WorldWideScience

Sample records for super science fair

  1. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  2. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  3. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  4. Sciences's Super Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magie, Craig; Bossert, Patricia; Aramli, Lili; Thomsen, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Animal biology is fascinating for its incredible diversity in life strategies. These strategies amaze scientists and can also fire the enthusiasm of science students. One group of animals impressive in this way is the phylum "Cnidaria," containing some 10,000 invertebrate species that include jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, hydroids,…

  5. High school science fair and research integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976

  6. Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes' is organising a book exhibition. The major topics covered will be science and technology. The fair will take place in the foyer of the main building (building 60), and will be open from 10am - 4pm on 5th July 2005.

  7. CERN welcomes Intel Science Fair winners

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This June, CERN welcomed twelve gifted young scientists aged 15-18 for a week-long visit of the Laboratory. These talented students were the winners of a special award co-funded by CERN and Intel, given yearly at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF).   The CERN award winners at the Intel ISEF 2012 Special Awards Ceremony. © Society for Science & the Public (SSP). The CERN award was set up back in 2009 as an opportunity to bring some of the best and brightest young minds to the Laboratory. The award winners are selected from among 1,500 talented students participating in ISEF – the world's largest pre-university science competition, in which students compete for more than €3 million in awards. “CERN gave an award – which was obviously this trip – to students studying physics, maths, electrical engineering and computer science,” says Benjamin Craig Bartlett, 17, from South Carolina, USA, wh...

  8. Google Science Fair winner visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Google Science Fair Grand Prize winner Brittany Michelle Wenger today wrapped up a day-and-a-half's visit of the CERN site. Her winning project uses an artificial neural network to diagnose breast cancer – a non-invasive technique with significant potential for use in hospitals.   Brittany Michelle Wenger at CERN's SM18 Hall. Besides winning a $50,000 scholarship from Google and work experience opportunities with some of the contest hosts, Brittany was offered a personal tour of CERN. “This visit has just been incredible,” she says. “I got to speak with [CERN's Director for Accelerators and Technology] Steve Myers about some of the medical applications and technologies coming out of the LHC experiments and how they can be used to treat cancer. We talked about proton therapy and hadron therapy, which could really change the way patients are treated, improving success rates and making treatment not such an excruciating process. That ...

  9. Obama Announces Science Education Goal at White House Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With student participants in the second annual White House Science Fair as a backdrop, President Barack Obama announced on 7 February programs to help prepare new math and science teachers and to meet a new goal of having 1 million more U.S. college graduates in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next decade than there would be at the current graduation rate. That goal is outlined in a report entitled “Engage to excel,” by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), released the same day. Obama also announced several other initiatives, including a $22 million private-sector investment, led by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, to invest in STEM teacher training. After he toured the science fair projects, Obama said the science fair students “inspire” him. “What impresses me so much is not just how smart you are, but it's the fact that you recognize you've got a responsibility to use your talents in service of something bigger than yourselves,” he said. What these young people are doing is “going to make a bigger difference in the life of our country over the long term than just about anything,” adding, “We've got to emphasize how important this is and recognize these incredible young people who are doing that that I couldn't even imagine thinking about at fifth grade or eighth grade or in high school.”

  10. Development of Teachers' Attitude Scale towards Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a new scale for measuring teachers' attitude towards science fair. Teacher Attitude Scale towards Science Fair (TASSF) is an inventory made up of 19 items and five dimensions. The study included such stages as literature review, the preparation of the item pool and the reliability and validity analysis. First of…

  11. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  12. Students Inspiring Students: An Online Tool for Science Fair Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.; Lawrence, Tom

    2011-01-01

    One goal of 21st-century education is to develop mature citizens who can identify issues, solve problems, and communicate solutions. What better way for students to learn these skills than by participating in a science and engineering fair? Fair participants face the same challenges as professional scientists and engineers, even Nobel laureates.…

  13. First Ideas Towards the Super-Conducting Magnet Design for the HESR at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Gussen, Achim; Martin, Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich has taken the leadership of a consortium being responsible for the design of the HESR going to be part of the FAIR project at GSI. The HESR is a 50 Tm storage ring for antiprotons, based on a super-conducting magnet technology. On basis of the RHIC Dipole D0 (3.6 T), the magnet design for the HESR has started recently. One key issue will be a very compact layout because of the rather short magnets (been 1.82 m for the dipoles and 0.5 m for the other magnets). This paper will present first ideas of the magnetic and cryogenic layout, give a status report on the achievements so far and discuss the need and possible solutions for a bent magnet with a radius of curvature of 13.2 m.

  14. The SuperCOSMOS Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.; Mann, R.; Sutorius, E.; Bond, I.; MacGillivray, H.; Williams, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2004-07-01

    The SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS {http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss}; Hambly et al., 2001) consists of digitised scans of Schmidt photographic survey material in a multi-colour (BRI), multi-epoch, uniformly calibrated product. It covers the whole southern hemisphere, with an extension into the north currently underway. Public online access to the 2 Tbytes of SSS pixel data and object catalogues has been available for some time; data are being downloaded at a rate of several gigabytes per week, and many new science results are emerging from community use of the data. In this poster we describe the terabyte-scale SuperCOSMOS Science Archive {http://thoth.roe.ac.uk/ssa} (SSA), which is a recasting of the SSS object catalogue system from flat files into an RDBMS, with an enhanced user interface. We describe some aspects of the hardware and schema design of the SSA, which aims to produce a high performance, VO-compatible database, suitable for data mining by `power users', while maintaining the ease of use praised in the old SSS system. Initially, the SSA will allow access through web forms and a flexible SQL interface. It acts as the prototype for the next generation survey archives to be hosted by the University of Edinburgh's Wide Field Astronomy Unit, such as the WFCAM Science Archive of infrared sky survey data, as well as being a scalability testbed for use by AstroGrid, the UK's Virtual Observatory project. As a result of these roles, it will display subsequently an expanding functionality, as web - and later, Grid - services are deployed on it.

  15. Career Fairs | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  16. Three dimensional numeric quench simulation of Super-FRS dipole test coil for FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Ma Lizhen; He Yuan; Yuan Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prototype of superferric dipoles for Super-FRS of Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) project was designed, fabricated, and tested in China. To investigate the performance of the superconducting coil, a so-called test coil was fabricated and tested in advance. A 3D model based on ANSYS and OPERA 3D was developed in parallel, not only to check if the design matches the numerical simulation, but also to study more details of quench phenomena. The model simplifies the epoxy impregnated coil into an anisotropic continuum medium. The simulation combines ANSYS solver routines for nonlinear transient thermal analysis, the OPERA 3D for magnetic field evaluation and the ANSYS script language for calculations of Joule heat and differential equations of the protection circuits. The time changes of temperature, voltage and current decay, and quench propagation during quench process were analyzed and illustrated. Finally, the test results of the test coil were demonstrated and compared with the results of simulation. (authors)

  17. The Google Science Fair winner comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Shree Bose, the Google Science Fair Grand Prize winner, will come to CERN for a three-day internship. She is looking forward to it and hopes to sit in the CERN Control Room, and to learn more about ALICE and in general the work going on here right now.   Google Science Fair winners Lauren Hodge (left) Shree Bose (middle) and Naomi Shah (right). (Image Copyright Google) Despite her young age, Shree Bose is already an experienced researcher. Indeed, she has already been awarded prestigious prizes in various science fairs and competitions. Aged 17, she found a way to improve ovarian cancer treatment for patients when they have built up a resistance to certain chemotherapy drugs. The project won the Grand Prize at the Google Science Fair, and together with an amazing 10-day trip to the Galapagos Islands with National Geographic Expeditions, she also won a trip to CERN. “Shree will visit several experimental sites here and will sit next to our physicists and engineers, in the CCC an...

  18. CERN and Google team up for Science Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    CERN partners up with Google to present the world’s first online global science competition: the Google Science Fair.   The Google Science Fair invites young people aged 13-18 to conduct innovative science projects and present their results for the chance to win once-in-a-lifetime experiences and opportunities. CERN will offer a three-day visit to the Laboratory to one of the winners, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, will be on the prestigious panel of judges. Nobel laureates, science entrepreneurs, and science communicators will have the difficult task of choosing the winners. “Google is a company that was born from scientific experimentation and in that spirit we are interested in promoting science, technology, engineering and maths (best known as STEM) education all over the world,” says Samantha Peter, Education Product Marketing Manager at Google. “By creating a large competition where students can get immersed in these subjects and have the op...

  19. Science fair: Is it worth the work? A qualitative study on deaf students' perceptions and experiences regarding science fair in primary and secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vivian Lee

    Science fairs have a long history in American education. They play an important role for establishing inquiry-based experiences in a science classroom. Students may be more motivated to learn science content when they are allowed to choose their own science fair topics. The purpose of this study was to examine Deaf college students' perceptions and experiences regarding science fair participation during primary and/or secondary school and determine the influence of science fair involvement on the development of language skills, writing skills, and higher order thinking skills as well as its impact on choice of a STEM major. This study examined responses from Deaf students attending Gallaudet University and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) majoring in a Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math (STEM) field. An electronic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were used to collect data. The electronic questionnaire was divided into two strands: demographics and science fair experience. Twenty-one respondents participated in the questionnaire and ten participants were interviewed. A cross-case analysis revealed communication was the key to a successful science fair experience. Findings showed the educational background of participants influenced their perspective regarding the experience of a science fair. When communicating through American Sign Language, the science fair experience was more positive. When communicating through an interpreter or having no interpreter at all, the science fair experience was viewed in a negative light. The use of science fairs to enhance language development, writing skills, and higher order thinking skills was supported. Teachers and parents were strong influences for Deaf students participating in a science fair. Participation in a science fair did influence students to choose a STEM major but there were other considerations as well.

  20. 1st Hands-on Science Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Esteves. Z.

    2017-01-01

    In school learning of science through investigative hands-on experiments is in the core of the Hands-on Science Network vision. However informal and non-formal contexts may also provide valuable paths for implementing this strategy aiming a better e!ective science education. In May 2011, a "rst country wide “Hands-on Science’ Science Fair” was organized in Portugal with the participation of 131 students that presented 38 projects in all "elds of Science. In this communication we will pr...

  1. How To Implement the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program in Schools. Sandia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, David F.

    Often the burden of promoting science and engineering fairs falls upon science teachers who have to add the organizational activities for the fair to their normal teaching load. This manual is intended to assist in the science fair process by providing information about how to create a team of volunteers to manage the organizational activities.…

  2. Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecky, Fabien

    2017-09-22

    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This paper presents an overview of issues related to epistemic justice for science communication, and argues that there are two quite distinct ways in which science communicators can be just (or unjust) in the way they distribute knowledge. Both of these paths will be considered before concluding that, at least on one of these accounts, science communication as a field and as a practice is fundamentally epistemically unjust. Possible ways to redress this injustice are suggested.

  3. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  4. Technical report on the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the super-FRS of FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Winkler, M.; Weick, H.

    2005-04-01

    In this report the construction of the super-FRS is described. Especially described are the ion-optical lay-out, the production targets, the magnets, the beam dumps, the degrader systems and the ion catcher, detectors and data-acquisition systems, as well as the safety aspects. (HSI)

  5. Popularizing Natural Sciences by Means of Scientific Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cápay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Science popularization is demanding from the financial as well as the time point of view. It is necessary to find the premises that would be easily available to general public. Another important step is to promote the event so that it would attract the audience. The preparation of scientific experiments itself also requires some financial resources. If we want to take advantage of these resources in the most useful and effective way, we have to find answers to the question: “What, where and how do we want to popularise?” In the paper, we describe one-day project aimed to popularization of scientific fields carried out by eight departments of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. The project was named Scientific FairScience you can see, hear and experience. Its main goal was to present seven scientific fields - Physics, Informatics, Mathematics, Geography, Ecology, Chemistry and Biology. Popularization was carried out as experimental interactive activities unveiling the undisclosed corners of science. Their aim was to inspire the audience, arouse their interest in science and motivate the participants to cognitive activities. We introduce the idea of the project in detail concentrating mainly on informatics realized by the Department of Informatics.

  6. Science + Writing = Super Learning. Writing Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Paula Rogovin

    1993-01-01

    Article presents suggestions for motivating elementary students to learn by combining science and writing. The strategies include planning the right environment; teaching the scientific method; establishing a link to literature; and making time for students to observe, experiment, and write. (SM)

  7. "Saturday Night Live" Goes to High School: Conducting and Advising a Political Science Fair Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Meg; Brewer, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a case study to illustrate how science fair projects--which traditionally focus on "hard science" topics--can contribute to political science education. One of the authors, a high school student, conducted an experimental study of politics for her science fair project. The other author, a faculty member, was asked to advise the…

  8. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  9. Report and analysis of S-cube. Super science seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Kentaro; Yasuhara, Yuko

    2004-04-01

    At the ITBL Promotion Office, the science seminar (S-cube: Super Science Seminar) which was held for the first time on Wed., October 30, 2002 has been held more than 50 times. Lectures have been invited from many universities and research organizations. Seminars have been held which are of interest to junior high school students and high school students. In this article, in addition to introducing the seminars that have been held, attention is paid to the theme of the seminars, and what management considerations are necessary in order to increase participants in the future. (author)

  10. Making science education meaningful for American Indian students: The effect of science fair participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Cynthia Ann

    Creating opportunities for all learners has not been common practice in the United States, especially when the history of Native American educational practice is examined (Bull, 2006; Chenoweth, 1999; Starnes, 2006a). The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) is an organization working to increase educational opportunity for American Indian students in science, engineering, and technology related fields (AISES, 2005). AISES provides pre-college support in science by promoting student science fair participation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe how American Indian student participation in science fairs and the relationship formed with their teacher affects academic achievement and the likelihood of continued education beyond high school. Two former American Indian students mentored by the principal investigator participated in this study. Four ethnographic research methods were incorporated: participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, search for artifacts, and auto-ethnographic researcher introspection (Eisenhart, 1988). After the interview transcripts, photos documenting past science fair participation, and researcher field notes were analyzed, patterns and themes emerged from the interviews that were supported in literature. American Indian academic success and life long learning are impacted by: (a) the effects of racism and oppression result in creating incredible obstacles to successful learning, (b) positive identity formation and the importance of family and community are essential in student learning, (c) the use of best practice in science education, including the use of curricular cultural integration for American Indian learners, supports student success, (d) the motivational need for student-directed educational opportunities (science fair/inquiry based research) is evident, (e) supportive teacher-student relationships in high school positively influences successful transitions into higher education. An

  11. Investigating Teachers' Beliefs in the Implementation of Science Inquiry and Science Fair in Three Boston High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros Miller, Anne Marie

    In previous decades, inquiry has been the focus of science education reform in the United States. This study sought to investigate how teachers' beliefs affect their implementation of inquiry science and science fair. It was hypothesized that science teachers' beliefs about inquiry science and science fair are predictive of their implementation of such strategies. A case study approach and semi-structured interviews were employed to collect the data, and an original thematic approach was created to analyze the data. Findings seem to suggest that science teachers who embrace science inquiry and science fair believe these practices enhance students' performance, facilitate their learning experience, and allow them to take ownership of their learning. However, results also suggest that teachers who do not fully embrace inquiry science as a central teaching strategy tend to believe that it is not aligned with standardized tests and requires higher cognitive skills from students. Overall, the study seems to indicate that when inquiry is presented as a prescribed teaching approach, this elicits strong negative feelings/attitudes amongst science teachers, leading them not only to resist inquiry as a teaching tool, but also dissuading them from participating in science fair. Additionally, the findings suggest that such feelings among teachers could place the school at risk of not implementing inquiry science and science fair. In conclusion, the study reveals that science inquiry and science fair should not be prescribed to teachers as a top-down, mandatory approach for teaching science. In addition, the findings suggest that adequate teacher training in content knowledge and pedagogy in science inquiry and science fair should be encouraged, as this could help build a culture of science inquiry and implementation amongst teachers. This should go hand-in-hand with offering mentoring to science teachers new to inquiry and science fair for 2-5 years.

  12. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  13. How to implement the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, D.

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended to act as a working guide for setting up a Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee at your school. The Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee, or SFVSC, is the key component of the Science Fair Self-Help program, which was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and is designed to support a school`s science activities. The SFVSC is a team of parents and community volunteers who work in concert with a school`s teaching staff to assist and manage all areas of a school Science and Engineering Fair. The main advantage of creating such a committee is that it frees the science teachers from the organizational aspects of the fair and lets them concentrate on their job of teaching science. This manual is based on information gained through a Self-Help Development pilot program that was developed by Sandia National Laboratories during the 1991--92 school year at three Albuquerque, NM, middle schools. The manual describes the techniques that were successful in the pilot program and discusses how these techniques might be implemented in other schools. This manual also discusses problems that may be encountered, including suggestions for how they might be resolved.

  14. Science Fairs and Observational Science: A Case History from Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Having judged dozens of science fairs over the years, I am repeatedly disturbed by the ground rules under which students must prepare their entries. They are almost invariably required to follow the "scientific method," involving formulating a hypothesis, a test of the hypothesis, and then a project in which this test is carried out. As a research scientist for over 40 years, I consider this approach to science fairs fundamentally unsound. It is not only too restrictive, but actually avoids the most important (and difficult) part of scientific research: recognizing a scientific problem in the first place. A well-known example is one of the problems that, by his own account, stimulated Einstein's theory of special relativity: the obvious fact that when an electric current is induced in a conductor by a magnetic field , it makes no difference whether the field or the conductor is actually (so to speak) moving. There is in other words no such thing as absolute motion. Physics was transformed by Einstein's recognition of a problem. Most competent scientists can solve problems after they have been recognized and a hypothesis properly formulated, but the ability to find problems in the first Place is much rarer. Getting down to specifics, the "scientific method" under which almost all students must operate is actually the experimental method, involving controlled variables, one of which, ideally, is changed at a time. However, there is another type of science that can be called observational science. As it happens, almost all the space research I have carried out since 1959 has been this type, not experimental science.

  15. Plasma Science and Applications at the Intel Science Fair: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Lee

    2009-11-01

    For the past five years, the Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) has presented an award for a plasma project at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). Eligible projects have ranged from grape-based plasma production in a microwave oven to observation of the effects of viscosity in a fluid model of quark-gluon plasma. Most projects have been aimed at applications, including fusion, thrusters, lighting, materials processing, and GPS improvements. However diagnostics (spectroscopy), technology (magnets), and theory (quark-gluon plasmas) have also been represented. All of the CPS award-winning projects so far have been based on experiments, with two awards going to women students and three to men. Since the award was initiated, both the number and quality of plasma projects has increased. The CPS expects this trend to continue, and looks forward to continuing its work with students who are excited about the possibilities of plasma. You too can share this excitement by judging at the 2010 fair in San Jose on May 11-12.

  16. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  17. Sources of Anxiety and the Meaning of Participation in/for Science Fairs: A Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano; Dionne, Liliane; Trudel, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Although anxiety is a significant emotional element of formal school science, little is known about how anxiety is originated and managed in the context of science fairs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how a group of students in Grades 7 to 12 discursively (re)produce anxiety and its management from the perspective of their…

  18. Calculations of high-power production target and beamdump for the GSI future Super-FRS for a fast extraction scheme at the FAIR Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N A; Weick, H; Iwase, H

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) is being designed for the production and separation of radioactive isotopes at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research) facility at Darmstadt. This paper discusses various aspects and requirements for the high-power production target that will be used in the Super-FRS experiments. The production target must survive over an extended period of time as it will be used during the course of many experiments. The specific power deposited by the high intensity beam that will be generated at the future FAIR facility will be high enough to destroy the target in most of the cases as a result of a single shot from the new heavy ion synchrotrons SIS100/300. By using an appropriate beam intensity and focal spot parameters, the target would survive after being irradiated once. However, the heat should be dissipated efficiently before the same target area is irradiated again. We have considered a wheel shaped solid carbon target that rotates around its axis so that different areas of the target are irradiated successively. This allows for cooling of the beam heated region by thermal conduction before the same part of the target is irradiated a second time. Another attractive option is to use a liquid jet target at the Super-FRS. First calculations of a possible liquid lithium target are also presented in this paper. One of the advantages of using lithium as a target is that it will survive even if one uses a smaller focal spot, which has half the area of that used for a solid carbon target. This will significantly improve the isotope resolution. A similar problem associated with these experiments will be safe deposition of the beam energy in a beamdump after its interaction with the production target. We also present calculations to study the suitability of a proposed beamdump

  19. Teacher participation in science fairs as professional development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement K. Mbowane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to understand the perceptions of the Physical Sciences teachers who participate in the South African ‘Eskom Expo for Young Scientists’, regarding the educational significance of the science fair, and the extent to which expo participation provides an opportunity for professional development. The educational significance of this article is found in its contribution to the professional identity of teachers in their roles as organisers, mentors and judges. The model of Beijaard et al. (Teach Teach Educ. 2004;20:107–128 was used to characterise the teachers’ professional identity in terms of professional knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, norms and values, as well as emotions and agency. Interviews with the Physical Sciences teachers were analysed using thematic analysis, ultimately interpreting and linking the categories of responses to the theme of professional identity. The study found that expo participation contributes to pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge (as both procedural and declarative or factual knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Self-efficacy beliefs were strengthened, positive attitudes were developed, and strategies of inquiry-based learning and effective methodological instruction were observed during participation, which contributed to the participants’ school-based teaching. Teachers learn both from their engagement with learners, and through networking opportunities with fellow teachers. Teachers themselves value these aspects, and consequently, science fair participation is a sustainable form of professional development. It is recommended that the opportunity for professional development that is provided by teachers’ participation in such school-level science fairs should be acknowledged and promoted by schools and fair organisers. Significance: Science expos offer professional development to participating teachers and improve learners’ academic performance.

