand bars on the surf zone. In the subsequent fair-weather, the sand bars moved back to the beach resulting in the surf-zone erosion and foreshore accretion. A total of 5 cycles of these beach-wide sand movements yielded a net retreat (up to 20 m) of the shoreline associated with large foreshore erosion. However, the surf zone only slightly accumulated as a result of the sand cycles. This was attributed to the sand escape offshore from the westernmost tip of the beach. The present study may provide an important clue to understanding the erosional processes in Haeundae Beach.

  5. Dynamical-statistical seasonal prediction for western North Pacific typhoons based on APCC multi-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Hye-Mi; Lee, Myong-In; Min, Young-Mi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at predicting the seasonal number of typhoons (TY) over the western North Pacific with an Asia-Pacific Climate Center (APCC) multi-model ensemble (MME)-based dynamical-statistical hybrid model. The hybrid model uses the statistical relationship between the number of TY during the typhoon season (July-October) and the large-scale key predictors forecasted by APCC MME for the same season. The cross validation result from the MME hybrid model demonstrates high prediction skill, with a correlation of 0.67 between the hindcasts and observation for 1982-2008. The cross validation from the hybrid model with individual models participating in MME indicates that there is no single model which consistently outperforms the other models in predicting typhoon number. Although the forecast skill of MME is not always the highest compared to that of each individual model, the skill of MME presents rather higher averaged correlations and small variance of correlations. Given large set of ensemble members from multi-models, a relative operating characteristic score reveals an 82 % (above-) and 78 % (below-normal) improvement for the probabilistic prediction of the number of TY. It implies that there is 82 % (78 %) probability that the forecasts can successfully discriminate between above normal (below-normal) from other years. The forecast skill of the hybrid model for the past 7 years (2002-2008) is more skillful than the forecast from the Tropical Storm Risk consortium. Using large set of ensemble members from multi-models, the APCC MME could provide useful deterministic and probabilistic seasonal typhoon forecasts to the end-users in particular, the residents of tropical cyclone-prone areas in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42). A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05). The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters.

  7. Nonlinear autoregressive neural networks with external inputs for forecasting of typhoon inundation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Huei-Tau

    2017-08-01

    Accurate inundation level forecasting during typhoon invasion is crucial for organizing response actions such as the evacuation of people from areas that could potentially flood. This paper explores the ability of nonlinear autoregressive neural networks with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict inundation levels induced by typhoons. Two types of NARX architecture were employed: series-parallel (NARX-S) and parallel (NARX-P). Based on cross-correlation analysis of rainfall and water-level data from historical typhoon records, 10 NARX models (five of each architecture type) were constructed. The forecasting ability of each model was assessed by considering coefficient of efficiency (CE), relative time shift error (RTS), and peak water-level error (PE). The results revealed that high CE performance could be achieved by employing more model input variables. Comparisons of the two types of model demonstrated that the NARX-S models outperformed the NARX-P models in terms of CE and RTS, whereas both performed exceptionally in terms of PE and without significant difference. The NARX-S and NARX-P models with the highest overall performance were identified and their predictions were compared with those of traditional ARX-based models. The NARX-S model outperformed the ARX-based models in all three indexes, whereas the NARX-P model exhibited comparable CE performance and superior RTS and PE performance.

  8. Assimilation and Simulation of Typhoon Rusa (2002) Using the WRF System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jianfeng; Qingnong XIAO; Ying-Hwa KUO; Dale M. BARKER; XUE Jishan; MA Xiaoxing

    2005-01-01

    Using the recently developed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) 3DVAR and the WRF model, numerical experiments are conducted for the initialization and simulation of typhoon Rusa (2002).The observational data used in the WRF 3DVAR are conventional Global Telecommunications System (GTS) data and Korean Automatic Weather Station (AWS) surface observations. The Background Error Statistics (BES) via the National Meteorological Center (NMC) method has two different resolutions, that is, a 210-km horizontal grid space from the NCEP global model and a 10-kn horizontal resolution from Korean operational forecasts. To improve the performance of the WRF simulation initialized from the WRF 3DVAR analyses, the scale-lengths used in the horizontal background error covariances via recursive filter are tuned in terms of the WRF 3DVAR control variables, streamfunction, velocity potential, unbalanced pressure and specific humidity. The experiments with respect to different background error statistics and different observational data indicate that the subsequent 24-h the WRF model forecasts of typhoon Rusa's track and precipitation are significantly impacted upon the initial fields. Assimilation of the AWS data with the tuned background error statistics obtains improved predictions of the typhoon track and its precipitation.

  9. Effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Reforestation is one of the best solutions to mitigate warming gases release and to store in soil. Typhoon is one of the most hazards to disturb forest ecosystem and change carbon cycle. Typhoon disturbance is also affect soil carbon cycle such as soil respiration, carbon storage. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the effect of typhoon disturbance on soil respiration dynamic in a tropical broadleaves plantation in southern Taiwan. Fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Twelves continuous soil respiration chambers was divided two treatments (trench and non-trench) and observed since 2011 to 2014. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Forest biometric such as tree high, DBH, litterfall was measured in 2011-2014. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (pnegative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the tree was still young and did not reach crown closure.

  10. An integrated two-stage support vector machine approach to forecast inundation maps during typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Bing-Chen; Wang, Jhih-Huang; Lin, Gwo-Fong

    2017-04-01

    During typhoons, accurate forecasts of hourly inundation depths are essential for inundation warning and mitigation. Due to the lack of observed data of inundation maps, sufficient observed data are not available for developing inundation forecasting models. In this paper, the inundation depths, which are simulated and validated by a physically based two-dimensional model (FLO-2D), are used as a database for inundation forecasting. A two-stage inundation forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to yield 1- to 6-h lead-time inundation maps during typhoons. In the first stage (point forecasting), the proposed approach not only considers the rainfall intensity and inundation depth as model input but also simultaneously considers cumulative rainfall and forecasted inundation depths. In the second stage (spatial expansion), the geographic information of inundation grids and the inundation forecasts of reference points are used to yield inundation maps. The results clearly indicate that the proposed approach effectively improves the forecasting performance and decreases the negative impact of increasing forecast lead time. Moreover, the proposed approach is capable of providing accurate inundation maps for 1- to 6-h lead times. In conclusion, the proposed two-stage forecasting approach is suitable and useful for improving the inundation forecasting during typhoons, especially for long lead times.

  11. Upper Ocean Thermal Responses to Sea Spray Mediated Turbulent Fluxes during Typhoon Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianxin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional turbulent model is used to investigate the effect of sea spray mediated turbulent fluxes on upper ocean temperature during the passage of typhoon Yagi over the Kuroshio Extension area in 2006. Both a macroscopical sea spray momentum flux algorithm and a microphysical heat and moisture flux algorithm are included in this turbulent model. Numerical results show that the model can well reproduce the upper ocean temperature, which is consistent with the data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory. Besides, the sea surface temperature is decreased by about 0.5°C during the typhoon passage, which also agrees with the sea surface temperature dataset derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing and Reynolds. Diagnostic analysis indicates that sea spray acts as an additional source of the air-sea turbulent fluxes and plays a key role in increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the upper ocean, which enhances the temperature diffusion there. Therefore, sea spray is also an important factor in determining the upper mixed layer depth during the typhoon passage.

  12. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years.

  13. Health Consequences of Typhoon Haiyan in the Eastern Visayas Region Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Law, Ronald; Pesigan, Arturo; Winkler, Volker

    2017-02-06

    Typhoon Haiyan was the strongest storm recorded in Philippine history. Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED) was activated during the typhoon response. This study analyzes the health impact of different diseases during different timeframes post-disaster during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 using a syndromic surveillance database. SPEED reports medical consultations based on 21 syndromes covering a range of conditions from three syndrome groups: communicable diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed consultation rates for 150 days post-disaster by syndrome, syndrome group, time period, and health facility type for adults as well as for children under the age of five. Communicable diseases had the highest consultation rates followed by similar rates for both injuries and NCDs. While communicable diseases were the predominant syndrome group for children, wounds and hypertension were common syndromes observed in adults. Village health centers had the most consultations amongst health facilities, but also showed the highest variability. Children were more vulnerable to communicable diseases compared to adults. Community health centers showing consistently high consultation rates point out a need for their prioritization. The predominance of primary care conditions requires disaster managers to focus on basic health care and public health measures in community health centers that target the young, elderly and impoverished appropriate to the time period.

  14. Typhoon Rammasun-Induced Near-Inertial Oscillations Observed in the Tropical Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-induced near-inertial oscillations (NIOs have been known to propagate their energy downward and equatorward, yet few observations have confirmed this in tropical regions. Using measurements from a moored ADCP in the tropical northwestern Pacific, we report an energetic NIO event associated with Typhoon Rammasun in May 2008, when an anti-cyclonic warm eddy existed around the mooring site. Our analyses reveal that the anti-cyclonic eddy traps the NIO energy at two layers around 120 and 210 m where the buoyancy frequency show high values. The NIO energy continuously decays at layers below its maximum at 210 m, and disappears at depths below the thermocline. During their propagation from 137 to 649 stretched-meter depths (equivalent to 100 - 430 m, NIOs shift their frequencies from 0.92f to 1.05f probably due to the effective f, which changes its magnitude from smaller to larger than local inertial frequency f in the anti-cyclonic eddy. In addition, their vertical energy propagation becomes faster from 0.17 to 0.64 mm s-1. Decomposition of downward and upward NIO energy propagation shows that the typhoon-induced NIOs remain 29% of their energy in the upper layer, and transfer 71% to the subsurface layers. Our results suggest that typhoon-induced NIOs interacting with meso-scale eddies can play an important role in providing the energy source available for ocean mixing in the tropical regions.

  15. Development of a Disaster Information Visualization Dashboard: A Case Study of Three Typhoons in Taiwan in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Ray; Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Huang, Kuei-Chin; Hsieh, Ching-En

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate disaster response and enhance the effectiveness of disaster prevention and relief, people and emergency response personnel should be able to rapidly acquire and understand information when disasters occur. However, in existing disaster platforms information is typically presented in text tables, static charts, and maps with points. These formats do not make it easy for users to understand the overall situation. Therefore, this study converts data into human-readable charts by using data visualization techniques, and builds a disaster information dashboard that is concise, attractive and flexible. This information dashboard integrates temporally and spatially correlated data, disaster statistics according to category and county, lists of disasters, and any other relevant information. The graphs are animated and interactive. The dashboard allows users to filter the data according to their needs and thus to assimilate the information more rapidly. In this study, we applied the information dashboard to the analysis of landslides during three typhoon events in 2016: Typhoon Nepartak, Typhoon Meranti and Typhoon Megi. According to the statistical results in the dashboard, the order of frequency of the disaster categories in all three events combined was rock fall, roadbed loss, slope slump, road blockage and debris flow. Disasters occurred mainly in the areas that received the most rainfall. Typhoons Nepartak and Meranti mainly affected Taitung, and Typhoon Megi mainly affected Kaohsiung. The towns Xiulin, Fengbin, Fenglin and Guangfu in Hualian County were all issued with debris flow warnings in all three typhoon events. The disaster information dashboard developed in this study allows the user to rapidly assess the overall disaster situation. It clearly and concisely reveals interactions between time, space and disaster type, and also provides comprehensive details about the disaster. The dashboard provides a foundation for future disaster visualization

  16. [Impact of typhoon "Fung-wong" on the distribution patterns of heavy metals in the Quanzhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Hai; Chen, Jian; Chen, Jian-Ning; Huang, Cai-Bin; Wang, Ai-Jun; Li, Dong-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Based on the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) data of concentrations of 7 heavy metals (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) in suspended particles and surface sediments samples collected at 6 and 1 13-hours-mooring stations, respectively, in Quanzhou Bay 4 days after the landing of typhoon "Fung-wong". The average contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd are 60.4, 50.3, 26.5, 101.7, 3.36, 40.0 and 0.180 microg/g, respectively, in the surface sediments, and are 1.108-7.408, 0.476-3. 394, 0.809-5.046, 3.190-19.337, 0.087-0.595, 2.621-10.073 microg/L and 4.160-50.828 ng/L, respectively, in different stations in the suspended particles. The contents and distribution patterns of 7 heavy metals during a tidal cycle were significantly changed after typhoon "Fung-wong" by contrasting with that in same stations and tidal time at an ordinary situation. The contents of heavy metals, besides Ni, evidently decreased but the distribution patterns were similar with that in an ordinary condition with relatively large grads after typhoon "Fung-wong" in the surface sediments at station Q4. While in the suspended particles, the contents of heavy metals were evidently increased with the distribution patterns varied obviously and differently due to their geographical position after typhoon "Fung-wong". These impacts of typhoon "Fung-wong" to the contents and distribution patterns of heavy metals could be attribute to the "second contamination" and the increased supply of particles materials from continent during the typhoon process. The results of this study provide a reference to accurate assessing and scientific governing the heavy metals' contamination, and provide a directly support to evaluating the integrated impacts of typhoon process on the contamination of heavy metals in the Quanzhou Bay.

  17. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  18. Xinjiang Girl World Super Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leading Chinese model Yue Mei won thetitle of World Super Model at the ’98 WorldSuper Model Competition held in FranceSeptember 6 - 17. Yue, a university studentfrom the Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion, had won the top title at ’98 ChinaSuper Model Competition held in Beijingone month earier.After that, she underwentone month’s professional modeling trainingwith the New Silk Road ModelingManagement Company before setting off forthe world competition. In France, Yueimpressed the judges with her strikingfeatures, and display of oriental elegance and

  19. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  20. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  1. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    While widely known for their destructive power, typhoon events can also bring benefit to coral reef ecosystems through typhoon-induced cooling which can mitigate against thermally stressful conditions causing coral bleaching. Sensor deployments in Sekisei Lagoon, Japan's largest coral reef area, during the summer months of 2013, 2014, and 2015 were able to capture local hydrodynamic features of numerous typhoon passages. In particular, typhoons 2015-13 and 2015-15 featured steep drops in near-bottom temperature of 5 °C or more in the north and south sides of Sekisei Lagoon, respectively, indicating local cooling patterns which appeared to depend on the track and intensity of the passing typhoon. This was further investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical simulations conducted for the summer of 2015. The modeling results showed a cooling trend to the north of the Yaeyama Islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-13, and a cooling trend that moved clockwise from north to south of the islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-15. These local cooling events may have been initiated by the Yaeyama Islands acting as an obstacle to a strong typhoon-generated flow which was modulated and led to prominent cooling of waters on the leeward sides. These lower temperature waters from offshore may then be transported to the shallower inner parts of the lagoon area, which may partly be due to density-driven currents generated by the offshore-inner area temperature difference.

  2. An Investigation of the Effects of Wave State and Sea Spray on an Idealized Typhoon Using an Air-Sea Coupled Modeling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; GUAN Changlong; Li'an XIE; ZHAO Dongliang

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the impact of atmosphere-wave coupling on typhoon intensity was investigated using numerical simulations of an idealized typhoon in a coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system.The coupling between atmosphere and sea surface waves considered the effects of wave state and sea sprays on air-sea momentum flux,the atmospheric low-level dissipative heating,and the wave-state-affected seaspray heat flux. Several experiments were conducted to examine the impacts of wave state,sea sprays,and dissipative heating on an idealized typhoon system. Results show that considering the wave state and sea-spray-affected sea-surface roughness reduces typhoon intensity,while including dissipative heating intensifies the typhoon system.Taking into account sea spray heat flux also strengthens the typhoon system with increasing maximum wind speed and significant wave height.The overall impact of atmosphere- wave coupling makes a positive contribution to the intensification of the idealized typhoon system.The minimum central pressure simulated by the coupled atmosphere wave experiment was 16.4 hPa deeper than that of the control run,and the maximum wind speed and significant wave height increased by 31% and 4%,respectively.Meanwhile,within the area beneath the typhoon center,the average total upward air-sea heat flux increased by 22%,and the averaged latent heat flux increased more significantly by 31% compared to the uncoupled run.

  3. What's So Super about Superfoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with meals. The Skinny on Common Super Foods Salmon is a fatty fish that’s low in saturated ... soy nuts are high in polyunsaturated fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals but low in saturated fat. They ...

  4. Super Ministries,Better Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese lawmakers on March 15th endorsed a State Counci l proposal for institutional overhaul of the tentral government,which involves the establishment of"super ministries"concerning energy,transport,industry and environmental protection.

  5. Typhoon-induced precipitation impact on nutrient and suspended matter dynamics of a tropical estuary affected by human activities in Hainan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S.; Unger, Daniela; Krumme, Uwe; Liu, Su Mei; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2011-07-01

    Typhoons regularly hit the coasts along the northern South China Sea during summer monsoon. However, little is known on the effects of typhoon-related heavy precipitation on estuarine dynamics and coastal ecosystems. We analyzed physico-chemical characteristics, and concentrations and composition of dissolved and suspended matter in the Wenchang/Wenjiao Estuary (WWE) on the tropical island of Hainan, China, prior to and after typhoon Kammuri in August 2008. Before the typhoon, the estuary displayed vertical and horizontal gradients. High nutrient inputs from agriculture and widespread aquaculture were to a large extent converted into biomass inside the estuarine lagoon resulting in low export of nutrients to coastal waters and a mainly autochthonous origin of total suspended matter (TSM). Heavy typhoon-associated precipitation increased river runoff, which moved the location of the estuarine salinity gradient seaward. It resulted in an export of dissolved and particulate matter to coastal waters one day after the typhoon. Dissolved nutrients increased by up to an order of magnitude and TSM increased approximately twofold compared to pre-typhoon values. Lower δ 13C org and δ 15N and elevated C/N ratios of TSM together with lower chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations indicated an increased contribution of terrestrial material originating from typhoon-induced soil erosion. Local uptake of excess nutrients inside the lagoon was inhibited because of reduced water transparency and the lack of phytoplankton, which had been washed out by the initial freshwater pulse. Two weeks after the typhoon, TSM concentration and composition had almost returned to pre-typhoon conditions. However, physico-chemical properties and nutrients were still different from pre-typhoon conditions indicating that the estuarine system had not fully recovered. Unusually high chl a concentrations in the coastal zone indicated a phytoplankton bloom resulting from the typhoon-induced nutrient export

  6. What are super-enhancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Sebastian; Lieb, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The term 'super-enhancer' has been used to describe groups of putative enhancers in close genomic proximity with unusually high levels of Mediator binding, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). Here we review the identification and composition of super-enhancers, describe links between super-enhancers, gene regulation and disease, and discuss the functional significance of enhancer clustering. We also provide our perspective regarding the proposition that super-enhancers are a regulatory entity conceptually distinct from what was known before the introduction of the term. Our opinion is that there is not yet strong evidence that super-enhancers are a novel paradigm in gene regulation and that use of the term in this context is not currently justified. However, the term likely identifies strong enhancers that exhibit behaviors consistent with previous models and concepts of transcriptional regulation. In this respect, the super-enhancer definition is useful in identifying regulatory elements likely to control genes important for cell type specification.

  7. A Maximum-Entropy Compound Distribution Model for Extreme Wave Heights of Typhoon-Affected Sea Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; SUN Xiao-guang; LU Ke-bo; XU De-lun

    2012-01-01

    A new compound distribution model for extreme wave heights of typhoon-affected sea areas is proposed on the basis of the maximum-entropy principle.The new model is formed by nesting a discrete distribution in a continuous one,having eight parameters which can be determined in terms of observed data of typhoon occurrence-frequency and extreme wave heights by numerically solving two sets of equations derived in this paper.The model is examined by using it to predict the N-year return-periodwave height at two hydrology stations in the Yellow Sea,and the predicted results are compared with those predicted by use of some other compound distribution models.Examinations and comparisons show that the model has some advantages for predicting the N-year return-period wave height in typhoon-affected sea areas.

  8. An experimental analysis for the impact of 3D variation assi- milation of satellite data on typhoon track simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hongqin; WU Zengmao; GAO Shanhong

    2004-01-01

    A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analysis fields based on the T213 results and conventional observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are carried out, which correspond respectively to assimilate different kinds of satellite data. It is found that, compared with the experiment without satellite data assimilation, the 3D-Var assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce from approximately 25% at 24 h to approximately 30% at 48 h for 3D-Var assimilation experiments.

  9. Holography based super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  10. A New Method for Reclamation Planning in Coastal Areas Based on Vulnerability Assessment to Typhoon Storm Surge Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion in mega-cities (cities with populations over 10 million) leads to increased land demand and vulnerability to hazards as often significant numbers of people are economically and social disadvantaged. An effective way to create new flat land for further development is land reclamation and this has reached 511.71 km2 in the period of 1990 - 2009 along the Shanghai coast. This, in turn, leads to a potential increase in the vulnerability of the new coastal area to natural hazards. This is typically represented by typhoon storms that have the potential to be the most destructive natural hazard and therefore pose a significant threat to both infrastructure and livelihood in Shanghai. Due to insufficient knowledge of vulnerability of land use to typhoon storms and current planning, the reclaimed land is becoming one of the most vulnerable parts of the coastal low-land. While it is tempting to claim there is an increasing vulnerability to typhoon-inundation in Shanghai, this must be weighed against the socio-political response, where it is likely that city authorities will undertake rational land use planning to protect the reclamation from the inundation, sea level rise, and ground subsidence. Therefore, this research present a new method for reclamation planning based on vulnerability assessment to typhoon- inundation. First, MIKE21 was used to simulate the inundation scenario of two typhoon events in 1997 and 2007 respectively. Then, the vulnerability of 7 land use types with a set of hazard-proxies to these two typhoon inundations was assessed and verified by a new stage-damage curve system. Based on the above vulnerability assessment, this research will provide a planning tool for reclamation along Shanghai coastal area. This work is part of a larger study on the response of vulnerability to land use and land cover change.

  11. Rainfall Threshold of Triggering Landslide-an Example of Typhoon Soudelor in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Lin, Ji-Hua; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon Soudelor (2015) stroke southern New Taipei City, Taiwan. It brought huge damages to Xindian District and Wulai District, and those damages including 7 large landslides, blockages to access roads, and strands of hundreds of residents. The main reasons of landslide due to the high intensity rain brought by Typhoon Soudelor. The rain gauges near the sites of landslides showed the maximum hourly rainfall of 70 (mm) and the accumulative rainfall is 500-800 (mm). The largest area of the above-mentioned landslide is 9.7 ha. According to the study conducted in (Cheng et. al, 2014), the average 3hr-rainfall intensity and 24hr-accumulative-rainfall can used for indicators for the rainfall threshold of triggering landslide. Based on the historical landslide events, three rainfall threshold of triggering landslide can be gotten for probability of 30%, 60%, and 90% respectively. Using the rainfall data of Typhoon Soudelor, it is found that the rainfall recording in gauges located very near the line of probability of 90%. The average 3hr-rainfall intensity of 70 (mm/hr) and 24hr-accumulative-rainfall of 700 (mm) are used for probability of 90%. As for probability of 30%, the 3hr-rainfall intensity is 30 (mm/hr) and 24hr-accumulative-rainfall is 300 (mm). As for probability of 60%, the 3hr-rainfall intensity is 50 (mm/hr) and 24hr-accumulative-rainfall is 500 (mm). The curve of trigging landslide adopted in this study is ellipse, and may be modified by verifying more data.

  12. Typhoon Haiyan's sedimentary record in coastal environments of the Philippines and its palaeotempestological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Engel, Max; Reyes, Michelle; Pint, Anna; Opitz, Stephan; Dierick, Manuel; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Esser, Sascha; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    On 8 November 2013, category 5 Supertyphoon Haiyan made landfall on the Philippines. During a post-typhoon survey in February 2014, Haiyan-related sand deposition and morphological changes were documented at four severely affected sites with different exposure to the typhoon track and different geological and geomorphological settings. Onshore sand sheets reaching 100-250 m inland are restricted to coastal areas with significant inundation due to amplification of surge levels in embayments or due to accompanying long-wave phenomena at the most exposed coastlines of Leyte and Samar. However, localized washover fans with a storm-typical laminated stratigraphy occurred even along coasts with limited inundation due to waves overtopping or breaching coastal barriers. On a recent reef platform off Negros in the Visayan Sea, storm waves entrained coral rubble from the reef slope and formed an intertidal coral ridge several hundreds of metres long when breaking at the reef edge. As these sediments and landforms were generated by one of the strongest storms ever recorded, they not only provide a recent reference for typhoon signatures that can be used for palaeotempestological and palaeotsunami studies in the region but might also increase the general spectrum of possible cyclone deposits. Although a rather atypical example for storm deposition due to the influence of infra-gravity waves, it nevertheless provides a valuable reference for an extreme case that should be considered when discriminating between storm and tsunami deposits in general. Even for sites with low topography and high inundation levels during Supertyphoon Haiyan, the landward extent of the documented sand sheets seems significantly smaller than typical sand sheets of large tsunamis. This criterion may potentially be used to distinguish both types of events.

  13. Radar Data Assimilation of the GRAPES Model and Experimental Results in a Typhoon Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongya; XUE Jishan; GU Jianfeng; XU Haiming

    2012-01-01

    Constructing β-mesoscale weather systems in initial fields remains a challenging problem in a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model.Without vertical velocity matching the β-mesoscale weather system,convection activities would be suppressed by downdraft and cooling caused by precipitating hydrometeors.In this study,a method,basing on the three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation technique,was developed to obtain reasonable structures of β-mesoscale weather systems by assimilating radar data in a next-generation NWP system named GRAPES (the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) of China.Single-point testing indicated that assimilating radial wind significantly improved the horizontal wind but had little effect on the vertical velocity,while assimilating the retrieved vertical velocity (taking Richardson's equation as the observational operator) can greatly improve the vertical motion.Experiments on a typhoon show that assimilation of the radial wind data can greatly improve the prediction of the typhoon track,and can ameliorate precipitation to some extent.Assimilating the retrieved vertical velocity and rainwater mixing ratio,and adjusting water vapor and cloud water mixing ratio in the initial fields simultaneously,can significantly improve the tropical cyclone rainfall forecast but has little effect on typhoon path.Joint assimilating these three kinds of radar data gets the best results.Taking into account the scale of different weather systems and representation of observational data,data quality control,error setting of background field and observation data are still requiring further in-depth study.