  20. International Rules for Pre-College Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society for Science & the Public, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the rules and guidelines of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair 2011 to be held in Los Angeles, California in May 8-13, 2011. In addition to providing the rules of competition, these rules and guidelines for conducting research were developed to facilitate the following: (1) protect the rights and welfare of…

  1. Researching the Real: Transforming the Science Fair through Relevant and Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rosemary McBryan

    This teacher research study documents the processes used to help students in an all-female, religious-based high school create science fair projects that are personally meaningful, scientifically sophisticated and up-to date in terms of science content. One-hundred sixteen young women in an honors chemistry class were introduced by their teacher to the methods used by science journalists when researching and crafting articles. The students then integrated these strategies into their science fair research through collaborative classroom activities designed by their teacher. Data collected during the process included audio and video tapes of classroom activities, student interviews, process work, finished projects, email conversations and the reflective journaling, annotated lesson plans, and memories of the lived experience by the teacher. The pedagogical changes which resulted from this project included the use of Read Aloud-Think Alouds (RATA) to introduce content and provide relevance, a discussion based topic selection process, the encouragement of relevant topic choices, the increased use of technology for learning activities and for sharing research, and an experimental design process driven by the student's personally relevant, topic choice. Built in feedback loops, provided by the teacher, peer editors and an outside editor, resulted in multiple revisions and expanded opportunities for communicating results to the community-at-large. Greater student engagement in science fair projects was evident: questioning for understanding, active involvement in decision making, collaboration within the classroom community, experience and expertise with reading, writing and the use of technology, sense of agency and interest in science related activities and careers all increased. Students communicated their evolving practices within the school community and became leaders who promoted the increased use of technology in all of their classes. Integrating journalistic

  2. How the “Queen Science” Lost Her Crown: A Brief Social History of Science Fairs and the Marginalization of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marx

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Science fairs at one time started out with an interest of increasing participation in the sciences. But as time has passed, the definition of science has been narrowed to the point where any possible social science project has been eliminated in favor of the bench sciences only. Even here, natural curiosity of students has been deemphasized. It is not surprising that science majors in the USA are becoming fewer and fewer given the narrowing of the disciplines. Young people are discouraged from majoring in science by the science establishment.

  3. A GEM-TPC in twin configuration for the Super-FRS tracking of heavy ions at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F.; Grahn, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kaya, C.; Kunkel, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Risch, H.; Rusanov, I.; Schmidt, C. J.; Simon, H.; Simons, C.; Turpeinen, R.; Voss, B.; Äystö, J.; Winkler, M.

    2018-03-01

    The GEM-TPC described herein will be part of the standard beam-diagnostics equipment of the Super-FRS. This chamber will provide tracking information for particle identification at rates up to 1 MHz on an event-by-event basis. The key requirements of operation for these chambers are: close to 100% tracking efficiency under conditions of high counting rate, spatial resolution below 1 mm and a superb large dynamic range covering projectiles from Z = 1 up to Z = 92. The current prototype consists of two GEM-TPCs inside a single vessel, which are operating independently and have electrical drift fields in opposite directions. The twin configuration is done by flipping one of the GEM-TPCs on the middle plane with respect to the second one. In order to put this development in context, the evolution of previous prototypes will be described and its performances discussed. Finally, this chamber was tested at the University of Jyväskylä accelerator with proton projectiles and at GSI with Uranium, Xenon, fragments and Carbon beams. The results obtained have shown a position resolution between 120 to 300 μm at moderate counting rate under conditions of full tracking efficiency.

  4. Studies of the Core Conditions of the Earth and Super-Earths Using Intense Ion Beams at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N. A.; Neumayer, P.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lomonosov, I. V.; Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskii pr. 18, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Borm, B. [Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Piriz, A. R.; Piriz, S. A. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we present the design of an experiment that will generate samples of iron under extreme conditions of density and pressure believed to exist in the interior of the Earth and interior of extrasolar Earth-like planets. In the proposed experiment design, an intense uranium beam is used to implode a multilayered cylindrical target that consists of a thin Fe cylinder enclosed in a thick massive W shell. Such intense uranium beams will be available at the heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS100, at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), at Darmstadt, which is under construction and will become operational in the next few years. It is expected that the beam intensity will increase gradually over a couple of years to its maximum design value. Therefore, in our studies, we have considered a wide range of beam parameters, from the initial beam intensity (“Day One”) to the maximum specified value. It is also worth noting that two different focal spot geometries have been used. In one case, a circular focal spot with a Gaussian transverse intensity distribution is considered, whereas in the other case, an annular focal spot is used. With these two beam geometries, one can access different parts of the Fe phase diagram. For example, heating the sample with a circular focal spot generates a hot liquid state, while an annular focal spot can produce a highly compressed liquid or a highly compressed solid phase depending on the beam intensity.

  5. Studies of the Core Conditions of the Earth and Super-Earths Using Intense Ion Beams at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Neumayer, P.; Bagnoud, V.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Shutov, A.; Borm, B.; Piriz, A. R.; Piriz, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we present the design of an experiment that will generate samples of iron under extreme conditions of density and pressure believed to exist in the interior of the Earth and interior of extrasolar Earth-like planets. In the proposed experiment design, an intense uranium beam is used to implode a multilayered cylindrical target that consists of a thin Fe cylinder enclosed in a thick massive W shell. Such intense uranium beams will be available at the heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS100, at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), at Darmstadt, which is under construction and will become operational in the next few years. It is expected that the beam intensity will increase gradually over a couple of years to its maximum design value. Therefore, in our studies, we have considered a wide range of beam parameters, from the initial beam intensity (“Day One”) to the maximum specified value. It is also worth noting that two different focal spot geometries have been used. In one case, a circular focal spot with a Gaussian transverse intensity distribution is considered, whereas in the other case, an annular focal spot is used. With these two beam geometries, one can access different parts of the Fe phase diagram. For example, heating the sample with a circular focal spot generates a hot liquid state, while an annular focal spot can produce a highly compressed liquid or a highly compressed solid phase depending on the beam intensity.

  6. Metaphoric Perceptions of the Students of the Sports Sciences Faculty Regarding the Concept of Fair-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Gül, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the perceptions of the students of the sports sciences faculty regarding the concept of "Fair-Play" by means of metaphors. 275 students [male[subscript (n = 173)], female [subscript (n = 102)

  7. Three exciting areas of experimental physical sciences : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    The author has narrated his experience in carrying out research in three exciting areas of physical sciences. These areas are : high temperature superconductors, metal clusters and super molecules of carbon. (M.G.B.)

  8. Examining of the Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of the Quality of the Science Fair Projects in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the predictors of quality of science fair (SF) projects in the light of pre-service teachers' evaluation of SF rubric' domains. These projects were selected by judges in A city for the A Regional Exhibition of Science and Mathematics Project Study for Primary School Students: The SF projects were evaluated by thirty…

  9. Merging science, engineering, and data with FUN: Recreational Drones in STEaM Education Activities and Science Fair Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Mooney, M. E.; Dahlman, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recreational drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), provide an ideal platform for engaging students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) investigations for science fair projects, after-school clubs, and in-class activities. UAVs are very popular (estimate of >1 million received as gifts this past year), relatively inexpensive (Arduino board. This presentation will elaborate upon the year-long process of working with educators via webinars and a 1-day workshop at the 2016 ESIP summer meeting and beyond. It will also provide examples of student-led investigations, instructions for building the SABEL sensor package, insights gleaned from workshop feedback - and - the status of the new e-book compilation of student-focused activities using recreational drones to pursue STEM investigations!

  10. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  11. Indian participation in FAIR accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India is a founder member of the FAIR-GmbH, the upcoming International Accelerator Facility at Darmstadt, Germany. Indian participation at FAIR is being funded jointly by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Indo- FAIR Coordination Centre at Bose Institute (BI-IFCC) is coordinating the Indian efforts of both in-kind contribution as well as experimental programmes at FAIR. FAIR aims for beams of stable and unstable nuclei as well as antiprotons in a wide range of intensities and energies. A superconducting double-synchrotron SIS100/300 with a circumference of 1,100 meters and with magnetic rigidities of 100 and 300 Tm, respectively, is at the heart of the FAIR accelerator facility. The existing GSI accelerators UNILAC and SIS18 will serve as an injector. Adjacent to the large double- synchrotron is a complex system of storage- cooler rings and experiment stations, including a superconducting nuclear fragment separator (Super-FRS) and an antiproton production target. FAIR will supply rare isotope beams (RIBs) and antiproton beams. In FAIR accelerator facility up to four research programs can be run in a parallel mode. The multidisciplinary research program covers the fields of QCD studies with cooled beams of antiprotons, nucleus nucleus collisions at highest baryon density, nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics investigations with nuclei far off stability, high density plasma physics, atomic and material science studies, radio-biological and other application-oriented studies will contribute in providing in-kind items both for the accelerator and the experiments. As per current plans Indian in kind contributions include: Power Converters, Superconducting Magnets, Beam Stopper, Vacuum Chamber. A short sample from an Indian Industry has been tested successfully at FAIR. Indian participation in building the accelerator components for FAIR is presented

  12. The Big Bang Theory--Coping with Multi-Religious Beliefs in the Super-Diverse Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2013-01-01

    Large urban schools have to cope with a "super-diverse" population with a multireligious background in their classrooms. The job of the science teacher within this environment requires an ultra-sensitive pedagogical approach, and a deeper understanding of students' backgrounds and of scientific epistemology. Teachers must create a safe…

  13. 1, 2, 3 ... FAIR !

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, C.; Sharkov, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt/Germany will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented forefront research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics and applied sciences. The start version of FAIR, the so called Modularized Start Version includes a basic accelerator as well as three experimental modules - 1, 2, 3 FAIR!

  14. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  15. Remember when science was fun? Encountering 'nuclear fallout in your wood stove' and other mysteries at the Northwestern New Mexico regional and state science and engineering fairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylko, J.M.; Miller, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Chapter of the Health Physics Society is a proud supporter of the Northwestern New Mexico Regional and State Science and Engineering Fairs. In this role, the chapter provides judges and furnishes monetary awards to recognize those students, between grades 6-12, and their teachers whose projects include the utilization or investigation of ionizing (e.g., gamma) or non-ionizing (e.g., UV exposure, microwaves) radiation. The chapter promotes public information and education about health physics by sending every award winner and sponsoring teacher a copy of career opportunities in health physics, including information about degree programs and scholarships. Also, the chapter provides a 1-year free subscription to the Rio Grande Chapter Newsletter, and publishes the names of the award winners, the titles of their projects, the names of their teachers, and the names of their schools. Furthermore, chapter members are encouraged to assist contestants and award winners by providing mentoring opportunities, and educational resources such as textbooks. This paper reviews the Rio Grande Chapter Science and Engineering Fair Program with respect to judging categories and criteria, project titles, what the chapter has learned from the students, and an overview of the 1995 Regional, State, and International Science and Engineering Fair Programme. (author)

  16. History of science and technology in the 20th century and super-technologies at present. 20 seiki no kagaku gijutsushi to genzai no (cho) gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, S. (Yasukawa Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Technologies whose names are prefixed with super are discussed from a viewpoint of history of science and technology. A chronology for super-prefixed sciences and technologies in the 20th century is presented. Since Bohr's quantum theory and Einstein's fundamental formula for atomic energy: E = mc[sup 2] that rank as two heads of super-science, were published in the begining of the 20th century, their theories have been playing roles as a foundation of the development of science and technology in this century. Namely, on the basis of quantum theory, semi-conductors were invented and super-conduction has been developed. The Einstein's fundamental formula has led to atomic bombs and commercial power reactors. Development to super-technologies in various fields of sciences and technologies is explained. When a nation's history of science and technology is assumed as a process from mimicry to self-sustenance that is composed of the following four steps: (1) import of products, (2)initiation of production and transfer of technology, (3)transit to technological self-sustain, (4) establishment of creative technology. Japan is in a process between(3) and(4). Further, super-technologies under research and development for the present in Japan are enumerated. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Scientists' motivation to communicate science and technology to the public: surveying participants at the Madrid Science Fair

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sempere , María José; Garzón-García , Belén; Rey-Rocha , Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates what motivates scientists to communicate science and technology in a science event involving a direct relationship and interaction with the public. A structured questionnaire survey was administered through face-to-face interviews to 167 research practitioners (researchers, technicians, support staff and fellows) at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) who part...

  18. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  19. The Role of Educational Leadership on Participation in the Costa Rican National Program of Science and Technology Fairs at Escuela Abraham Lincoln in the Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the role that Costa Rican educational leaders play in implementing the National Program of Science and Technology Fairs (Programa Nacional de Ferias de Ciencia y Tecnologia [PRONAFECYT]) initiative. The study provides an examination of leadership practices, instructional strategies, and professional…

  20. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  1. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative

  2. Science, Fascism, and Foreign Policy : The Exhibition “Scienza Universale” at the 1942 Rome World’s Fair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    This essay analyzes the exhibition “Scienza Universale,” which was to be a central part of the 1942 world’s fair in Rome. Although in the end World War II kept the fair from happening, the plans for the exhibit were finished, and they allow for an in-depth analysis of the propagandistic uses of

  3. Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss academic publishing house 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes'will be presenting its most recent scientific and technical publications at a book fair in the lobby of the Main Building (60) from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday 28 September 2006.

  4. The FAIR start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecker, H.; Sturm, C.

    2011-01-01

    At the 4th of October 2010 nine countries signed the international agreement on the construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. Adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, FAIR substantially expands research goals and technical possibilities. It will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as applied sciences which will be described in this article briefly.

  5. Antarctic Super Heroes: Using a Graphic Novel to Teach Students About Polar Science. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, V.; Palsole, S.; Rojas, C.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso received an IPY grant from the US National Science Foundation to take undergraduate and graduate students, as well as teachers, to Antarctica over winter break 2007. The program, called IPY-ROAM (International Polar Year - Research and Educational Experiences in Antarctica for Minorities) aimed to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in the sciences, and increase public awareness about the polar regions. Education and outreach activities have been designed to teach people of all ages about polar science. For example, an interactive museum exhibit was designed to describe how the polar regions are being affected by climate change, and how individuals can make a difference. Our latest outreach strategy involves taking the large amount of educational materials collected for the museum display and making it available to a broader audience. We have created a graphic novel where the story of the ROAM Antarctic trip and existing educational materials are communicated using a combination of comic strips, fact sheets, and classroom activities. Photographic images from the ROAM trip were digitized and converted to a comic strip format. These images were combined with text from film footage collected by a documentary film, as well as personal anecdotes, to convey the successes of the program and the primary messages participants wanted to share with the public. The graphic novel will be made available to local school groups and online, at our website: www.ipyroam.org.

  6. Fair innings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Greg

    2015-05-01

    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail to correspond to our moral intuitions. I end by outlining a different kind of consequentialist justification that avoids those implications and corresponds better to our considered moral judgments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The FAIR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe - constructed at GSI in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research. FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated accelerator system, which delivers beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations - APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA - in parallel. Modern H-type cavities offer highest shunt impedances of resonant structures of heavy ion linacs at low beam energies < 20 MeV/u and enable the acceleration of intense proton and ion beams. One example is the interdigital H-type structure. The crossed-bar H-cavities extend these properties to high energies even beyond 100 MeV/u. Compared to conventional Alvarez cavities, these crossed-bar (CH) cavities feature much higher shunt impedance at low energies. The design of the proton linac is based on those cavities

  8. Super jackstraws and super waterwheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin-Ho

    2007-01-01

    We construct various new BPS states of D-branes preserving 8 supersymmetries. These include super Jackstraws (a bunch of scattered D- or (p, q)-strings preserving supersymmetries), and super waterwheels (a number of D2-branes intersecting at generic angles on parallel lines while preserving supersymmetries). Super D-Jackstraws are scattered in various dimensions but are dynamical with all their intersections following a common null direction. Meanwhile, super (p, q)-Jackstraws form a planar static configuration. We show that the SO(2) subgroup of SL(2, R), the group of classical S-duality transformations in IIB theory, can be used to generate this latter configuration of variously charged (p, q)-strings intersecting at various angles. The waterwheel configuration of D2-branes preserves 8 supersymmetries as long as the 'critical' Born-Infeld electric fields are along the common direction

  9. Super differential forms on super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konisi, Gaku; Takahasi, Wataru; Saito, Takesi.

    1994-01-01

    Line integral on the super Riemann surface is discussed. A 'super differential operator' which possesses both properties of differential and of differential operator is proposed. With this 'super differential operator' a new theory of differential form on the super Riemann surface is constructed. We call 'the new differentials on the super Riemann surface' 'the super differentials'. As the applications of our theory, the existency theorems of singular 'super differentials' such as 'super abelian differentials of the 3rd kind' and of a super projective connection are examined. (author)

  10. The NUSTAR program at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlert Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The NUSTAR Collaboration brings together several hundred scientists to form one of the four scientific pillars of the future FAIR facility. NUSTAR aims at the exploitation of intense radioactive beams with energies up to 1.5 GeV/u in order to explore nuclei with large neutron or proton excess. The project has evolved over the last years and now reached a state where a large fraction of the core program is financed, partly built, and even ready for operation. With the signing of the FAIR convention in 2010 and the start of construction, the sub-projects in NUSTAR gain momentum and look forward to commissioning and first beams in this decade. The present status of the project will be presented, focusing on the instrumentation to be applied in the various experimental areas behind the Super-FRS fragment separator, which is the central instrument of NUSTAR.

  11. Super families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study on phenomena in the super high energy region, Σ E j > 1000 TeV revealed events that present a big dark spot in central region with high concentration of energy and particles, called halo. Six super families with halo were analysed by Brazil-Japan Cooperation of Cosmic Rays. For each family the lateral distribution of energy density was constructed and R c Σ E (R c ) was estimated. For studying primary composition, the energy correlation with particles released separately in hadrons and gamma rays was analysed. (M.C.K.)

  12. CERN Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Central Library and IT Department Bookshop

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Library, in conjunction with the IT Department Bookshop, is organizing a book fair on the 28th and 29th October. Some 15 major publishers will be represented, including 6 who will be here in person, and more than 700 of their latest titles will be on display (for sale or order). The major topics covered will be computing, physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. Those present at this event will include Alpha Science, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Institute of Physics, Microsoft Press, O'Reilly, OLF Switzerland, Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill, Springer, Pearson, Thali Switzerland, Wiley, World Scientific and Ebooks Corporation. The fair will take place on the first floor of the Main Building (bldg.60), Salle des Pas Perdus, and will be open from 10.00 to 17.00 on both days. In addition, EBooks Corporation will describe their electronic book system; insight into this is available at http://www.eblib.com/ We look forward to your support for this initiative. Sh...

  13. Conceptual design report for the scientific program of the super-FRS experiment collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the plans of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration for a variety of experiments, which build on the versatile high-resolution separator and spectrometer performance of the Super-FRS. The characteristic feature of these experiments is the fact that they use the separator as an integral part of the measurement. These experiments build on the experience of the collaboration and their scientific program pursued at the FRS in the last 25 years, but also includes recently developed novel topics. Under these premises, the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration has identified ten major topics of current interest and with far-reaching scientific potential. In this CDR, the scientific case is briefly recapitulated and the conceptual design of the experiments, the setups and their implementation are described. Much of the needed equipment is already available or, if not, will be realized with new, additional resources and efforts outside the FAIR Cost Books. The related R and D works and some pilot experiments can be carried out at the existing FRS of GSI in FAIR Phase-0. On the midterm, the science program of this collaboration can start at the commissioning phase of the Super-FRS and will continue on the long term with the established full performance. Accordingly, the prototype equipment and other already existing devices can be tested and used at the FRS and can later, when completed or upgraded, be moved to the Super-FRS. The related developments and organization of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration are described,and the collaboration partners and institutes are listed. The Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration is formally and firmly established and is a comprising part of the NUSTAR Collaboration. A large variety of modern nuclear physics experiments with new scientific possibilities and outstanding scientific potential were presented in the scientific program (GSI-Report 2014-4), which was very positively evaluated and

  14. Conceptual design report for the scientific program of the super-FRS experiment collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-01

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the plans of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration for a variety of experiments, which build on the versatile high-resolution separator and spectrometer performance of the Super-FRS. The characteristic feature of these experiments is the fact that they use the separator as an integral part of the measurement. These experiments build on the experience of the collaboration and their scientific program pursued at the FRS in the last 25 years, but also includes recently developed novel topics. Under these premises, the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration has identified ten major topics of current interest and with far-reaching scientific potential. In this CDR, the scientific case is briefly recapitulated and the conceptual design of the experiments, the setups and their implementation are described. Much of the needed equipment is already available or, if not, will be realized with new, additional resources and efforts outside the FAIR Cost Books. The related R and D works and some pilot experiments can be carried out at the existing FRS of GSI in FAIR Phase-0. On the midterm, the science program of this collaboration can start at the commissioning phase of the Super-FRS and will continue on the long term with the established full performance. Accordingly, the prototype equipment and other already existing devices can be tested and used at the FRS and can later, when completed or upgraded, be moved to the Super-FRS. The related developments and organization of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration are described,and the collaboration partners and institutes are listed. The Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration is formally and firmly established and is a comprising part of the NUSTAR Collaboration. A large variety of modern nuclear physics experiments with new scientific possibilities and outstanding scientific potential were presented in the scientific program (GSI-Report 2014-4), which was very positively evaluated and

  15. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  16. Are the FAIR Data Principles Fair?

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, Alastair; de Smaele, Madeleine; Boehmer, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation given at IDCC17 about FAIR data research done by Research Data Services of TU Delft, on 22nd February 2018. Relates to practice paper: Dunning, Alastair, de Smaele, Madeleine, & Böhmer, Jasmin. (2017, January 31). Are the FAIR Data Principles fair?. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.321423  Relates to data-set: Dunning, A.C. (Alastair); de Smaele, M.M.E. (Madeleine); Böhmer, J.K. (Jasmin) (2017) Evaluation of data repositories based on the FAIR Principles for ...

  17. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  18. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  19. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  20. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  1. New technology and neo-science on the nuclear fusion reactor engineering. ITER and super high speed phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This research meeting has been held under cooperation of the ''nuclear fusion reactor engineering research group'' and ''nuclear fusion reactor materials research group'' of the Yayoi Research Group. This meeting was planned and conducted for 2 days under the following predominant thema: Present status of research on thermo-nuclear fusion experimental reactor engineering design (ITER/EDA) and its promoting method in Japan, and a new scientific side in the research and development of nuclear fusion reactor materials or the super high speed phenomena. In the former item, the following reports were published: Creative period of R and D on the nuclear fusion reactor, present statue and future development of ITER/EDA, meanings of ITER under realization of the nuclear fusion energy, and others. And in the latter item, the following reports were published: Nuclear fusion materials engineering and system quantum engineering, dynamic imagination of atom and molecule using pulse snap shot method, laser wake field acceleration and ultra short x-ray pulse generation, development of T-cube laser in JAERI, and others. (G.K.)

  2. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University undergraduate research experience.

  3. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Rooney, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  5. Madisonian Fair Use

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This short essay reflects on developments in the law, scholarship, and practice of fair use since the publication in 2004 of an earlier article on patterns in fair use practice and adjudication. It synthesizes many of those developments in the idea of “Madisonian” fair use, borrowing the separation of powers metaphor from James Madison’s work on the US Constitution and applying it, lightly and in a preliminary way, to copyright.

  6. Fair market value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of fair market value concepts as they pertain to producing petroleum properties. conventional petroleum economic theories of fair market value are examined in light of recent work on the market value of long-life reserves. Their work is expanded to show that sellers rely on comparable sales data for estimating FMV. Both results are used to suggest that current practices over-emphasize the discounted cash flow approach to estimating fair market value

  7. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  8. Fair Trade - is it really fair?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš; Mysliveček, Jan

    -, č. 367 (2008), s. 1-53 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Fair Trade * coffee * price setting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp367.pdf

  9. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...

  10. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  11. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  12. ECLIPSING BINARY SCIENCE VIA THE MERGING OF TRANSIT AND DOPPLER EXOPLANET SURVEY DATA-A CASE STUDY WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT AND SuperWASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan M.; Zhao Bo; Wan Xiaoke; Guo Pengcheng; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Gary, Bruce; Ghezzi, Luan; Wisniewski, John; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Ferreira, Leticia; West, Richard G.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanet transit and Doppler surveys discover many binary stars during their operation that can be used to conduct a variety of ancillary science. Specifically, eclipsing binary stars can be used to study the stellar mass-radius relationship and to test predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. By cross-referencing 24 binary stars found in the MARVELS Pilot Project with SuperWASP photometry, we find two new eclipsing binaries, TYC 0272-00458-1 and TYC 1422-01328-1, which we use as case studies to develop a general approach to eclipsing binaries in survey data. TYC 0272-00458-1 is a single-lined spectroscopic binary for which we calculate a mass of the secondary and radii for both components using reasonable constraints on the primary mass through several different techniques. For a primary mass of M 1 = 0.92 ± 0.1 M sun , we find M 2 = 0.610 ± 0.036 M sun , R 1 = 0.932 ± 0.076 R sun , and R 2 = 0.559 ± 0.102 R sun , and find that both stars have masses and radii consistent with model predictions. TYC 1422-01328-1 is a triple-component system for which we can directly measure the masses and radii of the eclipsing pair. We find that the eclipsing pair consists of an evolved primary star (M 1 = 1.163 ± 0.034 M sun , R 1 = 2.063 ± 0.058 R sun ) and a G-type dwarf secondary (M 2 = 0.905 ± 0.067 M sun , R 2 = 0.887 ± 0.037 R sun ). We provide the framework necessary to apply this analysis to much larger data sets.

  13. On fairness and randomness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the behavior of non-deterministic systems under fairness constraints, and the behavior of probabilistic systems. To this end, first a framework based on computable stopping strategies is developed that provides a common foundation for describing both fair...... this perspective the question is investigated what probabilistic properties are needed in such an implementation to guarantee (with probability one) certain required fairness properties in the behavior of the probabilistic system. Generalizing earlier concepts of ε -bounded transition probabilities, we introduce...

  14. Physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. It will deliver high intensity beams of ions and antiprotons for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics and biophysics. One of the scientific pillars of FAIR is the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is designed for the study of high density nuclear matter as it exists in the core of neutron stars. In this article the scientific program of FAIR will be reviewed with emphasis on the CBM experiment

  15. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts....... The first part tackles the cake cutting problem, where the cake is a metaphor for a heterogeneous divisible resource such as land, time, mineral deposits, and computer memory. We study the equilibria of classical protocols and design an algorithmic framework for reasoning about their game theoretic...

  16. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  17. Customizing Fair Use Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, policymakers and commentators across the world have called for the introduction of copyright reform based on the fair use model in the United States. Thus far, Israel, Liberia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Taiwan have adopted the fair use regime or its close variants. Other jurisdictions such as Australia, Hong Kong and Ireland have also advanced proposals to facilitate such adoption. This article examines the increasing efforts to transplant fair use into the copyright system based on the U.S. model. It begins by briefly recapturing the strengths and weaknesses of legal transplants. The article then scrutinizes the ongoing effort to transplant fair use from the United States. Specifically, it identifies eight modalities of transplantation. This article concludes with five lessons that can be drawn from studying the ongoing transplant efforts.

  18. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  19. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  20. FPGA-based quench detection system for super-FRS super-ferric dipole prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tongjun; Wu Wei; Yao Qinggao; Yuan Ping; He Yuan; Han Shaofei; Ma Lizhen

    2011-01-01

    The quench detection system for Super-FRS super-ferric dipole prototype magnet of FAIR has been designed and built. The balance bridge was used to detect quench signal. In order to avoid blind zone of quench detection, two independent bridges were used. NI PXI-7830R FPGA was used to implement filter to quench signal and algorithm of quench decision and to produce quench trigger signal. Pre-sample technique was used in quench data acquisition. The data before and after quench could be recorded for analysis later. The test result indicated that the quench of the dipole's superconducting coil could be reliably detected by the quench detection module. (authors)

  1. Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Joaquin G.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr

  2. A new six-component super soliton hierarchy and its self-consistent sources and conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-yu, Wei; Tie-cheng, Xia

    2016-01-01

    A new six-component super soliton hierarchy is obtained based on matrix Lie super algebras. Super trace identity is used to furnish the super Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear super integrable hierarchy. After that, the self-consistent sources of the new six-component super soliton hierarchy are presented. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super soliton hierarchy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547175, 11271008 and 61072147), the First-class Discipline of University in Shanghai, China, and the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 152300410230).

  3. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alice

    1990-01-01

    A super Riemann surface is a particular kind of (1,1)-dimensional complex analytic supermanifold. From the point of view of super-manifold theory, super Riemann surfaces are interesting because they furnish the simplest examples of what have become known as non-split supermanifolds, that is, supermanifolds where the odd and even parts are genuinely intertwined, as opposed to split supermanifolds which are essentially the exterior bundles of a vector bundle over a conventional manifold. However undoubtedly the main motivation for the study of super Riemann surfaces has been their relevance to the Polyakov quantisation of the spinning string. Some of the papers on super Riemann surfaces are reviewed. Although recent work has shown all super Riemann surfaces are algebraic, some areas of difficulty remain. (author)

  5. Supermanifolds and super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The theory of super Riemann surfaces is rigorously developed using Rogers' theory of supermanifolds. The global structures of super Teichmueller space and super moduli space are determined. The super modular group is shown to be precisely the ordinary modular group. Super moduli space is shown to be the gauge-fixing slice for the fermionic string path integral

  6. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  7. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  8. Fairness Doctrine in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles Vance

    After a decade of debate, numerous Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rulings, and many court decisions, the application of the "fairness doctrine"--an act that mandates objectivity in the presentation of facts concerning controversial issues--remains unsettled. This report discusses issues involved in the application of the…

  9. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  10. Fair quantum blind signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)

  11. Extreme state of matter physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Sharkov

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented.

  12. Fair for extreme state of matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkov, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented. (author)

  13. Selecting students for a South African mathematics and science foundation programme: effectiveness and fairness of school-leaving examinations and aptitude tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Flier, H.; Thijs, G.D.; Zaaiman, H.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of students with the potential to succeed in mathematics- and science-based study despite previous educational disadvantage is a critical issue currently facing many South African higher education institutions. The possible use of school-leaving examination (Matric) results and/or

  14. The Good, the Right & the Fair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Sandøe, Peter

    The Good, the Right, and the Fair is a comprehensive introduction to contemporary moral and political philosophy especially suited for undergraduate students in medicine and the life sciences. The book covers first questions concerning the good: What makes a life worth living? Is it only humans who...... matter morally? Is welfare all that matters? It then proceeds to a discussion of the right: How ought we to act? The major ethical theories of the western tradition are presented and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. Finally, key aspects of the philosophical discussion of the fair, including...

  15. Hadron Physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The new FAIR facility in Darmstadt has a broad program in the field of hadron and nuclear physics utilizing ion beams with unprecedented intensity and accuracy. The hadron physics program centers around the the high-energy storage ring HESR for antiprotons and the PANDA experiment that is integrated in it. The physics program includes among others topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region and below, hyperon physics, electromagnetic processes and charm in nuclei.

  16. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  17. FAIR-share

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-seven engineers involved in the FAIR project in Germany recently spent three days at CERN. The purpose of their visit: tour ALICE and meet with CERN engineers. This marks the start of a close cooperation. The FAIR project engineers and their CERN counterparts.If you want to build a new particle accelerator and wish to benefit from existing expertise, who do you go to see? Well… why not go straight to CERN? That’s what this group of 27 engineers did. They are working on a new accelerator project, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), to be built at the heavy-ion research centre GSI located near Darmstadt, Germany. Representing a variety of disciplines, from manufacturing to architecture, they will be responsible for making the project a reality. The visit was organised from 14-16 October, making it possible to include a tour of the ALICE experiment prior to the re-start of the LHC. However, the main goal was ...

  18. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  19. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  20. Crisp Fair Gambles

    OpenAIRE

    André , Eric

    2014-01-01

    Axiomatic models of decision under ambiguity with a non-unique prior allow for the existence of Crisp Fair Gambles: acts whose expected utility is nul whichever of the priors is used. But, in these models, the DM has to be indifferent to the addition of such acts. Their existence is then at odds with a preference taking into account the variance of the prospects. In this paper we study some geometrical and topological properties of the set of priors that would rule out the existence of Crisp ...

  1. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  2. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  3. Public Library YA Program Roundup: Murder, We Wrote...and Played [and] Asleep in the Library: Girl Scouts Earn "From Dreams to Reality" Patch [and] Sign Language Funshop [and] Science Fair Help Day [and] A Skyomish Fairy Tale [and] The POW! Project: Picturing Our World! Teens Create Art and Self-Esteem at the Boston Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca; Seblonka, Cathy Sullivan; Wagner, Joyce; Smith, Tammy; Sipos, Caryn; Bodart, Joni Richards

    1998-01-01

    Includes six articles that describe public library programs for teens. Highlights include interactive murder mysteries; a girl scout sleepover program on career awareness; sign language workshop; a Science Fair help day that included guest speakers; a unit on fairy tales and legends; and a project to enhance creativity and self-esteem. (LRW)

  4. FAIR - from a few-body perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöhlker Th.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the next years the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR will be constructed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. This new accelerator complex will allow for unprecedented and pathbreaking research in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic physics as well as in applied sciences. This manuscript will discuss some of these research opportunities, with a focus on few-body physics.

  5. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    experts would be instrumental to strengthening the mutual supports between the WTO and international standard-setting organizations, and may help avoid the introduction of a prejudice toward a justified science finding.

  6. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE

  7. Moudre ou faire bouillir ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlands, Mike; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2012-01-01

    Moudre ou faire bouillir ? Nourrir les corps et les esprits dans des traditions culinaires et sacrificielles en Asie de l’Ouest, de l’Est et du Sud. Les techniques de préparation alimentaire révélées par l’archéologie pour les différentes régions d’Eurasie, incluant l’utilisation des céramiques, des meules et des plantes domestiques, mettent en évidence des situations contrastées. En Asie de l’Ouest, la mouture, la fabrication du pain et les soles de cuisson en aires ouvertes pour le rôtissag...

  8. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  9. Complete Fairness in Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, S. Dov; Hazay, Carmit; Katz, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees, informa...... for such functions must have round complexity super-logarithmic in the security parameter. Our results demonstrate that the question of completely fair secure computation without an honest majority is far from closed.......In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees......-party setting. We demonstrate that this folklore belief is false by showing completely fair protocols for various nontrivial functions in the two-party setting based on standard cryptographic assumptions. We first show feasibility of obtaining complete fairness when computing any function over polynomial...

  10. Nuclear Structure Studies at the Future FAIR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, Berta

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to be an introduction to studies of nuclear structure at the future FAIR facility. It addresses interested readers not necessarily expert in the field. It outlines the physics aims and experiments to be carried out at FAIR in the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics. Starting with a brief description of what can be achieved in experiments with intense, high quality stable beams the article leads the reader to how beams of unstable radioactive nuclei will be produced and exploited at FAIR. The characteristics of the beams from the main separation device, the Super-FRS, are outlined and the limitations they impose on experiment are discussed. The various setups at the three experimental branches associated with the Super-FRS are described. The aims of the various experimental setups, how they complement each other and the physics they will address are all explained. The concept of the r-process of nucleosynthesis is outlined at the beginning and used as a running example of how useful it will be to be able to carry out experiments with beams of short-lived, exotic ions.

  11. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  12. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  13. FIRST SCIENCE RESULTS FROM SOFIA/FORCAST: SUPER-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE S140 CLUSTER AT 37 {mu}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George; Schoenwald, Justin, E-mail: pmh@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jdadams@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: tlh10@cornell.edu, E-mail: geg3@cornell.edu, E-mail: jps10@cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We present 37 {mu}m imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2, and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5 m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31 {mu}m that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong submillimeter sources seen in the area-SMM 1, 2, and 3-that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the 'multi-resolution' technique, provides excellent results.

  14. The super-resolution debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  15. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  16. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  17. Affect and fairness in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A strained relationship exists between mainstream economics and ethics. Over the last decade, behavioral economists have strongly argued for the importance of fairness in motivating behavior, based on substantial experimental evidence. Two main approaches to the modeling of fairness have been

  18. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  19. FAIR: a Horizon for Future Charming Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritman, James

    2007-01-01

    The science goals underlying the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research--FAIR--[1] that is being realized in Darmstadt span a broad range of research activities on the structure of matter. One component of this facility is directed towards studies of hadronic matter at the sub-nuclear level with beams of antiprotons. These studies focus on two key aspects: confinement of quarks and the generation of the hadron masses. These goals will be pursued by performing precision measurements of charged and neutral decay products from antiproton-proton annihilation in the charmonium mass region. In this talk I present some of the issues connected to FAIR in which the groups in Cracow and Juelich are extending and intensifying our cooperation

  20. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  1. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  2. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Super Refractory Status Epilepticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    et al did retrospective cohort study from 1 January st. 1994 to 31 March 1998 at Presbyterian Medical. Centre in Columbia, to determine the frequency, risk factors and impact on the outcome of RSE. They found out that 69% of seizures recurred after. Key Words: Super refractory status epilepticus, Zambia. Medical Journal of ...

  4. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  5. SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemetz, R.; Selph, F.; Barnes, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of improvements, operations, and research programs at the SuperHILAC. Improvements were made in beam injection, ion sources, and computer control systems. The research efficiency ranged between 70 and 90 percent during most of the year

  6. Breakout Session: Empowering Fair Use Decisions in Higher Education: Developing Copyright Instruction for 90 Minutes or Less. Presented by Ben Harnke, Education & Reference Librarian, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library, John Jones, Instruction & Curriculum Librarian, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library, and Meghan Damour, Reference Intern, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Health Sciences Library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The presenters shared their experiences and strategies for effective fair use instruction for researchers and faculty members at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. The session featured multiple discussion prompts, in order to allow for audience participation. Specific themes and practical tips about fair use instruction included obstacles and challenges, developing the fair use class session, and planning and logistics. Links to supplementary presentation material and tools are provided.

  7. Cultural Values and Overall Fairness;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted with the aim of investigating the relationships between overall fairness and cultural values with organizational justice, job satisfaction and turnover among the personnel of training and education administrations in Esfahan city. Statistical population were the personnel of education and training administrations regions, which 309 persons from them selected with using simple random sampling. Research instruments were overall fairness with 3 items, cultural values (in two fields including materialism and power distance with 8 items, distributive, procedural and interactional justice with 3,3,3 items respectively, job satisfaction with 3 items and turnover with 3 items. Data were analyzed with using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, structural equation modeling, moderated hierarchical regression and mediating regression analysis. Results showed that there are significant relations between overall fairness with distributive, procedural, interactional justice and turnover, job satisfaction and materialism (P0.05. The results of structural equation modeling and mediating regression analysis showed that overall fairness relatively mediate the relations between procedural justices with turnover. But there was not mediated role for overall fairness in relations between distributive and interactional fairness with turnover and job satisfaction. Moderated regression analysis showed that power distance likely have moderated role in relations between overall fairness with turnover likely.

  8. What was fair in acturial fairness?

    OpenAIRE

    Heras Martínez , Antonio José; Teira , David; Pradier , Pierre-Charles

    2016-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail-du-ces/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2016.73 - ISSN : 1955-611X; The concept of acturial fairness stems from an Aristotelian tradition in which fairness requires equality between the goods exchanged. When dealing with aleatory contracts, this principle evolved, among medieval scholars, into equality in risk: benefits and losses should be proportional to the risks unde...

  9. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  10. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  11. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  12. The ELISe experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the novel ELectron Ion scattering in a Storage ring (eA-collider) experiment that is part of the baseline of FAIR[http://www.gsi.de/fair/reports/btr.html] will be discussed in terms of future prospects in a viable physics programme[http://www.gsi.de/documents/DOC-2006-Mar-118-1.pdf, http://www.gsi.de/fair/experiments/ELISe/] that will be feasible for the first time, making use of a clean purely electromagnetic probe in conjunction with unstable secondary beams, the electron

  13. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  14. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  15. CinéGlobe | Programme Super-héros : courts-métrages science et cinéma

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Vous avez entre 10 et 18 ans, vous êtes étudiant et vous souhaitez réaliser un court-métrage inspiré par les sciences ? Lancez-vous !   CinéGlobe (le festival international de films au CERN) et le Service de la Culture de la ville de Meyrin lancent un appel à projet qui se déroulera d’octobre à décembre 2013. Ils recherchent des groupes de 3 à 6 étudiants, âgés d’au moins 10 ans, encadrés par un adulte, et intéressés par la création cinématographique et par les sciences. Ces groupes sont invités à réaliser un court-métrage, fiction ou documentaire, inspiré par les sciences et les technologies. Ces deux institutions proposent d’accompagner et de valoriser la création de ces courts-métr...