  14. Sedimentological recorders of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan storm surge from contrasting Philippine coastal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, J. L.; Switzer, A.; Siringan, F. P.; Pilarczyk, J.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 was an extremely intense and fast moving typhoon. It claimed more than 6000 lives, caused widespread damage, and affected more than 16 million people along its path in central Philippines. Overwash associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan also left behind a variety of geomorphic and sedimentological imprints, which provide a valuable dataset for modern storm deposits in different landform settings. Here we only present a synthesis of the sedimentological imprints from sites that span clastic, mixed clastic-carbonate, and non-clastic carbonate coasts, and were affected by contrasting surge mechanisms. On the sheltered clastic coast where overwash was dominated by wind-induced setup surge, the overwash sediments occur as a sand unit of no more than 20 cm near the shore, and then spread into sub-cm thin sandsheet that blanket pre-Haiyan soil surfaces up to 1.6 km inland. Thicker sections of the overwash sand exhibit sharp depositional contacts, planar stratification, and generally coarsen upward and fine landward. On the mixed clastic-carbonate coast, the Typhoon Haiyan deposits are generally thin (coast that was affected by a wave-dominated setup surge, the overwash sediments include two distinct assemblages: carbonate boulders now occupying the reef flat surface, and a sand sheet that blanketed the coastal plain up to 300 m distance inland. On the open coast, inverse modeling of flow velocities derived from boulder dimensions, sediment thickness, and grain size distributions indicate that the storm surge travelled across the wide reef flat and inundated the coast with flow velocities exceeding 4 ms-1. The sediment data support the tsunami-like surge characteristics of Haiyan, and although Haiyan's overwash sediments are clearly representative of Philippine modern storm deposits, they should however be used with caution in the interpretation of the geologic record. This cautionary note highlights the continuing issue of

  15. ANALYSES OF WIND STRUCTURE OF TYPHOON FUNG-WONG (2008) AND ITS RELATION TO PRECIPITATION REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-shu; LIU Li-ping

    2009-01-01

    Using real analysis data of 1°×1° resolution of the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), the nondivergent wind component and irrotational wind component obtained by the harmonic-cosine(H-C) method, and the wind structure of Typhoon Fung-Wong (coded 0808 in China) in 2008 was analyzed. The results indicated that the irrotational component was advantageous over the total wind in reflecting both the changes in convergent height and the asymmetrical convergence of Fung-Wong. In Fung-Wong, the nondivergent component was larger than the irrotational component, but the latter was much more variable than the former, which was obtained only from the wind partition method. Further analyses on the irrotational component demonstrated that the location of the convergent center at lower levels was almost the same as the divergent center during the development of Fung-Wong, and its convergent level was high in its life cycle, with the most highest up to 400 hPa when it became stronger. After the typhoon landed in the provinces of Taiwan and Fujian, respectively, its convergent center at lower levels was slowly detached from the divergent center at high levels and the convergent height was also depressed from high levels to lower levels. Gradually, this weakened the intensity of Fung-Wong. This kind of weakening was slow and Fung-Wong maintained its circulation for a long time over land because of its very thick convergent height. Analyses on wind partitioning provided one possible explanation to why Fung-Wong stayed for a long time after it landed. Furthermore, the asymmetric vertical ascending motion was induced by the asymmetric convergence at lower levels. In general, when typhoons (such as Fung-Wong) land, the rainfall region coincides with that of the convergence region (indicated by the irrotational component at lower layers). This means that the possible rainfall regions may be diagnosed from the convergent

  16. Application of terrestrial laser scanner on tidal flat morphology at a typhoon event timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiming; He, Qing; Zhang, Keqi; Guo, Leicheng; Wang, Xianye; Shen, Jian; Cui, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Quantification of tidal flat morphological changes at varying timescales is critical from a management point of view. High-resolution tidal flat morphology data, including those for mudflats and salt-marshes, are rare due to monitoring difficulty by traditional methods. Recent advances in Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution and large-scale morphological data, but it remains problematic for its application on salt-marshes due to the presence of dense vegetation. In this study, we applied a TLS system to retrieve high-accuracy digital elevation models in a tidal flat of the Yangtze Estuary by using a robust and accurate Progressive Morphological filter (PM) to separate ground and non-ground points. Validations against GPS-supported RTK measurements suggested remarkable performance. In this case the average estimation error was about 0.3 cm, while the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 2.0 cm. We conducted three TLS surveys on the same field including salt-marshes and mudflats at the time points 5 days before, 3 days after, and 45 days after a typhoon event. The retrieved data showed that the mudflats suffered from profound erosion while the salt-marshes slightly accreted during the typhoon period. The average elevation change of the total area was about - 4 cm (- 0.28 cm per day). However, both the mudflats and salt-marshes deposited in the post-typhoon period and the accretion over salt-marshes occurred at a higher rate than that during the typhoon. The elevation of the total area increased by 15.9 cm (0.37 cm per day), suggesting fast recovery under calm conditions. Quantification of the erosion and deposition rates was aided by the high quality TLS data. This study shows the effectiveness of TLS in quantifying morphological changes of tidal flats at an event (and post-event) timescale. The data and analysis also provide sound evidence on vegetation impact in stimulating salt-marsh development and restoration

  17. Nontraditional Settlement Patterns and Typhoon Hazard on Contemporary Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann

    1996-05-01

    Low-lying islands and atolls are particularly prone to storm surges created by tropical depressions and typhoons. This paper presents a case study of traditional and contemporary settlement patterns of Majuro, the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and discusses its vulnerability to such storm surges. The paper shows that the application of traditional knowledge extends to the realm of urban planning and that, in fact, ignoring this traditional knowledge as expressed in pre-World War II settlement patterns, exposes urban development to increased flood hazards, a risk which may exact a price too high in life and property.

  18. Relationship Between the Number of Summer Typhoons Engendered over the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea and Main Climatic Conditions in the Preceding Winter and Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ziniu; LIANG Hongli; LI Chongyin

    2010-01-01

    Based on the monthly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, OLR (outgoing longwave radiation) data, and tropical cyclone data from the Typhoon Annual and Tropical Cyclone Annual edited by China Meteorological Administration, the relationship between the number of tropical cyclones (with the strongest wind ≥ 17 m s-1, including tropical storm, strong tropical storm, and typhoon, simply called typhoon in this paper) engendered over the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea in summer and the associated climate conditions is studied. First, the characteristics and differences of the climatic conditions between the years with more typhoons and those with fewer typhoons are compared. The results show that the summer typhoon has a close relationship with SST (sea surface temperature) and ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone) anomalies in the preceding winter and spring. With a La Nina like SST anomaly (SSTA) pattern in the preceding winter and spring, the ITCZ will move northwestward and be enhanced around 160°E in the equatorial central Pacific from the preceding winter to spring. The activity of the Pacific ITCZ is in general stronger and its location is more northward than usual, especially in the typhoon genesis region in West Pacific. This background is propitious to have more typhoons in summer. On the other hand, an El Nino like SSTA pattern in the preceding winter will be companied with weaker ITCZ activities, and its location is more southward over the equatorial western Pacific from the preceding winter to spring; this background is propitious to have fewer typhoons in summer. In the year with more typhoons, the warm SST over West Pacific in the preceding winter provides a favorable condition for typhoon fromation in the following summer. It enhances the convergence in the troposphere and increases the water vapor supply to the warm SST region. In the following spring, the perturbation of the tropical ITCZ plays a more important role. When the ITCZ moves northward in

  19. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Tazima S

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helmholtz double layer). Making the electrodes porous increases their effective surface area [6-8]. A separating layer between the anode and the cathode electrodes is used to minimize unintentional electrical discharge (Figure 1). Here we show how to increase the capacitance of super-capacitors by more than 45 percent when modifying the otherwise passive separator layer into an active diode-like structure. Active control of super-capacitors may increase their efficiency during charge and discharge cycles. Controlling ion flow...

  20. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-15

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U{sub q}(sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U{sub q}(sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L{sup 2}(R) x C{sup 1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 1} and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  1. Super-Virasoro anomaly, super-Weyl anomaly and the super-Liouville action for 2D supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, T; Suzuki, T; Fujiwara, Takanori; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tadao

    1996-01-01

    The relation between super-Virasoro anomaly and super-Weyl anomaly in N=1 NSR superstring coupled with 2D supergravity is investigated from canonical theoretical view point. The WZW action canceling the super-Virasoro anomaly is explicitly constructed. It is super-Weyl invariant but nonlocal functional of 2D supergravity. The nonlocality can be remedied by the super-Liouvlle action, which in turn recovers the super-Weyl anomaly. The final gravitational effective action turns out to be local but noncovariant super-Liouville action, describing the dynamical behavior of the super-Liouville fields. The BRST invariance of this approach is examined in the superconformal gauge and in the light-cone gauge.

  2. VARIATIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION USING WAVELET BACKGROUND ERROR COVARIANCE: INITIALIZATION OF TYPHOON KAEMI (2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-min; CAO Xiao-qun; XIAO Qin-nong; SONG Jun-qiang; ZHU Xiao-qian; WANG Shu-chang

    2010-01-01

    Background error covariance plays an important role in any variational data assimilation system,because it determines how information from observations is spread in model space and between different model variables.In this paper,the use of orthogonal wavelets in representation of background error covariance over a limited area is studied.Based on the WRF model and its 3D-VAR system,an algorithm using orthogonal wavelets to model background error covariance is developed.Because each wavelet function contains information on both position and scale,using a diagonal correlation matrix in wavelet space gives the possibility to represent some anisotropic and inhomogeneous characteristics of background error covariance.The experiments show that local correlation functions are better modeled than spectral methods.The formulation of wavelet background error covariance is tested with the typhoon Kaemi (2006).The results of experiments indicate that the subsequent forecasts of typhoon Kaemi's track and intensity are significantly improved by the new method.

  3. A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dong; YANG Jichao; LI Guangxue; DADA Olusegun A; GONG Lixin; WANG Nan; WANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Bin

    2015-01-01

    Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.

  4. A 35-GHz Polarimetric Doppler Radar and Its Application for Observing Clouds Associated with Typhoon Nuri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Lingzhi; LIU Liping; FENG Sheng; GE Runsheng; ZHANG Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Millimeter-wavelength radar has proved to be an effective instrument for cloud observation and research.In this study, 8-mm-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) with Doppler and polarization capabilities was used to investigate cloud dynamics in China for the first time. Its design, system specifications, calibration,and application in measuring clouds associated with typhoon are discussed in this article. The cloud radar measurements of radar refiectivity (Z), Doppler velocity (Vr), velocity spectrum width (Sw) and the depolarization ratio (LDR) at vertical incidence were used to analyze the microphysical and dynamic processes of the cloud system and precipitation associated with Typhoon Nuri, which occurred in southern China in August 2008. The results show the refiectivity observed using MMCR to be consistent with the echo height and the melting-layer location data obtained by the nearby China S-band new-generation weather radar (SA),but the Ka-band MMCR provided more detailed structural information about clouds and weak precipitation data than did the SA radar. The variation of radar refiectivity and LDR in vertical structure reveals the transformation of particle phase from ice to water. The vertical velocity and velocity spectrum width of MMCR observations indicate an updraft and strong turbulence in the stratiform cloud layer. MMCR provides a valuable new technology for meteorological research in China.

  5. Development of typhoon driven wave nowcasting model in Southeast China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinhai; Feng Xiangbo; Yan Yixin

    2011-01-01

    Using optimal interpolation data assimilation of observed wave spectrum around Northeast coast of Taiwan Island, the typhoon driven wave nowcasting model in Southeast China Sea is setup. The SWAN ( simulating waves nearshore) model is used to calculate wave field and the input wind field is the QSCAT/NCEP (Quick Scatterometer/National Centers for Environmental Prediction) data. The two-dimensional wavelet transform is applied to analyze the Xband radar image of nearshore wave field and it reveals that the observed wave spectrum has shoaling characteristics in frequency domain. The reverse calculation approach of wave spectrum in deep water is proposed and validated with experimental tests. The two-dimensional digital low-pass filter is used to obtain the initialization wave field. Wave data during Typhoon Sinlaku is used to calibrate the data assimilation parameters and test the reverse calculation approach. Data assimilation corrects the significant wave height and the low frequency spectra energy evidently at Beishuang Station along Fujian Province coast, where the entire assimilation indexes are positive in verification moments. The nowcasting wave field shows that the present model can obtain more accurate wave predictions for coastal and ocean engineering in Southeast China Sea.

  6. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering,and the structural health monitoring system(SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement.In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge(RSB),two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SHMS of RSB.In August 2005,Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu,the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses.In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory,the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics,the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck,and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed.Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques,and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  7. Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of the Runyang Suspension Bridge during typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; LI AiQun; GUO Tong; XIE Jing

    2009-01-01

    Field measurement on wind characteristic and buffeting response of existing bridge is of great value to the development of bridge wind engineering, and the structural health monitoring system (SHMS) em-ployed in many long-span bridges provide a research basis for the field measurement. In order to pro-vide reliable basis for wind resistant evaluation of Runyang Suspension Bridge (RSB), two anemome-ters and 85 accelerometers were installed in the SliMS of RSB. In August 2005, Typhoon Matsa crossed over Jiangsu, the SHMS timely recorded the typhoon and structural vibration responses. In this paper by using the time-frequency technique and statistical theory, the recorded data were analyzed to obtain the strong wind characteristics, the buffeting response characteristics of the cable and deck, and the variation of buffeting response RMS versus wind speed. Results obtained in this study can be em-ployed to validate the credibility of current buffeting response analysis theory techniques, and provide reference values for wind resistant evaluation of other long-span bridges.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis for Outbreak-Prone Infectious Diseases after Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan), Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Obata, Mariko; Saito, Mayuko; Tan, Titus C; Medado, Inez Andrea P; Dapat, Clyde; Okamoto, Michiko; Tamaki, Raita; Capistrano, Rowena C; Segubre-Mercado, Edelwisa; Lupisan, Socorro P; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-10-21

    Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013. To identify possible outbreaks of communicable diseases after the typhoon, nasopharyngeal swabs, stool and blood samples were collected from patients who visited the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or other febrile illness (OFI) including suspected dengue fever, between November 28, 2013 and February 5, 2014.   Methods: Samples were tested on-site for selected pathogens using rapid diagnostic tests. Confirmation and further analysis were conducted at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in Manila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Residues of the rapid diagnostic tests and samples collected in the filter papers (FTATM card) were transported to Manila under suboptimal conditions. PCR results were compared between the kit residues and the filter papers.   Results: A total of 185 samples were collected. Of these, 128 cases were ARI, 17 cases were AGE and 40 cases were OFI. For nasopharyngeal swab samples, detection rates for enterovirus and rhinovirus residues were higher than the filter papers. For stool samples, rotavirus positive rate for the filter paper was higher than the kit residues. We also managed to obtain the sequence data from some of the kit residues and filter papers.   Discussion: Our results confirmed the importance of PCR for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases in post-disaster situations when  diagnostic options are limited.

  9. The Super-Kamiokande Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, C W

    2008-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is a 50 kiloton water Cherenkov detector located at the Kamioka Observatory of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. It was designed to study neutrino oscillations and carry out searches for the decay of the nucleon. The Super-Kamiokande experiment began in 1996 and in the ensuing decade of running has produced extremely important results in the fields of atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, along with setting stringent limits on the decay of the nucleon and the existence of dark matter and astrophysical sources of neutrinos. Perhaps most crucially, Super-Kamiokande for the first time definitively showed that neutrinos have mass and undergo flavor oscillations. This chapter will summarize the published scientific output of the experiment with a particular emphasis on the atmospheric neutrino results.

  10. Microsphere Super-resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zengbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was discovered that microsphere can generate super-resolution focusing beyond diffraction limit. This has led to the development of an exciting super-resolution imaging technique -microsphere nanoscopy- that features a record resolution of 50 nm under white lights. Different samples have been directly imaged in high resolution and real time without labelling, including both non-biological (nano devices, structures and materials) and biological (subcellular details, viruses) samples. This chapter reviews the technique, which covers its background, fundamentals, experiments, mechanisms as well as the future outlook.

  11. Interactive Super Mario Bros Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patrikk D.; Olsen, Jeppeh M.; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    to encourage the evolution of desired behaviors. In this paper, we show how casual users can create controllers for \\emph{Super Mario Bros} through an interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) approach, without prior domain or programming knowledge. By iteratively selecting Super Mario behaviors from a set...... of candidates, users are able to guide evolution towards a variety of different behaviors, which would be difficult with an automated approach. Additionally, the user-evolved controllers perform similarly well as controllers evolved with a traditional fitness-based approach when comparing distance traveled...

  12. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  13. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  14. A Manifestation of Climate Change? A Look at Typhoon Yolanda in Relation to the Historical Tropical Cyclone Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Primo C. David

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The IBTRACS world database of tropical cyclone(TC tracks was analysed to determine potential historical trends in TC characteristics for the west Pacific basin. Trends are then related to the characteristics of Typhoon Yolanda to see if this individual event constitutes as a data outlier or is part of a trend that can be related to climate change. In terms of TC frequency, it is deduced that there is a decreasing pattern in tropical cyclone formation starting in 1970. It is also noted that while there is no trend observed in the annual mean maximum wind speed, a decrease in the number of high wind speed TCs is measured for the months of November and December. The location of TC formation has also been changing towards a higher latitude but closer to the Philippines in terms of longitude. Lastly, typhoons making landfall in the Visayas and Mindanao region have also become slightly more frequent in the last decade. Except for the last f inding, the 2013 typhoon season does not fit in these general trends. This year may be the start of a new trend or shift in TC characteristics (which we will only know after a few more years but is most likely part of the inherent annual variability of typhoon characteristics. Yolanda goes against perceived trends but its occurrence signifies that there is still much to learn about tropical cyclones and the impending impacts of climate change in general.

  15. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster

  16. Estimation on rubber tree disturbance caused by typhoon Damery (200518) with Landsat and MODIS data in Hainan Island of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chenyan; Fang, Weihua; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Typhoon Damery (200518) caused severe damage to the rubber trees in Hainan Island with its destructive winds and rainfall. Selection of proper vegetation indices using multi-source remote sensing data is critical to the assessment of forest disturbance and damage loss for this event. In this study, we will compare the performance of seven vegetation indices derived from MODIS and Landsat TM imageries prior to and after typhoon Damery, in order to select an optimal index for identifying rubber tree disturbance. The indices to be compared are normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), Enhanced vegetation index (EVI), Leaf area index (LAI), forest z-score (IFZ), and Disturbance Index (DI). The ground truth data of rubber tree damage collected through field investigation was used to verify and compare the results. Our preliminary result for the area with ground-truth data shows that DI has the most significant performance for disturbance detection for this typhoon event. This index DI is then applied to all the areas in Hainan Island hit by Darmey to evaluate the overall forest damage severity. At last, rubber tree damage severity is analyzed with other typhoon hazard factors such as wind, topography, soil and precipitation.

  17. The construction of orthodox super rpp semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GUO Yuqi; Kar Ping Shum

    2004-01-01

    We define orthodox super rpp semigroups and study their semilattice decompositions. Standard representation theorem of orthodox super rpp semigroups whose subband of idempotents is in the varieties of bands described by an identity with at most three variables are obtained.

  18. Simulation of coastal floodings during a typhoon event with the consideration of future sea-level rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Huei, Jhang; Chih-Chung, Wen; Dong-Jiing, Doong; Cheng-Han, Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is an Island in the western Pacific Ocean and experienced more than 3 typhoons in a year. Typhoons bring intense rainfall, high waves, and storm surges, which often resulted in coastal flooding. The flooding can be aggravated by the sea level rise due to the global warming, which may subject Taiwan's coastal areas to more serious damage in the future than present. The objectives of this study are to investigate the flooding caused by typhoons in the Annan District, Tainan, a city on the southwest coast of Taiwan by numerical simulations, considering the effects of sea-level rises according to the level suggested by the 5th Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The simulations were carried out by using MIKE21 HD (a hydrodynamic model) and MIKE21 SW (a spectral wave model). In our simulation, we used an intense typhoon, named Soudelor, as our base typhoon, which made its landfall on the east coast of Taiwan in the summer of 2015, traveled through the width of the island, and exited the island to the north of Tainan. The reasons we pick this typhoon are that it passed near our objective area, wind field data for this typhoon are available, and we have well documented coastal wave and water level measurements during the passage of Typhoon Soudelor. We firstly used ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) wind field data to reconstruct typhoon waves and storm surges for this typhoon by using coupled MIKE21 SW and MIKE21 HD in a regional model. The resultant simulated wave height and sea-level height matched satisfactorily with the measured data. The wave height and storm surge calculated by the regional model provided the boundary conditions for our fine-grid domain. Then different sea-level rises suggested by the IPCC were incorporated into the fine-grid model. Since river discharge due to intense rainfall has also to be considered for coastal flooding, our fine-grid models

  19. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lu, Fang; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Xu, Wei-Gen; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km). This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  20. Unusual growth in intense typhoon occurrences over the Philippine Sea in September after the mid-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haozhe; Yang, Jing; Wu, Liguang; Gong, Daoyi; Wang, Bin; Gao, Miaoni

    2017-03-01

    During the global warming hiatus period (1998-present), a pronounced increase in the number of intense typhoon occurrences was identified over the Philippine Sea (PS: 5°-25°N, 125°-140°E) in September after the mid-2000s. Comparing two periods before and after the mid-2000s indicates that intense typhoons rarely occurred over the PS in September before the mid-2000s, with a frequency of fewer than 0.4 per year, but reached up to nearly 1.5 per year after the mid-2000s. The abrupt increase in intense typhoon occurrences over the PS was primarily attributed to increased tropical cyclone (TC) genesis and favorable large-scale conditions for TC intensification. The increase in TC genesis number over the PS was caused by contributory dynamical conditions, including positive low-level relative vorticity anomalies and anomalous ascents, which corresponded to a southwestward shift and strengthening of the monsoon trough. In addition, among the favorable large-scale conditions, the increased relative humidity that resulted from intensified moisture flux convergence exerted essential effect on the TC intensification. These changes in atmospheric environmental conditions favoring intense typhoon occurrences over the PS were primarily associated with the change in the tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) around the mid-2000s. Besides that, the positive feedback TCs exerted on the circulation was also conducive to the unusual growth in intense typhoon occurrences over the PS. And note that the role of SST anomalies in the air-sea interaction is the key to interpret why the unique phenomenon only occurred in September.

  1. A Comparison of Hourly Typhoon Rainfall Forecasting Models Based on Support Vector Machines and Random Forests with Different Predictor Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Hsiang; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Kuo, Chen-Min; Yang, Tao-Chang; Yu, Pao-Shan

    2016-04-01

    Typhoons with heavy rainfall and strong wind often cause severe floods and losses in Taiwan, which motivates the development of rainfall forecasting models as part of an early warning system. Thus, this study aims to develop rainfall forecasting models based on two machine learning methods, support vector machines (SVMs) and random forests (RFs), and investigate the performances of the models with different predictor sets for searching the optimal predictor set in forecasting. Four predictor sets were used: (1) antecedent rainfalls, (2) antecedent rainfalls and typhoon characteristics, (3) antecedent rainfalls and meteorological factors, and (4) antecedent rainfalls, typhoon characteristics and meteorological factors to construct for 1- to 6-hour ahead rainfall forecasting. An application to three rainfall stations in Yilan River basin, northeastern Taiwan, was conducted. Firstly, the performance of the SVMs-based forecasting model with predictor set #1 was analyzed. The results show that the accuracy of the models for 2- to 6-hour ahead forecasting decrease rapidly as compared to the accuracy of the model for 1-hour ahead forecasting which is acceptable. For improving the model performance, each predictor set was further examined in the SVMs-based forecasting model. The results reveal that the SVMs-based model using predictor set #4 as input variables performs better than the other sets and a significant improvement of model performance is found especially for the long lead time forecasting. Lastly, the performance of the SVMs-based model using predictor set #4 as input variables was compared with the performance of the RFs-based model using predictor set #4 as input variables. It is found that the RFs-based model is superior to the SVMs-based model in hourly typhoon rainfall forecasting. Keywords: hourly typhoon rainfall forecasting, predictor selection, support vector machines, random forests

  2. Extreme Wave Simulation due to Typhoon Bolaven based on locally Enhanced Fine-Mesh Unstructured Grid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    The performance of an integrally coupled wave-tide-surge model using the unstructured mesh system has been tested for the typhoon Bolaven which is regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade with wind gusts measured up to 50 m/s, causing serious damages with 19 victims. Use of the unstructured mesh in coastal sea regions of marginal scale allows all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed; the physics of wave-circulation interactions can be then correctly resolved. The model covers the whole Yellow and East China Seas with locally refined meshes near the regions of Gageo Island (offshore southwestern corner of the Korean Peninsula) and south of Jeju Island (Gangjeong and Seogwipo ports). The wind and pressure fields during the passage of typhoon Bolaven are generated by the blending method. Generally the numerical atmospheric model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the strength of typhoons due to dynamic and resolution restrictions. In this study we could achieve an improved conservation of the typhoon strength by blending the Holland typhoon model result by the empirical formula onto the ambient meteorological fields of NCEP dataset. The model results are compared with the observations and the model performance is then evaluated. The computed wave spectrums for one and two dimensions are compared with the observation in Ieodo station. Results show that the wind wave significantly enhances the current intensity and surge elevation, addressing that to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect in the wave-tide-surge coupled model is important for the accurate prediction of current and sea surface elevation as well as extreme waves in shallow coastal sea regions. The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting and forecasting the wave-tide-surges in marine environments with complex coastlines, shallow water depth and fine sediment.