  16. The impact of fair trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Fair Trade started as an effort to enable smallholder producers from developing countries to successfully compete in international markets. Better access to market outlets and stable prices are considered key principles for sustainable poverty reduction and stakeholder

  17. The Economics of Fair Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  18. EUROv Super Beam Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to significantly increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. An essential part of these facilities is an intense proton driver producing a beam power higher than a MW. The protons hit a target able to accept the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to deal with the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from an eventual construction of a high power proton driver. The European FP7 Design Study EUROv, among other neutrino beams, studies this Super Beam possibility. This paper will give the latest developments in this direction.

  19. Super-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns super-insulation, which also acts as spacing between two pressurized surfaces, where the crossing bars in at least two layers are provided, with interposed foil. The super-insulation is designed so that it can take compression forces and limits thermal radiation and thermal conduction sufficiently, where the total density of heat flow is usually limited to a few watts per m 2 . The solution to the problem is characterized by the fact that the bars per layer are parallel and from layer to layer they are at an angle to each other and the crossover positions of the bars of different layers are at fixed places and so form contact columns. The basic idea is that bars crossing over each other to support compression forces are used so that contact columns are formed, which are compressed to a certain extent by the load. (orig./PW) [de

  20. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  1. Super-Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyl, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the Einstein, Weyl, supergravity and superconformal theories are special cases of gauge transformations in SU(4vertical-barN). This group is shown to contain SU(2,2) x SU(N) x U(1) for its commuting or Bose part, and to contain 8N supersymmetry generators for its anticommuting or Fermi part. Using the electromagnetic Lagrangian as a model, a super-Lagrangian is constructed for vector potentials. Invariance is automatic in free space, but, in the presence of matter, restrictions on the supersymmetry transformations are necessary. The Weyl action and the Einstein cosmological field equations are obtained in the appropriate limits. Finally, a super-Lagrangian is constructed from nongeometric principles which includes the Dirac Lagrangian and except for a sum over symmetry indices resembles the electron-electromagnetic Lagrangian

  2. FAIR - Cosmic matter in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stöcker, Horst; Stöhlker, Thomas; Sturm, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To explore cosmic matter in the laboratory - this fascinating research prospect becomes available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. The new facility is being constructed within the next five years adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, expanding the research goals and technical possibilities substantially. This includes new insights into the dynamics of supernovae depending on the properties of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei which will be investigated with intense rare isotope beams. New insights will be provided into the interior of stars by exploring dense plasmas with intense heavy-ion beams combined with a high-performance laser - or into neutron star cores by probing the highest baryon densities in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at unprecedented collision rates. To the latter, the properties of hadrons play an important part which will be systematically studied by high precision hadron spectroscopy with antiproton beams at unmatched intensities. The worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities of FAIR will open the way for a broad spectrum of unprecedented fore-front research supplying a large variety of experiments in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as biomedical and material science which will be briefly described in this article. This article is based on the FAIR Green Paper and gives an update of former publications. (author)

  3. FAIR - Cosmic Matter in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Horst; Stöhlker, Thomas; Sturm, Christian

    2015-06-01

    To explore cosmic matter in the laboratory - this fascinating research prospect becomes available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. The new facility is being constructed within the next five years adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, expanding the research goals and technical possibilities substantially. This includes new insights into the dynamics of supernovae depending on the properties of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei which will be investigated with intense rare isotope beams. New insights will be provided into the interior of stars by exploring dense plasmas with intense heavy-ion beams combined with a high-performance laser - or into neutron star cores by probing the highest baryon densities in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at unprecedented collision rates. To the latter, the properties of hadrons play an important part which will be systematically studied by high precision hadron spectroscopy with antiproton beams at unmatched intensities. The worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities of FAIR will open the way for a broad spectrum of unprecedented fore-front research supplying a large variety of experiments in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as biomedical and material science which will be briefly described in this article. This article is based on the FAIR Green Paper [4] and gives an update of former publications [5] - [12].

  4. To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugarte, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm. Rafael Dugarte Escalante September, 2006 Fair value accounting is fair and important for financial reporting in providing relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information to the users depending on what kind of information is expected from it, and the way in which fair value is actually found. This study complemen...

  5. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  6. The Antiproton-Ion-Collider at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.; Fabbietti, L.; Faestemann, T.; Homolka, J.; Kienle, P.; Ring, P.; Suzuki, K.; Bosch, F.; Franzke, B.; Kozhuharov, Ch.; Litvinov, Y.; Nolden, F.; Cargnelli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Hirtl, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Hayano, R. S.; Lenske, H.

    2006-01-01

    An antiproton-ion collider (AIC) has been proposed for the FAIR Project at Darmstadt to independently determine rms radii for protons and neutrons in stable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton annihilation at medium energies. The AIC makes use of the ELISe electron ion collider complex to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with short lived radioactive ions in the NESR. The exotic nuclei are produced by projectile fragmentation or projectile fission and separated in the Super FRS. By detecting the loss of stored ions using the Schottky method the total absorption cross-section for antiprotons on the stored ions with mass A will be measured. Cross sections for the absorption on protons and neutrons, respectively, will be measured by the detection of residual nuclei with A-1 either by the Schottky method or by detecting them in recoil detectors after the first dipole stage of the NESR following the interaction zone. The absorption cross sections are in first order directly proportional to the mean square radii

  7. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  8. Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up

  9. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  10. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  11. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  12. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Gü nther, Felix; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated

  13. Issues in Fair Value Accounting under IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Jannis

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation presents theoretical evidence for inconsistencies in fair value accounting under IFRS, experimental evidence for biases in risk perception of fair values and empirical evidence for discretion in banks' disclosure policies with respect to fair value measurement.

  14. Science 101: What Constitutes a Good Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Having written columns dealing with science fairs before, Bill Robertson notes that it's been a long time since he has tackled the subject of what passes for a "science fair" in schools these days. Because science fairs have changed over the years, Robertson revisits the topic and explains the scientific method. The main focus of the…

  15. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  16. Theory of super LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of supergravity has attracted increasing attention in the recent years as a unified theory of elementary particle interactions. The superspace formulation of the theory is highly suggestive of an underlying geometrical structure of superspace. It also incorporates the beautifully geometrical general theory of relativity. It leads us to believe that a better understanding of its geometry would result in a better understanding of the theory itself, and furthermore, that the geometry of superspace would also have physical consequences. As a first step towards that goal, we develop here a theory of super Lie groups. These are groups that have the same relation to a super Lie algebra as Lie groups have to a Lie algebra. More precisely, a super Lie group is a super-manifold and a group such that the group operations are super-analytic. The super Lie algebra of a super Lie group is related to the local properties of the group near the identity. This work develops the algebraic and super-analytical tools necessary for our theory, including proofs of a set of existence and uniqueness theorems for a class of super-differential equations

  17. JAPAN: Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Excavation for the Japanese Super- KAMIOKANDE 50,000-ton water Cherenkov imaging detector was completed at the end of June. The goals include a search for nucleon decay up to a lifetime of 10 33-34 years, high-statistics studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and detection of any nearby supernova explosions. The project was approved in 1991, with the official 'groundbreaking' in December of that year about 1,000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Gifu Prefecture, about 250 km west of Tokyo

  18. The super collider revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC

  19. The super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2010-01-01

    We review here the prospects of a long-term upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN laboratory's new proton-proton collider. The super-LHC, which is currently under evaluation and design, is expected to deliver of the order of ten times the statistics of the LHC. In addition to a non-technical summary of the principal physics arguments for the upgrade, I present a pedagogical introduction to the technological challenges on the accelerator and experimental fronts, and a review of the current status of the planning.

  20. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  1. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  2. Future Facility: FAIR at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, Guenther

    2007-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, is a new particle accelerator facility to be built at the GSI site in Germany. The research at FAIR will cover a wide range of topics in nuclear and hadron physics, high density plasma and atomic physics, and applications in condensed matter physics and biology. A 1.1 km circumference double ring of rapidly cycling 100 and 300 Tm synchrotrons, will be FAIR's central accelerator system. It will be used to produce, inter alia, high intensity secondary beams of antiprotons and short-lived radioactive nuclei. A subsequent suite of cooler and storage rings will deliver heavy ion and antiproton beams of unprecedented quality. Large experiments are presently being designed by the NUSTAR, PANDA, PAX, CBM, SPARC, FLAIR, HEDgeHOB and BIOMAT collaborations

  3. Impressive Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olds, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The 1200-MWe fast breeder reactor, Super Phenix at Creys-Malville, is scheduled for commercial operation in 1983. This is the world's first near-commercial-sized fast breeder. As a near-commercial-sized unit, it represents essentially the technology and hardware of the first fully commercial follow-on units. In its size, its components, its design, the technology it represents, and its project schedule, it is impressive. As of May 1979, the Super Phenix nuclear steam boiler in the Creys-Malville plant bore an estimated cost of $700 million, without fuel. The total cost of the Creys-Malville plant now is estimated at about $1.4 billion. This is about twice the cost of a comparable standardized PWR being built in France today. However, it should be borne in mind that Creys-Malville carries the high cost of a first-of-the-line prototype, and that France's PWRs are standardized, second-generation units. Electricity from Creys-Malville is estimated to cost a little more than electricity would cost from a coal-fired plant complete with flue gas scrubbing

  4. Children develop a veil of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore......INFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  5. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  6. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  7. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  8. Financial fairness and conditional indexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, T.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Collective pension contracts can generate advantages for their participants by implementing forms of risk sharing. To ensure the continuity of a collective scheme, it has to be monitored whether the contracts offered to participants are financially fair in terms of their market value. When risk

  9. Financial Fairness and Conditional Indexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, Torsten; Schumacher, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Collective pension contracts can generate advantages for their participants by implementing forms of risk sharing. To ensure the continuity of a collective scheme, it has to be monitored whether the contracts offered to participants are financially fair in terms of their market value. When risk

  10. Pension accounting and fair value

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The chapter reviews the applicability of the fair value measurement concept to pension assets and liabilities, concluding that difficulties are likely to arise in measuring pension liabilities at far value, owing to the absence of well-developed markets for such liabilities.

  11. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  12. The tristan super light facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Photon Factory and its user group have achieved excellent scientific results since its commissioning in 1982, ranging from material science to medical application, by using the synchrotron radiation at the 2.5 GeV PF storage ring, and since 1986, further at the 6.5 GeV Tristan accumulation ring which provides brilliant photons in high energy region. Efforts are exerted currently at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics for the extensive research and development works to study the feasibility of the Tristan e + e - collider main ring to be utilized as an extremely intense and highly advanced light source, which is called Tristan super light facility. What kinds of the application are expected for such highly brilliant source and their scientific significance should be clarified. This design report is an outcome by the joint work of in-house staffs and outside users, and it would serve as an excellent guide for the future studies on a next generation synchrotron radiation light source. The conversion plan of Tristan, the basic design of insertion devices, coherent X-ray sources, beam lines, instrumentation and others are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Characterization of a new modular decay total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (DTAS) for FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaner Pizá, A.; Taín, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Marín, E.; Rice, S.; Rubio, B.

    2013-01-01

    Beta-decay studies are one of the main goals of the DEcay SPECtroscopy experiment (DESPEC) to be installed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). DESPEC aims at the study of nuclear structure of exotic nuclei. A new modular Decay Total Absorption gamma-ray Spectrometer (DTAS) is being built at IFIC and is specially adapted to studies at fragmentation facilities such as the Super Fragment Separator (Super-FRS) at FAIR. The designed spectrometer is composed of 16 identical NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. This work focuses on the characterization of these independent modules, as an initial step for the characterization of the full spectrometer. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to understand the detector response.

  14. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 JT2A.34.pdf Optics in the Life... Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA) Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams Melanie McLaren, Thulile Khanyile, Patience Mthunzi and Andrew Forbes* National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  15. Research report of FY 1997 on the industrial science and technology development. Technology development of super-metal (technology development of nano-amorphous structural control materials); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku seika hokokusho. Super metal no gijutsu kaihatsu (nano-amorphous kozo seigyo zairyo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development of the innovative metals have been conducted, by which the weight reduction of members can be done by drastically improving the strength compared with conventional metals. For the high-rate cluster deposition and super plastic forming technologies, research and development of aluminum-based light-weight materials have been conducted, which provides excellent strength, toughness, and super plastic formability at room temperature. For the high-density energy utilization and control technology (amorphous-A), super-metals have been investigated as high dew point and corrosion resistance materials used for waste incinerators operated under the very severe conditions. These are expected to be applied to the apparatuses and equipment due to their excellent properties. For the controlled cooling technology (amorphous-B), super-metals with excellent soft magnetic characteristics and degree of shape freedom have been investigated for high performance and high efficiency devices including electric/electronic/communication devices, power transmission devices, and various industrial devices and parts. These are expected to contribute to the creation of new markets and the improvement of international competitive force. 123 refs., 160 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  17. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  18. Publishing FAIR Data: An Exemplar Methodology Utilizing PHI-Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Alejandro; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Irvine, Alistair G; Sesma, Ane; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-Host interaction data is core to our understanding of disease processes and their molecular/genetic bases. Facile access to such core data is particularly important for the plant sciences, where individual genetic and phenotypic observations have the added complexity of being dispersed over a wide diversity of plant species vs. the relatively fewer host species of interest to biomedical researchers. Recently, an international initiative interested in scholarly data publishing proposed that all scientific data should be "FAIR"-Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. In this work, we describe the process of migrating a database of notable relevance to the plant sciences-the Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base)-to a form that conforms to each of the FAIR Principles. We discuss the technical and architectural decisions, and the migration pathway, including observations of the difficulty and/or fidelity of each step. We examine how multiple FAIR principles can be addressed simultaneously through careful design decisions, including making data FAIR for both humans and machines with minimal duplication of effort. We note how FAIR data publishing involves more than data reformatting, requiring features beyond those exhibited by most life science Semantic Web or Linked Data resources. We explore the value-added by completing this FAIR data transformation, and then test the result through integrative questions that could not easily be asked over traditional Web-based data resources. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of providing explicit and reliable access to provenance information, which we argue enhances citation rates by encouraging and facilitating transparent scholarly reuse of these valuable data holdings.

  19. Publishing FAIR Data: an exemplar methodology utilizing PHI-base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eRodríguez Iglesias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen-Host interaction data is core to our understanding of disease processes and their molecular/genetic bases. Facile access to such core data is particularly important for the plant sciences, where individual genetic and phenotypic observations have the added complexity of being dispersed over a wide diversity of plant species versus the relatively fewer host species of interest to biomedical researchers. Recently, an international initiative interested in scholarly data publishing proposed that all scientific data should be FAIR - Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. In this work, we describe the process of migrating a database of notable relevance to the plant sciences - the Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base - to a form that conforms to each of the FAIR Principles. We discuss the technical and architectural decisions, and the migration pathway, including observations of the difficulty and/or fidelity of each step. We examine how multiple FAIR principles can be addressed simultaneously through careful design decisions, including making data FAIR for both humans and machines with minimal duplication of effort. We note how FAIR data publishing involves more than data reformatting, requiring features beyond those exhibited by most life science Semantic Web or Linked Data resources. We explore the value-added by completing this FAIR data transformation, and then test the result through integrative questions that could not easily be asked over traditional Web-based data resources. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of providing explicit and reliable access to provenance information, which we argue enhances citation rates by encouraging and facilitating transparent scholarly reuse of these valuable data holdings.

  20. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  1. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  2. French contribution to the super-heavy nuclei discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Asghar, M.

    1999-01-01

    The research on super-heavy nuclei is a science in full operation for which the Berkeley physicist give proof of perseverance. The author wonders about the french absence in this domain. He recalls the strategical decisions concerning the research programs of the period and gives outline of the future with the interest of the ECR (Electronic Cyclotron Resonance) sources. (A.L.B.)

  3. Experiments with beams of exotic nuclei at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emling, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The facility for antiproton and ion research FAIR will provide the international science community with a technically novel and in many respects unique accelerator system for a multi-faceted physics program. Rare-isotope beams of much improved quality together with advanced experimental concepts promise detailed experimental investigations of nuclei far away from stability. A brief description of the rare-isotope beam facility at FAIR is presented, which allows to extend substantially the current successful experimental program with exotic nuclei at GSI. (author)

  4. EXAMINE THE PAST FOR GOING FURTHER: A LITERATURE REVIEW IN THE FIELD OF FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreicovici Ionela - Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study is part of the scientific approach being assumed at the beginning of the Ph.D. as the theme 'New valence of evaluation in accounting' under the guidance of prof. univ. dr. Dumitru Matis. This article aims to realize a more comprehensive study of relevant literature in accounting with fair value as the main subject. We have built our study attempting to answer the following research questions: How much fair value activity has there been since 2008? What research topics are being addressed? Who is leading fair value research? What are the limitations of current research? To achieve our proposed objectives we analyzed two databases (Science Direct and Business Source Premier during 2008-2011, analyzing in detail a total of 22 articles divided into five specific research directions: international regulations on fair value accounting, fair Value Accounting and Financial Crisis, financial reporting at fair value, the relevance of fair value and fair value versus historical cost. With this research we try to see 'what is known' in the field of fair value so far . In addition to qualitative analysis which we performed to discover the interest of researchers in this field, we conducted a quantitative analysis concerning the reported studies , being divided into research themes, research methodology and year of the article publication. Quantitative research results are those anticipated, that the most 'fair value activity ' took place in 2008 and 2009, surveys having as main research theme international regulations on fair value accounting.

  5. Developing Conceptions of Fair Contest Procedures and the Understanding of Skill and Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; White-McNulty, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions about aversive effects of competition on achievement motivation, in this study young people saw academic contests as fair. When participants completed structural interviews on fair ways to organize science contests and on differentiation of skill and luck, age-related trends in their conceptions of procedural justice were…

  6. Grassmann, super-Kac-Moody and super-derivation algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.

    1989-05-01

    We study the cyclic cocycles of degree one on the Grassmann algebra and on the super-circle with N supersymmetries (i.e. the tensor product of the algebra of functions on the circle times a Grassmann algebra with N generators). They are related to central extensions of graded loop algebras (i.e. super-Kac-Moody algebras). The corresponding algebras of super-derivations have to be compatible with the cocycle characterizing the extension; we give a general method for determining these algebras and examine in particular the cases N = 1,2,3. We also discuss their relations with the Ademollo et al. algebras, and examine the possibility of defining new kinds of super-conformal algebras, which, for N > 1, generalize the N = 1 Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz algebra

  7. Expanded HTA: Enhancing Fairness and Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Norman; Porteny, Thalia; Urritia, Julian

    2015-11-06

    All societies face the need to make judgments about what interventions (both public health and personal medical) to provide to their populations under reasonable resource constraints. Their decisions should be informed by good evidence and arguments from health technology assessment (HTA). But if HTA restricts itself to evaluations of safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness, it risks being viewed as insufficient to guide health decision-makers; if it addresses other issues, such as budget impact, equity, and financial protection, it may be accused of overreaching. But the risk of overreaching can be reduced by embedding HTA in a fair, deliberative process that meets the conditions required by accountability for reasonableness. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tazima S.; Grebel, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helm...

  9. The Super-Kamiokande detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Oyabu, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Desai, S.; Earl, M.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Wang, W.; Scholberg, K.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Liu, D.W.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Mine, S.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Maruyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Iwashita, T.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Hasegawa, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Haines, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Blaufuss, E.; Chen, M.L.; Conner, Z.; Goodman, J.A.; Guillian, E.; Sullivan, G.W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Ackerman, M.; Goebel, F.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Kato, T.; Kerr, D.; Malek, M.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Inaba, S.; Ito, K.; Kirisawa, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Takahashi, M.; Higuchi, K.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kusano, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, S.B.; Yoo, J.; Okazawa, H.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Nishiyama, I.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takayama, T.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Takeda, H.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Ishino, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Morii, M.; Nishihama, H.; Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; Berns, H.G.; Boyd, S.B.; Doyle, R.A.; George, J.S.; Stachyra, A.L.; Wai, L.L.; Wilkes, R.J.; Young, K.K.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I

  10. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  11. Accounting for Fair Value Headging

    OpenAIRE

    Botea Elena Mihaela; Stanila Oana Georgiana; SSahlian Daniela Nicoleta

    2010-01-01

    The derivatives appearance was generated by the discovery of new ways to limit and manage current activity risks. Derivatives couldn’t hedge any type of risk. Derivative operations can be used to hedge: interest rate risks, foreign currency exchange rate risks, credit risks. Derivatives used to hedge these risks can be handled to cover fair value exposure, cash flow exposure and exposure to changes in the value of a net investment in a foreign operation. The hedging accounting roll is to prot...

  12. Hybla Fair event: environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, D.R.; Russell, W.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A series of environmental measurements during the Hybla Fair nuclear event were made. Experimenters were unsure of conditions that would be created since there was no closure system and the experiments were close to the source. A variety of temperature, pressure, and load devices were tested. The results will aid in the design and engineering of future close-in diagnostic packages and pipes. (U.S.)

  13. Hadronic resonances at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings cover the analysis of hadronic resonances in heavy ion collisions. The model used for these studies is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The model will be briefly explained, resonance observables will be highlighted and various kinematical issues will be investigated. Special emphasis will be put on the FAIR energy regime, especially highlighting the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) program.

  14. Fair adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, Jouni; Adger, W. Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies social justice dilemmas associated with the necessity to adapt to climate change, examines how they are currently addressed by the climate change regime, and proposes solutions to overcome prevailing gaps and ambiguities. We argue that the key justice dilemmas of adaptation include responsibility for climate change impacts, the level and burden sharing of assistance to vulnerable countries for adaptation, distribution of assistance between recipient countries and adaptation measures, and fair participation in planning and making decisions on adaptation. We demonstrate how the climate change regime largely omits responsibility but makes a general commitment to assistance. However, the regime has so far failed to operationalise assistance and has made only minor progress towards eliminating obstacles for fair participation. We propose the adoption of four principles for fair adaptation in the climate change regime. These include avoiding dangerous climate change, forward-looking responsibility, putting the most vulnerable first and equal participation of all. We argue that a safe maximum standard of 400-500 ppm of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere and a carbon tax of $20-50 per carbon equivalent ton could provide the initial instruments for operationalising the principles. (author)

  15. The FairRoot framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turany, M; Bertini, D; Karabowicz, R; Kresan, D; Malzacher, P; Uhlig, F; Stockmanns, T

    2012-01-01

    The FairRoot framework is an object oriented simulation, reconstruction and data analysis framework based on ROOT. It includes core services for detector simulation and offline analysis. The framework delivers base classes which enable the users to easily construct their experimental setup in a fast and convenient way. By using the Virtual Monte Carlo concept it is possible to perform the simulations using either Geant3 or Geant4 without changing the user code or the geometry description. Using and extending the task mechanism of ROOT it is possible to implement complex analysis tasks in a convenient way. Moreover, using the FairCuda interface of the framework it is possible to run some of these tasks also on GPU. Data IO, as well as parameter handling and data base connections are also handled by the framework. Since some of the experiments will not have an experimental setup with a conventional trigger system, the framework can handle also free flowing input streams of detector data. For this mode of operation the framework provides classes to create the needed time sorted input streams of detector data out of the event based simulation data. There are also tools to do radiation studies and to visualize the simulated data. A CMake-CDash based building and monitoring system is also part of the FairRoot services which helps to build and test the framework on many different platforms in an automatic way, including also Continuous Integration.

  16. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  17. Structural Optimisation Of Payload Fairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Y.; Eaton, N.; Verheyden, S.; Michaud, V.

    2012-07-01

    RUAG Space are developing materials and processing technologies for manufacture of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL) payload fairing, together with the Laboratory of Polymer and Composite Technology at the EPFL, in a project running under the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Program (FLPP). In this paper the general aims and scope of the project are described, details of the results obtained shall be presented at a later stage. RUAG Space design, develop and manufacture fairings for the European launch vehicles Ariane 5 and VEGA using well proven composite materials and production methods which provide adequate cost/performance ratio for these applications. However, the NGL shall make full use of innovations in materials and process technologies to achieve a gain in performance at a much reduced overall manufacturing cost. NGL is scheduled to become operational in 2025, with actual development beginning in 2014. In this current project the basic technology is being developed and validated, in readiness for application in the NGL. For this new application, an entirely new approach to the fairing manufacture is evaluated.

  18. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Cheng, C.; Chivukula, A.; Doll, D.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Thomas, M.; Zhu, R.; Tatishvili, G.; Andreassen, R.; Fabby, C.; Meadows, B.; Simpson, A.; Sokoloff, M.; Tomko, K.; Fella, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Gianoli, A.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Santoro, V.; Tomassetti, L.; Stoker, D.; Bezshyyko, O.; Dolinska, G.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Bogard, F.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Charlet, D.; Maalmi, J.; Perez Perez, L.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Wallon, S.; Wormser, G.; Brown, D.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  19. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  20. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  1. Children develop a veil of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco; Olson, Kristina R; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good or bad prize to themselves and another participant by either unilaterally deciding who would get each prize or using a fair procedure--flipping a coin in private. Older children were much more likely to flip the coin than younger children, yet were just as likely as younger children to assign themselves the good prize by reporting winning the coin flip more than chance would dictate. Overall, the results of these experiments suggest that as children grow older they become increasingly concerned with appearing fair to others, which may explain some of their increased tendency to behave fairly.

  2. News from the Library: CERN Scientific Book Fair 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2011 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science.  You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on sale. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground  floor near the Restaurant 1 on Wednesday 14th and Thursday 15th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor & Francis, Wiley, World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times...

  3. News from the Library: CERN Scientific Book Fair 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2012 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 10 and Tuesday 11 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, EPFL Press-PPUR, Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor & Francis, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:     Monday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00     Tuesday 11 September 9:00&a...

  4. Strategy intervention for the evolution of fairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Zhang

    Full Text Available The 'irrational' preference for fairness has attracted increasing attention. Although previous studies have focused on the effects of spitefulness on the evolution of fairness, they did not consider non-monotonic rejections shown in behavioral experiments. In this paper, we introduce a non-monotonic rejection in an evolutionary model of the Ultimatum Game. We propose strategy intervention to study the evolution of fairness in general structured populations. By sequentially adding five strategies into the competition between a fair strategy and a selfish strategy, we arrive at the following conclusions. First, the evolution of fairness is inhibited by altruism, but it is promoted by spitefulness. Second, the non-monotonic rejection helps fairness overcome selfishness. Particularly for group-structured populations, we analytically investigate how fairness, selfishness, altruism, and spitefulness are affected by population size, mutation, and migration in the competition among seven strategies. Our results may provide important insights into understanding the evolutionary origin of fairness.

  5. Super boson-fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies

  6. Fair play in energy policy decisions: Procedural fairness, outcome fairness and acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To raise public acceptance of new energy policies, promoting the fairness of the outcomes and of the decision-making procedure has been suggested. Very few studies have examined the role of fairness in public acceptance of rebuilding nuclear power plants. Therefore, using a large mail survey, we investigated the public’s acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants in Switzerland by 2020. The study examined the influence of procedural fairness and outcome fairness on the acceptance of this decision, as well as other factors such as risk perception and benefit perception. Additionally, we investigated the moderating influence of general attitudes towards nuclear power on the relation between fairness and decision acceptance. Results indicated that outcome fairness strongly increased decision acceptance, along with general attitudes towards nuclear power and perceived economic benefits. Procedural fairness had only a small impact on decision acceptance. The influence of fairness on decision acceptance did not seem to depend on general nuclear attitudes. Our findings imply that, in the case of rebuilding nuclear power plants, perceived benefits and outcome fairness are important determinants of acceptance of the decision, while procedural fairness only has a limited impact. - Highlights: ► We investigated the role of fairness in the acceptance of a nuclear policy decision. ► Outcome fairness strongly influenced decision acceptance regarding nuclear power plants. ► The role of procedural fairness was relatively small in this respect. ► Also, nuclear attitudes and perceived economic benefits affected decision acceptance. ► Outcome fairness seems more relevant for decision acceptance than procedural fairness.

  7. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  8. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Fair value assessment – valences and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Cozma Ighian Diana; Nistor Cristina Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, FASB and IASB have intensified research on fair value measurements and planned to further expand the scope of applicability of fair value measurements. However, organizations responsible for formulating the principles, enterprises, social bodies and academia are locked in a dispute over the advantages and disadvantages of fair value measurements, and no consensus has been reached yet. This paper explores the arguments for and against fair value and tries to find out whether a...

  10. Fair Value Bewertung von zedierten Reserven

    OpenAIRE

    Heep-Altiner, Maria; Hoos, Sebastian; Krahforst, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Für Schadenreserven existieren keine hinreichend fungiblen Märkte und somit auch keine Marktpreise im klassischen Sinn. Für eine Fair Value Bewertung bedarf es also eines geeigneten Modellansatzes. In der Schadenversicherung wird üblicher- weise der Transaktionswert modelliert, wobei hier die korrekte Modellierung der Kapitalkosten einer der zentralen Punkte ist. Der Fair Value der zedierten Reserven kann als Differenz zwischen dem Fair Value der Bruttoreserven und dem Fair Value der Nettores...

  11. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hui Hsu; Youan (Robert) Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms ...

  12. FAIR VALUE IMPLICATIONS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA

    2014-01-01

    Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting informatio...

  13. How fair is access to more prestigious UK universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliver, Vikki

    2013-06-01

    Now that most UK universities have increased their tuition fees to £9,000 a year and are implementing new Access Agreements as required by the Office for Fair Access, it has never been more important to examine the extent of fair access to UK higher education and to more prestigious UK universities in particular. This paper uses Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) data for the period 1996 to 2006 to explore the extent of fair access to prestigious Russell Group universities, where 'fair' is taken to mean equal rates of making applications to and receiving offers of admission from these universities on the part of those who are equally qualified to enter them. The empirical findings show that access to Russell Group universities is far from fair in this sense and that little changed following the introduction of tuition fees in 1998 and their initial increase to £3,000 a year in 2006. Throughout this period, UCAS applicants from lower class backgrounds and from state schools remained much less likely to apply to Russell Group universities than their comparably qualified counterparts from higher class backgrounds and private schools, while Russell Group applicants from state schools and from Black and Asian ethnic backgrounds remained much less likely to receive offers of admission from Russell Group universities in comparison with their equivalently qualified peers from private schools and the White ethnic group. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  14. GasFair/PowerFair/EnergyUser '98 : Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Papers presented at three conferences, reviewing recent activities in the natural gas and electric power industries and matters of concern to energy consumers in North America are contained on this single CD-ROM. Seven presentations relate to the natural gas industry, nine to electric power generation and transmission, and ten to a wide range of topics dealing with various concerns relating to the environment, financial and cost management aspects of energy utilization. Speakers at the GasFair sessions discussed recent developments in natural gas supply, marketing, purchasing, risk management and the impact of energy convergence on natural gas. Presentations at the PowerFair segment dealt with issues in electricity deregulation, supply and financing, purchasing and marketing. Issues discussed at the EnergyUser sessions included presentations dealing with ways to save costs with energy technology and integrated services, environmental performance contracting and engineering and energy cost control. The CD-ROM also contains the summary of a round table discussion and five individual presentations made at the Natural Gas Pipeline Forum. This pre-conference institute dealt with the likely effects of new pipelines and pipeline extensions on North American natural gas consumers. . tabs., figs

  15. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear super-resolution nano-optics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers many advances in the subjects of nano-optics and nano photonics. The author describes the principle and technical schematics of common methods for breaking through the optical diffraction limit and focuses on realizing optical super-resolution with nonlinear effects of thin film materials. The applications of nonlinear optical super-resolution effects in nano-data storage, nanolithography, and nano-imaging are also presented. This book is useful to graduate students majoring in optics and nano science and also serves as a reference book for academic researchers, engineers, technical professionals in the fields of super-resolution optics and laser techniques, nano-optics and nano photonics, nano-data storage, nano imaging, micro/nanofabrication and nanolithography and nonlinear optics.

  17. Assortiment-kanaalmatch voor biologische fair tradeproducten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEI,

    2008-01-01

    Stichting FairBites ontwikkelt middels een innovatief organisatiemodel biologische en fair trade voedingsproducten voor de out-of-home (OOH) markt. Deze producten zijn zeer beperkt beschikbaar in dit marktsegment dat ± 35% van de voedingsmarkt vertegenwoordigd. FairBites richt zich op jong

  18. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  19. 7 CFR 51.705 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.705 Section 51.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.705 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit may be slightly...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1831 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1831 Section 51.1831 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1831 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.774 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.774 Section 51.774 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.774 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.2843 Section 51.2843 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1012 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1012 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit is...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.3204 Section 51.3204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1167 Section 51.1167 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as...

  6. 7 CFR 51.643 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.643 Section 51.643 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.643 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised, and...

  7. Volatility as a downside of fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Leibfried, Peter; Zimmermann, Marc-Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Accounting Standards increasingly require financial instruments such as stocks, derivatives and structured products to be measured at fair value. As fair values represent a financial instrument's market value, price fluctuations find their way into financial statements. Even though fair value measurement provides useful information about the current value of a corporation's assets, it also increases the volatility of earnings.

  8. Experiments on extreme states of matter towards HIF at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkov, B.; Varentsov, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented frontier research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in plasma, nuclear, atomic, hadron and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of extreme state of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. (authors)

  9. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  10. Liquidity and Impact in Fair Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jaisson, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory which applies to any market dynamics that satisfy a fair market assumption on the nullity of the average profit of simple market making strategies. We show that for any such fair market, there exists a martingale fair price which corresponds to the average liquidation value (at the ask or the bid) of an infinitesimal quantity of stock. We show that this fair price is a natural reference price to compute the ex post gain of limit orders. Using only the fair market assumptio...

  11. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    . The further exploration of Fair Trade’s political and ideological dimensions sheds light on the reasons behind the system’s current limitations. The analysis shows that Fair Trade offers very limited improvements compared to the conventional economy. Additionally, for the Argentinean wine industry, Fair Trade......This dissertation offers an assessment of Fair Trade’s transformative potential through an empirical examination of the case of Fair Trade wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom. Guided by a dialectical understanding of the research process, the analysis is done at various...

  12. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  13. Book Review: Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0.......This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0....

  14. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  15. FAIR - Facility, Research Program and Status of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Europe will provide a worldwide science community with a unique and technically innovative accelerator system to perform forefront research in the sciences concerned with the basic structure of matter, and in intersections with other fields. The facility will deliver an extensive range of primary and secondary particle beams from protons and their antimatter partners, antiprotons, to ion beams of all chemical elements up to the heaviest, uranium, with in many respects unique properties and intensities. The paper will include overview of the new facility design and research programs to be carried out there. The current status of the FAIR project will be also presented. (author)

  16. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-01

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U q (sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U q (sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L 2 (R) x C 1 vertical stroke 1 and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  17. Production of hypernuclei at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitanos, Theodoros; Larionov, Alexei; Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The strangeness sector of the strong interaction is important for our knowledge on, e.g., nuclear astrophysics. It is still a widely debated topic of current research. Hypernuclear production in heavy-ion collisions and anti p-nucleus collisions offers the opportunity to investigate the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interaction inside a hadronic environment in terrestrial laboratories. We study the formation of fragments with and without strangeness contents in the framework of a dynamical transport model (Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling- Uhlenbeck, GiBUU) and a statistical approach (Statistical Multifragmentation Model, SMM) of fragment formation. We use a coalescence picture for the production of single-{Lambda} and double-{Lambda} hypernuclei, and provide theoretical estimates on their spectra and inclusive cross sections in heavy-ion collisions and anti p induced reactions, relevant for HypHI and PANDA experiments at FAIR.

  18. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussa, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The approved FAIR upgrade of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany, includes the construction of a High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) for high intensity, phase space cooled antiprotons with momenta up to 15 GeV/c. A wide physics program is planned at this facility to investigate fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics in interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei. To serve the many experiments planned at this new facility, an universal, modular, hermetic spectrometer called PANDA (Proton ANtiproton Detector Array) is planned. This talk presents an overview of the physics program pursued by this project and of the PANDA detector system. The feasibility of measurements in the sector of spin degrees of freedom of quarks will be also discussed. (author)

  19. Publishing FAIR Data: An Exemplar Methodology Utilizing PHI-Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Alejandro; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Irvine, Alistair G.; Sesma, Ane; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Wilkinson, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-Host interaction data is core to our understanding of disease processes and their molecular/genetic bases. Facile access to such core data is particularly important for the plant sciences, where individual genetic and phenotypic observations have the added complexity of being dispersed over a wide diversity of plant species vs. the relatively fewer host species of interest to biomedical researchers. Recently, an international initiative interested in scholarly data publishing proposed that all scientific data should be “FAIR”—Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. In this work, we describe the process of migrating a database of notable relevance to the plant sciences—the Pathogen-Host Interaction Database (PHI-base)—to a form that conforms to each of the FAIR Principles. We discuss the technical and architectural decisions, and the migration pathway, including observations of the difficulty and/or fidelity of each step. We examine how multiple FAIR principles can be addressed simultaneously through careful design decisions, including making data FAIR for both humans and machines with minimal duplication of effort. We note how FAIR data publishing involves more than data reformatting, requiring features beyond those exhibited by most life science Semantic Web or Linked Data resources. We explore the value-added by completing this FAIR data transformation, and then test the result through integrative questions that could not easily be asked over traditional Web-based data resources. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of providing explicit and reliable access to provenance information, which we argue enhances citation rates by encouraging and facilitating transparent scholarly reuse of these valuable data holdings. PMID:27433158

  20. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Hamburg Univ.; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  1. DOENEWS: Address of John S. Herrington, Secretary of Energy, at the National symposium on the superconducting super collider in Denver, Colorado, December 3, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    In this address, the President's support for basic science is briefly discussed, and support for the Superconducting Super Collider in particular is emphasized. Perceived benefits of the Super Collider are discussed, including benefits to the world, training for scientists, maintaining American competitiveness. Federal support of science, including Congressional action, is discussed briefly

  2. A note on the super AKNS equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yishen; Zhang Lining.

    1986-10-01

    We find some relationships between the usual AKNS scheme with the super one, when its elements take value from the Grassmann algebra on a two-dimensional vector space. The solutions of these super AKNS equations are discussed. (author)

  3. Marketingová komunikace fair trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nídlová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how fair trade and its brand are communicated on the market. The theoretical part describes the basic concepts of marketing, marketing communication and marketing research. The practical part describes the general meaning of fair trade and its main principles and goals. The following section is devoted to the analysis of recent marketing activities. The main research investigates the level of knowledge of fair trade among Czech consumers. The conclusion summarizes the r...

  4. CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES RELATED TO FAIR VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ionica Oncioiu; Florin Razvan Oncioiu; Daniela Simona Nenciu

    2012-01-01

    Many authors present the advantages of fair value accounting, but others contest this concept, because of its volatility and subjective tendency of the models used for the evaluation. The advantages of fair value include utility, relevance, transparency and superior accuracy of the results, provides more clarity to the financial statements, it provides a total accounting of the comparable value and it gives more liability to the manager. However, critics of fair value accounting do not provid...

  5. Fair value accounting – pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Temjanovski, Riste; Koleva, Blagica

    2016-01-01

    Fair value accounting continues to be a topic of significant interest and debate among the preparers and users of financial information. Fair value continues to be an important measurement basis in financial reporting. It provides information about what an entity might realize if it sold an asset or might pay to transfer a liability. In recent years, the use of fair value as a measurement basis for financial reporting has been expanded, even as the debate over its usefulness to stakeholders c...

  6. The super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy and its super-Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Xing, Tao; Tie-Cheng, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructed Lie superalgebra, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is obtained. Then, its super-Hamiltonian structure is obtained by making use of super-trace identity. Furthermore, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is also integrable in the sense of Liouville. (general)

  7. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  8. Research and development of super light water reactors and super fast reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Morooka, S.; Yamakawa, M.; Ishiwatari, Y.; Ikejiri, S.; Katsumura, Y.; Muroya, Y.; Terai, T.; Sasaki, K.; Mori, H.; Hamamoto, Y.; Okumura, K.; Kugo, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ezato, K.; Akasaka, N.; Hotta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Super Light Water Reactors (Super LWR) and Super Fast Reactors (Super FR) are the supercritical- pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWR) that are developed by the research group of University of Tokyo since 1989 and now jointly under development with the researchers of Waseda University, University of Tokyo and other organizations in Japan. The principle of the reactor concept development, the results of the past Super LWR and Super FR R&D as well as the R&D program of the Super FR second phase project are described. (author)

  9. Supergrassmannians, super τ-functions and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgikh, S.N.; Schwarz, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Recently, infinite-dimensional grassmannians and their supergeneralizations were used to study conformal two-dimensional fields and strings. In particular, the super Mumford form (holomorphic square root from the superstring measure on moduli space) was expressed through super analog of Sato τ-function. In this paper we present results of supergrassmannians and super τ-functions. 8 refs

  10. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian; Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daiel; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  11. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  12. Super Virasoro algebra and solvable supersymmetric quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Itaru; Sasaki, Ryu.