  3. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  4. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  5. Super Girls Still Center Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The TV singing contest continues to draw a devoted audience, but will its impact on Chinese culture fall away like a shooting star? Ask any teenage girl in China to name the finalists of last year's Super Girl show and chances are she will instantly come up with the three big names.She'll probable

  6. Analysis of Forensic Super Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    BIB .1  vii List of Figures Figure Page...Hacker disconnects from User’s system  User clicks off Screen Saver  User closes Solitaire program  User logs off system BIB .1...analysis- tapestry_33836. BIB .2 Guðjónsson, K. (2010). Mastering the super timeline with log2timeline. SANS Gold Paper accepted June 29,2010

  7. Effect of Surface waves On air-sea momentum flux in high wind conditions for typhoons in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangming Zhou; Aifang Wang; Peifang Guo; Zhifeng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ wave model is implemented in the South China Sea to investigate the air-sea momentum flux in high wind conditions during 23 passages of typhoon occurred in 2005.The wave model is driven by the reanalyzed surface winds assimilated by sevcral meteorologic data sources.The friction velocity was calculated and the relationships between different air-sea momentum param. eters were studied.The results show that the drag coefficient decreases with the wave age generally and levels off for wind speeds higher than 35 m/s under typhoon wind forcing.The spatial variations of air-sea momentum flux parameters in high wind conditions forced by typhoons are completely different from those at weak wind speeds and significantly depend on the relative position from the typhoon center.

  8. Short-term forecasting through intermittent assimilation of data from Taiwan and mainland China coastal radars for Typhoon Meranti (2010) at landfall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kun Zhao; Xinfeng Li; Ming Xue; Ben Jong-Dao Jou; Wen-Chau Lee

    2012-01-01

      Radial velocity (Vr) and reflectivity (Z) data from eight coastal operational radars of mainland China and Taiwan are assimilated for the first time using the ARPS 3DVAR and cloud analysis package for Pacific Typhoon Meranti of 2010...

  9. THE TOPOGRAPHIC PARAMETER SENSITIVITY TO VORTICITY PROPAGATION AND TYPHOON TANGENTIAL VELOCITY CHANGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-hua

    2005-01-01

    A high resolution shallow-water model is designed to study the roles which the topographical parameter and latitudinal basic flow play in the propagation of vortex Rossby waves and typhoon tangential velocity changes. With no latitudinal flow, the horizontal scale effects of island terrain on the vortex Rossby waves propagation show that the disturbance vorticity follows a clockwise island-circulating path more significantly, the local maximum wind speed amplitude reduces more sharply, the maximum mean azimuthally tangential wind spins down more substantially, when the topographic horizontal scale augments. With the latitudinal basic flow, the evolution of local wind and mean velocity are affected by the distance changes between TC and the terrain and the time length of topographic action: the local wind amplitude intensifies and the mean velocity diminishes while the distance is shortening; the opposite is true while TC is away from the terrain gradually.

  10. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using Principal Component Analysis and image processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2012-08-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and image processing are used to determine Total Electron Content (TEC) anomalies in the F-layer of the ionosphere relating to Typhoon Nakri for 29 May, 2008 (UTC). PCA and image processing are applied to the global ionospheric map (GIM) with transforms conducted for the time period 12:00–14:00 UT on 29 May, 2008 when the wind was most intense. Results show that at a height of approximately 150–200 km the TEC anomaly is highly localized; however, it becomes more intense and widespread with height. Potential causes of these results are discussed with emphasis given to acoustic gravity waves caused by wind force.

  11. Comparison Study on Wind Input and Whitecapping Dissipation Expressions in Numerical Simulation of Typhoon Generated Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of wind input and whitecapping dissipation on the simulation of typhoon-waves, three experiments are conducted with the latest version of SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model. The three experiments adopt the Komen, Janssens, and Westhuysen expressions for wind input and whitecapping dissipation, respectively. Besides the above-mentioned source terms, other parameterization schemes in these experiments are the same. It shows that the experiment with the Westhuysen expression result in the least simulation errors while that with the Janssens expression has the most. The results from the experiments with Komen and Westhuysen expressions show that the differences in significant wave height (SWH) have a good correlation with the differences in dissipation energy caused by whitecapping. This indicates that the whitecapping dissipation source term plays an important role in the resultant differences of the simulated SWH between the two experiments.

  12. Super-translations and super-rotations at the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Donnay, Laura; Gonzalez, Hernan A; Pino, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic symmetries close to non-extremal black hole horizons are generated by an extension of super-translations. This group is generated by a semi-direct sum of Virasoro and abelian currents. The charges associated to the asymptotic Killing symmetries satisfy the same algebra. When considering the special case of the stationary black hole, the zero mode charges correspond to the angular momentum and the entropy at the horizon.

  13. Field Observations of Changes in SST, Chlorophyll and POC Flux in the Southern East China Sea Before and After the Passage of Typhoon Jangmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yen Shih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe tropical storms play an important role in triggering phytoplankton blooms, yet direct field observation of evidence of the effects of a typhoon is very rare. Sea surface temperature (SST, nitrate concentration, chlorophyll a (chl a concentration, and particulate organic carbon (POC flux were measured before and shortly after Typhoon Jangmi which affected the southern East China Sea (SECS on September 28 ~ 29, 2008. In situ SST (27.5 ~ 28.0°C on September 19 ~ 21, decreased to ~24.0°C (October 3 ~ 6 in the SECS 4 ~ 7 days after the passage of Typhoon Jangmi. In situ nitrate and chl a concentrations 7-days (on October 6 after the passage of Jangmi were 1.9 μM and 1.61 mg m-3, respectively, much higher than those (nitrate: 0.3 μM and chl a: 0.73 mg m-3 concentrations before the typhoon (September 21. The enhanced chl a concentration is thus caused by a nutrient supply via vertical mixing or upwelling in the euphotic zone. The POC flux 7-days after Jangmi¡¦s passage was 552 ± 28 mg-C m-2 d-1, a ~2.5-fold increases before the typhoon (224 ± 33 mg-C m-2 d-1, on September 21. Our results suggest that typhoons indeed can stimulate efficient POC export out of the euphotic zone, while it is still poorly understood with regard to the total effects of a typhoon on nutrient dynamics and detailed carbon sequestration due to sampling difficulty. Therefore, successional sea-going observations ought to be conducted in the affected area after the passage of typhoons.

  14. Bacterial abundance and viability in rainwater associated with cyclones, stationary fronts and typhoons in southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Murata, Kotaro; Toyonaga, Satoshi; Zhang, Daizhou

    2017-10-01

    The abundance and viability of bacterial cells in rainwater at a suburban site in southwestern Japan between October 2014 and September 2015 were measured and their distinctiveness, according to synoptic weather systems, i.e., cyclones (cold fronts), stationary fronts (including Meiyu and non-Meiyu fronts) and typhoons, was examined. On average, the cell concentration of bacteria in the rainwater was 2.3 ± 1.5 × 104 cells mL-1, and bacterial viability, the ratio of viable cells to total cells, was 80 ± 10%. In the rainwater of cyclones when clouds were induced by the intrusion of continental air, the bacterial concentration was higher (3.5 ± 1.6 × 104 cells mL-1) and the viability was lower (75 ± 8%) than in the rainwater of other types. In the rainwater of Meiyu fronts and typhoons when clouds were significantly influenced by marine air, bacterial concentrations were 1.5 ± 0.5 × 104 and 1.2 ± 0.3 × 104 cells mL-1, and bacterial viabilities were 84 ± 7% and 85 ± 7%, respectively. In the rainwater of non-Meiyu stationary fronts, the bacterial concentration was 2.4 ± 1.6 × 104 cells mL-1, and the viability was 78 ± 14%. Abundant bacteria were associated with ions nss-SO42-, nss-Ca2+, and NO3- in rainwater, but bacterial concentrations did not correlate with the ratios of airborne particle concentrations to the precipitation amounts. Further investigations with correlation and principal component analysis combining bacteria and ion species revealed that bacteria in the rainwater were likely enclosed in clouds at the stage of cloud formation in addition to below-cloud removal, and bacteria involved in the rainwater did not show confirmable growth.

  15. Precursory landforms and geologic structures of catastrophic landslides induced by typhoon Talas 2011 Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, M.; Matsushi, Y.; Tsou, C.

    2013-12-01

    Our experience of catastrophic landslides induced by rainstorms and earthquakes in recent years suggests that many of them are preceded by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation continues slowly and continually and some of them transform into catastrophic failures, which cause devastating damage in wide areas. Some other types, however, do not change into catastrophic failure. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation that preceded catastrophic failures induced by typhoon Talas 2011 Japan, had been surveyed with airborne laser scanner beforehand, of which high-resolution DEMs gave us an important clue to identify which type of topographic features of gravitational slope deformation is susceptible to catastrophic failure. We found that 26 of 39 deep-seated catastrophic landslides had small scarps along the heads of future landslides. These scarps were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Although the scarps may have been enlarged by degradation, their sizes relative to the whole slopes suggest that minimal slope deformation had occurred in the period immediately before the catastrophic failure. The scarp ratio, defined as the ratio of length of a scarp to that of the whole slope both measured along the slope line, ranged from 1% to 23%. 38% of the landslides with small scarps had scarp ratios less than 4%, and a half less than 8%. This fact suggests that the gravitational slope deformation preceded catastrophic failure was relatively small and may suggest that those slopes were under critical conditions just before catastrophic failure. The above scarp ratios may be characteristic to accretional complex with undulating, anastomosing thrust faults, which were major sliding surfaces of the typhoon-induced landslides. Eleven of the remaining 13 landslides occurred in landslide scars of previous landslides or occurred as an extension of landslide scars at the lower parts of

  16. The potential for typhoon impact on bird populations on the island of Rota, Northern Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous independent analyses of climate change have suggested that changing weather patterns are resulting in increasing frequency or intensity of hurricanes and typhoons. We explore the relationship between cyclonic event frequency and severity on measures of bird abundance on the island of Rota, in the Northern Mariana Islands to determine if changes in cyclonic event pattern might be related to the local decline of avian species. We developed a database of Rota cyclonic event encounters since 1952 and three primary variables for analysis of cyclonic event behavior were then derived from this data: Time-Between-Typhoon-Encounters, Distance from Rota at closest approach, and Pressure at the center of the cyclonic event at the point of closest approach Three similar smoothed variables were derived relative to each Breeding Bird and Variable Circle Plot census time point. Multivariate general linear models were constructed separately for each bird abundance data set with multiple species as dependent variables and smoothed cyclonic event time-between-encounter, distance-at-closest- point, and central-pressure-at-closest-point as independent variables. Cyclonic event behavior in relation to Rota did not exhibit an increase in frequency, as sometimes perceived, but did show a significant decrease in distance to the island and an increase in intensity as measured by central pressure. Several species abundances showed significant relationships with cyclonic event pressure or distance, including the Mariana Crow, Philippine Turtle Dove, and Rufous Fantail. It appears that changes in cyclonic event “behavior” could be impacting forest-bird populations on Rota. Overall, bird population declines may be due to a combined effect of habitat loss, introduced species pressure, and cyclonic events, where any one of the factors might be enough to tip a species into decline.

  17. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation of QuikSCAT Data on the Numerical Simulation of Typhoon Track and Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhihua; DUAN Yihong; LIANG Xudong; MA Leiming; Johnny Chung-leung CHAN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme (3DVAR) in the mesoscale model version 5 (MM5) of the US Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to study the effect of assimilating the sea-wind data from QuikSCAT on the prediction of typhoon track and intensity. The case of Typhoon Dujuan (2003) is first tested and the results show appreciable improvements. Twelve other cases in 2003 are then evaluated. The assimilation of the QuikSCAT data produces significant impacts on the structure of Dujuan in terms of the horizontal and vertical winds, sealevel pressure and temperature at the initial time. With the assimilation, the 24-h (48-h) track prediction of 11 (10) out of the 12 typhoons is improved. The 24-h (48-h) prediction of typhoon intensity is also improved in 10 (9) of the 12 cases. These experiments therefore demonstrate that assimilation of the QuikSCAT sea-wind data can increase the accuracy of typhoon track and intensity predictions through modification of the initial fields associated with the typhoon.

  18. 伦敦SuperDesign展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柚子

    2011-01-01

    近日,英国伦敦Super Design展在伦敦Wakefield大街的The Dairy展厅如期举行。本次展览展出了来自包括知名设计师和新兴设计师的特别定制的工作室作品:到如今已经是第五个年头的伦敦Super Deslgn展,力图强发展,展出形式别出心裁、独树一帜,从一个崭新.活跃的角度集展示当代艺术。

  19. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  20. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi Mozumi, Hida city, Gifu prefecture (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    Results on atmospheric neutrino analysis at Super-Kamiokande I is presented. The whole data set of atmospheric neutrino sample in Super-Kamiokande I is consistently explained with an assumption of pure {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. The allowed range of parameters is 1.5x10{sup -3}<{delta}m{sup 2}<3.4x10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}>0.92 at 90% C.L. In the oscillation analysis, we improved the treatment of systematic errors so that they can be considered as independent. This makes possible to find which systematic errors have larger effect on the analysis results. Some sensitivity studies under several assumptions of improvements in systematic errors are presented.

  1. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  2. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  3. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  4. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  5. Typhoon Haiyan overwash sediments from Leyte Gulf coastlines show local spatial variations with hybrid storm and tsunami signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Switzer, Adam D.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Siringan, Fernando P.; Khan, Nicole S.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2017-08-01

    Marine inundation associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 left overwash sediments inland on the coastal plains of the northwestern shores of Leyte Gulf, Philippines. The Haiyan overwash deposit provides a modern sedimentary record of storm surge deposition from a Category 5 landfalling typhoon. We studied overwash sediments at two locations that experienced similar storm surge conditions but represent contrasting sedimentological regimes, namely a siliciclastic coast and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate coast. The contrasting local geology is significantly reflected in the differences in sediment grain size, composition and sorting at the two sites. The Haiyan overwash sediments are predominantly sand and silt and can be traced up to 1.6 km inland, extending farther beyond the previously reported tsunami deposits.

  6. Late Holocene environmental reconstructions and the implications on flood events, typhoon patterns, and agriculture activities in NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-C.; Behling, H.; Lee, T.-Q.; Li, H.-C.; Huh, C.-A.; Shiau, L.-J.; Chang, Y.-P.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we reconstructed the paleoenvironmental changes from a sediment archive of the floodplain lake in Ilan Plain of NE Taiwan on multi-decadal resolution for the last ca. 1900 years. On the basis of pollen and diatom records, we evaluated the record of past vegetation, floods, typhoons and agriculture activities of this area, which is sensitive to the hydrological conditions of the West Pacific. High sedimentation rates with low microfossil preservations reflected multiple flood events and humid climatic conditions during 100-1400 AD. A shortly interrupted dry phase can be found during 940-1010 AD. The driest phase corresponds to the Little Ice Age phase 1 (LIA1, 1400-1620 AD) with less disturbance by flood events, which enhanced the occurrence of wetlands (Cyperaceae) and diatom depositions. Humid phases with frequent typhoons are inferred by high percentages of Lagerstroemia and high ratios of planktonic/benthic diatoms, respectively, during 500-700 AD and Little Ice Age phase 2 (LIA2, 1630-1850 AD). The occurrences of cultivated Poaceae (Oryza) during 1250-1300 AD and the last ~400 years, reflect agriculture activities, which seems to implicate strongly with the environmental stability. Finally, we found flood events which dominated during the El Niño-like stage, but dry events as well as frequent typhoon events happened during the La Niña-like stage. After comparing our results with the reconstructed proxy for tropical hydrological conditions, we suggested that the local hydrology in coastal East Asia were strongly affected by the typhoon-triggered heavy rainfalls which were influenced by the variation of global temperature, expansion of the Pacific warm pool and intensification of ENSO events.

  7. The Analysis of the Concrete Gravity Dam’s Foundation Uplift Pressure under the Function of Typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How to evaluate the seepage safety status of the concrete gravity dam under the function of short-period heavy rainfall and the possible historical extreme reservoir water level during typhoon is an important issue considering the dam safety-monitoring. Based on analysis of the monitoring series of the foundation uplift pressure, this paper assumed the influential process of antecedent reservoir water level and rainfall as a process of normal distribution and introduced the mutation factor to reflect the uprush feature of uplift pressure under the function of high-influential typhoon. Moreover, the corresponding hysteresis days and influential days of the model are optimized with quantum genetic algorithm (QGA to raise the fitting and prediction accuracy. It is verified that the new statistical model for fitting can obtain higher multiple correlation coefficient (0.972 compared with the traditional statistical model (0.925 and could also perfectly predict the uprush feature of the pressure during the typhoon, which is of certain theoretical and practical application value in the future.

  8. AN IMPACT STUDY OF A NEW TYPE OF DATA OF ADAPTIVE OR TARGETING OBSERVATION ON TYPHOON FORECAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xiao-wei; CHEN De-hui; ZHANG Qing-hong

    2006-01-01

    There was a new concept of ‘adaptive or targeting observation' in recent years, which is an additional and targeting observation based on the existing and fixed observing network for the atmosphere on the impacted region. Dropsonde is one of the important observing instruments in the adaptive or targeting observation. In this paper, GRAPES, the next generation of numerical weather prediction system of China has been used. The impacts on the typhoon Dujuan (No.200315) forecast in experiments with dropsonde have been studied and experiments on sensitivity have also been done. It was found that the forecasts of the elements have been improved obviously with the use of dropsonde, such as the path, the center location, and the intensity of typhoon. It was also found in the sensitivity studies that the setting of deviation structure also has obvious impacts on the forecast for typhoons. It is not true that the simulation is better when the proportion of the data of dropsonde is larger in the course to modify the background.

  9. Late Holocene environmental reconstructions and their implications on flood events, typhoon, and agricultural activities in NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-C.; Behling, H.; Lee, T.-Q.; Li, H.-C.; Huh, C.-A.; Shiau, L.-J.; Chang, Y.-P.

    2014-10-01

    We reconstructed paleoenvironmental changes from a sediment archive of a lake in the floodplain of the Ilan Plain of NE Taiwan on multi-decadal resolution for the last ca. 1900 years. On the basis of pollen and diatom records, we evaluated past floods, typhoons, and agricultural activities in this area which are sensitive to the hydrological conditions in the western Pacific. Considering the high sedimentation rates with low microfossil preservations in our sedimentary record, multiple flood events were. identified during the period AD 100-1400. During the Little Ice Age phase 1 (LIA 1 - AD 1400-1620), the abundant occurrences of wetland plant (Cyperaceae) and diatom frustules imply less flood events under stable climate conditions in this period. Between AD 500 and 700 and the Little Ice Age phase 2 (LIA 2 - AD 1630-1850), the frequent typhoons were inferred by coarse sediments and planktonic diatoms, which represented more dynamical climate conditions than in the LIA 1. By comparing our results with the reconstructed changes in tropical hydrological conditions, we suggested that the local hydrology in NE Taiwan is strongly influenced by typhoon-triggered heavy rainfalls, which could be influenced by the variation of global temperature, the expansion of the Pacific warm pool, and the intensification of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.

  10. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Peng, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Hua; Chen, Kwo-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  11. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hwa Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  12. An experimenal analysis for the impact of 2D variation assimilation of satellite data on typhoon track simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Hongqin; Wu Zengmao; Gao Shanhong

    2003-01-01

    A series of test simulations are performed to evaluate the impact of satellite-derived meteorological data on numerical typhoon track prediction. Geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS-5) and NOAA's TIROS operational vertical sounder (TOVS) observations are used in the experiments. A twodimensional variation assimilation scheme is developed to assimilate the satellite data directly into the Penn State-NCAR nonhydrostatic meteorological model (MM5). Three-dimensional objective analyses fields based on T213 results and routine observations are employed as the background fields of the initialization. The comparisons of the simulated typhoon tracks are also carried out, which correspond respectively to the initialization scheme with two-dimensional variation (2D- Var), three-dimensional observational nudging and direct assimilation of satellite data. It is found that, comparing with the experiments without satellite data assimilation, the first two assimilation schemes lead to significant improvements on typhoon track prediction. Track errors reduce by 18% at 12 h for 2D- Var and from about 16% at 24 h to about 35% at 48 h for observational nudging. The simulated results based on assimilating different kinds of satellite data are also compared.

  13. Watching the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2003-01-01

    Subarcsecond infrared and radio observations yield important information about the formation of super star clusters from their surrounding gas. We discuss the general properties of ionized and molecular gas near young, forming SSCs, as illustrated by the prototypical young forming super star cluster nebula in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. This super star cluster appears to have a gravitationally bound nebula. The lack of molecular gas suggests a very high star formation efficiency, consistent with the formation of a large, bound star cluster.

  14. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  15. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yu; Jingwei Han

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and $r$ -matrix are also given in this paper.

  16. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and r-matrix are also given in this paper.

  17. Rapid Response to a Typhoon-Induced Flood with an SAR-Derived Map of Inundated Areas: Case Study and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wei Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful case of a rapid response to a flash flood in I-Lan County of Taiwan with a map of inundated areas derived from COSMO-SkyMed 1 radar satellite imagery within 24 hours. The flood was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Based on the ensemble forecasts of trajectory, an urgent request of spaceborne SAR imagery was made 24 hours before Typhoon Soulik made landfall. Two COSMO-SkyMed images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The standard level-1b product (radiometric-corrected, geometric-calibrated and orthorectified image was generated by using the off-the-shelf SARscape software. Following the same approach used with the Expert Landslide and Shadow Area Delineating System, the regional threshold of each tile image was determined to delineate still water surface and quasi-inundated areas in a fully-automatic manner. The results were overlaid on a digital elevation model, and the same tile was visually compared to an optical image taken by Formosat-2 before this event. With this ancillary information, the inundated areas were accurately and quickly identified. The SAR-derived map of inundated areas was published on a web-based platform powered by Google Earth within 24 hours, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of disaster prevention and mitigation. A detailed validation was made afterwards by comparing the map with in situ data of the water levels at 17 stations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas. A standard operating procedure was derived from this work and followed by the Water Hazard Mitigation Center of the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan, in subsequent typhoon seasons, such as Typhoon Trami (August, 2013 and Typhoon Soudelor (August, 2015.

  18. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-11-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  19. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  20. Development of vulnerability curves to typhoon hazards based on insurance policy and claim dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wanmei; Fang, Weihua; li, Xinze; Wu, Peng; Tong, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability refers to the characteristics and circumstances of an exposure that make it vulnerable to the effects of some certain hazards. It can be divided into physical vulnerability, social vulnerability, economic vulnerabilities and environmental vulnerability. Physical vulnerability indicates the potential physical damage of exposure caused by natural hazards. Vulnerability curves, quantifying the loss ratio against hazard intensity with a horizontal axis for the intensity and a vertical axis for the Mean Damage Ratio (MDR), is essential to the vulnerability assessment and quantitative evaluation of disasters. Fragility refers to the probability of diverse damage states under different hazard intensity, revealing a kind of characteristic of the exposure. Fragility curves are often used to quantify the probability of a given set of exposure at or exceeding a certain damage state. The development of quantitative fragility and vulnerability curves is the basis of catastrophe modeling. Generally, methods for quantitative fragility and vulnerability assessment can be categorized into empirical, analytical and expert opinion or judgment-based ones. Empirical method is one of the most popular methods and it relies heavily on the availability and quality of historical hazard and loss dataset, which has always been a great challenge. Analytical method is usually based on the engineering experiments and it is time-consuming and lacks built-in validation, so its credibility is also sometimes criticized widely. Expert opinion or judgment-based method is quite effective in the absence of data but the results could be too subjective so that the uncertainty is likely to be underestimated. In this study, we will present the fragility and vulnerability curves developed with empirical method based on simulated historical typhoon wind, rainfall and induced flood, and insurance policy and claim datasets of more than 100 historical typhoon events. Firstly, an insurance exposure

  1. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  2. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We outline the possibility of optical trapping and tweezing with Super-Gaussian beam profiles. We show that the trapping strength can be tuned continuously by adjusting the order of a Super-Gaussian beam, approaching that of a perfect Gaussian...

  3. Tetrahedral Units: For Dodecahedral Super-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Y; Liebman, J F

    2016-01-01

    Different novel organic-chemical possibilities for tetrahedral building units are considered, with attention to their utility in constructing different super-structures. As a representative construction we consider the use of sets of 20 such identical tetrahedral units to form a super-dodecahedron.

  4. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-04

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities.

  5. Estimation of probable maximum typhoon wave for coastal nuclear power plant%滨海核电可能最大台风浪的推算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁赟

    2011-01-01

    采用当前国际流行的第三代波浪模式SWAN探讨了滨海核电工程可能最大台风浪的计算,并分析了可能最大台风浪与相伴随的可能最大风暴潮成长规律.分析得可能最大台风浪通常滞后可能最大风暴潮增水峰值,推算得到的可能最大台风浪高于遮浪海洋站观测到的最大波高,为滨海核电工程可能最大台风浪的推算提供参考.%The third-generation wave model, SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), was employed to estimate the probable maximum typhoon wave at a coastal engineering area. The relationship between the development of probable maximum typhoon wave and that of probable maximum storm surge was investigated. It is shown that the probable maximum typhoon wave usually occurs later than the probable maximum storm surge. The estimated probable maximum typhoon wave is higher than the historical observational maximum wave height data of Zhelang station. The approach utilized in this study to estimate probable maximum typhoon wave could provide valuable information in design of coastal engineering.

  6. Responses of lower trophic-level organisms to typhoon passage on the outer shelf of the East China Sea: an incubation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yasuki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons can induce vertical mixing, upwelling, or both in the water column due to strong wind stress. These events can induce phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic ocean after typhoon passage. However, little is known about the responses of lower trophic-level organisms or changes in the community structure following the passage of typhoons, particularly in offshore regions. Therefore, we evaluated community succession on the outer shelf of the East China Sea through on-deck bottle incubation experiments simulating hydrographic conditions after the passage of a typhoon. Under all of the experimental conditions we tested, chlorophyll a concentrations increased more than 9-fold within 6 days, and these algal cells were mainly composed of large diatoms (>10 μm. Ciliates also increased along with the diatom bloom. These results suggest that increases in diatom and ciliate populations may enhance biogenic carbon export in the water column. Typhoons can affect not only phytoplankton productivity, but also the composition of lower trophic-level organisms and biogeochemical processes in oligotrophic offshore regions.

  7. 上海地区台风灾害损失评估%LOSSES ASSESSMENT OF TYPHOON DISASTER IN SHANGHAI DURING 1949-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史军; 肖风劲; 穆海振; 徐家良

    2013-01-01

    Natural disaster is one of the most important global issues we are facing.Typhoons bring about gales,rainstorms,very rough seas and storm surges,do great damage to the community,and cause loss of human life and destruction of properties.Greenhouse gas-induced climate warming potentially could affect tropical cyclones in a number of ways,including intensity,frequency of occurrence,geographical distribution,and storm tracks.The combined influence of increasing sea-level rise and stronger tropical cyclone could result in flooding in coastal area.As one of the most dangerous weather systems with the maximum wind of 34 knots or higher,typhoon has caused enormous losses of life and economic damage in Shanghai.There were totally 145 affecting typhoons in Shanghai during 1949-2009,of which there were 117 affecting typhoons during 1961-2009,with mean annual of 2.4 affecting typhoons.The frequency of affecting typhoons varied greatly between years in Shanghai,depending mainly upon the atmospheric circulation background.The impact of typhoon could be worse by population increases and higher density,more people living near the coast,greater wealth,and other factors,so quantitative losses assessment of typhoon disasters in Shanghai is important for disaster prevention and mitigation.Based on the wind and rain observations from 11 meteorological stations,basic geographic information data,social economicstatistic data and historic typhoon loss data,three kinds of disaster,i.e.casualties,inundated cropland area and collapsed or damaged houses were collected,and the damage indices were calculated from 41 typhoons.The correlation coefficients between damage indices and disaster-causing factors were calculated,and the step-wise regression method was used to establish loss evaluation model of typhoon disaster for Shanghai.The inter-annual variation and regional distribution difference of typhoon disaster losses was also assessed in Shanghai during 1949-2009.The results indicated that

  8. Losses Assessment of Crops due to Typhoon Disaster in China Coastal Areas —— A Case Study of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, W.; Fang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability which quantifies the loss ratio under different hazard intensity is an important feature of the natural disaster system and has important significance to natural disaster risk assessment. Agriculture is an outdoor industry with high risk of meteorological disasters. The strong winds, heavy rain and storm surge are main typhoon hazard factors to crops. To provide a quantitative research method for the loss evaluation of crops due to typhoon disaster we first revised two vulnerability curves for crops under comprehensive intensity of typhoon based on the simulated hazard data and loss data related to historical typhoon events landing on China from 1949 to 2014;and then established a storm surge vulnerability matrix of crops regarding Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province as the study area ; finally, we put forward three storm surge fragility curves for crops representing different states of loss. The results can effectively describe the typhoon vulnerability for crops in China coastal areas so as to provide the input to post-disaster loss assessments and catastrophe modeling applications.

  9. A community-based gastroenteritis outbreak after Typhoon Haiyan, Leyte, Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Justin Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, an increasing number of acute gastroenteritis cases were reported in Kananga, Leyte, an area where evacuated residents had returned home two days after the disaster. An outbreak investigation was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the increase of gastroenteritis. Methods: A case was defined as any person in Kananga who developed acute diarrhoea (≥ 3 times/24 hours and any of the following symptoms: fever, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain from 11 November 2013 to 10 December 2013. Active case finding was conducted by reviewing medical records, and a case-control study was conducted. Rectal swabs and water samples were tested for bacteriological examination. Results: One hundred and five cases were identified. Multivariate analysis revealed that consumption of untreated drinking-water was associated with illness (adjusted odds ratio: 18.2. Both rectal swabs and municipal water samples tested positive for Aeromonas hydrophila. On inspection of the municipal water system, breaks in the distribution pipes were found with some submerged in river water. Conclusion: This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was most likely caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and transmitted through a contaminated water source. This study highlights that areas less damaged by a disaster that do not require ongoing evacuation centres can still have acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. All affected areas should be monitored during a disaster response, not just those with evacuation centres. Boiling or chlorinating of water should also be recommended for all areas affected by disaster.

  10. Using artificial neural network approach for modelling rainfall–runoff due to typhoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Chen; Y M Wang; I Tsou

    2013-04-01

    In Taiwan, owing to the nonuniform temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall and high mountains all over the country, hydrologic systems are very complex. Therefore, preventing and controlling flood disasters is imperative. Nevertheless, water level and flow records are essential in hydrological analysis for designing related water works of flood management. Due to the complexity of the hydrological process, reliable runoff is hardly predicted by applying linear and non-linear regression methods. Therefore, in this study, a model for estimating runoff by using rainfall data from a river basin is developed and a neural network technique is employed to recover missing data. For achieving the objectives, hourly rainfall and flow data from Nanhe, Taiwu, and Laii rainfall stations and Sinpi flow station in the Linbien basin are used. The data records were of 27 typhoons between the years 2005 and 2009. The feed forward back propagation network (FFBP) and conventional regression analysis (CRA) were employed to study their performances. From the statistical evaluation, it has been found that the performance of FFBP exceeded that of regression analysis as reflected by the determination coefficients 2, which were 0.969 and 0.284 for FFBP and CRA, respectively.

  11. Survivors’ Solidarity and Attachment in the Immediate Aftermath of the Typhoon Haiyan (Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Andrea; Magni, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Anti-social behavior and self-preservation are often assumed to be normal responses to threats and disasters; on the contrary, decades of research and empirical studies in social sciences showed that pro-social behaviors are frequently common and that solidarity is the typical response to a variety of threats. The main objective of this study is to investigate and describe survivors’ behavior, especially solidarity, according to the presence of familiar persons and to the perception of physical danger, elaborating the framework of Mawson’s social attachment theory. Methods: In order to investigate these relationships, a behavioral research was carried out involving 288 people affected by the December 8th 2013 Haiyan Typhoon (Yolanda). Results: Results revealed that solidarity was predominant and people reacted collectively and actively taking part in relief activities. Furthermore, we found strong solidarity and help towards strangers and unfamiliar persons. Discussion: Investigating how people react is essential to develop a more efficient and effective response strategy, especially in the immediate aftermath of a disaster when disaster managers have little control of the situation and people rely on themselves; the natural tendency to help others can be essential to reduce losses and to fill the temporal gap between the event and the arrival of the organized relief unit. PMID:28154787

  12. Hydrological Effects on Failure Mechanism of the Shiaolin Landslide, Taiwan Induced by Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meei-Ling; Chou, Li-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    In 2009 Typhoon Morakot struck southern Taiwan and induced a catastrophic landslide in Shiaolin Village, Kaoshiung City, and more than 400 people were killed. This research focused on the hydrological condition and its effect on the failure mechanism of the catastrophic Shiaolin Landslide. The topographic analysis was conducted using the DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after the landslide. Based on results of the topographic analysis, a wedge type failure mode was deduced. In order to determine the critical sliding condition and geometry of the failure wedge, the PIV analysis, slope & aspect analysis and attitude analysis were conducted, and comparisons of results were made to finalize the geometry and attitude of the critical sliding condition of the Shiaolin Landslide. The stability analysis was conducted accordingly using material properties from laboratory test and estimation from the similar formation. The effects of ground water variation, possible effect of fault gouge on seepage water table, and the strength reduction of rock mass material were considered in the detailed analysis. The results suggested that the Shiaolin Landslide has a wedge type failure mode, and the ground water variation played an important role of the landslide, and the existence of fault gouge affected the ground hydrology significantly, which could lead to the critical failure of the Shiaolin Landslide.

  13. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  14. Typhoon Winnie (1997) with a Very Large Eye: High Resolution Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qinghong; GUO Chunrui

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Winnie (1997) was one of the hurricanes that had extremely large eyewall ever recorded with a diameter of eyewall reaching 370 km. Using the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model MM5 with 3-kmn grid horizontal spacing on the finest nested mesh, Winnie was successfully simulated in terms of track, intensity, eye and concentric eyewalls. The dynamic and thermal structures of concentric eyewalls were studied based on the model output. It was found that the concentric eyewalls and their surrounding wind fields were asymmetric in observation as well as in simulation. Winnie's outer eyewall was associated with a maximum wind ring, a warm moist ring, and a high vorticity ring. The inner eyewall was associated with a secondary maximum wind ring and a warm moist ring. Upward motion dominated the whole layer of inner eyewall and the area above 2-km altitude of the outer eyewall. Downward motion was found inside the eye and the moat. Radial inflow happened in the boundary layer of the outer eyewall and the moat, but radial outflow dominated the middle and upper levels of the outer eyewall.

  15. Of timelines and timeliness: lessons from Typhoon Haiyan in early disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J Sedfrey S; Manuela, Wilfred S; Tan, Marion Lara L; Sañez, Siegfried Kiel; Tong, Aldo Zelig U

    2016-10-01

    Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013 with maximum sustained winds of 235 kilometres per hour, adversely affecting at least 11 million people and displacing some 673,000 in the central regions of the country. The disaster clearly overwhelmed the Philippine government despite its seemingly well-crafted disaster management plan. Using timelines of different organisations, this paper identifies gaps in the government's response, mainly due to its failure in coordinating and managing relief operations, which adversely affected its effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of critical goods and services following the disaster. The paper also demonstrates how non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the United Nations, foreign governments and other organisations provided assistance, mainly through aid niching, to cover the government's shortcomings. The paper recommends a paradigm shift in the government's disaster response by integrating collaborative arrangements between government agencies and NGOs, and giving local governments the lead role, with the national government as support, in disaster planning and response. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  16. Measuring leaf necrosis and chlorosis of bamboo induced by typhoon 0613 with RGB image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; Haruhiko Yamamoto; Yasuomi Ibaraki

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of leaf necrosis or chlorosis of bamboo induced by Typhoon 0613 (T0613) were analyzed using RGB image analysis in Yamaguchi city, Japan. Results showed a closely positive relationship between Green/Red (G/R) value for indoor taking images of bamboo individual leaves and chlorophyll meter value (SPAD) with regression coefficient of 0.961. The relation between G/R value of room taking images and Necrotic Area Percentage (NAP) for bamboo individual leaves showed an inverse logistic function relationship, with the correlated coefficient equaling to 0.958. Both leaf chlorosis and necrosis can be quantitatively estimated by RGB image analysis. Moreover, the variance of Green/Luminance (G/L) value for the same leaf was less than that of G/R for images taken in the conditions with large light difference, especially for green leaves. G/L value also exhibited a closer relationship with SPAD value of leaves with chlorosis than that of G/R values at the same condition. The relationship between G/L value for bamboo canopies and the Distance from Coastline (DC) was also closer than that of the G/R value for the images taken at field sites with big light difference.

  17. Numerical Study of the Mesoscale Systems in the Spiral Rainband of 0509 Typhoon Matsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lingli; ZHAI Guoqing; HE Bin

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) is used to simulate the local heavy rainstorm process caused by Typhoon Matsa over the northeastern coast of Zhejiang Province in 2005.The results show that the rainstorm was caused mainly by the secondary spiral rainband of the Stationary Band Complex (SBC) structure. Within the secondary spiral rainband there was a strong meso-β-scaie convergence line generated in the boundary layer, corresponding very well to the Doppler radar echo band.The convergence line comprised several smaller convergence centers, and all of these convergence columns inclined outward. Along the convergence line there was precipitation greater than 20 mm occurring during the following one hour. During the heavy rainstorm process, the Doppler radar echo band, convergence line,and the precipitation amount during the following one hour, moved and evolved synchronously. Further study reveals that the vertical shear of radial wind and the low-level jet of tangential wind contributed to the genesis and development of the convergence columns. The combined effect of the ascending leg of the clockwise secondary circulation of radial wind and the favorable environment of the entrance region of the low-level jet of tangential wind further strengthened the convergence. The warm, moist inflow in the lower levels was brought in by the inflows of the clockwise secondary circulation and uplifted intensely at the effect of convergence. In the convectively instable environment, strong convection was triggered to produce the heavy rainstorm.

  18. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  19. Reconstruction of typhoons in the Yangtze River Delta during 1644-1949AD based on historical chorographies%基于方志资料重建1644—1949年长江三角洲地区台风频次序列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangping; YE Yu; FANG Xiuqi

    2012-01-01

    @@%The proxy records on typhoons in the Yangtze River Delta from 1644 to 1949AD were extracted from historical chorographies in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China Period.In reference to the basic principles for identifying historical typhoons,time series on the Yangtze River Delta over a period of 306 years were developed.The conclusions are as follows.(1) There were a total of 241 typhoons from 1644 to 1949AD.Using the historical chorographies from 1884 to 1949AD,the number of typhoons was 65,equal to 87.8% recorded by meteorological observation.The number of years with differences in typhoon activities reconstructed using two ways no more than once is 55,reaching 83.3% in the period from 1884 to 1949AD.This result means the series of historical typhoons reconstructed using historical chorographies can represent the change of typhoon activities over years.(2) The average number of typhoon activities is 0.79 times per year from 1644 to 1949AD,and they show an increasing trend.These 306 years can be divided into three periods by the average number of typhoon activities:it is low from 1644 to 1784AD,and more typhoon activities are found from 1785 to 1904AD.It is worth noting that the number of typhoon activities reaches the summit in the last period,which is 1.2 times per year from 1905 to 1949AD.(3) Before the 20th century,the number of typhoon activities in warm periods is less than the number of cold periods.However,the number of typhoon activities increased dramatically in the early 20th century.Comparing the typhoon activities with El Ni(n)o events,the data show that the number of typhoon activities did not increase when El Ni(n)o occurred.

  20. Comparison of typhoon-induced near-inertial oscillations in shear flow in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhenyu; HU Jianyu; ZHENG Quanan; GAN Jianping

    2015-01-01

    With moorings equipped with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) in 2008 and 2009, we observed three near-inertial oscillation (NIO) events coded 2008a, 2009a and 2009b induced by passages of typhoons or tropical storms. This study compares characteristics of the three NIO events. Event 2008a was the strongest one among the three, and had the longest sustaining period (15 d), while events 2009a and 2009b sustained for only 4 and 8 d, respectively. The three events were distinguished by vertical energy distribution and phase propagation. As for the frequency shift of the NIO, event 2008a had a peak frequency lower than the local Coriolis frequency (red-shift), while events 2009a and 2009b showed blue-shift. The behavior of individual NIO event is jointly decided by the typhoon disturbance and the background ocean condition. Especially the background flow plays an important role by effects of advection and modulation. The results in this study provide observational evidence of variational NIO response to background flow field. As indicated by the distribution of vorticity and effective Coriolis frequency derived from numerical modeling, the large amplitude and elongated sustaining period of event 2008a were attributed to the waveguide effect of the background shear flow. This effect redistributed the NIO energy after the typhoon passage, absorbed incident waves and trapped energy in the area of the negative vorticity. While the background flow during events 2009a and 2009b did not have such effects due to the near-zero vorticity in the mooring area.

  1. Sediment transfer in coastal catchments exposed to typhoons: lessons learnt from catchments contaminated with Fukushima radioactive fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-04-01

    Several coastal catchments located in Northeastern Japan received significant radioactive fallout following the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011, with initial 137Cs activities exceeding 100 kBq m-2. Although radiocesium poses a considerable health risk for local populations, it also provides a relatively straightforward tracer to investigate sediment transfers in catchments exposed to spring floods and heavy typhoons in late summer and early fall. This study focused on two catchments (the Niida and Mano Rivers) covering a surface area of 450 km² that drain the main radioactive plume. A database of radiocesium activities measured in potential source samples (n=260) was used to model radiocesium dilution in 342 sediment deposit samples collected at 38 locations during 9 different sampling campaigns conducted every 6 months from Nov. 2011 to Nov. 2015. The dilution of the initial radiocesium contamination in sediment was individually calculated for each of the 342 samples using a distribution model. Results show that the proportion of heavily contaminated sediment increased from 27% to 39% after the occurrence of typhoons in 2013 (with rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm in 48 hours) and from 29% to 45% after the 2015 spring floods, illustrating the occurrence of soil erosion and resuspension of contaminated material stored in the river channel. In contrast, the occurrence of a very strong typhoon in September 2015 (up to 450 mm in 48h) led to the dilution and the flush of the contamination to the Pacific Ocean, with the proportion of heavily contaminated material decreasing from 45 to 21%. This case study in catchments impacted by the Fukushima accident illustrates their high reactivity to both human activities and rainfall. These results will improve our understanding of sediment transfers in similar coastal mountainous environments frequently exposed to heavy rainfall.

  2. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  3. The superB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.i [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents. Comparing to current B-Factories, the reduced center of mass boost of the SuperB machine requires improved vertex resolution to allow precision measurements sensitive to New Physics. We present the conceptual design of the silicon vertex tracker (SVT) for the SuperB detector with the present status of the R and D on the different options under study for its innermost Layer0.

  4. Vulnerability Assessment of Housing Damage in the Philippines Due to an Increase Increase in Typhoon Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Stromberg, Per; Gasparatos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    It is currently feared that the increase in surface sea temperature resulting from increasing level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could result in higher tropical cyclone intensity in the future. Although the vulnerability of infrastructure and economic systems have been studied for a number of developed countries, very little work has been done on developing countries. The present work first attempts to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions in the Philippines to the passage of tropical cyclones. To this effect a total of 22 typhoons and tropical storms that affected the Philippines were analysed for the period 2003-2008. The data used was collected by the National Disaster Coordinating Council of the Philippines, who issue "SitRep" NDCC Reports after each major storm. This agency provides damage data for each region, including number of casualties, affected people, damaged and destroyed houses, and losses in the infrastructure and agriculture. The likely economic effects of increased typhoon intensity by using a Monte Carlo Simulation that magnifies the intensity of historical tropical cyclones between the years 1978 and 2008 to simulate the economic damage by 2085. The methodology used is based on the work of Esteban et al. (2009), which in turn uses the results of Knutson and Tuleya (2004) for the estimation of the increase in tropical cyclone intensity in 2085. The results show that downtime could increase from a national 1% to 1.3% by 2050 if economic and population growth are taken into account (29 to 36bn USD, from a total GDP of 2,757bn USD by 2050). If these are ignored the time lost each year can be estimated to cost around 630m USD (PPP) for the control scenario, which could increase to between 766m or 945mm USD by the year 2085 for the two different scenarios considered. This indirect damage depends on the geographical location and is for example higher in some areas of the northern island of Luzon, while the island of Mindanao in the

  5. The research on typhoon wave spectrum in northwestern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongyuan; Cao, Xuefeng; Wen, Xianhua; Shi, Maochong; Zhao, Dongliang; Guo, Peifang

    2017-02-01

    Based upon the one-year wind wave measurement data, collected from the South China Sea (SCS) at coordinates 20° 36.298'N, 110°45.433'E. by Acoustic Wave And Current (AWAC), we analyzed the wave characteristics and concluded that the most common wave direction was E and the second most common direction was ENE, the mean and the maximum values of significant height was 1.2 m and 4.36 m, respectively. The mean period was 4.0 s. We also evaluated the wave spectrums under conditions existing in three typhoons: Rumbi, Jeti and Utor. We found that unimodal spectrums occurred more often than others, and the maximum spectrum peak was 30.7911 m2 s. The minimum peak frequency was 0.0625 Hz, and the mean peak frequency was 0.126 Hz. The wave period is important for the design of marine structures, especially the position of peak frequency had a great influence on the stress calculation. Spectral analysis showed that the values of peak frequency distributed between 0.063 Hz and 0.217 Hz, with the mean value 0.114 Hz. We fit the normalized spectrum with 6 theoretical spectral models, out of which, the Wen spectrum, JONSWAP spectrum and Wallops spectrum were proved to give the best fit. What distinguished the Wen Spectrum from the rest was that it does not rely on the measured spectrum for parameter estimation. Hence, we recommend that the Wen spectrum should be widely used in marine construction.

  6. Prediction and Diagnosis of Typhoon Morakot (2009 Using the Naval Research Laboratory's Mesoscale Tropical Cyclone Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of Typhoon Morakot (2009 were performed using the Naval Research Laboratory¡¦s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System for Tropical Cyclones (COAMPS-TC. COAMPS-TC was run in real-time in 2009 in the western North Pacific Ocean basin, and simulations of Morakot were executed during its life cycle, from formation through landfall in Taiwan. In this work, an evaluation of the model¡¦s performance is presented. The COAMPS-TC average track errors were small and very close to those of the consensus. Further, the intensity errors were small; the mean absolute intensity error at the 48 h lead time was 9 kt. Particular focus was placed on the 72-h simulation beginning on 1200 UTC 6 August, encompassing the time frame before, during and after landfall. COAMPS-TC was able to predict the structure of Morakot reasonably well before and after landfall, capturing a large asymmetric tropical cyclone with the precipitation shield shifted to the south of its center. Qualitatively, the precipitation forecast was consistent with observations from the Taiwan rain gauge network, as the model was able to predict two maxima, in both the northern and southern portions of the central mountain range. However, the accumulated precipitation maximum in the southern portion of the central mountain range was underpredicted by approximately 50%. The underprediction in precipitation by COAMPS-TC in southern Taiwan was due to four factors: (i the premature dissipation of tropical storm Goni causing errors in the large-scale flow and moisture pattern after landfall, (ii inaccuracies in the spatial location and timing of convective and stratiform precipitation as Morakot interacted with land and the southwest monsoon flow, (iii a simulated track that moved slightly too slow prior to landfall and slightly too fast after landfall, and (iv a horizontal resolution (5-km that may be too coarse to resolve the interaction of convection with the

  7. N=2 Super - $W_{3}$ Algebra and N=2 Super Boussinesq Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, E; Malik, R P

    1995-01-01

    We study classical $N=2$ super-$W_3$ algebra and its interplay with $N=2$ supersymmetric extensions of the Boussinesq equation in the framework of the nonlinear realization method and the inverse Higgs - covariant reduction approach. These techniques have been previously applied by us in the bosonic $W_3$ case to give a new geometric interpretation of the Boussinesq hierarchy. Here we deduce the most general $N=2$ super Boussinesq equation and two kinds of the modified $N=2$ super Boussinesq equations, as well as the super Miura maps relating these systems to each other, by applying the covariant reduction to certain coset manifolds of linear $N=2$ super-$W_3^{\\infty}$ symmetry associated with $N=2$ super-$W_3$. We discuss the integrability properties of the equations obtained and their correspondence with the formulation based on the notion of the second hamiltonian structure.

  8. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  9. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  10. Mirror-enhanced super-resolution microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Axial excitation confinement beyond the diffraction limit is crucial to the development of next-generation, super-resolution microscopy. STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) nanoscopy offers lateral super-resolution using a donut-beam depletion, but its axial resolution is still over 500 nm. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is widely used for single-molecule localization, but its ability to detect molecules is limited to within the evanescent field of ~ 100 nm from the cell a...

  11. SuperHILAC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1986-06-01

    A high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source is to be installed in the third injector (Abel) at the SuperHILAC, representing the first accelerator use of this novel ion source. The MEVVA source has produced over 1 A of uranium in all charge states, with typically more than 100 electrical mA (emA) of U/sup 5 +/. A substantial fraction of this high current, heavy ion beam must be successfully transported to the entrance of the Wideroe linac to approach the 10 emA space-charge output limit of the Wideroe. Calculations show that up to 50 emA of U/sup 5 +/ can be transported through the present high voltage column. A bouncer will be added to the Cockcroft-Walton supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport line vacuum will be improved to reduce charge exchange, and the phase matching between the 23 MHz Wideroe and the 70 MHz Alvarez linacs will be improved by the addition of two 70 HMz bunchers. The installation of the MEVVA source along with the modifications described above are expected to result in a five-fold increase in beam delivered to Bevatron experiments, increasing the extracted uranium beam to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse.

  12. Super-B Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Donald, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC; Koop, I.; Levichev, E.; Nikitin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /Pisa U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.

  13. SUPER-B LATTICE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati; Piminov, P.; Sinyatkin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Nosochkov, Y.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is designed for 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} luminosity and beam energies of 6.7 and 4.18 GeV for e{sup +} and e{sup -} respectively. The High and Low Energy Rings (HER and LER) have one Interaction Point (IP) with 66 mrad crossing angle. The 1258 m rings fit to the INFN-LNF site at Frascati. The ring emittance is minimized for the high luminosity. The Final Focus (FF) chromaticity correction is optimized for maximum transverse acceptance and energy bandwidth. Included Crab Waist sextupoles suppress betatron resonances induced in the collisions with a large Piwinski angle. The LER Spin Rotator sections provide longitudinally polarized electron beam at the IP. The lattice is flexible for tuning the machine parameters and compatible with reusing the PEP-II magnets, RF cavities and other components. Details of the lattice design are presented.

  14. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156302

    2016-01-01

    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  15. A Diagnosis of Some Dynamical Processes Underlying a Higher-Latitude Typhoon Using the Multiscale Window Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The typhoon Damrey that hit Jiangsu the populous coastal province of China on 2 August 2012 is a rarely seen tropical cyclone in that it has a higher latitude origin, and it is part of a twin typhoon. In this study, a recently developed analysis tool—multiscale window transform (MWT and the MWT-based localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA—is applied to investigate its genesis and maintenance. The fields are reconstructed onto three scale windows: large-scale, tropical cyclone–scale, and cumulus convection–scale windows. It is found that the track of Damrey is well along the edge of the subtropical high. Its birth is mainly caused by a strong barotropic instability in the lower troposphere around 24°–25° N. Its later amplification, however, is quite different, related to a baroclinic instability in the upper troposphere. Also discovered in this study is that a strong center of upscale canonical transfer exists over the East China Sea at the mouth of Yangtze River, which accounts for the rapid decay of Damrey before landing.