    1987-09-01

    Interesting and deep relationships between super Virasoro algebras and super soliton systems (super KdV, super mKdV and super sine-Gordon equations) are investigated at both classical and quantum levels. An infinite set of conserved quantities responsible for solvability is characterized by super Virasoro algebras only. Several members of the infinite set of conserved quantities are derived explicitly. (author)

  13. Fair ranking of researchers and research teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2018-01-01

    The main drawback of ranking of researchers by the number of papers, citations or by the Hirsch index is ignoring the problem of distributing authorship among authors in multi-author publications. So far, the single-author or multi-author publications contribute to the publication record of a researcher equally. This full counting scheme is apparently unfair and causes unjust disproportions, in particular, if ranked researchers have distinctly different collaboration profiles. These disproportions are removed by less common fractional or authorship-weighted counting schemes, which can distribute the authorship credit more properly and suppress a tendency to unjustified inflation of co-authors. The urgent need of widely adopting a fair ranking scheme in practise is exemplified by analysing citation profiles of several highly-cited astronomers and astrophysicists. While the full counting scheme often leads to completely incorrect and misleading ranking, the fractional or authorship-weighted schemes are more accurate and applicable to ranking of researchers as well as research teams. In addition, they suppress differences in ranking among scientific disciplines. These more appropriate schemes should urgently be adopted by scientific publication databases as the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) or the Scopus (Elsevier).

  14. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  15. The PANDA detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The PANDA detector will be installed at FAIR to enterprise a long-term, wide-spectrum physics program in the strong interaction framework. The detector will be installed at the HESR accumulation ring, which will provide an anti-proton beam of unprecedented luminosity and momentum definition. The beam will interact with an internal target. The detector has been designed to allow a 4π coverage around the interaction region. Due to the relatively high energy of the beam, up to 15 GeV, PANDA will feature two magnetic spectrometers: the target spectrometer (TS), with a superconducting solenoid and covering the interaction region, and a forward spectrometer (FS), with a normal-conducting dipole and covering the small angles region. Since the physics program is wide and the requirements on the various subsystems are different, the detector has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The complete detector will be described in detail, both from the viewpoint of the proposed techniques and from the viewpoint of the expected performances. An overview of the status of various components of the detector will be presented, too.

  16. Fuel performance analysis code 'FAIR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    For modelling nuclear reactor fuel rod behaviour of water cooled reactors under severe power maneuvering and high burnups, a mechanistic fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed. The code incorporates finite element based thermomechanical module, physically based fission gas release module and relevant models for modelling fuel related phenomena, such as, pellet cracking, densification and swelling, radial flux redistribution across the pellet due to the build up of plutonium near the pellet surface, pellet clad mechanical interaction/stress corrosion cracking (PCMI/SSC) failure of sheath etc. The code follows the established principles of fuel rod analysis programmes, such as coupling of thermal and mechanical solutions along with the fission gas release calculations, analysing different axial segments of fuel rod simultaneously, providing means for performing local analysis such as clad ridging analysis etc. The modular nature of the code offers flexibility in affecting modifications easily to the code for modelling MOX fuels and thorium based fuels. For performing analysis of fuel rods subjected to very long power histories within a reasonable amount of time, the code has been parallelised and is commissioned on the ANUPAM parallel processing system developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). (author). 37 refs

  17. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rothenberger

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  18. The Entrepreneur Fair: Fifth Grade Student Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In twenty years of teaching, the author has never been involved in a project that sparked as much enthusiasm from students, parents, the administration, and other teachers as the Entrepreneur Fair. In an effort to challenge students to become entrepreneurs, the author developed a one-day market called the Entrepreneur Fair at Stonewall Elementary…

  19. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair and...

  20. Fair Access to Higher Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna, Ed.; Sabbagh, Daniel, Ed.; Post, David, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    What does "fairness" mean internationally in terms of access to higher education? Increased competition for places in elite universities has prompted a worldwide discussion regarding the fairness of student admission policies. Despite budget cuts from governments--and increasing costs for students--competition is fierce at the most…

  1. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to

  2. Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…

  3. Fairness concerns and cooperation in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Khavas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Interaction settings offering identical choices result in different behaviour when they are presented in different frames or when they are conducted in different contexts. This thesis investigates the influence of various contexts on people’s fairness and fairness-driven cooperative behaviour. We

  4. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  5. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  6. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  7. Promoting Fair Food-to-Consumer Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Hviid Madsen, Mai; Smith, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    with authoritative definitions (adding experts’ final judgments). The research is part of the cross-disciplinary research project “Spin or fair speak – when foods talk” which aims at providing new knowledge, tools, and experimental evidence for promoting fairness in food naming and labelling practices....

  8. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  9. Fair Optimization and Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz Ogryczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related to designing and operating complex systems are mainly focused on some efficiency metrics such as response time, queue length, throughput, and cost. However, in systems which serve many entities there is also a need for respecting fairness: each system entity ought to be provided with an adequate share of the system’s services. Still, due to system operations-dependant constraints, fair treatment of the entities does not directly imply that each of them is assigned equal amount of the services. That leads to concepts of fair optimization expressed by the equitable models that represent inequality averse optimization rather than strict inequality minimization; a particular widely applied example of that concept is the so-called lexicographic maximin optimization (max-min fairness. The fair optimization methodology delivers a variety of techniques to generate fair and efficient solutions. This paper reviews fair optimization models and methods applied to systems that are based on some kind of network of connections and dependencies, especially, fair optimization methods for the location problems and for the resource allocation problems in communication networks.

  10. Fair packet scheduling in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin Han

    2014-01-01

    ordering of timestamps among neighboring nodes is sufficient for enforcing local fairness, subsequently leading to flow rate fairness in a multi-hop WMN. We show that TMAC can be implemented using the control frames in IEEE 802.11, and thus can be easily

  11. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...

  12. FAIR VALUE IMPLICATIONS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.

  13. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  14. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-09-30

    The fairness of meshes that represent geometric shapes is a topic that has been studied extensively and thoroughly. However, the focus in such considerations often is not on the mesh itself, but rather on the smooth surface approximated by it, and fairness essentially expresses a mesh’s suitability for purposes such as visualization or simulation. This paper focusses on meshes in the architectural context, where vertices, edges, and faces of meshes are often highly visible, and any notion of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated freeform skins.

  15. On fairness, full cooperation, and quantum game with incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen-Zhou; Liu, Bo-Yang; Yi, Ying; Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Quantum entanglement has emerged as a new resource to enhance cooperation and remove dilemmas. This paper aims to explore conditions under which full cooperation is achievable even when the information of payoff is incomplete. Based on the quantum version of the extended classical cash in a hat game, we demonstrate that quantum entanglement may be used for achieving full cooperation or avoiding moral hazards with the reasonable profit distribution policies even when the profit is uncertain to a certain degree. This research further suggests that the fairness of profit distribution should play an important role in promoting full cooperation. It is hopeful that quantum entanglement and fairness will promote full cooperation among distant people from various interest groups when quantum networks and quantum entanglement are accessible to the public. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61673389, 61273202, and 61134008.

  16. An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albuquerque, H.; Přenosil, Adam; Rivieccio, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1051-1086 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES- GA-2012-31898 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Four-valued logic * Paraconsistent logic * Belnap–Dunn logic * FDE * Logic of Paradox * Kleene logic * Exactly True logic * De Morgan algebras * Abstract Algebraic Logic * Leibniz filters * Strong versions of logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  17. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  18. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  19. swot: Super W Of Theta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  20. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair value» is narrower and more accurate than the previous, it clarifies the subject matter, subjects of transactions, as well as the date of its execution. The scheme of estimation at fair value as well as model of fair value determination according to IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» has been presented. Methods of measurement at fair value and the fair value hierarchy have been researched. Some disadvantages of provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» on the basis of its analysis have been highlighted, uncertainty is essential among them in which fair value should be applied.

  1. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  2. Research and development of a super fast reactor (12). Considerations for the reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    A research program aimed at developing the Super Fast Reactor (Super FR) has been entrusted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan since December 2005. It includes the following three projects. (A) Development of the Super Fast Reactor concept. (B)Thermal-hydraulic experiments. (C) Materials development. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has joined this program and works on part (A) together with the University of Tokyo. From the utility's viewpoint, it is important to consider the most desirable characteristics for Super FR to have. Four issues were identified in project (A), (1) Fuel design, (2) Reactor core design, (3) Safety, and (4) Plant characteristics of Super FR. This report describes the desired characteristics of Super FR with respect to item (1) fuel design and item (2) Reactor core design, as compared with a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. The other two issues will be discussed in this project, and will also be considered in the design process of Super FR. (author)

  3. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT UNDER IFRS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COZMA IGHIAN DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS 13, „Fair Value Measurement”, was first published in May 2011 and it applies to annual reporting periods that begin on or after January 1st 2013; this standard comes as a result of shared efforts on the part of the IASB and the FASB to develop a convergent framework regarding fair value measurement. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the main provisions of the IFRS 13 regarding fair value measurement, with a special emphasis on key concepts found throughout the standard, which refer to the principal market, the most advantageous market, the highest and best use, valuation techniques, and value hierarchy.

  4. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  5. Application of super-resolution optical microscopy in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xiuhai; Du Jiancong; Huang Qing; Fan Chunhai; Deng Suhui

    2013-01-01

    Background: A noninvasive, real-time far-field optical microscopy is needed to study the dynamic function inside cells and proteins. However, the resolution limit of traditional optical microscope is about 200 nm due to the diffraction limit of light. So, it's hard to directly observe the subcellular structures. Over the past several years of microscopy development, the diffraction limit of fluorescence microscopy has been overcome and its resolution limit is about tens of nanometers. Methods: To overcome the diffraction limit of light, many super-resolution fluoresce microscopes, including stimulated emission of depletion microscopy (STED), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), have been developed. Conclusions: These methods have been applied in cell biology, microbiology and neurobiology, and the technology of super-resolution provides a new insight into the life science. (authors)

  6. Is this a FAIR data repository?

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation given as part of coaching task for University Leiden LIACS TEAM TASKS INFORMATICS ORIENTATION, on 17th November 2017. Group 3 - FAIR data with Rolf Kleef from International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI).

  7. Chamber Core Structures for Fairing Acoustic Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Steven A; Henderson, Kyle; Williams, Andrew; Ardelean, Emil

    2007-01-01

    .... A composite chamber core fairing consists of many axial tubes sandwiched between face sheets, tubes that can be used as acoustic dampers to reduce low-frequency interior noise with virtually no added mass...

  8. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  9. 'Nuclex 75'. Preview of the technical fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The 'Nuclex 75' - fourth international technical fair and specialist meetings for the nuclear industry - takes place from the 7th to the 11th October 1975 in the halls of the Schweizer Mustermesse in Basel. The meeting, which has taken place at three-yearly intervals since 1966, is divided into a technical fair and a congress. 422 exhibitors from 25 countries take part in the 'Nuclex 75'. Several industrial countries are again represented by communal exhibitions. The editorial office of 'Atom and Electricity' gives a few hints on the technical fair to follow which are based on the papers of the exhibitor sent in up to the editor's closing date. A detailed report on the technical fair as well as on important topics of the congress will appear in volume 11/12 1975. (orig./LH) [de

  10. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  11. Safety aspects of superconducting magnets for Super-FRS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Super Fragment Separator (Super FRS) is a two-stage in flight separator to be built next to the site of GSI, Darmstadt, Germany as part of FAIR (Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research). Its purpose is to create and separate rare isotope beams and to enable the mass measurement also for very short lived nuclei. A superferric design with superconducting coils and standard iron yoke shaping the magnetic field was chosen for the magnets. The cooling will be by a liquid Helium bath. For the main dipoles only the coil is at cold for the multiplets (asemblies of quadrupoles and hgher order correctors) also the iron yoke will be in the bath. From a safety point of view the large He-volumes of more than 1000 l of the multiplets, the high design pressure of 20 bar, as well as the high inductances of the magnets up to 30 H are challenges to be considered in the design and definition of the testing procedures.

  12. Responsibility for what? Fairness and individual responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander Wright; Sørensen, Erik Øiolf; Tungodden, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    -This is the author's version of the article: "Responsibility for what? Fairness and individual responsibility", European Economic Review, Volume 54, Issue 3, April 2010, Pages 429–441. What should individuals be held responsible for? This is a fundamental question in much of the contemporary debate on distributive justice. Different fairness ideals, such as strict egalitarianism, and different versions of equal opportunity ethics and libertarianism give different answers to this question....

  13. Tourist offer and tourist fair: Marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main aim of tourism system, which is an important part of economy, is a preservation and an improvement of itself supply, as well as connection with demand. As there are many of promotion activities, it requests their adequate observation. Fair activities, as one of the possible ways of promotion, have its own advantages, especially in total tourism product promotion. This paper is focused on importance and role of tourism fairs in continuously achievement of tourism system goals.

  14. Fairness in Communication and Computer Network Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pål

    2006-01-01

    In communication networks, fair sharing of resources is an important issue for one main reason. The growth of network capacity is in general not matching the rapid growth of traffic. Consequently, the resources consumed by each user have to be limited. This implies that users cannot always be assigned the end-to-end bandwidth they ask for. Instead, the limited network resources should be distributed to users in a way that assures fair end-to-end bandwidth assignment among them. Obtaini...

  15. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  16. Beam Diagnostics Challenges in the FAIR Project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andreas; Forck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The planned FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project consists of two heavy ion synchrotrons and four large storage rings, the existing GSI facility together with a new high-current proton linac will be used as the injector chain. The fast cycling, superconducting synchrotrons are build for high current operation with the aim of secondary ion and antiproton production. A large variety of low current secondary beams as well as the antiprotons are stored and cooled in the four storage rings. A complex operation scheme with multiple use of transport lines is foreseen. This demands an exceptional high dynamic range for the beam instrumentation. Due to the enormous beam power, non-destructive methods are mandatory for high currents as well as for the low current secondary beams due to the low repetition rate. Precise measurements of all beam parameters and automatic steering or feedback capabilities are required due to the necessary exploitation of the full ring acceptances. Moreover, online beam-corrections with short response times are mandatory for the fast ramping super-conducting magnets. An overview of the challenges and projected innovative solutions for various diagnostic installations will be given

  17. Fierce debate looms over funding of superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-01-01

    The coming session of Congress looks like a crucial one in the present era of Big Science. Legislators will have to decide on whether to go ahead and approve construction funding for the biggest atom smasher of all time, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The Administration will be asking for about $230 million (out of a scheduled $350 million) to begin work. But uncertainties loom, and the debate ahead looks bloody. The SSC is a project the Department of Energy says will cost $4.4 billion in fiscal 1988 dollars, rated according to a targeted completion date in 1996. The General Accounting Office pegs the cost at $4.9 billion in 1985 dollars. In inflationary and project stretchout dollars, the figure could easily double. But money for science is again tight in the government, and battles that lie ahead involve the competition between science and social programs, and, indeed, between the sciences themselves. This article discusses these battles

  18. SuperMAG: Present and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. W.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    SuperMAG is a global collaboration that provides ground magnetic field perturbations from a long list of stations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. This unique high quality dataset provides a continuous and nearly global monitoring of the ground magnetic field perturbation. Currently, only archived data are available on the website and hence it targets basic research without any operational capabilities. The existing SuperMAG software can be easily adapted to ingest real-time or near real-time data and provide a now-casting capability. The SuperDARN program has a long history of providing near real-time maps of the northern hemisphere electrostatic potential and as both SuperMAG and SuperDARN share common software it is relatively easy to adapt these maps for global magnetic perturbations. Magnetometer measurements would be assimilated by the SuperMAG server using a variety of techniques, either by downloading data at regular intervals from remote servers or by real-time streaming connections. The existing SuperMAG analysis software would then process these measurements to provide the final calibrated data set using the SuperMAG coordinate system. The existing plotting software would then be used to produce regularly updated global plots. The talk will focus on current SuperMAG capabilities illustrating the potential for now-casting and eventually forecasting.

  19. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Rangel, L.; Martinez Martinez, E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  20. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  1. Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade Practices ... Fair Trade Forum India (FTF I) is the national network of fair trade ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ICLEI ...

  2. Super rogue wave in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)

  3. The super W∞ symmetry of the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Sin, S.J.

    1991-11-01

    We show that the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy is invariant under super W ∞ transformations. These transformations are characterized by time dependent flows which commute with the usual flows generated by the conserved quantities of the super KP hierarchy. (author). 16 refs

  4. The Super-Kamiokande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment is a multi purpose experiment using a large imaging water Cherenkov detector with 50,000 tons of pure water. The detector is located 1000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Japan, and it can detect particle interactions whose visible energies are between 5 MeV and 100 GeV, so that we can study many physics subjects as follows. Solar neutrino problem is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. Kamiokande experiment confirmed the deficit of neutrino flux compared to the standard Solar model prediction, which was first reported by R. Davis's pioneering work. Currently it is widely believed that the deficit is due to the neutrino oscillation. The Super-Kamiokande is a unique detector to measure the distortion of the energy spectrum of neutrinos, variation of the neutrino flux between day and night, and the seasonal variation of the flux. Those are related to the neutrino oscillation and independent of the Solar model uncertainty. Atmospheric neutrino anomaly was first announced by Kamiokande experiment, and the Super-Kamiokande recently provided clear evidence for neutrino oscillation as the solution to the anomaly. Observed ratio of muons to electrons is significantly smaller than what is expected. Moreover, zenith-angle distribution of observed muon neutrinos shows the strong up-down asymmetry. The zenith angle distribution of upward-going muons provides another information and the result also supports the oscillation hypothesis. We investigate not only the Solar neutrino problem and atmospheric neutrino anomaly, but also other astrophysical neutrino phenomena such as neutrino bursts from supernova explosions, high energy neutrino emission from point sources, neutrino events in correlation with Solar flares, and gamma-ray bursts. Search for nucleon decay is also one of the primary objectives of our experiment. However no evidence for nucleon decay has been observed yet, and we only set a lower limit on the partial

  5. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  6. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via ν_μ → ν_e oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group

  7. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design of fair surfaces over irregular domains is a fundamental problem in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD), and has applications in engineering sciences (in aircraft, automobile, ship science etc.). In the design of fair surfaces over irregular domains defined over scattered data, it was widely accepted till recently ...

  8. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-01-01

    The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair v...

  9. How fair are fair values? A comparison for cross-listed financial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Berden; Franka Liedorp

    2006-01-01

    Fair value accounting and IAS 39 are at the core of a debate between regulators, institutions and supervisors. We add to this debate at a conceptual and empirical level. First we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of fair values for banks and insurance companies. Then we explore the differences between fair values and book values and the implications thereof based on a group of institutions with a listing on a stock exchange in both the home country (on book value) and the US (on fair v...

  10. Software Development Infrastructure for the FAIR Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, F; Al-Turany, M; Bertini, D; Karabowicz, R

    2011-01-01

    The proposed project FAIR (Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility of the next generation. It builds on top of the experience and technological developments already made at the existing GSI facility, and incorporate new technological concepts. The four scientific pillars of FAIR are NUSTAR (nuclear structure and astrophysics), PANDA (QCD studies with cooled beams of anti-protons), CBM (physics of hadronic matter at highest baryon densities), and APPA (atomic physics, plasma physics, and applications). The FairRoot framework used by all of the big FAIR experiments as a base for their own specific developments, provides basic functionality like IO, geometry handling etc. The challenge is to support all the different experiments with their heterogeneous requirements. Due to the limited manpower, one of the first design decisions was to (re)use as much as possible already available and tested software and to focus on the development of the framework. Beside the framework itself, the FairRoot core team also provides some software development tools. We will describe the complete set of tools in this article. The Makefiles for all projects are generated using CMake. For software testing and the corresponding quality assurance, we use CTest to generate the results and CDash as web front end. The tools are completed by subversion as source code repository and trac as tool for the complete source code management. This set of tools allows us to offer the full functionality we have for FairRoot also to the experiments based on FairRoot.

  11. Reduction of 4-dim self dual super Yang-Mills onto super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Restuccia, A.; Martin, I.