  16. Full-Scale Measurements and System Identification on Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural health monitoring system (SHMS provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT combined with the random decrement technique (RDT. The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  17. Impact of Assimilating Radiances with the WRFDA ETKF/3DVAR Hybrid System on Prediction of Two Typhoons in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许冬梅; 黄向宇; 于洪利; 闵锦忠

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of AMSU-A and IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) radiances assimila-tion on the prediction of typhoons Vicente and Saola (2012) are studied by using the ensemble transform Kalman fi lter/three-dimensional variational (ETKF/3DVAR) Hybrid system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The experiment without assimilating radiance data in 3DVAR is compared with two experiments using the 3DVAR and ETKF/3DVAR hybrid systems to assimilate AMSU-A radiance, respectively. The results show that AMSU-A radiance data have slight positive impacts on track forecasts of the 3DVAR system. When the ETKF/3DVAR hybrid system is employed, typhoon track forecast skills are greatly improved. For 36-h forecasts, the hybrid system has a lower root-mean-square error for wind and temperature at most levels, and specifi c humidity at low levels, compared to 3DVAR. It is also found that, on average, the use of the IASI radiance data along with AMSU-A radiance data in the hybrid system further increases the track, wind, and specifi c humidity forecast accuracy compared to the experiment without IASI radiance assimilation.

  18. GENERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MESOSCALE CLOUD ON HEAVY RAIN BELT ON THE PERIPHERY OF TYPHOON 9608 (Herb)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志楠; 张明英; 郑新江; 赵亚民

    2001-01-01

    Typhoon-induced heavy rains are mostly studied from the viewpoint of upper-level westerly troughs. It is worthwhile to probe into a case where the rain is caused by tropical cyclone system, which is much heavier. During August 3 ~ 5, 1996, an unusually heavy rainstorm happened in the southwest of Hebei province. It was caused by 3 mesoscale convective cloud clusters on the periphery of a tropical cyclone other than the direct effects of a westerly trough. Generating in a weak baroclinic environment that is unstable with high energy, the cloud clusters were triggered off for development by unstable ageostrophic gravity waves in the low-level southeast jet stream on the periphery of the typhoon. There was a vertical circulation cell with horizontal scale close to 1000 km between the rainstorm area and westerly trough in northeast China. As shown in a computation of the Q vector of frontogenesis function, the circulation cell forms a mechanism of transforming energy between the area of interest and the westerly trough system farther away in northeast China. Study of water vapor chart indicates that high-latitude troughs in the northeast portion of the rain migrate to the southeast to enhance anti-cyclonic divergence in upper-level convection over the area of heavy rain and cause rain clusters, short-lived otherwise, to develop vigorously. It is acting as an amplifier in this case of unusually strong process of rain.

  19. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  20. Full-scale measurements and system identification on Sutong cable-stayed bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tao, Tianyou; Guo, Tong; Li, Jian; Li, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    The structural health monitoring system (SHMS) provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB) in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with the random decrement technique (RDT). The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  1. Large-scale vapor transport of remotely evaporated seawater by a Rossby wave response to typhoon forcing during the Baiu/Meiyu season as revealed by the JRA-55 reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tadasuke; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Hirata, Hidetaka; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-07-01

    The modulation of large-scale moisture transport from the tropics into East Asia in response to typhoon-induced heating during the mature stage of the Baiu/Meiyu season is investigated using the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55), aided by a Rayleigh-type global isotope circulation model (ICM). We highlighted the typhoons that migrate northward along the western periphery of the North Pacific subtropical high and approach the vicinity of Japan. Anomalous anticyclonic circulations to the northeast and southeast of typhoons and cyclonic circulation to their west become evident as they migrate toward Japan, which could be interpreted as a Rossby wave response to typhoon heating. These resultant anomalous circulation patterns form moisture conveyor belt (MCB) stretching from the South Asian monsoon region to East Asia via the confluence region between the monsoon westerlies and central Pacific easterlies. The ICM results confirm that the well-defined nature of the MCB leads to penetration of the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Pacific Ocean water vapors into western Japan. The typhoons have the potential to accumulate large amounts of moisture from distant tropical oceans through the interaction of their Rossby wave response with the background flow. In the case of a typical typhoon, the total precipitable water around the typhoon center as it approaches Japan is maintained by the moisture supply from distant oceans rather than from the underlying ocean, which indirectly leads to the occurrence of heavy rainfall over western Japan.

  2. Cross-calibration of Fuji TR image plate and RAR 2492 x-ray film to determine the response of a DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, G.; Harding, E. C.; Loisel, G. P.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen-Weber, L. B.

    2016-11-01

    Fuji TR image plate is frequently used as a replacement detector medium for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics at NIF, Omega, and Z facilities. However, the familiar Fuji BAS line of image plate scanners is no longer supported by the industry, and so a replacement scanning system is needed. While the General Electric Typhoon line of scanners could replace the Fuji systems, the shift away from photo stimulated luminescence units to 16-bit grayscale Tag Image File Format (TIFF) leaves a discontinuity when comparing data collected from both systems. For the purposes of quantitative spectroscopy, a known unit of intensity applied to the grayscale values of the TIFF is needed. The DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanning system was tested and shown to potentially rival the resolution and dynamic range of Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film. However, the absolute sensitivity of the scanner is unknown. In this work, a methodology to cross calibrate Fuji TR image plate and the absolutely calibrated Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film is presented. Details of the experimental configurations used are included. An energy dependent scale factor to convert Fuji TR IP scanned on a DITABIS Super Micron scanner from 16-bit grayscale TIFF to intensity units (i.e., photons per square micron) is discussed.

  3. Cross-calibration of Fuji TR image plate and RAR 2492 x-ray film to determine the response of a DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, G., E-mail: gsdunha@sandia.gov; Harding, E. C.; Loisel, G. P.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen-Weber, L. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fuji TR image plate is frequently used as a replacement detector medium for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics at NIF, Omega, and Z facilities. However, the familiar Fuji BAS line of image plate scanners is no longer supported by the industry, and so a replacement scanning system is needed. While the General Electric Typhoon line of scanners could replace the Fuji systems, the shift away from photo stimulated luminescence units to 16-bit grayscale Tag Image File Format (TIFF) leaves a discontinuity when comparing data collected from both systems. For the purposes of quantitative spectroscopy, a known unit of intensity applied to the grayscale values of the TIFF is needed. The DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanning system was tested and shown to potentially rival the resolution and dynamic range of Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film. However, the absolute sensitivity of the scanner is unknown. In this work, a methodology to cross calibrate Fuji TR image plate and the absolutely calibrated Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film is presented. Details of the experimental configurations used are included. An energy dependent scale factor to convert Fuji TR IP scanned on a DITABIS Super Micron scanner from 16-bit grayscale TIFF to intensity units (i.e., photons per square micron) is discussed.

  4. Cross-calibration of Fuji TR image plate and RAR 2492 x-ray film to determine the response of a DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, G; Harding, E C; Loisel, G P; Lake, P W; Nielsen-Weber, L B

    2016-11-01

    Fuji TR image plate is frequently used as a replacement detector medium for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics at NIF, Omega, and Z facilities. However, the familiar Fuji BAS line of image plate scanners is no longer supported by the industry, and so a replacement scanning system is needed. While the General Electric Typhoon line of scanners could replace the Fuji systems, the shift away from photo stimulated luminescence units to 16-bit grayscale Tag Image File Format (TIFF) leaves a discontinuity when comparing data collected from both systems. For the purposes of quantitative spectroscopy, a known unit of intensity applied to the grayscale values of the TIFF is needed. The DITABIS Super Micron image plate scanning system was tested and shown to potentially rival the resolution and dynamic range of Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film. However, the absolute sensitivity of the scanner is unknown. In this work, a methodology to cross calibrate Fuji TR image plate and the absolutely calibrated Kodak RAR 2492 x-ray film is presented. Details of the experimental configurations used are included. An energy dependent scale factor to convert Fuji TR IP scanned on a DITABIS Super Micron scanner from 16-bit grayscale TIFF to intensity units (i.e., photons per square micron) is discussed.

  5. Damage and loss assessment on rubber trees caused by typhoon based on high-precision remote sensing data and field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Fang, Weihua; Tan, Chenyan

    2016-04-01

    Forest dynamics are highly relevant to land hydrology, climate, carbon budget and biodiversity. Damage and loss assessment of forest caused by typhoon is essential to the understanding of ecosystem variations. Combination of high-precision remote sensing data and field investigation is critical to the assessment of forest damage loss. In this study, high-precision remote sensing data prior to and after typhoon from IKONOS, QuickBird, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are used for identifying rubber tree disturbance. The ground truth data of rubber tree damage collected through field investigation are used to verify and compare the results. Taken the forest damage induced by typhoon Rammasun (201409) in Hainan as an example, 5 damage types (overthrown, trunk snapped below 2m, trunk snapped above 2m, half-overthrown, and sheared) of rubber trees are clearly interpreted compared with field investigation results. High-precision remote sensing data is then applied to other areas to evaluate the forest damage severity. At last, rubber tree damage severity is investigated with other typhoon hazard factors such as wind, topography, soil and precipitation.

  6. Frequency of the debris flow of four selected low-order streams in central Taiwan by using sequential aerial photographs and typhoon rainfall records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.-C.; Shen, S.-M.; Liu, Y.-S.

    2003-04-01

    The Taiwan Island, located at the collision boundary of the Eurasia Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, is characterized by intensive weathering, frequent landslides and debris flows. The latter, however, had never been regarded as a serious threat until the extensive debris flows, induced by Typhoon Herb in 1996 and/or Typhoon Toraji in 2001, caused unprecedented hazardous damages in many low-order streams, especially in the Chenyulan river basin, central Taiwan. Certain streams that remained intact in 1996 experienced dramatic change in 2001. For a better understanding of the historical records of the debris flow, a thorough examination of 17~29 versions of aerial photographs (ranging from 1951 to 2000) of four selected small catchments, which are located in the northern part of the Chenyulan basin, were conducted. The result shows that the Fengchiu stream has experienced six debris flow events over last 50 years and stands for the most vulnerable group in the basin. Statistically, the accumulation rainfall amount of an individual typhoon over 200 mm may trigger debris flow in this stream. During the same period, the other three streams did not experience any dramatic change Typhoon Toraji (>400 mm / 12 hrs). The devastating earthquake (magnitude 7.3), which occurred in 1999 and caused extensive landslides and rockfalls, is also believed playing an important role.

  7. Towards Developing Science of Survival (SOS) Pamphlets for "Typhoon, Flashflood, Storm Surge and Tsunami" and for "Earthquakes and Their Aftermath": A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivera, Gladys; Camacho, Vic Marie; Sia, Shila Rose; Avilla, Ruel; Butron, Benilda; Fernandez, Eisha Vienna; Pastor, Crist John; Reyes, Allan; Palomar, Brando

    2017-01-01

    The catastrophic devastation from recent natural calamities in the Philippines such as Typhoon Yolanda and Central Visayas earthquake in 2013 had made disaster preparedness a primary concern in the country. Prompted by the critical need to use science to save lives, this study developed Science of Survival (SOS) pamphlets titled "When the…

  8. Study on impacts of typhoon on China and its characteristics%登陆我国台风的特点及影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜付仁; 姜斌

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the most severely impacted countries by disastrous typhoons. In order to analyze the laws of typhoon landing and movement and its impacts, the data of landed typhoons from 1949 to 2010 are selected and their characteristics such as landing times, landing location, movement law, impact scope, typhoon storm and flood, typhoon loss, typhoon water resources etc. are analyzed. The analysis results show that typhoon often landed China and impacted a large scope; often caused extreme disaster weather, inducing torrential flood, debris flow, dam failure;also brought large amount of water resources that was an im-portant part of water resources in many areas and should be utilized reasonably. The conclusions are helpful for the related depart-ments to master the damage and existed problems in its defense, so as to propose the countermeasures.%我国是世界上遭受台风灾害最为严重的国家。为了研究台风在我国登陆后的运动规律及影响状况,选取了1949~2010年登陆我国的台风资料,对台风在我国登陆的次数、登陆地点、活动规律、影响范围、台风暴雨洪水、台风灾害损失、台风水资源等进行了全面统计分析。结果表明,台风登陆我国次数多,影响范围大,常常造成极端灾害天气,引发山洪、泥石流、溃坝等自然灾害;台风也带来了大量的水资源,是许多地区水资源的重要组成部分,应进行合理利用。研究结果有助于有关部门掌握台风在我国的活动规律,认清台风的危害及防台工作存在的问题,以便研究制订相应的对策措施。

  9. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Xie, Min; Wang, Tijian; Gao, Da; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Li, Mengmeng

    2016-12-01

    Severe high ozone (O3) episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China during 7-12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR) analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF) and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM) are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10-12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h-1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h-1 in Hangzhou. In contrast, the cities

  10. 台风“梅花”风浪场和涌浪场特征分析%Characteristics of Wave and Surge Fields of Typhoon MUIFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓斌; 周林; 史文丽; 李靖; 陈璇

    2013-01-01

    Based on the third generation of wave numerical model WAVEWATCH Ⅲ (v3. 14) , wind wave field, surge field and mixed wave field of typhoon MUIFA(1109) are simulated under the wind field supplied by model WRF, and three concerned stations are selected in the coastal areas of China both for the investigation of the relationship between the variations of wave and surge heights with time and the central position of the typhoon and for the study of the distributions and variations of Two-dimensional wave spectra of ocean waves, wind wave field and surge field under the influence of the typhoon. The results indicate that the new version of WAVEWATCH Ⅲ can well demonstrate the fact that the surge formed by the typhoon arrives ahead of the wind wave in the three concerned regions, i. e. the Fujian-Zhejiang coastal area, the Yangtze River estuary and the coastal area of southern Shandong Peninsula. The composition and variation of the height of the mixed wave vary at different distances away from the typhoon center. In the peripheral zone of the typhoon the high values of the surge field are corresponding to the low values of the wind wave field, whereas in the gale area of the typhoon the high values of the wind wave field are corresponding to the low values of the surge field. The typhoon eye area is an area of surge field. The surge is mostly distributed outside the regions where the influence of the wind wave formed by the typhoon is dominant and the direction of the waves radiates outward from the center of the typhoon.%基于第三代海浪数值模式WAVEWATCH Ⅲ(v3.14),在WRF模式提供模式风场驱动下,对1109号台风“梅花”的风浪场、涌浪场和混合浪场进行了数值模拟,并在我国东部沿海选取了3个关注站点,探讨涌浪和风浪波高随时间变化与台风中心位置的关系以及台风影响下海浪二维谱、风浪场和涌浪场分布和变化特征.结果表睨,新版的海浪模式能较好表现福建和浙江

  11. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    potential of this 24-colour (super-multiplex) optical imaging approach for elucidating intricate interactions in complex biological systems.

  12. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  13. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  14. Mesoscale Numerical Study of the Rainstorm and Asymmetric Structure of 0713 Typhoon Wipha%0713号“韦帕”台风暴雨的中尺度数值研究和非对称性结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲丽; 翟国庆; 王东海; 王元

    2011-01-01

    本文利用美国新一代中尺度数值模式WRF,结合多普勒雷达资料、卫星资料以及美国国家环境预报中心NCEP的再分析资料对发生在2007年9月17日~19日由第13号超强台风“韦帕”在浙江省引发的暴雨过程进行分析.结果表明,本次降水过程主要是由台风外围暖湿的东南风急流和中高纬西风槽带来的北方干冷空气交汇造成的,前者为降水输送水汽和热量,后者则为对流的发展提供了动力条件和不稳定能量.“韦帕”在登陆期间的降水和环流结构具有明显的不对称特征,主要的降水和对流活动发生在台风环流的西侧,台风环流呈现东暖湿西干冷的分布特点.冷暖空气的交汇在浙江沿海地区形成一条很强的能量锋,这也是对流系统发生最活跃和降水产生最集中的区域.沿着能量锋在对流层低层自北向南排列有多个中小尺度对流云团细胞,并一起构成了中尺度对流云带.随着台风登陆后向西北移动和北方冷空气的进一步侵入,对流云带的下风方不断有新的对流云团细胞产生并向下游传播.沿着能量锋上较强的风的垂直切变为对流云团的发展和维持提供了有利的环境场.此外,北方弱冷空气侵入到低空,沿着近地面嵌入到暖湿空气的底部,与有利的地形条件一起对暖湿气团起到了有力的抬升作用,触发对流性天气的发生.%WRF (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system) was used to simulate the localheavy rainstorm process caused by super typhoon Wipha over the eastern coast of Zhejiang Province from 17 to 19 September 2007. The analysis of the simulation result combined with Doppler radar data, TBB (Temperature of Black Body) data, and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data shows that the rainstorm was due to the intrusion of north cold - dry current from the upper-level trough into the typhoon circulation. The warm

  15. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  16. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...... to be subjects of examination for this thesis. The research results show that architectural engineering has a significant impact on a design process. The projects illustrate that simple explanations, underpinned by visualisations of the challenges between shape versus structure, often creates a shared...

  17. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Eve J

    2015-01-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4$R_\\oplus$, 2-20$M_\\oplus$) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after $\\sim$0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The picture --- that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not ga...

  18. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  19. Super-resolution optical microscopy: multiple choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo

    2010-02-01

    The recent invention of super-resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of fine features in biological samples with unprecedented clarity. It creates numerous opportunities in biology because vast amount of previously obscured subcellular processes now can be directly observed. Rapid development in this field in the past two years offers many imaging modalities that address different needs but they also complicates the choice of the 'perfect' method for answering a specific question. Here I will briefly describe the principles of super-resolution optical microscopy techniques and then focus on comparing their characteristics in various aspects of practical applications.

  20. Super resolution of images and video

    CERN Document Server

    Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on the super resolution of images and video. The authors' use of the term super resolution (SR) is used to describe the process of obtaining a high resolution (HR) image, or a sequence of HR images, from a set of low resolution (LR) observations. This process has also been referred to in the literature as resolution enhancement (RE). SR has been applied primarily to spatial and temporal RE, but also to hyperspectral image enhancement. This book concentrates on motion based spatial RE, although the authors also describe motion free and hyperspectral image SR problems. Also exa

  1. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2017-05-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highestdimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  2. Internal structure of ex-Typhoon Phanfone (2014) under an extratropical transition as observed by the research vessel Mirai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Masaki; Mori, Shuichi; Geng, Biao; Inoue, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The internal structure of Typhoon Phanfone (2014) undergoing "extratropical transition" over ocean was captured from the research vessel Mirai. The observed time series from world first shipboard polarimetric weather radar and frequent radiosonde launches revealed both dynamic and thermodynamic structure simultaneously in detail for four phases: cirrus shield, warm front, precipitation core, and western flank. To the east of the low-pressure center, a warm front developed along the midlatitude baroclinic zone. In the eastern vicinity of the center, remnants of the warm core worked to enhance precipitation through convergence and frontogenesis against cold ambient air. This frontogenesis and related latent heating/cooling are suggested to maintain/enhance convection in these phases. In contrast, the warm core suppressed convection in the northern/western vicinity of the low-pressure center.

  3. 台风灾害风险区划模型%Risk zoning model of typhoon disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波; 严甲真; 丁烨毅; 黄鹤楼; 赵伍杰

    2012-01-01

    Typhoons happen frequently with serious consequences,so it is important to assess their risk.This paper takes Ningbo city as the example,draws the zoning map of typhoon disaster for the city using a risk zoning model,which was built on the basis of the membership function and natural disaster risk theory,while considering the hazard,exposure and vulnerability of typhoons,and applying the GIS technology.The effectiveness of the model was verified by disaster levels.The results show that,the overall risk indices of Ninghai,Yinzhou,Yuyao,Fenghua,Xiangshan and Cixi are relatively higher in counties and urban districts in Ningbo,while the indices of the old city(Haishu,Jiangdong,Jiangbei districts),Zhenhai and Beilun are lower;the risk levels of typhoon disasters in the southeast coastal cities and towns and some mountain areas are high;disaster level and risk index has a good correlation,with the coefficient of determination reaching 0.7181 and the confidence interval passed 0.01.%台风灾害发生频率高,影响严重,是人类面临的全球性重大问题之一。对台风灾害进行科学、合理的风险评估显得尤为重要。以宁波市为研究对象,在隶属函数和自然灾害风险理论的基础上,综合考虑形成台风灾害风险危险性、暴露性和脆弱性,结合GIS技术建立了台风灾害风险区划模型,绘制了宁波市台风灾害风险区划图;并利用灾级指数对模型结果进行了验证。结果表明:宁波市各区、县的台风灾害风险指数中,宁海、鄞州、余姚、奉化、象山和慈溪台风灾害的总风险指数较大,老城区(海曙区、江东区、江北区)、镇海和北仑较小;宁波市东南沿海、城镇和部分山区台风灾害风险等级较高;灾级指数与台风风险指数的相关性较好,决定系数达到0.7181,且通过了0.01的置信区间。

  4. New method for making super-plastic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ It was a long-cherished dream for materials scientists to find a nearly ideal metallic alloy with high strength and super-plasticity concurrently as a super-material both extremely strong and exceptionally hard for human use.

  5. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  6. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran

    2015-11-01

    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  7. A high wind geophysical model fuction for QuikSCAT wind retrievals and application to Typhoon IOKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Juhong; ZENG Tao; CUI Songxue

    2015-01-01

    The geophysical model function (GMF) describes the relationship between a backscattering and a sea surface wind, and enables a wind vector retrieval from backscattering measurements. It is clear that the GMF plays an important role in an ocean wind vector retrieval. The performance of the existing Ku-band model function QSCAT-1 is considered to be effective at low and moderate wind speed ranges. However, in the conditions of higher wind speeds, the existing algorithms diverge alarmingly. owing to the lack ofin situ data required for developing the GMF for the high wind conditions, the QSCAT-1 appears to overestimate thes0, which results in underestimating the wind speeds. Several match-up QuikSCAT and special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) wind speed measurements of the typhoons occurring in the west Pacific Ocean are analyzed. The results show that the SSM/I wind exhibits better agreement with the “best track” analysis wind speed than the QuikSCAT wind retrieved using QSCAT-1. On the basis of this evaluation, a correction of the QSCAT-1 model function for wind speed above 16 m/s is proposed, which uses the collocated SSM/I and QuikSCAT measurements as a training set, and a neural network approach as a multiple nonlinear regression technologytechnology.In order to validate the revised GMF for high winds, the modified GMF was applied to the QuikSCAT observations of Hurricane IOKE. The wind estimated by the QuikSCAT for Typhoon IOKE in 2006 was improved with the maximum wind speed reaching 55 m/s. An error analysis was performed using the wind fields from the Holland model as the surface truth. The results show an improved agreement with the Holland model wind when compared with the wind estimated using the QSCAT-1. However, large bias still existed, indicating that the effects of rain must be considered for further improvement.

  8. An integrable generalization of the super AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Han, Jingwei; Chen, Shouting

    2017-02-01

    Based on a Lie super-algebra B(0, 1), an integrable generalization of the super AKNS iso-spectral problem is introduced and its corresponding generalized super AKNS hierarchy is generated. By making use of the super-trace identity (or the super variational identity), the resulting super soliton hierarchy can be put into a super bi-Hamiltonian form. A generalized super AKNS soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is also presented.

  9. Explosive Super-eruptions: Problems and Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    A super-eruption is defined as one with a magma yield > 10^15 kg (magnitude (M) 8). The term has mainly been applied to large-scale, caldera and ignimbrite-forming explosive eruptions, but it can be applied to all eruptions that released > 10^15 kg of magma. For effusive volcanism, evidence suggests that individual eruptions of this size ( > ~ 370 km^3 of typical basalt or > 450 km^3 of rhyolite flood lava) arise only during periods of LIP formation. The super-eruption concept raises interesting questions about genesis and storage of magmas that feed these vast events. Deposits of major explosive eruptions are Plinian fallout, ignimbrite sheets, and co-ignimbrite ash fall. Based on earlier suggestions and evidence, widespread outflow ignimbrite (O), co-ignimbrite ash (A), and inter-caldera ignimbrite (I) are all major components of the total super-eruption deposit and may tend towards being subequal. In super-eruption deposits, the reported volume of vent-derived Plinian eruption column fallout is often a minor component of the total volume, yet in several cases (Oruanui, Taupo, 26 ka ago, M 8.1; Bishop Tuff, 760 ka, M 8.2; Bandelier (Otowi) Tuff, 1.6 Ma, M8) it is now recognized that vent-derived columns persisted for most of the eruption. Thus, distally, the ash-fall derived from co-ignimbrite ash clouds may be mixed with contemporaneous fallout from a vertical column. Some major ignimbrites have no reported associated Plinian deposit; the huge Young Toba Tuff (YTT, 74 ka, M 8.8) is a significant example. However, the very widespread Toba ash-fall deposit constitutes ~ 40 % of the total mass of magma erupted and is presumed to be co-ignimbrite. Timing of the onset of column collapse probably controls whether a recognizable Plinian deposit is laid down. All super-eruptions probably produce extensive fallout deposits, and this is generally of vent-derived and pyroclastic-flow-derived origin. Establishing the relationships between large-scale ignimbrites and their

  10. On super edge-graceful trees of diameter four

    CERN Document Server

    Krop, E; Raridan, C

    2011-01-01

    In "On the super edge graceful trees of even orders," Chung, Lee, Gao, and Schaffer posed the following problem: Characterize trees of diameter 4 which are super edge-graceful. In this paper, we provide super edge-graceful labelings for all caterpillars and even size lobsters of diameter 4 which permit such labelings. We also provide super edge-graceful labelings for several families of odd size lobsters of diameter 4.

  11. 广东省沿海地区台风灾害风险评价%Risk Assessment of Typhoon Disaster of Coastal Areas in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚志海; 李晓雁

    2015-01-01

    In the context of global warming and rapid urbanization ,the coastal areas of Guangdong Province are suffered from typhoon disaster ,which take place frequently and cause serious losses in these areas ,so risk assessment of typhoon disaster has important significance .Firstly ,three aspects including typhoon hazard ,exposure and vulnerability are selected as indicators according to the nature disaster sys‐tem theory .Then this paper introduces catastrophe theory ,and puts forward the evaluation index system to assess typhoon disaster risk .The data of typhoon disaster in 14 cities of Guangdong Province from 1991 to 2010 ,combined with socio-economic conditions ,are collected to assess risk by using two modes :the Cusp catastrophe formula and Swallowtail catastrophe formula of the catastrophe theory .Finally the evalu‐ation results show that typhoon disaster risk of Zhanjiang city is highest ,w hile the risk of Dongguan city is lowest ,and the risk in the coastal areas from big to small is western coastal coast ,eastern coastal coast and the Pearl River Delta .%在全球气候变暖和快速城市化的背景下,广东省沿海地区台风灾害频发,且灾害损失严重,因此开展台风灾害风险研究具有重要意义。根据自然灾害系统理论,从台风灾害危险性、暴露性和易损性三个方面选取8个指标,引入突变理论,建立了灾害风险评价指标体系,并利用1991~2010年共20年登陆广东省的台风资料,结合社会经济条件,运用突变模型中的尖点突变和燕尾突变两种模式对广东省沿海地区14个城市进行了灾害风险评价。评价结果表明,台风灾害风险最大的城市是湛江市,最小的是东莞市;沿海地区三个岸段风险从大到小依次为:粤西沿海、粤东沿海、珠江三角洲。

  12. The structure of the super-W∞(λ) algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Wit, B. de; Vasiliev, M.

    1991-01-01

    We give a comprehensive treatment of the super-W∞(λ) algebra, an extension of the super-Virasoro algebra that contains generators of spin s ≥ ½. The parameter λ defines the embedding of the Virasoro subalgebra. We describe how to obtain the super-W∞(λ) algebra from the associative algebra of

  13. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you!

  14. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  15. Folded shapes with Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2012-01-01

    The use of folded shapes in structures has become more common, but it still costs problems because of construction issues and bending moments. The present paper deals with how the newly patented structural concept Super-Light structures (SLS) can be used to create folded shapes. SLS gives lighter...

  16. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms. Limita

  17. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  18. Super-Kamiokande worth full restoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Mishima, I

    2002-01-01

    While prospects are good that the SuperKamiokande facility will be partially repaired after an accident last November, the government has yet to confirm whether it will spend the estimated 2.5 billion yen needed for a full-scale restoration (1 page).

  19. Structural optimization of super-repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    Micro-patterning is an effective way to achieve surfaces with extreme liquid repellency. This technique does not rely on chemical coatings and is therefore a promising concept for application in food processing and bio-compatibile coatings. This super-repellent behaviour is obtained by suspending...

  20. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  2. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  3. Folded shapes with Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2012-01-01

    The use of folded shapes in structures has become more common, but it still costs problems because of construction issues and bending moments. The present paper deals with how the newly patented structural concept Super-Light structures (SLS) can be used to create folded shapes. SLS gives lighter...

  4. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...

  5. Super-resolution near field imaging device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging device comprising at least a first and a second elongated coupling element, each having a first transverse dimension at a first end and a second transverse dimension at a second end and being adapted for guiding light between their respective first and second ends, each...

  6. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  7. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  8. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  9. A generalized super AKNS hierarchy associated with Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) and its super bi-Hamiltonian structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingwei; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Starting from a 3 × 3 matrix-valued spectral problem associated with a Lie superalgebra sl(2|1), a generalized super Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy is derived. The resulting super AKNS hierarchy has a super bi-Hamiltonian structure by the supertrace identity.

  10. Super SI燃烧方式试验研究%Super SI Combustion Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈义涛; 吕世亮; 尹琪; 杨嘉林; 高卫民

    2011-01-01

    The super spark ignition (Super SI) combustion mode, which was the ignition combustion of lean mixture at the temperature of close spontaneous combustion, was researched and its combustion characteristic and feasibility were analyzed.The results indicate that the increase of intake temperature can reduce the cyclic variation of Pmi obviously, shorten the combustion duration and extend the lean limit of SI combustion under the condition of lean mixture. Accordingly, Super SI combustion has the advantages of high thermal efficiency and controllable combustion process.%研究了Super Spark Ignition(Super SI)燃烧方式,即稀薄混合气在近自燃温度状态下点燃燃烧,分析了这种燃烧方式的可行性和燃烧特性.研究结果表明,混合气稀薄时提高发动机的进气温度可显著降低平均指示压力(pmi)的循环波动,缩短燃烧持续期,拓展点燃燃烧的稀薄极限;Super SI燃烧方式具有热效率高、燃烧过程可控的优点.

  11. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  12. The Solution Construction of Heterotic Super-Liouville Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhan-Ying; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the heterotic super-Liouville model on the base of the basic Lie super-algebra Osp(1|2).Using the super extension of Leznov-Saveliev analysis and Drinfeld Sokolov linear system, we construct the explicit solution of the heterotic super-Liouville system in component form. We also show that the solutions are local and periodic by calculating the exchange relation of the solution. Finally starting from the action of heterotic super-Liou ville model, we obtain the conserved current and conserved charge which possessed the BR ST properties.

  13. Collapse of slopes bordering forest roads and debris flow caused by typhoon No.4 in the Takakuma Experimental Forest,Kagoshima University,in July 2007

    OpenAIRE

    寺本, 行芳; 下川, 悦郎; TERAMOTO, Yukiyoshi; SHIMOKAWA, Etsuro

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of collapse of slopes bordering forest roads and debris flow caused by typhoon No.4 in July 2007 in the Takakuma Experimental Forest at Kagoshima University were carried out. The results were characterized as follows: (1) Several types of slope failures were observed within the study area: collapse of shoulder part resulting from the infiltration of rain water into pyroclastic fall deposits in the cutting slope; shallow landslide resulting from the infiltration and concentrat...

  14. Design and Application of UAV Typhoon Test System%无人机台风测量系统的设计和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晓军; 虞玉诚

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of UAV for the measurement of typhoon. It describes its design features, composition, structure of each subsystem and work condition. It introduces its airplane mode. And it analyzes its six requirements for typhoon test. After the long journey test within the strong rainfall weather conditions and the typhoon tests, it proved the UAV typhoon test system can get and transfer the integrity meteorological information in real time. For the new requirements, the fly control software is changed. Then the interactive test between the meteorological equipment and the communication parts is done. The test result shows that the improved system works well.%设计一款测量台风的无人机,详细描述无人机设计特点、组成,各子系统的结构、工作情况,介绍该型无人机的飞行模式,分析无人机具备的台风探测的6点要求,对无人机台风测试系统进行长航时测试、强降雨气象条件飞行、台风探测试验,无人机台风测试系统可实时获取并传输完整的气象数据。根据新的需求,对飞行控制软件进行改造,进行无人机上基于PC-104的气象设备和通信设备交互测试,改进后,试验效果良好。

  15. THE STUDY OF STORM RAINFALL CAUSED BY INTERACTION BETWEEN THE NON-ZONAL HIGH LEVEL JET STREAK AND TYPHOON IN THE DISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, statistics were analyzed concerning correlation between the storm rainfall far from typhoon and non-zonal upper-level jet stream. The results show that the jet stream at 200 hPa is constantly SW (90.2 %) during the period in which storm rainfall occurs. Rainfall area lies in the right rear regions of the jet axes. While the storm intensifies, the jet tends to be stronger and turn non-zonal. With the MM4 model, numerical simulation and diagnosis were carried out for Typhoon No.9711 (Winnie) on August 19 to 20, 1997. The distant storm rainfall is tightly correlative to the jet and low-level typhoon trough. The divergence field of jet is related to the v component. The upper level can cause the allobaric wind convergence at low level. This is the result of the form of low-level typhoon trough and the strength of the storm. By scale analysis, it is found that there is a branch of middle scale transverse inverse circulation in the right entrance regions behind the jet below the 300-hPa level, which is very important to the maintenance and strengthening of storm rainfall. This branch of inverse circulation is relative to the reinforcement of jet's non-zonal characteristics. From the field of mesoscale divergence field and non-zonal wind field, we know that the stronger symmetry caused by transverse circulation in the two sides of the jet, rainfall's feedback and reinforcement of jet's non-zonal characteristics had lead to positive feedback mechanism that was favorable of storm rainfall's strengthening.

  16. Experimental Study of the Typhoon Track and Precipitation Forecasting%台风路径和降水集合预报试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      利用全球优秀的数值天气模式和自行制作的较高分辨率的多模式、多初值区域数值模式构建了一个包括17个成员的集合预报系统,对2007年严重影响浙江的16号“罗莎”台风做了集合预报试验。分析了路径集合、面条图、邮票图、降水概率分布等多种集合产品,并对路径和降水进行检验。结果表明:集合预报对台风路径和降水总体稳定,质量明显优于单一模式预报。同时还对台风路径和降水预报偏差进行了分析。%The global excellent numerical weather models, self-made muti and multiple initial regional numerical models with high resolution are used to build a ensemble forecast system with 17 members. It is done to predict the sixteenth typhoon Krosa which seriously influenced Zhejiang in 2007. The track sets, spaghetti graphs, stamp graphs, precipitation probability forecast etc. charts are analyzed , the typhoon track and precipitation test are done also. The results show: the ensemble forecast products of typhoon track and precipitation are stability, which are superior to the single forecast mode products. Also, deviation of typhoon track and precipitation forecast are analyzed.

  17. "Providing a Roof" and More to Communities Affected by Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines: the Médecins Sans Frontières Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, E.; Ferir, MC; Reid, T.; Gray, H; van den Boogaard, W.; Gonzales, C; Zachariah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines in November 2013 and left a trail of destruction. As part of its emergency response, Médecins Sans Frontières distributed materials for reconstructing houses and boats as standardized kits to be shared between households. Community engagement was sought and communities were empowered in deciding how to make the distributions. We aimed to answer, Was this effective and what lessons were learned?

  18. Impact of typhoons on the UTLS ozone and water vapor distribution within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone during the SWOP campaign in Lhasa 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Vogel, Bärbel; Bian, Jianchun; Müller, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    During the sounding water vapor, ozone, and particle (SWOP) campaign during the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) organized by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ozone and water vapor profiles were measured by balloon-borne sensors in Lhasa (29.66°N, 91.14°E, elevation 3,650 m), China in August 2013. Totally, 23 soundings were launched, half of which show some deviations from the typical relationship between ozone and water vapor in the tracer-tracer correlation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). 20-day backward trajectories of each sounding were calculated using the trajectory module of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) to analyse these deviations. Our results demonstrate that during this period three typhoons (Jebi, Utor, and Trami) occurred over the Northwest Pacific Ocean, which have impacts on the vertical structure of ozone and water vapor by transporting the maritime airmasses from the boundary layer. These airmasses with poor ozone were transported to the UTLS by the strong uplift associated with the typhoons, and then entered the ASM anticyclone. Thereafter, air parcels arrived at the observation site through two main pathways: first rotational subsidence, during which air parcels decend slowly along a circle following the anticyclone flow with a timescale of one week, and second direct horizontal transport from the location of the typhoon to the station, where air parcels are transported directly towards the station within approximately three days.

  19. Investigation Study of Resistant Typhoon Cultivation Technology Cassava in Zhanjiang City%湛江市木薯抗风栽培技术调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁昌的; 黄洁; 陈房生; 黄克波

    2011-01-01

    通过调查2011年第8号"洛坦"台风对湛江市木薯的影响,结果表明,木薯抗风栽培技术为:选用低矮的瓜类、豆类和花生等间套种作物;覆盖地膜;选择避风地段或营造避风环境;9级以下台风不必摘叶;尽量避免除草剂的危害。%According to investigation of the effect of 8# ′luotan′typhoon on cassava in 2011,the results showed that,the resistant typhoon technology was as follows:to intercrop short crop such as melons or beans,peanut etc.,to cover plastic film,to choose a sheltered location and to create a sheltered environment,not to pick leaves when typhoon was lower than 9 level,to avoid the damage of herbicide.

  20. Export of 134Cs and 137Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, S.; Kanamori, M.; Ochiai, S.; Tomihara, S.; Fukushi, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2013-02-01

    Effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied at stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after Typhoon Roke during 21-22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.011-0.098 Bq L-1 at normal flow conditions during July-September in 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L-1 in high flow conditions by heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21-56% in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred by the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs by the heavy rain accounts for 30-50% of annual radiocesium flux in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor controlling the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  1. Export of 134Cs and 137Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied at stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after Typhoon Roke during 21–22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.011–0.098 Bq L−1 at normal flow conditions during July–September in 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L−1 in high flow conditions by heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21–56% in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred by the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs by the heavy rain accounts for 30–50% of annual radiocesium flux in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor controlling the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  2. Changes in Typhoon Activities and Regional Precipitation Variability over the Korean Peninsula according to Different Phases of El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed typhoon activities such as tropical cyclone (TC genesis position, movement routes and central pressure of typhoons, and changes in local patterns of rainfall stemming from TCs passing through the Korean domain. The results showed a remarkable difference in changes in typhoons that affect the Korean Peninsula (KP during cold tongue (CT and warm pool (WP El Niño years. In particular, TCs that move through the ocean off Korea and the Kuroshio during WP El Niño years are relatively stronger than TCs formed during CT El Niño years. Furthermore, analysis of large-scale atmosphere-ocean dynamics showed better conditions for TC development and strengthening during WP El Niño years. TC-induced summer rainfall over major Korean river basins decreased from normal years during CT El Niño years (−3.94% and increased over normal years during WP El Niño years (+33.92%. The results of this diagnostic study rely on short-term observations and relatively little data, but they suggest that CT/WP El Niño cycles influence TC activities and rainfall across the KP. The findings are important for reducing TC damage and ensuring a proper response to climate change in coupled human-environmental systems.

  3. Export of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied after Typhoon Roke during 21–22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.009–0.098 Bq L−1 in normal flow conditions during July–September 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L−1 in high flow conditions because of heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21–56% of total radiocesium in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred because of the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs attributable to the heavy rain accounts for 30–50% of the annual radiocesium flux from inland to coastal ocean region in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor contributing to the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  4. 17世纪日本2次重大台风事件的路径重建%Reconstruction of 2 signiifcant typhoon paths in the 17th century Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小林雄河; 潘威

    2014-01-01

    Western North Paciifc (WNP), especially China and Japan included, is a typhoon-prone area. Change of typhoon tracks in this area would raise acute influence. There are almost no quantitative meteorological data existed in Japan before Meiji Restoration, typhoon events can only be rebuilt with historical documents. There are a limited number of historical documents in the 17th century in Japan, author also used typhoon records in the modern instrumental observation period at the same time of using historical documents and speculated the historical typhoon tracks and its size. In the context of global climate change, there is currently no consensus whether typhoon trajectory in the East Asia will be changes. Through the reconstruction of typhoon tracks on the history, we can have in-depth discussion of this issue. Author has estimated typhoon track inlfuenced on Japan on 11 Sep., AD 1650 and 15 to 17 Sep., AD 1674. The main disaster-causing factor of the typhoon inlfuenced on Japan on 11 Sep., AD 1650 was the tides;the worst-hit area was the northern coast of the Ariake-kai bay. The typhoon paths inlfuenced on Japan on 17—18 Sep., AD 1828, 25 Aug., AD 1914 and 27 Sep., AD 1991 similar to this typhoon, those typhoon also caused tidal disaster in the Ariake-kai. Typhoons inlfuenced on the Ariake-kai frequently from now Yamaguchi Prefecture into the sea, this typhoon also about 3~5 hours after landed into the Sea of Japan. The effect area of the typhoon inlfuenced on Japan on 15 to 17 Sep., AD 1674 was wide, much of the Western half of Japan and the Eastern half which of nearly the typhoon track had caused wind damage;some places of the Eastern half of Japan also had caused lfood damage. This is typical disaster situation of typhoon in Japan. This typhoon from the Northern Kyushu region to the Hokuriku region took about 1day. On the basis of reconstruction of the typhoon case study, author make clear that the existing compilation data were embodied incompletely and

  5. Testing failure surface prediction methods and deposit reconstruction for the landslides cluster occurring during Talas Typhoon (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Chigira, Masahiro; Arai, Noriyuki; Derron, Marc-Henri; Rudaz, Benjamin; Tsou, Ching-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Talas Typhoon hit Japan from 2 to 5 September 2011. It induced more than 70 deep-seated landslides in Kii peninsula. The hi-resolution topography of these landslides have been acquired by aerial 1 m LiDAR digital elevation models (DEM) before (pre-DEM) and after (post-DEM) the events (data from Nara prefectural Government and the Kinki Regional development Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation, and Tourism). This extraordinary opportunity allows us to test methods to construct failure surface geometries, buried valley topographies and/or to rebuild deposits surfaces. We tested the sloping base local level method (SLBL) on 5 deep seated landslides which occurred during Typhoon Talas (Akatani, Kitamata, Nagatono, Shimizu and Akatani-East; see Chigira et al., 2013). The SLBL corresponds to a quadratic surface with a constant second derivative in all x-y directions. This curvature can be based on the knowledge of the length of the landslide and its maximum thickness. We used mainly hillshade DEM, slope maps and Coltop schemes to define the limits of landslides and to interpret their structures. Different attempts were performed to reconstruct the failure surface and deposits depending on a priori knowledge. Basically the morphological features extracted from the pre-DEM were used to delineate the limits of the landslides. The curvature of the failure surface was obtained by "expert" interpretations. The failure surfaces obtained using SLBL are in good agreement with the failure surface observed on the post-DEM. The results are improved when (1) they are adjusted to obtain similar estimate of the volume deduced by Chigira et al. (2013), and when (2) the contours of the landslides used comes from an interpretation of both post and pre-DEM. In order to obtain the expansion coefficient some of these landslide, the missing volume of the deposits (by river erosion) were calculated using inverse SLBL. The coefficient of expansion ranges from 13% to 30

  6. Android环境下台风路径信息在Google地图上的可视化方法%Visualization method of typhoon information displayed on Google Map under Android environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤栋; 张敏; 郭庆燕

    2012-01-01

    针对台风数据无法在移动终端中动态可视化的问题,在研究Google地图API和Android平台的基础上,利用手机移动通信的优点,以摩托罗拉XT800智能手机为显示平台,提出了将台风数据在地图上进行动态可视化显示的方法.结果表明该方法使用户在移动状态下能够实时了解台风的动态、台风强弱的变化、台风的预报路径和风圈覆盖的地理范围等详细信息,可为相关台风预报和政府决策人员实时提供有效信息.%In order to resolve the problem that typhoon information can not be dynamically visualized in mobile phone. On the basts of studying Google Map API and Android platform, this paper proposed a method that took advantage of mobile phone communication and visualized typhoon data overlay the Google map dynamically on the Motorola XT800 smartphone. The results indicate that the method can help users get the detailed information of typhoon movement, changes of typhoon power, forecast path of typhoon and geographical scope typhoon which wind circle will cover, providing the real-time and effective information to typhoon forecasting and government policy-makers.

  7. SuperTools Test and Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannos, Tom J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mixed Signal ASIC Design

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting electronics (SCE) represents a potential path to efficient exascale computing for HPC and data center applications, but SCE-based circuit design lags far behind its CMOS equivalent. IARPA’s ongoing C3 program and its developing SuperTools program aim to jumpstart SCE R&D with the near-term goal of producing a high-speed, low-energy, 64-bit RISC processor using Josephson Junction based logic cells. SuperTools performers will develop software tools for efficient SCE design and accurate simulation and characterization of JJ-based circuits, which include the RSFQ, RQL, and AQFP logic families. T&E teams from NIST, MIT Lincoln Lab, Berkeley Lab, and Sandia National Labs will evaluate the tools and fabricate test circuits to compare with simulated results. The five-year, three-phase program includes 48 performer deliverables, three annual technical exchange meetings, and annual site visits.

  8. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  9. Optical super-resolution microscopy in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Stephan J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the highly plastic nature of neurons requires the dynamic visualization of their molecular and cellular organization in a native context. However, due to the limited resolution of standard light microscopy, many of the structural specializations of neurons cannot be resolved. A recent revolution in light microscopy has given rise to several super-resolution light microscopy methods yielding 2-10-fold higher resolution than conventional microscopy. We here describe the principles behind these techniques as well as their application to the analysis of the molecular architecture of the synapse. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for continued development of super-resolution microscopy as necessary for live imaging of neuronal structure and function in the brain.

  10. Super-resolution microscopy: a comparative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuboski, James M; Sigal, Yury J; Joens, Matthew S; Lillemeier, Bjorn F; Fitzpatrick, James A J

    2012-10-01

    One of the fundamental limitations of optical microscopy is that of diffraction, or in essence, how small a beam of light can be focused by using an optical lens system. This constraint, or barrier if you will, was theoretically described by Ernst Abbe in 1873 and is roughly equal to half the wavelength of light used to probe the system. Many structures, particularly those within cells, are much smaller than this limit and thus are difficult to visualize. Over the last two decades, a new field of super-resolution imaging has been created and been developed into a broad range of techniques that allow routine imaging beyond the far-field diffraction limit of light. In this unit we outline the basic principles of the various super-resolution imaging modalities, paying particular attention to the technical considerations for biological imaging. Furthermore, we discuss their various applications in the imaging of both fixed and live biological samples.

  11. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows to build black holes dressed with all the (super-)renormalizable contributions starting from known conformal seeds. We explicitly construct several new examples of these solutions in dimensions $D=3$ and $D=4$, including not only stationary configurations but also time-dependent ones.

  12. Super/subradiant second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganov, Gennady A.; Shuker, Reuben

    2017-04-01

    A scheme for active second harmonics generation is suggested. The system comprises N three-level atoms in ladder configuration, situated into a resonant cavity. The system generates the field whose frequency is twice the frequency of the pumping laser, and the field phase is locked to the phase of the pumping field. It is found that the system can lase in either superradiant or subradiant regime, depending on the number of atoms N. When N passes some critical value the transition from the super to subradiance occurs in a phase-transition-like manner. Stability study of the steady state supports this conclusion. For experimental realization of the super/subradiant second harmonics generation we propose semiconductor quantum well structures, superconducting quantum circuits, and evanescently coupled waveguides in which equally spaced levels relevant to this study exist.

  13. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  14. Robust super-resolution without regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T Q [Canon Information Systems Research Australia, 1 Thomas Holt drive, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Vliet, L J v [Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Schutte, K [Electro-Optics Group, TNO Defence, Security and Safety, PO Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    Super-resolution restoration is the problem of restoring a high-resolution scene from multiple degraded low-resolution images under motion. Due to imaging blur and noise, this problem is ill-posed. Additional constraints such as smoothness of the solution (i.e. regularization) is often required to obtain a stable solution. While regularizing the cost function is a standard practice in image restoration, we propose a restoration algorithm that does not require this extra regularization term. The robustness of the algorithm is achieved by a robust error norm that does not response to intensity outliers. With the outliers suppressed, our solution behaves similarly to a maximum-likelihood solution under the presence of Gaussian noise. The effectiveness of our algorithm is demonstrated with super-resolution restoration of real infrared image sequences under severe aliasing and intensity outliers.

  15. Penrose Pixels for Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, M; Lin, Zhouchen; Wilburn, Bennett; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reconstruction-based super-resolution that uses aperiodic pixel tilings, such as a Penrose tiling or a biological retina, for improved performance. To this aim, we develop a new variant of the well-known error back projection super-resolution algorithm that makes use of the exact detector model in its back projection operator for better accuracy. Pixels in our model can vary in shape and size, and there may be gaps between adjacent pixels. The algorithm applies equally well to periodic or aperiodic pixel tilings. We present analysis and extensive tests using synthetic and real images to show that our approach using aperiodic layouts substantially outperforms existing reconstruction-based algorithms for regular pixel arrays. We close with a discussion of the feasibility of manufacturing CMOS or CCD chips with pixels arranged in Penrose tilings.

  16. Temporal super resolution using variational methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    and intensities are calculated simultaneously in a multiresolution setting. A frame doubling version of our algorithm is implemented and in testing it, we focus on making the motion of high contrast edges to seem smooth and thus reestablish the illusion of motion pictures.......Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...... conversion (where also lower frame rates than recorded is sometimes required). We discuss and detail the requirements imposed by the human visual system (HVS) on TSR algorithms, of which the need for (apparent) fluid motion, also known as the phi-effect, is the principal one. This problem is typically...

  17. Super-pharm的生意经

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦少雯

    2006-01-01

    Super-pharm,这家可直译为“超级药店”的以色列最大的药品、化妆品及个人护理品零售企业,是由全球排名前几十位的亿万富翁、犹太人Murray Koffler创立的家族企业。

  18. Super Resolution Imaging Applied to Scientific Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    investigator, (3) development of Papoulis -Gerchberg method to implement the analytic continuation of spectral details, (4) exploration of contourlet and...off with noise present in the observation. In [30] we make use of Papoulis -Gerchberg algorithm of signal extrapolation to perform Image super...we have used a training database consisting of high resolution images. For Papoulis -Gerchberg method number of iterations and the filter used both

  19. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  20. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A.

    2015-01-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows to build black holes dressed with all the (su...