    1990-05-01

    Recently self dual super Yang-Mills over a super Riemann surface was obtained as the zero set of a moment map on the space of superconnections to the dual of the super Lie algebra of gauge transformations. We present a new formulation of 4-dim Euclidean self dual super Yang-Mills in terms of constraints on the supercurvature. By dimensional reduction we obtain the same set of superconformal field equations which define self dual connections on a super Riemann surface. (author). 10 refs

  12. Evaluation of a High School Fair Program for Promoting Successful Inquiry-based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Julia Nykeah

    The success of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in supporting science literacy can be challenged when students encounter obstacles in the absence of proper support. This research is intended to evaluate the effectiveness of an Oregon public school district's regional science fair coaching program in promoting inquiry skills and positive attitudes toward science in participating high school students. The purpose of this study was to better understand students' perception of program support, obstacles or barriers faced by students, and potential benefits of IBL facilitated by the science fair program. Data included responses to informal and semi-structured interviews, an anonymous survey, a Skills assessment of final project displays, and an in-depth case study on three students' experiences. Results suggest that the science fair program can properly engage participants in authentic IBL. However, when assessing the participant's final project displays, I found that previous fair experience did not significantly increase mean scores as identified by the official Oregon Department of Education (ODE) scoring guides. Based on results from the case study, it is suggested that participants' low science self-concept, poor understanding of inquiry skills, and inability to engage in reflective discourse may reduce students' abilities to truly benefit. Recommendations to address this discrepancy include identifying specific needs of students through a pre--fair survey to develop more targeted support, and providing new opportunities to develop skills associated with science-self concept, understanding of inquiry and reflective discourse. In addition, results suggest that students would benefit from more financial support in the form of grants, and more connections with knowledgeable mentors.

  13. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  14. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. FAIR - Baseline technical report. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Augustin, I.; Eickhoff, H.; Gross, K.D.; Henning, W.F.; Kraemer, D.; Walter, G.

    2006-09-01

    This document presents the Executive Summary, the first of six volumes comprising the 2006 Baseline Technical Report (BTR) for the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The BTR provides the technical description, cost, schedule, and assessments of risk for the proposed new facility. The purpose of the BTR is to provide a reliable basis for the construction, commissioning and operation of FAIR. The BTR is one of the central documents requested by the FAIR International Steering Committee (ISC) and its working groups, in order to prepare the legal process and the decisions on the construction and operation of FAIR in an international framework. It provides the technical basis for legal contracts on contributions to be made by, so far, 13 countries within the international FAIR Consortium. The BTR begins with this extended Executive Summary as Volume 1, which is also intended for use as a stand-alone document. The Executive Summary provides brief summaries of the accelerator facilities, the scientific programs and experimental stations, civil construction and safety, and of the workproject structure, costs and schedule. (orig.)

  16. Exact solution of super Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Zhao Liu; Zhen Yi

    2000-01-01

    Using Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction, the authors obtained the explicit solutions to the super Liouville system in super covariant form and component form. The explicit solution in component form reduces naturally into the Egnchi-Hanson instanton solution of the usual Liouville equation if all the Grassmann odd components are set equal to zero

  17. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  18. Status report of BL08 superHRPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Shuki

    2010-01-01

    At the end of May in 2008, the first neutron was produced successfully from a spallation neutron source in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). High resolution Bragg reflections were obtained using the Sirius diffractometer chamber at Super High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (SuperHARD) beam line at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). We started up quickly by using the existing Sirius chamber, and had succeeded in achieving resolution as Δd/d=0.035 %, the best among all the entire neutron powder diffractometers in the world. About 300 detectors had been installed in the backward detector bank, and several standard samples had been measured. Simultaneously, we were carrying out basic study to design and construct a new SuperHRPD chamber, and the Sirius chamber had been exchanged for new one in summer of 2009. In the design of a new chamber, a detector solid angle is increased, d-range/Q-range is expanded, and also has options of high-intensity mode and high-resolution mode with incident collimations. (author)

  19. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    The increasing global urbanisation creates a great demand for new buildings. In the aim to honour this, a new structural system, offering flexibility and variation at no extra cost appears beneficial. Super-Light Structures constitute such a system. This PhD thesis examines Super-Light Structures...... with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...

  20. SEARCHING FOR THE FAIR STORY BEHIND FAIR VALUE FOR FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at telling the whole story where fair value accounting is concerned. Harsh criticism has been brought to this concept under current circumstances that motivated out research. Without arguing for fair value as something it is not, we briefly

  1. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  2. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  3. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  4. FLUKA shielding calculations for the FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, Georg; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Radon, Torsten; Sokolov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    FAIR is an international accelerator project being in construction at GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research in Darmstadt. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA is used to study radiation protection problems. The contribution deals with general application possibilities of FLUKA and for FAIR with respect the radiation protection planning. The necessity to simulate the radiation transport through shielding of several meters thickness and to determine the equivalent doses outside the shielding with sufficient accuracy is demonstrated using two examples under consideration of the variance reduction. Results of simulation calculations for activation estimation in accelerator facilities are presented.

  5. PRICE FAIRNESS PERCEPTION ON ASIATIC MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeta Ioanăș

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the perception of the price fairness in the literature. I made a small comparison between the European and the Asiatic markets. Price is an important key of the marketing mix. On the daily basis, the price fairness is perceived differently from one user to another. Also other researchers states that the price has a great influence on the perceived value and on buying intentions for a product and through this paper can be seen that the culture influences th...

  6. Bidding in common value fair division games

    OpenAIRE

    Brünner, Tobias; Becker, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In a fair division game an indivisible object with an unknown common value is owned by a group of individuals and should be allocated to one of them while the others are compensated monetarily. Implementing fair division games in the lab, we fi nd many occurrences of the winner's curse under the first-price rule but only few occurrences under the second-price rule. Moreover, bidding behavior is very heterogeneous across subjects. A considerable share of our subjects anticipates that other bid...

  7. The FAIR Project: Status and New Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Detailed planning and R and D for both, the accelerator and the experimental systems of the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is in progress on many fronts. It involves a wide range of activities, both at laboratories in partner countries participating in the preparatory activities as well as at GSI.This report summarizes the current situation, with emphasis on recent important developments. This includes new performance aspects of FAIR, in particular also the plans towards QCD spin physics with polarized anti-protons. An outlook on facility development and construction is given

  8. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  9. 24 CFR 125.501 - Fair Housing Organizations Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Initiative. 125.501 Section 125.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING INITIATIVES PROGRAM § 125.501 Fair Housing Organizations Initiative. (a) The Fair Housing Organizations Initiative of the FHIP provides funding to develop or expand the ability of...

  10. 36 CFR 223.60 - Determining fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining fair market value... Determining fair market value. The objective of Forest Service timber appraisals is to determine fair market value. Fair market value is estimated by such methods as are authorized by the Chief, Forest Service...

  11. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to the... recommendations as to the fair market value of the habitations and/or improvements; or (2) The fair market value...

  12. Science Fair Report: Flight of the Split-Fingered Fastball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the results of an eighth grade student's experiments, conducted with a moving car, concerning the aerodynamics of a baseball in flight. Describes the peculiar diving ability of the split-fingered fastball, as well as the dancing and weaving effect of the knuckleball. (JJK)

  13. Google Science Fair 2012 : Grand Prize Winner Brittany Wenger

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    17-18 age category AND Grand Prize Winner: Brittany Wenger (USA)—“Global Neural Network Cloud Service for Breast Cancer.” Brittany’s project harnesses the power of the cloud to help doctors accurately diagnose breast cancer. Brittany built an application that compares individual test results to an extensive dataset stored in the cloud, allowing doctors to assess tumors using a minimally-invasive procedure. Brittany Michelle Wenger, and her mother, passed through the CERN Control Centre accompanied by Mike Lamont, CERN Beams Department, Operation Group Leader.

  14. Contracting practices for the underground construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report was prepared by a specially appointed committee under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council to address contracting and associated management issues essential to the successful execution of underground construction for the Superconducting Super Collider

  15. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  16. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami Andersson, W

    2016-01-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed. (paper)

  17. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami Andersson, W.; ̅PANDA Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed.

  18. Teaching Fairness in Journalism: A Challenging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectivity has long been contentious in American journalism. Many practitioners call it essential to a news organization's credibility. Critics, however, hold objectivity is impossible and urge reporters simply to reveal their biases. For educators, teaching objectivity is challenging. Some, seeking a middle ground, instead urge fairness and…

  19. On the audit of fair value measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder P. Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hypotheses „whether the auditor’s functional domain, his approach, methodology and responsibilities are undergoing a metamorphosis with the adoption of Fair Value Accounting (hereinafter the „FVA” and whether his/her role is moving away from the mechanized attester of tangible evidence to the one exercising a substantively judgmental function in a holistic assessment of the values ascribed to be fair by the entity’s management” are tested. These hypotheses are tested on the basis of an analysis of the statutory provisions, the pronouncements of accounting and other regulatory bodies and accounting norms and theories. After setting forth the research objectives and the hypotheses, the necessity of the FVA is reviewed and the underlying philosophy is analyzed. Impediments in performing audits of fair-value-based measurements are then identified and the US auditing standards and their international counterparts are touched upon. Finally, some safeguards and precautions for the auditor in an audit of fair-value measurements are presented.

  20. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomareva T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  1. Approximating fair use in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Etalle, S.; Hartel, P.H.; Law, Y.W.; Sembok, T.M.T.; Zaman, H.B.; Chen, H.; Urs, S.R.; Myaeng, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Current rights management systems are not able to enforce copyright laws because of both legal and technological reasons. The contract rights granted by a copyright owner are often overridden by the users’ statutory rights that are granted by the laws. In particular, Fair Use allows for

  2. Just health: meeting health needs fairly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniels, Norman

    2008-01-01

    ... Protection Medical Professionalism and the Care We Should Get 7 8 161 191 218 part iii uses 9 Fairness in Health Sector Reform Accountability for Reasonableness in Developing Countries: Two Applications Reducing Health Disparities: No Simple Matter Priority Setting and Human Rights 10 11 12 243 274 297 313 vP1: KAE CUNY1073-FM CUNY1073/Daniels 978 0 52...

  3. Expropriation or Fair Game for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kur, Annette; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    property has never been exclusive in a strict sense. Copyright, in particular, is relatively rich with examples of rules allowing third parties to use protected content under certain conditions, and against payment of a fair remuneration. In economic terms, this means that property is replaced...

  4. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunković, N.; Bouda, J.; Mateus, P.

    2011-12-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N-1/2, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  5. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P. [SQIG - Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, IST, TULisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Bouda, J. [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-15

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N{sup -1/2}, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  6. Approximating Fair Use in LicenseScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Law, Y.W.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2003-01-01

    Current rights management systems are not able to enforce copyright laws because of both legal and technological reasons. The contract rights granted by a copyright owner typically restrict the users' statutory rights that are endorsed by copyright laws. In particular, Fair Use allows these

  7. Cable Design for FAIR SIS 300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaugerts, J.; Moritz, G.; Wilson, M.N.; Ghosh, A.K.; den Ouden, A.

    GSI, Darmstadt is preparing to build FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) which include SIS 300, a 300T - m fast-ramping heavy ion synchrotron. Dipoles for this ring will be 2.9 m long, producing 6 T over a 100 mm coil aperture and ramped at 1 T/s. The cable for these dipoles must have

  8. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. The HADES-at-FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, K.; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Behnke, C.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Carolino, N.; Chen, J. C.; Chernenko, S.; Díaz, J.; Dybczak, A.

    2012-01-01

    After the completion of the experimental program at SIS18 the HADES setup will migrate to FAIR, where it will deliver high-quality data for heavy-ion collisions in an unexplored energy range of up to 8 A GeV. In this contribution, we briefly present the physics case, relevant detector characteristics and discuss the recently completed upgrade of HADES.

  10. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  11. Fishers, Fair Trade, and finding middle ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Megan; Bush, Simon; Oosterveer, Peter; Larastiti, Laksmi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Fair Trade certification is to contribute to sustainable development by offering trading conditions that are transparent and equitable. One important condition is improved market access and strengthened producer organizations. In regions like Southeast Asia this goal can be hard to

  12. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  13. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P.; Bouda, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N -1/2 , where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  14. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Borrower Management and Operations Responsibilities § 3560... Housing Marketing Plan. (1) Borrowers with housing projects that have four or more rental units must prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200...

  15. Fairness in risky environments: theory and evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babický, V.; Ortmann, Andreas; van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 419 (2010), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : fairness * risk aversion * subject pool effects * economics experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp419.pdf

  16. The Relationship between Home Environment and Children's Dietary Behaviors, Lifestyle Factors, and Health: Super Food Education School Project by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahori, Nobue; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The numbers of nuclear families and working women have been increasing. Such changes in the home environment may affect children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health. This study aims to clarify the associations between the home environment and children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health.Methods In July 2014, we questioned the students and parents of five elementary schools that joined the Super Food Education School Project in Takaoka City, Toyama Prefecture. Of 2057 subjects, 1936 (94.1%) answered and 1719 of these subjects were analyzed. In this study, the phrase "home environment" describes such terms as "mother's employment status", "family structure", "subjective economic state", "communication between parents and children", "having breakfast or supper with family", "household chores by children", "parents' awareness of food education", "regard for balanced nutrition", and "teaching table manners". We performed logistic-regression analyses using children's dietary behaviors, lifestyle factors, and health as dependent variables; the items relating to home environment were independent variables.Results Children with parents who are employed, those who do not have breakfast or supper with family, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were more likely to eat fewer vegetables, to have likes and dislikes of foods, to skip breakfast, and to have snacks. Children who have little communication with their parents, who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to exercise, sleep well, spend less time with television, and spend less time on playing videogames. Children with less affluence, those who have little communication with their parents, those who do not help with household chores, and those with parents who are less conscious of food education were less likely to have high

  17. THE (UN? FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the level of adherence of explicit and implicit measurement concepts present in SFAS 157 – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair. Out of the objectivity of current sales prices in an active market, all other measures of value are expectations about the future, inherently uncertain and inaccurate. Thus, the desired justice of the computed figures lies not in its accuracy, but in the using of the correct concepts for measuring accounting transactions and events. Method: To reach the objective, the characteristics of this standard are confronted with the secular concept of capital and income set by the laureate American neoclassical economist Irving Fisher, which were incorporated into Information System for Economic Management (Gecon. Results: The results indicate that SFAS 157 fair value concept and measurement structure are incorrect or incomplete, suggesting that the maintenance of the fair value expression in accounting seems inadequate. Contributions: This paper contributes to the literature on accounting measurement showing that as a measurement concept in accounting fair value seems inadequate. In abnormal situations or absence of a market, the measure found is always inexact and subjective, and therefore is not correct to call fair the quantity resulting from this arbitrary calculation.

  18. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  19. Evaluating lineup fairness: Variations across methods and measures

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Jamal K; Beaudry, Jennifer L; Kalmet, Natalie; Bertrand, Michelle I; Lindsay, R C L

    2017-01-01

    Triers of fact sometimes consider lineup fairness when determining the suggestiveness of an identification procedure. Likewise, researchers often consider lineup fairness when comparing results across studies. Despite their importance, lineup fairness measures have received scant empirical attention and researchers inconsistently conduct and report mock-witness tasks and lineup fairness measures. We conducted a large-scale, online experiment (N = 1010) to examine how lineup fairness measures ...

  20. FAIR TRADE: ITS REAL IMPACT ON THE WORKING POOR

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid A. Krasnozhon; David Simpson; Walter E. Block

    2015-01-01

    Fair trade gains popularity, while free trade is undergoing more and more criticism. Since international free trade supposedly pollutes the environment, promotes the utilization of sweatshops, exploits child labor, and impoverishes developing countries, fair trade is a preferable alternative (World Fair Trade Organization, 2011). By reviewing empirical studies and examining regulations concerning fair trade practices, this paper provides a comparative analysis of both free and fair trade in l...

  1. High burnup models in computer code fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, B K; Swami Prasad, P; Kushwaha, H S; Mahajan, S C; Kakodar, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-08-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ``Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation`` and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  2. High burnup models in computer code fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Swami Prasad, P.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodar, A.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ''Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation'' and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  3. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  4. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, B.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.

    2012-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e + e - collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B u,d,s , D and τ decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin 2 θ W . In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the Υ(4S) and φ(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over-constraints of the unitarity triangle through

  5. Super-radiance in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2015-01-01

    The theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena in nuclear physics is presented. The connection between super-radiance and the notion of doorway is presented. The statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open channels is discussed. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states via the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. (paper)

  6. Fairness, fast and slow: A review of dual process models of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsson, Bjørn Gunnar; Hulme, Oliver; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2018-01-01

    -control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness. We propose...... that this disagreement can largely be resolved in light of an extended Social Heuristics Hypothesis. Divergent findings may be attributed to the interpretation of behavioral effects of ego depletion or neurostimulation, reverse inference from brain activity to the underlying psychological process, and insensitivity...

  7. Super-Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems and free super-oscillators: a mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pijush K.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric rational Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS) model of A N+1 -type is equivalent to a set of free super-oscillators, through a similarity transformation. We prescribe methods to construct the complete eigenspectrum and the associated eigenfunctions, both in supersymmetry-preserving as well as supersymmetry-breaking phases, from the free super-oscillator basis. Further we show that a wide class of super-Hamiltonians realizing dynamical OSp(2 vertical bar 2) supersymmetry, which also includes all types of rational super-CMS as a small subset, are equivalent to free super-oscillators. We study BC N+1 -type super-CMS model in some detail to understand the subtleties involved in this method

  8. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  9. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  10. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  11. A superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-01-01

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace. (orig.)

  12. Superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, S; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-03-17

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace.

  13. A fair disclosure of fair value? How IFRS 13 affects fair value disclosure quality for investment properties in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro Holanda, Camila; Magnusson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    IFRS 13 had its mandatory implementation in January 1st, 2013. The new accounting standard, which represents one step closer to the harmonization between U.S. GAAP and IFRS, aims to eliminate inconsistencies in fair value measurement and its related disclosures through the introduction of new reporting requirements, specifically for assets and liabilities with no active markets. Although these demands also encompass information concerning financial instruments, our focus laid on the disclosur...

  14. W∞ gravity and super-W∞ gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Shen, X.; Sezgin, E.; Romans, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors construct gauge theories of the W ∞ algebra and its super-extension, and discuss their relation to earlier results for the gauging of the classical contraction to the w ∞ algebra

  15. Social Accounting and Unethical Behavior: Does Looking Fair Undermine Actually Being Fair?

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Michelle Chiawei

    2016-01-01

    In organizations, it is inevitable that some business activities might seem unfair to subordinates. Social accounts—the explanations managers give their subordinates for those decisions—are known to be a useful tool for managing subordinates’ fairness concerns. Over three decades of research, we learn that social accounts are effectiveness in improving subordinates’ fairness perceptions and reducing their negative reactions. Yet, we have only limited understanding about how social accounts...

  16. Fair processes and fair outcomes: involving local stakeholders in RWM decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement on the requirements to be met by radioactive waste management strategies. One of the requirements is that both the outcomes of any decisions and the decision-making processes must be seen to be fair. However, there exist multiple legitimate views on fairness and there is no meta-theory that could help decide which of the competing views should be considered valid in a concrete case. Referring to the plurality of views on fairness, Linnerooth-Bayer (forthcoming) argues that the impasse in facility siting processes can be attributed to the failure to take adequate account of the diverse views held by the various stakeholders on fair processes and outcomes. Three fundamental ethical principles have been derived from three basic ethical theories: well-being which is the central concept of utilitarian ethics, justice which is a key notion in egalitarian ethics, and dignity which is central to deontology (Bay and Oughton, 2003). According to utilitarian ethics fairness means that public welfare is maximized even at the cost of stakeholders' individual rights. Costs and benefits can be legitimately distributed in any way; only their overall balance has to be enhanced. In contrary, egalitarian ethics aims for a fair distribution of benefits and costs among stakeholders, while deontology acknowledges universal values of actions, e.g. the respect for individual rights, apart from their consequences. According to the latter ethics, fairness means that stakeholders themselves have the opportunity to learn about the benefits and costs of various options, and having considered them, decide on their position to accept them. How do diverse views on fair decisions materialize in RWM debates? (author)

  17. Charm Physics at SuperB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, Brian; Bevan, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The study of Charm Decays at SuperB provide unique opportunities to understand the Standard Model and constrain new physics, both at the Y(4S), and at charm threshold. We discuss the physics potential of such measurements from the proposed SuperB experiment with 75 ab -1 of data at the Y(4S) and a subsequent run dedicated to exploiting quantum correlations at the charm threshold. (author)

  18. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0× 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$, which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced ...

  19. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156302

    2016-01-01

    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  20. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0 × 10 35 cm −2 s −1 , which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced by the groove surface with a TiN coating. In the drift space, the electron cloud will be mitigated by the TiN coating and a conventional solenoid field. (author)

  1. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation.