  1. Dating With Super Junior-M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    担心情人节没人陪?还在幻想能与谁约会?2009年2月14日,梦想照进现实,SJ-M将在上海举办“情人Superman-Super Junior-M 2009上海歌会”,化身你的甜蜜情人,与你一起共度浪漫情人节。

  2. Super-Kamiokande - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-chou, Hida-city, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2004-12-15

    We summarize the latest results on the atmospheric and solar neutrinos from Super-Kamiokande. The atmospheric neutrino oscillation analyses with two flavors and with three flavor are discussed and the new results based on the L/E analysis are shown. New solar neutrino results based on the un-binned method is discussed. The current status of SK-II and the future prospects for SK neutrino oscillation experiment are summarized.

  3. The (Super)String Theories' Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    (Super)String theories are theoretical ideas that go beyond the standard model of particle and high energy physics and show promise for unifying all forces in nature including the gravitational one. In this unification a prominent role is played by the duality symmetries which relate different theories. I present a review of these developements and discuss their problems and possible impact in low-energy physics. We explain and discuss some ideas concerning string field theories from noncommutative geometry.

  4. T-Duality from super Lie n-algebra cocycles for super p-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Schreiber, Urs

    2016-01-01

    We compute the $L_\\infty$-theoretic dimensional reduction of the F1/D$p$-brane super $L_\\infty$-cocycles with coefficients in rationalized twisted K-theory from the 10d type IIA and type IIB super Lie algebras down to 9d. We show that the two resulting coefficient $L_\\infty$-algebras are naturally related by an $L_\\infty$-isomorphism which we find to act on the super $p$-brane cocycles by the infinitesimal version of the rules of topological T-duality and inducing an isomorphism between $K^0$ and $K^1$, rationally. Moreover, we show that these $L_\\infty$-algebras are the homotopy quotients of the RR-charge coefficients by the "T-duality Lie 2-algebra". We find that the induced $L_\\infty$-extension is a gerby extension of a 9+(1+1) dimensional (i.e. "doubled") T-duality correspondence super-spacetime, which serves as a local model for T-folds. We observe that this still extends, via the D0-brane cocycle of its type IIA factor, to a 10+(1+1)-dimensional super Lie algebra. Finally we observe that this satisfies ...

  5. Trapping effect of estuarine turbidity maximum on particulate organic carbon and its response to a typhoon event in a macro-tidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun; Ye, Xiang; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Estuaries are key nodes of land-ocean interaction, the associated suspended sediment processes being crucial for global and regional material fluxes and environmental health. Within estuaries, there is commonly a reach where the water turbidity is markedly higher than both landward and seaward. This elevated suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is termed the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). The ETM has important influences on harbor siltation, ecological conservation, and biogeochemical dynamics. Jiulongjiang estuary is a small macro-tidal estuary in southeast China coastal area, which is a typical example for estuarine ecosystem conservation and its response to catchment management. Observed results show that the tidal current is the main factor which control the variations of SSC in ETM under the normal condition. However, under the influence of typhoon event, the hydrodynamic action was strengthened and the salt water intrusion was also enhanced, and the fresh water and sediment discharged from river system increased, which led to the complicated variations of the ETM. Under the normal conditions, the maximum width of ETM was about 10 km in spring tide. However, before typhoon landed, the maximum width of the ETM was about 14 km; after the typhoon landed, the maximum width of the ETM was more than 20 km, and during the low tide stage, the width of the ETM was still 19 km which was induced by high turbidity water input from river system. The particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration reached 19.26 mg/L within the ETM at the next day after typhoon landed, which was much higher than that under normal weather condition (the maximum value was only 3.15 mg/L). During the low tide level, the POC concentration increased remarkably from upstream to the core of ETM and then decreased toward downstream, while the POC concentration decreased toward downstream during high tide level. Compared with normal weather condition, the POC concentration varied not obviously

  6. SuperB Progress Reports - Physics

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, B.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; Shindou, T.; Ronga, F.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Rama, M.; Bossi, F.; Guido, E.; Patrignani, C.; Tosi, S.; Davies, C.; Lunghi, E.; Haisch, U.; Hurth, T.; Westhoff, S.; Crivellin, A.; Hofer, L.; Goto, T.; Brown, David Nathan; Branco, G.C.; Zupan, J.; Herrero, M.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Simi, G.; Tackmann, F.J.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Lindemann, D.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Duling, B.; Gemmler, K.; Gorbahn, M.; Jager, S.; Paradisi, P.; Straub, D.M.; Bigi, I.; Asner, D.M.; Fast, J.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Morandin, M.; Rotondo, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Arnaud, N.; Burmistrov, L.; Kou, E.; Perez, A.; Stocchi, A.; Viaud, B.; Domingo, F.; Piccinini, F.; Manoni, E.; Batignani, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Neri, N.; Walsh, J.; Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Walker, C.; Weiland, C.; Lenz, A.; Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Faccini, R.; Renga, F.; Polosa, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Virto, J.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Wilson, F.F.; Carpinelli, M.; Huber, T.; Mannel, T.; Graham, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Santoro, V.; Sekula, S.; Shougaev, K.; Soffer, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Gambino, P.; Mussa, R.; Nardecchia, M.; Stal, O.; Bernabeu, J.; Botella, F.; Jung, M.; Lopez March, N.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pich, A.; Lozano, M.A.Sanchis; Vidal, J.; Vives, O.; Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Flood, K.

    2010-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e+e- collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measure...

  7. Super Marx Generator for Thermonuclear Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-01-01

    In ongoing electric pulse power driven inertial confinement fusion experiments, Marx generators are connected in parallel with the target in the center of a ring of the Marx generators. There the currents, not the voltages add up. Instead of connecting a bank of Marx generator in parallel, one may connect them in series, adding up their voltages, not the currents. If, for example, fifty 20 MV Marx generators are connected in series, they would add up to a gigavolt. But to prevent breakdown, the adding up of the voltages in such a super-Marx generator must be fast. For this reason, it is proposed that each of the Marx generators charges up a fast discharge capacitor, with the thusly charged fast capacitors becoming the elements of a second stage super Marx generator. In a super Marx generator, the Marx generators also assume the role of the resistors in the original Marx circuit. With a voltage of 10^9 Volt and a discharge current of 10^7 Ampere, the generation of a 10^16 Watt GeV proton beam becomes possible,...

  8. The SuperNEMO tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cascella, M

    2015-01-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory on the French-Italian border. This decay mode, if observed, would be proof that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, would constitute evidence for total lepton number violation, and could allow a measurement of the absolute neutrino mass. The SuperNEMO experiment is designed to reach a half-life sensitivity of $10^{26}$ years corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of $50-100~$meV. The SuperNEMO detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the double beta decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection. In the event of a discovery, such topological measurements will be vital in determining the nature of the lepton number violating process. This reconstruction will be performed by a gaseous tracking detector, consisting of 2034 drift cells per module operated in Geiger mode. The tracker of the Demonstrator Module is currently under construction in the UK. This ...

  9. SuperB Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, M; Kolodziej, J; Kucewicz, W; Sapor, M; Jeremie, A; Pous, E Grauges; Bruno, G E; De Robertis, G; Diacono, D; Donvito, G; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giordano, F; Loddo, F; Loparco, F; Maggi, G P; Manzari, V; Mazziotta, M N; Nappi, E; Palano, A; Santeramo, B; Sgura, I; Silvestris, L; Spinoso, V; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Zhuo, Z; Jenkovszky, L; Balbi, G; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Cafaro, V; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Di Sipio, R; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Gabrielli, A; Galli, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giorgi, F M; Grandi, C; Lax, I; Meo, S Lo; Marconi, U; Montanari, A; Pellegrini, G; Piccinini, M; Rovelli, T; Cesari, N Semprini; Torromeo, G; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Vagnoni, V M; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Caron, J -F; Hearty, C; Lu, P F -T; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y -C; Barnyakov, M Yu; Blinov, V E; Botov, A A; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Shtol, D A; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cardini, A; Carpinelli, M; Chao, D S -T; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hanson, J; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Zhu, R Y; Randazzo, N; Burelo, E De La Cruz; Zheng, Y; Campos, P; De Silva, M; Kathirgamaraju, A; Meadows, B; Pushpawela, B; Shi, Y; Sokoloff, M; Castro, G Lopez; Ciaschini, V; Franchini, P; Giacomini, F; Paolini, A; Polania, G A Calderon; Laczek, S; Romanowicz, P; Szybinski, B; Czuchry, M; Flis, L; Harezlak, D; Kocot, J; Radecki, M; Sterzel, M; Szepieniec, T; Szymocha, T; Wójcik, P; Andreotti, M; Baldini, W; Calabrese, R; Carassiti, V; Cibinetto, G; Ramusino, A Cotta; Evangelisti, F; Gianoli, A; Luppi, E; Malaguti, R; Manzali, M; Melchiorri, M; Munerato, M; Padoan, C; Santoro, V; Tomassetti, L; Beretta, M M; Biagini, M; Boscolo, M; Capitolo, E; de Sangro, R; Esposito, M; Felici, G; Finocchiaro, G; Gatta, M; Gatti, C; Guiducci, S; Lauciani, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Sanelli, C; Tomassini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Delepine, D; Santos, M A Reyes; Chrzaszcz, M; Grzymkowski, R; Knap, P; Kotula, J; Lesiak, T; Ludwin, J; Michalowski, J; Pawlik, B; Rachwal, B; Stodulski, M; Wiechczynski, J; Witek, M; Zawiejski, L; Zdybal, M; Aushev, V Y; Ustynov, A; Arnaud, N; Bambade, P; Beigbeder, C; Bogard, F; Borsato, M; Breton, D; Brossard, J; Burmistrov, L; Charlet, D; Chaumat, V; Dadoun, O; Berni, M El; Maalmi, J; Puill, V; Rimbault, C; Stocchi, A; Tocut, V; Variola, A; Wallon, S; Wormser, G; Grancagnolo, F; Ben-Haim, E; Sitt, S; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Deconto, J -M; Martinez, Y Gomez; Monseu, N; Muraz, J -F; Real, J -S; Vescovi, C; Cenci, R; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D; Twedt, E W; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Nderitu, S; Patel, P; Robertson, S H; Swersky, D; Warburton, A; Flores, E Cuautle; Sanchez, G Toledo; Biassoni, P; Bombelli, L; Citterio, M; Coelli, S; Fiorini, C; Liberali, V; Monti, M; Nasri, B; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Berra, A; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Lietti, D; Maino, M; Pessina, G; Prest, M; Martin, J -P; Simard, M; Starinski, N; Taras, P; Drutskoy, A; Makarychev, S; Nefediev, A V; Aloisio, A; Cavaliere, S; De Nardo, G; Della Pietra, M; Doria, A; Giordano, R; Ordine, A; Pardi, S; Russo, G; Sciacca, C; Bigi, I I; Jessop, C P; Wang, W; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Corvo, M; Crescente, A; Corso, F Dal; Dosselli, U; Fanin, C; Gianelle, A; Longo, S; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Morandin, M; Pengo, R; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Stroili, R; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Traversi, G; Zucca, S; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Cecchi, C; Germani, S; Lebeau, M; Lubrano, P; Manoni, E; Papi, A; Rossi, A; Scolieri, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Fella, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Lilli, L; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paladino, A; Pantaleo, F; Paoloni, E; Perez, A L Perez; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Beck, G; Berman, M; Bevan, A; Gannaway, F; Inguglia, G; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Bocci, V; Capodiferro, M; Chiodi, G; Dafinei, I; Drenska, N V; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Gargiulo, C; Gauzzi, P; Luci, C; Lunadei, R; Martellotti, G; Pellegrino, F; Pettinacci, V; Pinci, D; Recchia, L; Ruggeri, D; Zullo, A; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; De Santis, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Felice, V; Di Palma, F; Di Simone, A; Marcelli, L; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Sparvoli, R; Tammaro, S; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bussino, S; Ciuchini, M; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Ruggieri, F; Spiriti, E; Wilson, F; Monzon, I Leon; Millan-Almaraz, J R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Aston, D; Dey, B; Fisher, A; Jackson, P D; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; MacFarlane, D; McCulloch, M; Metcalfe, S; Novokhatski, A; Osier, S; Prepost, R; Ratcliff, B; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Va'vra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Altschul, B D; Purohit, M V; Baudot, J; Ripp-Baudot, I; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Bezshyyko, O; Dolinska, G; Soffer, A; Bianchi, F; De Mori, F; Filippi, A; Gamba, D; Marcello, S; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cristaudo, P; Lanceri, L; Liberti, B; Rashevskaya, I; Stella, C; Vallazza, E S; Vitale, L; Auriemma, G; Satriano, C; Vidal, F Martinez; de Cos, J Mazorra; Oyanguren, A; Valls, P Ruiz; Beaulieu, A; Dejong, S; Franta, J; Lewczuk, M J; Roney, M; Sobie, R

    2013-01-01

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic ...

  10. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  11. 台风雷达三维组网产品显示系统研制%Design and Implementation of CINRAD 3D Mosaic Product Display System for Typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿焕同; 谭振; 刘黎平; 张志强; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    在台风组网产品生成系统的基础上,根据台风监测预警的实际情况,开发台风雷达三维组网产品显示系统.该显示系统兼顾实时处理和历史数据分析的需求,实现了台风三维组网产品的实时监洲、动画显示、风场叠加等多种功能,并运用切面插值算法、台风非对称性方向识别算法实现了最大对称轴和非对称轴的自动定位及其切面显示、台风不同距离的平均RHI切面显示.介绍显示方法、相关算法和主要功能模块,并使用“黑格比”台风作为实例,结合图像分析台风的非对称性和移动路径、强回波区、螺旋雨带的对应关系,取得良好的应用效果.%The three-dimensional structure and change of a typhoon in the landing period have close relationship with the its path and intensity. Using the CINRAD 3D mosaic typhoon products to analyze in real-time the three-dimensional structure of the typhoon is important to typhoon nowcasting and warning. According to the actual situation of typhoon monitoring and warning, a CINRAD 3D mosaic product display system for typhoon is developed, on the basis of the CINRAD 3D mosaic product production system for typhoon. Taking into account the demand of real-time processing and post-analysis, the realtime monitoring, the animated display of the typhoon and CINRAD 3D mosaic products, the superposition of wind and other functions are realized. Using the section interpolation algorithm and the identification algorithm of non-symmetric direction of typhoons, the automatic positioning and display section of the largest symmetry axis, non-symmetric axis and the average RHI section at different distances of the typhoon are achieved. The display method, the related algorithms, and the main functional modules of the system are described. By using Typhoon HAGUPIT as an example, analyzed are the asymmetry and movement of the typhoon path and the correspondence between the strong echo areas and spiral

  12. The impact of T-TREC-retrieved wind and radial velocity data assimilation using EnKF and effects of assimilation window on the analysis and prediction of Typhoon Jangmi (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Xue, Ming; Zhao, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relative impact of assimilating T-TREC-retrieved winds (VTREC) versus radial velocity (Vr) on the analysis and forecast of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The VTREC and Vr data at 30 min intervals are assimilated into the ARPS model at 3 km grid spacing over four different assimilation windows that cover, respectively, 0000-0200, 0200-0400, 0400-0600, and 0000-0600 UTC, 28 September 2008. The assimilation of VTREC data produces better analyses of the typhoon structure and intensity than the assimilation of Vr data during the earlier assimilation windows, but during the later assimilation windows when the coverage of Vr data on the typhoon from four Doppler radars is much improved, the assimilation of Vr outperforms VTREC data. The combination of VTREC and Vr data, either by assimilating both VTREC and Vr data in all cycles or by assimilating VTREC in the first cycle and Vr in the remaining cycles (labeled VTFVR), further improves the analyses of the typhoon structure and intensity compared to assimilating VTREC or Vr data alone. Quantitative verifications of 24 h forecasts of the typhoon show that the VTFVR assimilation experiments produces forecasts that best match the best track data and also have the highest precipitation prediction skills. The track forecast errors in experiment that assimilate VTREC data through the later cycles are the largest. The behaviors are discussed based on the coverage, information content, and accuracy of the various forms of data.

  13. Super-Resolution Imaging on Microfluidic Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pei; TANG Lin; ZHANG Dou-Guo; LU Yong-Hua; JIAO Xiao-Jin; XIE Jian-Ping; MING Hai

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a new concept of the microfluidic super-resolution near-field structure (MSRENS) based on a microfluidic structure and a super-resolution near-field structure. The near-field distance control, "nano-probe"and scanning can be realized simultaneously using the MSRENS, which is similar to a near-field scanning optical microscope. The design and simulation results are presented. Numerical simulation has demonstrated that the MSRENS with spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit could be applicable in chemistry, biologics, and many other fields.

  14. SuperB: An opportunity to study baryons with beauty and bottom super-nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciello, A., E-mail: Alessandro.Feliciello@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    SuperB is an INFN flagship project for a new high-luminosity heavy-flavor factory. Along with its companion detector, it is dedicated to the search for CP violation effects in the B meson sector with the aim of looking for direct and indirect signals of new physics, beyond the Standard Model. However it could offer as well the opportunity for a systematic, high-statistics study of b baryon properties and for a search for bottom super-nuclei, that is bound nuclear systems with an explicit content of beauty.

  15. RESEARCH NOTES On the support of super-Brownian motion with super-Brownian immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文明; 钟惠芳

    2001-01-01

    The support properties of the super Brownian motion with random immigration Xρ1 are considered,where the immigration rate is governed by the trajectory of another super-Brownian motion ρ. When both the initial state Xρo of the process and the immigration rate process ρo are of finite measure and with compact supports, the probability of the support of the process Xρi dominated by a ball is given by the solutions of a singular elliptic boundary value problem.

  16. Super-hybrid composites - An emerging structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens of super-hybrids and advanced fiber composites were subjected to extensive tests to determine their mechanical properties, including impact and thermal fatigue. The super-hybrids were fabricated by a procedure similar to that reported by Chamis et al., (1975). Super-hybrids subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal fatigue from -100 to 300 F retained over 90% of their longitudinal flexural strength and over 75% of their transverse flexural strength; their transverse flexural strength may be as high as 8 times that of a commercially supplied boron/1100-Al composite. The thin specimen Izod longitudinal impact resistance of the super-hybrids was twice that of the boron/110-Al material. Super-hybrids subjected to transverse tensile loads exhibited nonlinear stress-strain relationships. The experimentally determined initial membrane (in-plane) and bending elastic properties of super-hybrids were predicted adequately by linear laminate analysis.

  17. An assessment of the case notification system 16 months after Typhoon Haiyan in Region 8, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor D' Lyn Gallardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Philippines Department of Health uses the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR system to monitor 25 diseases and syndromes that have the potential to cause outbreaks. The focus of this system is to strengthen the capacity of local government units for early detection and response to outbreaks. After Typhoon Haiyan, routine disease surveillance activities were suspended at the Epidemiology and Surveillance Units (ESUs at the city and provincial levels, as well as laboratory services; surveillance resumed as soon as local conditions allowed. Method: We conducted an assessment of PIDSR in March 2015, 16 months post-Haiyan, in Region 8, the most heavily affected region. We used key informant interviews and a review of data from the system to assess the core surveillance and support functions. Results: All ESUs reported they were performing all surveillance core functions, although laboratory confirmation needed to be strengthened at the regional reference laboratory. Access to working communication equipment also needed improvement as did timeliness and completeness of reporting. Discussion: Assessment of surveillance activities, resources and quality should be conducted post-disaster. The strength and operations of the disease surveillance system usually requires support from the local, regional and national governments, especially if there are legal mandates and legislation that includes the system in disaster planning. Regular monitoring of the system is recommended to ensure stability, system development, increased outbreak detection and fewer morbidities and fatalities.

  18. Pi-SAR-L2 Observation of the Landslide Caused by Typhoon Wipha on Izu Oshima Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pi-SAR-L2 full polarimetic data observed in four different observational directions over a landslide area on Izu Oshima Island, induced by Typhoon Wipha on 16 October 2013, were analyzed to clarify the most appropriate L-band full polarimetric parameters and observational direction to detect a landslide area. Japanese airborne Pi-SAR-L2 and PiSAR-L data were used in this analysis. Several L-band full polarimetric parameters, including backscattering coefficient (σ°, coherence between two polarimetric states, four-component decomposition parameters (double-bounce/volume/surface/helix scattering, and eigenvalue decomposition parameters (entropy/α/anisotropy, were calculated to determine the most appropriate parameters for detecting landslide areas. The change in land cover from forest before the disaster to bare soil after the disaster was detected well by α, and coherence between HH and VV. Observational data from the bottom to the top of the landslide detected the landslide well, whereas observations from the opposite sides were not as useful, indicating that a smaller local incident angle is better to distinguish landslide and forested areas. Soil from the landslide intruded into the urban areas; however, none of the full polarimetric parameters showed any significant differences between the landslide-affected urban areas after the disaster and unaffected areas before the disaster.

  19. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  20. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  1. Modeling Typhoon Event-Induced Landslides Using GIS-Based Logistic Regression: A Case Study of Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for evaluating the hazard level of landslides at Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan, by using logistic regression with the assistance of a geographical information system (GIS. A typhoon event-induced landslide inventory, independent variables, and a triggering factor were used to build the model. The environmental factors such as bedrock lithology from the geology database; topographic aspect, terrain roughness, profile curvature, and distance to river, from the topographic database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT 4 satellite images were used as variables that influence landslide occurrence. The area under curve (AUC of a receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve was used to validate the model. Effects of parameters on landslide occurrence were assessed from the corresponding coefficient that appears in the logistic regression function. Thereafter, the model was applied to predict the probability of landslides for rainfall data of different return periods. Using a predicted map of probability, the study area was classified into four ranks of landslide susceptibility: low, medium, high, and very high. As a result, most high susceptibility areas are located on the western portion of the study area. Several train stations and railways are located on sites with a high susceptibility ranking.

  2. On Super Edge-Antimagicness of Subdivided Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enomoto, Llado, Nakamigawa and Ringel (1998 defined the concept of a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total labeling and proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total graph. In the support of this conjecture, the present paper deals with different results on super (a, d-edge-antimagic total labeling of subdivided stars for d ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3}.

  3. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Changtao Wang; Dongliang Tang; Yanqin Wang; Zeyu Zhao; Jiong Wang; Mingbo Pu; Yudong Zhang; Wei Yan; Ping Gao; Xiangang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found ...

  4. The Robotic Super-LOTIS Telescope: Results & Future Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, G. G.; Milne, P. A.; Park, H.S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Hartmann, D. H.; Updike, A.; Hurley, K.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the robotic Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope and present results from gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations using Super-LOTIS and other Steward Observatory telescopes. The 0.6-m Super-LOTIS telescope is a fully robotic system dedicated to the measurement of prompt and early time optical emission from GRBs. The system began routine operations from its Steward Observatory site atop Kitt Peak in April 2000 and currently operates ...

  5. Spin groups of super metrics and a theorem of Rogers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulp, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    We derive the canonical forms of super Riemannian metrics and the local isometry groups of such metrics. For certain super metrics we also compute the simply connected covering groups of the local isometry groups and interpret these as local spin groups of the super metric. Super metrics define reductions OSg of the relevant frame bundle. When principal bundles S˜g exist with structure group the simply connected covering group G ˜ of the structure group of OSg , representations of G ˜ define vector bundles associated to S˜g whose sections are "spinor fields" associated with the super metric g . Using a generalization of a Theorem of Rogers, which is itself one of the main results of this paper, we show that for super metrics we call body reducible, each such simply connected covering group G ˜ is a super Lie group with a conventional super Lie algebra as its corresponding super Lie algebra. Some of our results were known to DeWitt (1984) using formal Grassmann series and others were known by Rogers using finitely many Grassmann generators and passing to a direct limit. We work exclusively in the category of G∞ supermanifolds with G∞ mappings. Our supernumbers are infinite series of products of Grassmann generators subject to convergence in the ℓ1 norm introduced by Rogers (1980, 2007).

  6. New Results from Super-K and K2K

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkes, R J

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent (as of SSI-02, in some cases updated in November, 2002) results from the Super-Kamiokande and K2K experiments. The interpretation of Super-Kamiokande results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos provides strong evidence for neutrino oscillations, hence non-zero neutrino mass. While statistics are still limited, K2K data are consistent with Super-Kamiokande results on neutrino oscillations. The effort to reconstruct Super-Kamiokande following a cascade of phototube implosions in November, 2001 is described. Plans for the future are also discussed.

  7. Video super-resolution using simultaneous motion and intensity calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    for the joint estimation of a super-resolution sequence and its flow field. Via the calculus of variations, this leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations for image sequence and motion estimation. We solve a simplified form of this system and as a by-product we indeed provide a motion field...... for super-resolved sequences. Computing super-resolved flows has to our knowledge not been done before. Most advanced super-resolution (SR) methods found in literature cannot be applied to general video with arbitrary scene content and/or arbitrary optical flows, as it is possible with our simultaneous VSR...

  8. Super-Hamiltonian Structures and Conservation Laws of a New Six-Component Super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-component super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (-AKNS hierarchy is proposed by the zero curvature equation associated with Lie superalgebras. Supertrace identity is used to furnish the super-Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear superintegrable hierarchy. Furthermore, we derive the infinite conservation laws of the first two nonlinear super-AKNS equations in the hierarchy by utilizing spectral parameter expansions. PACS: 02.30.Ik; 02.30.Jr; 02.20.Sv.

  9. Super-Liouville - Double Liouville correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hadasz, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    The AGT motivated relation between the tensor product of the N=1 super-Liouville field theory with the imaginary free fermion (SL) and a certain projected tensor products of the real and the imaginary Liouville field theories (LL) is analyzed. Using conformal field theory techniques we give a complete proof of the equivalence in the NS sector. It is shown that SL-LL correspondence is based on the equivalence of chiral objects including suitably chosen chiral structure constants of all three Liouville theories involved.

  10. A Trio of Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at an international conference, a team of European astronomers announced a remarkable breakthrough in the field of extra-solar planets. Using the HARPS instrument at the ESO La Silla Observatory, they have found a triple system of super-Earths around the star HD 40307. Moreover, looking at their entire sample studied with HARPS, the astronomers count a total of 45 candidate planets with a mass below 30 Earth masses and an orbital period shorter than 50 days. This implies that one solar-like star out of three harbours such planets. A trio of Super-Earths ESO PR Photo 19a/08 A trio of Super-Earths "Does every single star harbour planets and, if yes, how many?" wonders planet hunter Michel Mayor from Geneva Observatory. "We may not yet know the answer but we are making huge progress towards it." Since the discovery in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Pegasi by Mayor and Didier Queloz, more than 270 exoplanets have been found, mostly around solar-like stars. Most of these planets are giants, such as Jupiter or Saturn, and current statistics show that about 1 out of 14 stars harbours this kind of planet. "With the advent of much more precise instruments such as the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, we can now discover smaller planets, with masses between 2 and 10 times the Earth's mass," says Stéphane Udry, one of Mayor's colleagues. Such planets are called super-Earths, as they are more massive than the Earth but less massive than Uranus and Neptune (about 15 Earth masses). The group of astronomers have now discovered a system of three super-Earths around a rather normal star, which is slightly less massive than our Sun, and is located 42 light-years away towards the southern Doradus and Pictor constellations. "We have made very precise measurements of the velocity of the star HD 40307 over the last five years, which clearly reveal the presence of three planets," says Mayor. The planets, having 4.2, 6.7, and 9.4 times the mass of the

  11. SuperLU users' guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James W.; Gilbert, John R.; Li, Xiaoye S.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes a collection of three related ANSI C subroutine libraries for solving sparse linear systems of equations AX = B: Here A is a square, nonsingular, n x n sparse matrix, and X and B are dense n x nrhs matrices, where nrhs is the number of right-hand sides and solution vectors. Matrix A need not be symmetric or definite; indeed, SuperLU is particularly appropriate for matrices with very unsymmetric structure. All three libraries use variations of Gaussian elimination optimized to take advantage both of sparsity and the computer architecture, in particular memory hierarchies (caches) and parallelism.

  12. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  13. Emergent Super-Virasoro on Magnetic Branes

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The low energy limit of the stress tensor, gauge current, and supercurrent two-point correlators are calculated in the background of the supersymmetric magnetic brane solution to gauged five-dimensional supergravity constructed by Almuhairi and Polchinski. The resulting correlators provide evidence for the emergence of an N=2 super-Virasoro algebra of right-movers, in addition to a bosonic Virasoro algebra and a $U(1) \\oplus U(1)$-current algebra of left-movers (or the parity transform of left- and right-movers depending on the sign of the magnetic field), in the holographically dual strongly interacting two-dimensional effective field theory of the lowest Landau level.

  14. Super-utilizers get red carpet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland has partnered with two health plans to provide intensive care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple medical problems and, often, behavioral health issues. Nurse practitioners at two primary care sites provide one-on-one care coordination for super-utilizers. They assess the patients' needs, help coordinate community resources, and prepare a treatment plan that is flagged when patients visit the emergency department. The nurse practitioners meet with health plan representatives monthly and brainstorm on ways to meet patients' needs.

  15. The Super-B Project Accelerator Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, M.E.; Alesini, D.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Esposito, M.; Guiducci, S.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, G.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sanelli, C.; Serio, M.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati; Bertsche, K.; Brachmann, A.; Cai, Y.; /SLAC /Novosibirsk, IYF /Annecy, LAPP /LPSC, Grenoble /Orsay, LAL /Saclay /Pisa U. /CERN

    2011-08-17

    The SuperB project is an international effort aiming at building in Italy a very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}) asymmetric collider at the Y(4S) energy in the CM. The accelerator design has been extensively studied and changed during the past year. The present design, based on the new collision scheme, with large Piwinski angle and the use of 'crab waist' sextupoles already successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF Frascati, provides larger flexibility, better dynamic aperture and spin manipulation sections in the Low Energy Ring (LER) for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point (IP). The Interaction Region (IR) has been further optimized in terms of apertures and reduced backgrounds in the detector. The injector complex design has been also updated. A summary of the project status will be presented in this paper. The SuperB collider can reach a peak luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} with beam currents and bunch lengths similar to those of the past and present e{sup +}e{sup -} Factories, through the use of smaller emittances and new scheme of crossing angle collision. The beams are stored in two rings at 6.7 GeV (HER) and 4.2 GeV (LER). Unique features of the project are the polarization of the electron beam in the LER and the possibility to decrease the energies for running at the {tau}/charm threshold. The option to reuse the PEP-II B-Factory (SLAC) hardware will allow reducing costs. The SuperB facility will require a big complex of civil infrastructure. The main construction, which will house the final part of the LINAC, the injection lines, the damping rings, and the storage rings, will be mainly underground. Two sites have been considered: the campus of Tor Vergata University near Frascati, and the INFN Frascati Laboratory. No decision has been made yet. A footprint of the possible SuperB layout on the LNF area is shown in Fig. 1.

  16. Super computer made with Linux cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Yeong Eun; Kim, Jeong Seok

    2002-01-15

    This book consists of twelve chapters, which introduce super computer made with Linux cluster. The contents of this book are Linux cluster, the principle of cluster, design of Linux cluster, general things for Linux, building up terminal server and client, Bear wolf cluster by Debian GNU/Linux, cluster system with red hat, Monitoring system, application programming-MPI, on set-up and install application programming-PVM, with PVM programming and XPVM application programming-open PBS with composition and install and set-up and GRID with GRID system, GSI, GRAM, MDS, its install and using of tool kit.

  17. Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, Tom D.; Curtis, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Signal quality in an optical storage device greatly depends on the optical system transfer function used to write and read data patterns. The problem is similar to analysis of scanning optical microscopes. Hopkins and Braat have analyzed write-once-read-many (WORM) optical data storage devices. Herein, transfer function analysis of magnetooptic (MO) data storage devices is discussed with respect to improving transfer-function characteristics. Several authors have described improving the transfer function as super resolution. However, none have thoroughly analyzed the MO optical system and effects of the medium. Both the optical system transfer function and effects of the medium of this development are discussed.

  18. Medical care at the Super Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J M

    2000-06-01

    Although coordinating medical care at the Super Bowl is something that we look forward to and have a lot of fun doing, we take it very seriously and understand the importance of delivering medical care at what many people consider to be the greatest sporting event in the world. It is certainly one of the most watched and recognized events in the world and because of this, we attempt to set up a system that will allow for the best medical care available and standardization of this medical care through our experience within Medical Sports Group.

  19. Assessing Impacts of Typhoons and the Chi-Chi Earthquake on Chenyulan Watershed Landscape Pattern in Central Taiwan Using Landscape Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wu, Chen-Fa; Chiang, Te-Chih; Lin, Shin-Hwei

    2006-07-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake (ML = 7.3) occurred in the central part of Taiwan on September 21, 1999. After the earthquake, typhoons Xangsane and Toraji produced heavy rainfall that fell across the eastern and central parts of Taiwan on November 2000 and July 2001. This study uses remote sensing data, landscape metrics, multivariate statistical analysis, and spatial autocorrelation to assess how earthquake and typhoons affect landscape patterns. It addresses variations of the Chenyulan watershed in Nantou County, near the earthquake’s epicenter and crossed by Typhoon Toraji. The subsequent disturbances have gradually changed landscape of the Chenyulan watershed. Disturbances of various types, sizes, and intensities, following various tracks, have various effects on the landscape patterns and variations of the Chenyulan watershed. The landscape metrics that are obtained by multivariate statistical analyses showed that the disturbances produced variously fragmented patches, interspersed with other patches and isolated from patches of the same type across the entire Chenyulan watershed. The disturbances also affected the isolation, size, and shape-complexity of patches at the landscape and class levels. The disturbances at the class level more strongly affected spatial variations in the landscape as well as patterns of grasslands and bare land, than variations in the watershed farmland and forest. Moreover, the earthquake with high magnitude was a starter to create these landscape variations in space in the Chenyulan watershed. The cumulative impacts of the disturbances on the watershed landscape pattern had existed, especially landslides and grassland in the study area, but were not always evident in space and time in landscape and other class levels.

  20. Impact of Cloud Microphysical Processes on the Simulation of Typhoon Rananim near Shore.Part Ⅰ: Cloud Structure and Precipitation Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锐; 宇如聪; 傅云飞; 徐幼平

    2011-01-01

    By using the Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM),the basic structure and cloud features of Typhoon Rananim are simulated and verified against observations.Five sets of experiments are designed to investigate the effects of the cloud microphysical processes on the model cloud structure and precipitation features.The importance of the ice-phase microphysics,the cooling effect related to microphysical characteristics change,and the influence of terminal velocity of graupel are examined.The results indicate that the cloud microphysical processes impact more on the cloud development and precipitation features of the typhoon than on its intensity and track.Big differences in the distribution pattern and content of hydrometeors,and types and amount of rainfall occur in the five experiments,resulting in different heating and cooling effects.The largest difference of 24-h rain rate reaches 52.5 mm h-1.The results are summarized as follows:1) when the cooling effect due to the evaporation of rain water is excluded,updrafts in the typhoon's inner core are the strongest with the maximum vertical velocity of-19 Pa s-1 and rain water and graupel grow most dominantly with their mixing ratios increased by 1.8 and 2.5 g kg-1,respectively,compared with the control experiment; 2) the melting of snow and graupel affects the growth of rain water mainly in the spiral rainbands,but much less significantly in the eyewall area; 3) the warm cloud microphysical process produces the smallest rainfall area and the largest percentage of convective precipitation (63.19%),while the largest rainfall area and the smallest percentage of convective precipitation (48.85%) are generated when the terminal velocity of graupel is weakened by half.

  1. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  2. Review of Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gaze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ayers, I. Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-by-Numbers Is the New Way to be Smart. (Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 2007. 272 pp. Hard cover $25 ISBN 978-0-553-80540-6.Super Crunchers tells the story of how analyzing data is changing the ways in which decisions are made. We in the National Numeracy Network make a case for the importance of quantitative literacy by referring to how much quantitative information is now available to each of us: “a world awash in numbers.” Ian Ayres zeroes in on the people who are making a living crunching all of these data. From the seemingly innocuous (how wines are rated, and the scouting of baseball players to the life impacting (diagnosis of disease, and parole of inmates, this book paints a vivid portrayal of how data analysis is impacting decision making at every level in our society. The use of simple regression models and randomized trials is calling into question who the “experts” of the twenty-first century will be, and why thinking-by-numbers really is the new way to be smart.

  3. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2014-08-05

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place along the recording plane, not just along a receiver line. Moreover, the effect of enhancing the SNR can be limited because of the limitations in the number of survey lines, irregular line geometries, and azimuthal range of arrivals. We have developed a 3D SVI method to overcome these problems. By integrating along the source or receiver lines, the cross-correlation or the convolution result of a trace pair with the source or receiver at the stationary position can be calculated without the requirement of knowing the stationary locations. In addition, the amplitudes of the cross-correlation and convolution results are largely strengthened by integration, which is helpful to further enhance the SNR. In this paper, both synthetic and field data examples are presented, demonstrating that the super-virtual refractions generated by our method have accurate traveltimes and much improved SNR.

  4. Super Sensitive Mass Detection in Nonlinear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Saber; Ahmadian, Iman; Cetinkaya, Cetin; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped micro-beam exposed to a two sided electrostatic actuation is investigated to determine super sensitive regions for mass detection. The objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the frequency spectrum of various regions in the phase space to the added mass and force the system to operate in its super sensitive regions by applying an appropriate pulse to its control electrodes. The electrostatic actuation in the top electrode is a combination of a DC, AC and a pulse voltage, the excitation on the lower electrode is only a DC and a pulse voltage. The governing equation of the motion, derived using the Hamiltonian principle, is discretized to an equivalent single-degree of freedom system using the Galerkin method. Depending on the applied electrostatic voltage to the micro-beam, it is demonstrated that the number and types of equilibrium points of the system can be modified. In this study, the level of the DC electrostatic voltage is chosen such a way that the system has three equilibrium points including two centers and a saddle node where the homoclinic orbit originates. According to the reported results, the mass sensing sensitivity depends on the operating orbit; some orbits exhibit considerably higher mass detection sensitivity to the added mass compared to that of a typical quartz crystal micro balance instrument.

  5. SuperAGILE data processing services

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzarotto, F; Del Monte, E; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Lapshov, I; Pacciani, L; Soffitta, P

    2009-01-01

    The SuperAGILE (SA) instrument is a X-ray detector for As- trophysics measurements, part of the Italian AGILE satellite for X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy launched at 23/04/2007 from India. SuperAGILE is now studying the sky in the 18 - 60 KeV energy band. It is detecting sources with advanced imaging and timing detection and good spectral detection capabilities. Several astrophysical sources has been detected and localized, including Crab, Vela and GX 301-2. The instrument has the skill to resolve correctly sources in a field of view of [-40, +40] degrees interval, with the angular resolution of 6 arcmin, and a spectral analysis with the resolution of 8 keV. Transient events are regularly detected by SA with the aid of its temporal resolution (2 microsec- onds) and using signal coincidence on different portions of the instrument, with confirmation from other observatories. The SA data processing scientic software performing at the AGILE Ground Segment is divided in modules, grouped in a processing pipeline na...

  6. Convolutional Neural Network Based dem Super Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixuan; Wang, Xuewen; Xu, Zekai; Hou, Wenguang

    2016-06-01

    DEM super resolution is proposed in our previous publication to improve the resolution for a DEM on basis of some learning examples. Meanwhile, the nonlocal algorithm is introduced to deal with it and lots of experiments show that the strategy is feasible. In our publication, the learning examples are defined as the partial original DEM and their related high measurements due to this way can avoid the incompatibility between the data to be processed and the learning examples. To further extent the applications of this new strategy, the learning examples should be diverse and easy to obtain. Yet, it may cause the problem of incompatibility and unrobustness. To overcome it, we intend to investigate a convolutional neural network based method. The input of the convolutional neural network is a low resolution DEM and the output is expected to be its high resolution one. A three layers model will be adopted. The first layer is used to detect some features from the input, the second integrates the detected features to some compressed ones and the final step transforms the compressed features as a new DEM. According to this designed structure, some learning DEMs will be taken to train it. Specifically, the designed network will be optimized by minimizing the error of the output and its expected high resolution DEM. In practical applications, a testing DEM will be input to the convolutional neural network and a super resolution will be obtained. Many experiments show that the CNN based method can obtain better reconstructions than many classic interpolation methods.

  7. Polynomial super-gl(n) algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, P D

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a class of finite dimensional nonlinear superalgebras $L = L_{\\bar{0}} + L_{\\bar{1}}$ providing gradings of $L_{\\bar{0}} = gl(n) \\simeq sl(n) + gl(1)$. Odd generators close by anticommutation on polynomials (of degree $>1$) in the $gl(n)$ generators. Specifically, we investigate `type I' super-$gl(n)$ algebras, having odd generators transforming in a single irreducible representation of $gl(n)$ together with its contragredient. Admissible structure constants are discussed in terms of available $gl(n)$ couplings, and various special cases and candidate superalgebras are identified and exemplified via concrete oscillator constructions. For the case of the $n$-dimensional defining representation, with odd generators $Q_{a}, \\bar{Q}{}^{b}$, and even generators ${E^{a}}_{b}$, $a,b = 1,...,n$, a three parameter family of quadratic super-$gl(n)$ algebras (deformations of $sl(n/1)$) is defined. In general, additional covariant Serre-type conditions are imposed, in order that the Jacobi identities be fulf...

  8. Hot Jupiters and Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Mustill, Alexander James; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We explore the role of dynamics in shaping planetary system multiplicities, focussing on two particular problems. (1) We propose that the lack of close-in super-Earths in hot Jupiter systems is a signature of the migration history of the hot Jupiters and helps to discriminate between different mechanisms of migration. We present N-body simulations of dynamical migration scenarios where proto-hot Jupiters are excited to high eccentricities prior to tidal circularisation and orbital decay. We show that in this scenario, the eccentric giant planet typically destroys planets in the inner system, in agreement with the observed lack of close super-Earth companions to hot Jupiters. (2) We explore the role of the dynamics of outer systems in affecting the multiplicities of close-in systems such as those discovered by Kepler. We consider specifically the effects of planet--planet scattering and Kozai perturbations on an exterior giant planet on the architecture of the inner system, and evaluate the ability of such sce...

  9. Aptamer Stainings for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Maria Angela Gomes; Rammner, Burkhard; Opazo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an invaluable tool to visualize molecules in their biological context with ease and flexibility. However, studies using conventional light microscopy have been limited to the resolution that light diffraction allows (i.e., ~200 nm). This limitation has been recently circumvented by several types of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, which have achieved resolutions of up to ~10 nm. The resulting enhanced imaging precision has helped to find important cellular details that were not visible using diffraction-limited instruments. However, it has also revealed that conventional stainings using large affinity tags, such as antibodies, are not accurate enough for these imaging techniques. Since aptamers are substantially smaller than antibodies, they could provide a real advantage in super-resolution imaging. Here we compare the live staining of transferrin receptors (TfnR) obtained with different fluorescently labeled affinity probes: aptamers, specific monoclonal antibodies, or the natural receptor ligand transferrin. We observed negligible differences between these staining strategies when imaging is performed with conventional light microscopy (i.e., laser scanning confocal microscopy). However, a clear superiority of the aptamer tag over antibodies became apparent in super-resolved images obtained with stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.

  10. Sala polideportiva de Super-Lioran Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzucconi, Vittorio

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The polysports hall of the Super-Lioran winter resort, located in a crater filled with aliuvionary deposits, consists of two clearly differentiated parts: a lower one, of concrete, where there is the skating rink and various services, and an upper one consisting of hyperbolic paraboloid elements. This roof is of adhered laminate wood. The laminate roof structure rests on the ground, and almost merges with it, to later emerge from the snow giving the assembly almost an abstract nature which helps to increase the beauty of the area.

    La sala polideportiva de la estación invernal de Super-Lioran, situada en un cráter relleno de depósitos aluvionares, consta de dos partes claramente diferenciadas: una inferior, de hormigón, donde se encuentran la pista de patinaje y los distintos servicios, y una superior formada por elementos de paraboloide hiperbólico. Esta cubierta es de madera laminada encolada. La estructura laminar de la cubierta se apoya en el suelo casi confundiéndose con él, y luego emerge desde la nieve proporcionando al conjunto un carácter casi abstracto que contribuye a aumentar la belleza de la zona.

  11. Nanostructured coatings for super hydrophobic textiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Joshi; A Bhattacharyya; N Agarwal; S Parmar

    2012-11-01

    The promising aspects of nanocomposite coatings to mimic the nano roughened self cleaning surface of lotus leaf is explored in this paper. A detailed study on nanosilica and clay based nanocomposite coatings using dip coating and layer by layer self assembly (L–b–L) is being described where lotus leaf effect has been mimicked on the cotton fabric surface using these particles as they develop nanosized surface roughness which helps to produce a super-hydrophobic surface. Nanosilica performs better in creating nano roughness on cotton fabric wherein the contact angle is >150°. The water contact angle of 2 wt% fluoro emulsion (Nuva HPU) treated cotton fabric increases from 115° to 155° when the fabric is pretreated with 0.5 wt% nanosilica emulsion. The water repellency rating of fabric treated with 0.16 wt% nanosilica along with 2 wt% Nuva HPU is comparable to that of 4 wt% Nuva HPU treated cotton fabric. On the other hand, 40 bilayers of nanosilica need to be applied on cotton fabric surface through L–b–L technique to create uniform nano roughening and gives a water repellency rating of 4. The air permeability of L–b–L nanocoated cotton fabric is not adversely affected by the super-hydrophobic nanostructured coating.

  12. 从9903号台风移动探讨台风登陆异常路径的条件%The Study of the Conditions of Abnormal Typhoon Tracks by MAGGIE Move along the Coast of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛绍荣

    2000-01-01

    By studying the abnormal track of typhoon MAGGIE moved along the coast of Guangdong province, four qualitative conditions were concluded.When they appear at the same time, the track of landing typhoon tends to be abnormal.%通过对9903号台风(MAGGIE)在广东沿岸移动异常路径的分析探讨,总结出4条定性条件.当这些条件同时达到时,台风的登陆路径可能会出现异常变化.

  13. 浙江省台风灾害直接经济损失评估模型%Direct Economic Losses Assessment of Typhoon Disaster in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 邱新法; 张眉; 金有杰; 龚敬瑜

    2014-01-01

    Destructive typhoon usually causes serious direct economic losses and restricts economic development. Through the establishment of economic losses assessment model,the relevant departments for disaster prevention and reduction could more easily make decisions. Based on the data of 40 typhoon disasters and historical data in Zhejiang Province during 1984-2007, this paper selected hazard risk, disaster environmental sensitivity, vulnerability of disaster bodies, and disaster prevention and mitigation capabilities as the four influencing factors to establish a direct economic losses assessment model with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Correlation analysis result showed that the model had a high fitting rate with a correlation coefficient 0.806. For verification of the model, the data of three typhoons were used to make error analysis. The results showed that the analog values of the direct economic losses were basically in accord with the actual, and the simulation error was within a reasonable range. It is considered that the model established in this paper could reasonably evaluate the direct economic losses caused by typhoon disaster and give support to the decision-making of the government.%基于浙江省1984-2007年发生的40个台风数据及历史灾情数据,从致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾体和防灾减灾4个方面选取影响因子,利用模糊综合评价方法建立直接经济损失模型,并对其进行验证。结果显示:该模型具有较高的拟合率,相关性系数达到0.806;基于3次台风过程数据进行模型验证和误差分析得知其模拟值与实际统计值基本一致,模拟误差在合理的范围之内;模型能够较好地评估一次台风灾害可能造成的直接经济损失,为政府部门的防灾减灾工作提供科学依据和决策支持,具有实际意义。

  14. The SuperNEMO double beta decay experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nasteva, Irina; Collaboration, for the SuperNEMO

    2007-01-01

    The SuperNEMO project studies the feasibility of employing a technique of tracking plus calorimetry to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 100 kg of enriched isotopes. It aims to reach an effective neutrino mass sensitivity of 50 meV. The current status of the SuperNEMO R&D programme is described, focusing on the main areas of improvement.

  15. Super Bowli teooria soovitab aktsiaid osta / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Super Bowli teooria kohaselt tõuseb Dow Jones, kui võidab algupärase NFL-i meeskond. MarketWatchi peaökonomist Irwin Keller avaldab arvamust, miks tasuks investoritel Super Bowli tulemustele tähelepanu pöörata

  16. User Equilibrium Exchange Allocation Algorithm Based on Super Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyi Dong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of super network is an effective method to various traffic networks with means of multiple decision-making. It provides us with a favorable pricing decision tool for it combines a practical transport network with the space pricing decision. Spatial price equilibrium problem has always been the important research direction of the Transport Economics and regional transportation planning. As to how to combine the two, this paper presents the user equilibrium exchange allocation algorithm based on super network, which successfully keep the classical spatial price equilibrium problems (SPE into a super-network analysis framework. Through super-network analysis, we can add two virtual nodes in the network, which correspond to the virtual supply node and the super-super-demand virtual node, analysis the user equivalence with the SPE equilibrium and find the concrete steps of users exchange allocation algorithm based on super-network equilibrium. Finally, we carried out experiments to verify. The experiments show that: through the user equilibrium exchange SPE allocation algorithm based on super-network, we can get the steady-state equilibrium solution, which demonstrate that the algorithm is reasonable.

  17. Super-group field cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation, we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  18. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  19. Super Bowli teooria soovitab aktsiaid osta / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Super Bowli teooria kohaselt tõuseb Dow Jones, kui võidab algupärase NFL-i meeskond. MarketWatchi peaökonomist Irwin Keller avaldab arvamust, miks tasuks investoritel Super Bowli tulemustele tähelepanu pöörata

  20. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-I

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, J; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Minamino, A; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Namba, T; Obayashi, Y; Sakurai, N; Sarrat, A; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Yamada, S; Higuchi, I; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Mitsuka, G; Nakayama, S; Nishino, H; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Saji, C; Takenaga, Y; Clark, S; Desai, S; Kearns, E; Likhoded, S; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Wang, W; Goldhaber, M; Casper, D; Cravens, J P; Kropp, W R; Liu, D W; Mine, S; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Sterner, C W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Guillian, G; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Messier, M D; Hayato, Y; Ichikawa, A K; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwashita, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nitta, K; Oyama, Y; Totsuka, Y; Suzuki, A T; Hasegawa, M; Kato, I; Maesaka, H; Nakaya, T; Nishikawa, K; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Yamamoto, S; Yokoyama, M; Haines, T J; Dazeley, S; Kim, B K; Lee, K B; Hatakeyama, S; Svoboda, R; Blaufuss, E; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Turcan, D; Cooley, J; Habig, A; Fukuda, Y; Sato, T; Itow, Y; Jung, C K; Kato, T; Kobayashi, K; Malek, M; Martens, K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Yanagisawa, C; Tamura, N; Sakuda, M; Kuno, Y; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Yoo, J; Okazawa, H; Ishizuka, T; Choi, Y; Seo, H K; Gando, Y; Hasegawa, T; Inoue, K; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Nishijima, K; Ishino, H; Watanabe, Y; Koshiba, M; Kielczewska, D; Zalipska, J; Berns, H G; Gran, R; Shiraishi, K K; Stachyra, A L; Washburn, K; Wilkes, R J

    2006-01-01

    The details of Super--Kamiokande--I's solar neutrino analysis are given. Solar neutrino measurement in Super--Kamiokande is a high statistics collection of $^8$B solar neutrinos via neutrino-electron scattering. The analysis method and results of the 1496 day data sample are presented. The final oscillation results for the data are also presented.