  2. IAS 41 Agriculture: Fair Value Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Issuing this standard that had to be applied for the first time for the financial statements started after 1.01.2003 meant a change of direction from two points of view: on one hand, through IAS 41 was issued for the first time an extensive standard typical for this sector and, on the other hand, for the first time were included in the income statement, independently from the sales transactions, incomes from variations of the fair value of an asset. Because of this last aspect, IAS 41 can be considered an important standard, because it represents the starting point of a consistent transition from the purchase cost principle towards a fair value accounting. IASC has dedicated to the thematic field of agriculture a specific standard, because this economic branch has a great importance for the developing countries. On the other hand, IAS 41 is also applied for the agricultural activities of the enterprises from other sectors.

  3. Antiproton chain of the FAIR storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, T; Kamerdzhiev, V; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Stassen, R; Stockhorst, H; Herfurth, F; Lestinsky, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T

    2015-01-01

    In the Modularized Start Version of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt Germany, the 3 GeV antiprotons are precooled in the collector ring and accumulated in the high energy storage ring (HESR). They are further accelerated to 14 GeV or decelerated to 1 GeV for the experiments with a high-density internal target. The powerful beam cooling devices, stochastic cooling and electron cooling will support the provision of a high-resolution antiproton beam. The other option of FAIR is to prepare the low energy, 300 keV antiproton beam connecting the existing storage rings ESR and CRYRING with HESR. Beam physics issues related with these concepts are described. (paper)

  4. Perspectives at the future accelerator facility FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will provide ideal conditions for a diverse research programme addressing various aspects of strongly interacting systems, fundamental interactions and dense plasmas. The projected complex combines two new synchrotrons with various storage rings, foresees cooling of beams and permits fixed target as well as in-beam experiments. This presentation will focus on the future research activities at FAIR, which can be grouped into 5 research areas: the structure and reactions of rare isotopes, hadron physics with brilliant antiproton beams, nuclear matter at high densities, atomic physics of antimatter and in strong electromagnetic fields, and laser as well as ion induced plasma physics. Emphasis will be put on the experimental installations addressing nuclear physics with relevance for astrophysics. (author)

  5. Strangeness fluctuations and MEMO production at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinheimer, Jan; Mitrovski, Michael; Schuster, Tim; Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2009-01-01

    We apply a coupled transport-hydrodynamics model to discuss the production of multi-strange meta-stable objects in Pb + Pb reactions at the FAIR facility. In addition to making predictions for yields of these particles we are able to calculate particle dependent rapidity and momentum distributions. We argue that the FAIR energy regime is the optimal place to search for multi-strange baryonic object (due to the high baryon density, favoring a distillation of strangeness). Additionally, we show results for strangeness and baryon density fluctuations. Using the UrQMD model we calculate the strangeness separation in phase space which might lead to an enhanced production of MEMOs compared to models that assume global thermalization.

  6. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  7. APPA at FAIR: From fundamental to applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stöhlker, Th.; Bagnoud, V.; Blaum, K.; Blazevic, A.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Durante, M.; Herfurth, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Y.; Neff, S.; Pleskac, R.; Schuch, R.; Schippers, S.; Severin, D.; Tauschwitz, A.; Trautmann, C.; Varentsov, D.; Widmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR with its intense beams of ions and antiprotons provides outstanding and worldwide unique experimental conditions for extreme matter research in atomic and plasma physics and for application oriented research in biophysics, medical physics and materials science. The associated research programs comprise interaction of matter with highest electromagnetic fields, properties of plasmas and of solid matter under extreme pressure, density, and temperature conditions, simulation of galactic cosmic radiation, research in nanoscience and charged particle radiotherapy. A broad variety of APPA-dedicated facilities including experimental stations, storage rings, and traps, equipped with most sophisticated instrumentation will allow the APPA community to tackle new challenges. The worldwide most intense source of slow antiprotons will expand the scope of APPA related research to the exciting field of antimatter.

  8. APPA at FAIR: From fundamental to applied research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöhlker, Th., E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); IOQ, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena (Germany); Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blazevic, A. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Bräuning-Demian, A. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); FAIR, Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, M.; Herfurth, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Y. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Neff, S. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Pleskac, R. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Department of Atomic Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Schippers, S. [Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Severin, D.; Tauschwitz, A. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Varentsov, D. [GSI Helmholtzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Widmann, E. [Stefan Meyer Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    FAIR with its intense beams of ions and antiprotons provides outstanding and worldwide unique experimental conditions for extreme matter research in atomic and plasma physics and for application oriented research in biophysics, medical physics and materials science. The associated research programs comprise interaction of matter with highest electromagnetic fields, properties of plasmas and of solid matter under extreme pressure, density, and temperature conditions, simulation of galactic cosmic radiation, research in nanoscience and charged particle radiotherapy. A broad variety of APPA-dedicated facilities including experimental stations, storage rings, and traps, equipped with most sophisticated instrumentation will allow the APPA community to tackle new challenges. The worldwide most intense source of slow antiprotons will expand the scope of APPA related research to the exciting field of antimatter.

  9. CERN Book Fair 2010 - Events and book presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    A series of events and book presentations is scheduled for the 2010 CERN Book Fair.   -Springer will present its new products and services (eBooks, MyCopy Softcover Editions, SpringerBriefs, and a new physics journal: "Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics") and SpringerMaterials, the electronic version of the Landolt Boernstein book series. -Wiley will present two books: "A History of International Research Networking : The People who Made it Happen", edited by B. Bressan and H. Davies, and "Field computation for accelerator magnets : analytical and numerical methods for electromagnetic design and optimization" by S. Russenschuck. -Finally, World Scientific will present the series "Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology (RAST)". The calendar is available here: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=105651      

  10. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  11. Fair market value: taking a proactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Richard A

    2008-04-01

    A valuation report assessing the fair market value of a contractual arrangement should include: A description of the company, entity, or circumstance being valued. Analysis of general economic conditions that are expected to affect the enterprise. Evaluation of economic conditions in the medical services industry. Explanation of the various valuation approaches that were considered. Documentation of key underlying assumptions, including revenue and expense projections, projected profit, and ROI.

  12. Fairness and Trust in Structured Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina E. Tarnita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical economic theory assumes that people are rational and selfish, but behavioral experiments often point to inconsistent behavior, typically attributed to “other regarding preferences.” The Ultimatum Game, used to study fairness, and the Trust Game, used to study trust and trustworthiness, have been two of the most influential and well-studied examples of inconsistent behavior. Recently, evolutionary biologists have attempted to explain the evolution of such preferences using evolutionary game theoretic models. While deterministic evolutionary game theoretic models agree with the classical economics predictions, recent stochastic approaches that include uncertainty and the possibility of mistakes have been successful in accounting for both the evolution of fairness and the evolution of trust. Here I explore the role of population structure by generalizing and expanding these existing results to the case of non-random interactions. This is a natural extension since such interactions do not occur randomly in the daily lives of individuals. I find that, in the limit of weak selection, population structure increases the space of fair strategies that are selected for but it has little-to-no effect on the optimum strategy played in the Ultimatum Game. In the Trust Game, in the limit of weak selection, I find that some amount of trust and trustworthiness can evolve even in a well-mixed population; however, the optimal strategy, although trusting if the return on investment is sufficiently high, is never trustworthy. Population structure biases selection towards strategies that are both trusting and trustworthy trustworthy and reduces the critical return threshold, but, much like in the case of fairness, it does not affect the winning strategy. Further considering the effects of reputation and structure, I find that they act synergistically to promote the evolution of trustworthiness.

  13. Terra Reversa. The transition to fair sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.T.; De Meyere, V.

    2009-01-01

    Terra Reversa tells how to reverse present policy by means of integrating transition management and the 4E-model (Energy-Economy-Environment-Engineering) into a new vision for the transition to a socially fair, ecologically sustainable and economically stable model for our society. The question is whether one is willing to leave the beaten path. Terra Reversa is an argument to opt for a Green New Deal XL (a number of proposals to combat climate change) [nl

  14. Super Bitches and Action Babes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    An analysis of the female hero in popular film genres such as actionfilms, war films, wip-films, rape-revenge dramas, science fiction from 1970-2006. Mostly American films but with chapters on Michelle Yeoh and Meiko Kaji.......An analysis of the female hero in popular film genres such as actionfilms, war films, wip-films, rape-revenge dramas, science fiction from 1970-2006. Mostly American films but with chapters on Michelle Yeoh and Meiko Kaji....

  15. [Statement of fair retribution in medical oaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marta L; Rancich, Ana M; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2004-01-01

    to determine if Medical Oaths from different times include the statement of the physician to request from patients a fair retribution for his/her medical services. Fifty Medical Oaths found in articles and publications were analyzed. In accordance with their corresponding dates, the Oaths were grouped as ancient /medieval (12), and modern/contemporary (38). Of the fifty, only three specifically included the statement of fair retribution. Two of the three were medieval and belonged to the School of Medicine of Montpellier. The other text was modern (Amato Lusitano's Oath). Four writings showed statements regarding medical assistance to the poor. Eleven pledges indirectly stated that no earnings from other activities and/or relations were obtained. Ancient oaths emphasize fair retribution, no discrimination in medical assistance based on payment possibilities, and gain of honest earnings. Modern oaths generally do not include these topics and very few mention that the medical profession should not be exercised merely for material purposes. Despite the above, physicians should respect the limits of their obligations and should be committed to assist without discriminating, particularly without taking into consideration their patient's financial possibilities. Therefore their fees should not be excessive for the services rendered.

  16. Fair packet scheduling in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. TMAC extends CSMA/CA by scheduling data packets based on their age. Prior to transmitting a data packet, a transmitter broadcasts a request control message appended with a timestamp to a selected list of neighbors. It can proceed with the transmission only if it receives a sufficient number of grant control messages from these neighbors. A grant message indicates that the associated data packet has the lowest timestamp of all the packets pending transmission at the local transmit queue. We demonstrate that a loose ordering of timestamps among neighboring nodes is sufficient for enforcing local fairness, subsequently leading to flow rate fairness in a multi-hop WMN. We show that TMAC can be implemented using the control frames in IEEE 802.11, and thus can be easily integrated in existing 802.11-based WMNs. Our simulation results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining over 90% of maximum link capacity across a large number of topologies.

  17. The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhne Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The CBM experiment will investigate highly compressed baryonic matter created in A+A collisions at the new FAIR research center. With a beam energy range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei at the SIS 100 accelerator, CBM will investigate the QCD phase diagram in the intermediate range, i.e. at moderate temperatures but high net-baryon densities. This intermediate range of the QCD phase diagram is of particular interest, because a first order phase transition ending in a critical point and possibly new highdensity phases of strongly interacting matter are expected. In this range of the QCD phase diagram only exploratory measurements have been performed so far. CBM, as a next generation, high-luminosity experiment, will substantially improve our knowledge of matter created in this region of the QCD phase diagram and characterize its properties by measuring rare probes such as multi-strange hyperons, dileptons or charm, but also with event-by-event fluctuations of conserved quantities, and collective flow of identified particles. The experimental preparations with special focus on hadronic observables and strangeness is presented in terms of detector development, feasibility studies and fast track reconstruction. Preparations are progressing well such that CBM will be ready with FAIR start. As quite some detectors are ready before, they will be used as upgrades or extensions of already running experiments allowing for a rich physics program prior to FAIR start.

  18. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  19. Introduction to the virtual special issue on super-resolution imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangcai; Liu, Zhengjun

    2017-12-01

    Until quite recently, the resolution of optical imaging instruments, including telescopes, cameras and microscopes, was considered to be limited by the diffraction of light and by image sensors. In the past few years, many exciting super-resolution approaches have emerged that demonstrate intriguing ways to bypass the classical limit in optics and detectors. More and more research groups are engaged in the study of advanced super-resolution schemes, devices, algorithms, systems, and applications [1-6]. Super-resolution techniques involve new methods in science and engineering of optics [7,8], measurements [9,10], chemistry [11,12] and information [13,14]. Promising applications, particularly in biomedical research and semiconductor industry, have been successfully demonstrated.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement with Dictionary-optimized Sparse Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun-Bao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Super-resolution Imaging Measurement (MRIM is an effective way of measuring materials. MRIM has wide applications in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medical and material science, especially in medical diagnosis. It is feasible to improve the resolution of MR imaging through increasing radiation intensity, but the high radiation intensity and the longtime of magnetic field harm the human body. Thus, in the practical applications the resolution of hardware imaging reaches the limitation of resolution. Software-based super-resolution technology is effective to improve the resolution of image. This work proposes a framework of dictionary-optimized sparse learning based MR super-resolution method. The framework is to solve the problem of sample selection for dictionary learning of sparse reconstruction. The textural complexity-based image quality representation is proposed to choose the optimal samples for dictionary learning. Comprehensive experiments show that the dictionary-optimized sparse learning improves the performance of sparse representation.

  1. A Super mKdV Equation: Bosonization, Painlevé Property and Exact Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2018-04-01

    The symmetry of the fermionic field is obtained by means of the Lax pair of the mKdV equation. A new super mKdV equation is constructed by virtue of the symmetry of the fermionic form. The super mKdV system is changed to a system of coupled bosonic equations with the bosonization approach. The bosonized SmKdV (BSmKdV) equation admits Painlevé property by the standard singularity analysis. The traveling wave solutions of the BSmKdV system are presented by the mapping and deformation method. We also provide other ideas to construct new super integrable systems. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11775146, 11435005, and 11472177, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213 and K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  2. Anti- and Hypermatter Research at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinheimer, J; Xu, Z; Gudima, K; Botvina, A; Mishustin, I; Bleicher, M; Stöcker, H

    2012-01-01

    Within the next six years, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is built adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt, Germany. Thus, the current research goals and the technical possibilities are substantially expanded. With its worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, FAIR will provide a wide range of unprecedented fore-front research in the fields of hadron, nuclear, atomic, plasma physics and applied sciences which are summarized in this article. As an example this article presents research efforts on strangeness at FAIR using heavy ion collisions, exotic nuclei from fragmentation and antiprotons to tackle various topics in this area. In particular, the creation of hypernuclei and antimatter is investigated.

  3. How the Fair Test Nearly Killed Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Juliet Nickels explores the importance of content and exploration in a child- and enquiry-led curriculum. During British Science Week, Nickels runs science week at Coten End Primary School, culminating in an exhibition. Leading up to the school's science week in 2015, she ran staff meetings to clarify purpose and logistics, and…

  4. Purcell filter of unusual shape in fair superferric sextupole magnet for improving the field quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, P.R.; Dutta Gupta, A.; Nandi, C.; Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Pal, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the Energy Buncher Section of the Super-FRS of the FAIR project, magnets of very high quality and wide aperture are needed. Wide aperture of these magnets generates large end-effects which can be reduced by end shaping and using Purcell filters which are voids in the pole for modifying the field. In the present work we have investigated various shapes of Purcell filters in magnets, especially in superferric sextupole magnets. Conventional Purcell filters are through and through rectangular voids in the pole region, a little away from the pole face. We have seen that the length of the Purcell filter is an important parameter which can be optimized. Thus one can use partially penetrating filters. We have further shown that Purcell filters of unusual geometry which start right from the pole face can be effectively used in reducing the weight of the iron, while keeping the field quality intact or improve the field quality, keeping the weight constant. (author)

  5. Super-quasi-conformal transformation and Schiffer variation on super-Riemann surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahasi, Wataru

    1990-01-01

    A set of equations which characterizes the super-Teichmueller deformations is proposed. It is a supersymmetric extension of the Beltrami equation. Relations between the set of equations and the Schiffer variations with the KN bases are discussed. This application of the KN bases shows the powerfulness of the KN theory in the study of super-Riemann surfaces. (author)

  6. Deterministic phase measurements exhibiting super-sensitivity and super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Ježek, Miroslav; Madsen, Lars S.

    2018-01-01

    Phase super-sensitivity is obtained when the sensitivity in a phase measurement goes beyond the quantum shot noise limit, whereas super-resolution is obtained when the interference fringes in an interferometer are narrower than half the input wavelength. Here we show experimentally that these two...

  7. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    potential of this 24-colour (super-multiplex) optical imaging approach for elucidating intricate interactions in complex biological systems.

  8. Fair trade - Õiglane kaubandus / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2007-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse liikumise ajaloolisest arengust. Fair trade on kaubandusvõrk, kus kaubeldakse arengumaades inimväärsetes tingimustes toodetud ja sealsetelt kaupmeestelt õiglaste hindadega ostetud kaupadega. Fair Trade Euroopas

  9. Fair value accounting volgens de IASB en Limperg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fair value is een belangrijk waardebegrip wat in zeer veel International Financial Accounting Standards (IFRS) is opgenomen, waarbij in bepaalde gevallen ook de ongerealiseerde waardestijgingen in de winst- en verliesrekening worden opgenomen. Limperg zag fair value (= de directe en indirecte

  10. Fairness, fast and slow: A review of dual process models of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsson, Bjørn G; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hulme, Oliver J

    2018-06-01

    Fairness, the notion that people deserve or have rights to certain resources or kinds of treatment, is a fundamental dimension of moral cognition. Drawing on recent evidence from economics, psychology, and neuroscience, we ask whether self-interest is always intuitive, requiring self-control to override with reasoning-based fairness concerns, or whether fairness itself can be intuitive. While we find strong support for rejecting the notion that self-interest is always intuitive, the literature has reached conflicting conclusions about the neurocognitive systems underpinning fairness. We propose that this disagreement can largely be resolved in light of an extended Social Heuristics Hypothesis. Divergent findings may be attributed to the interpretation of behavioral effects of ego depletion or neurostimulation, reverse inference from brain activity to the underlying psychological process, and insensitivity to social context and inter-individual differences. To better dissect the neurobiological basis of fairness, we outline how future research should embrace cross-disciplinary methods that combine psychological manipulations with neuroimaging, and that can probe inter-individual, and cultural heterogeneities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Starbucks's Fair Trade in the Edge of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rizqiyanto, Saomi

    2017-01-01

    Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behin...

  12. Calculation of Biological Assets Fair Value and Their Transformations Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Khoruzhiy

    2013-01-01

    In the article the IAS 41 'Agriculture' (fair value of biological assets and agricultural products) terminology has been considered within the Russian theory and practice of accounting. A multifactor model of assets and liabilities fair value calculation has been proposed. It has been found that the application of fair value to measure biological assets and agricultural produce may be a burdensome due to the requirement of fair value calculation at each balance sheet date. In addition, some r...

  13. Leadership and Fairness: The state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, D.; de Cremer, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fairness, to assess the state of the art, and to identify a research agenda for future efforts in the field. The review shows that leader distributive, procedural, and especially interactional fairness...

  14. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section... fair housing marketing. As a condition of the guarantee, the lender must ensure that the lender and borrower are in compliance with the approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. This plan must be...

  15. When Are Transport Pricing Policies Fair and Acceptable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Steg, Linda; van Kruining, Monique

    This study examines the relative importance of six policy outcomes related to different fairness principles for the perceived fairness and acceptability of pricing policies aimed at changing transport behaviour. The fairness and acceptability of six different types of transport pricing policies were

  16. A Bargaining Experiment To Motivate a Discussion on Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Employs a classroom version of the research game, the Ultimatum Game, to teach undergraduate students how fairness affects behavior. Focuses on three concepts related to fairness. Finds that classroom results motivate discussion about a downward sloping demand curve for fairness. Provides an appendix that includes instructional materials. (JEH)

  17. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... port director for the transfer of the articles covered thereby to the buildings in which they are to be...

  18. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List. The...

  19. 17 CFR 201.1100 - Creation of Fair Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Fair Fund. 201... PRACTICE Fair Fund and Disgorgement Plans § 201.1100 Creation of Fair Fund. In any agency process initiated... requiring the payment of disgorgement by a respondent and also assessing a civil money penalty against that...

  20. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710...

  1. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA housing... information indicating his affirmative fair housing marketing plan to comply with the requirements set forth... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing...

  2. 23 CFR 710.707 - Fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market value. 710.707 Section 710.707 Highways... REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.707 Fair market value. A highway agency shall receive fair market value for any concession agreement involving a federally funded highway. ...

  3. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the value...

  4. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market value... procedures in order to estimate the fair market value of each area as a whole. The evaluation will be...

  5. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair market value of the affected farmer's normal marketings, which, for the purposes of this subpart, shall...

  6. Learning from errors in super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    A novel framework of learning-based super-resolution is proposed by employing the process of learning from the estimation errors. The estimation errors generated by different learning-based super-resolution algorithms are statistically shown to be sparse and uncertain. The sparsity of the estimation errors means most of estimation errors are small enough. The uncertainty of the estimation errors means the location of the pixel with larger estimation error is random. Noticing the prior information about the estimation errors, a nonlinear boosting process of learning from these estimation errors is introduced into the general framework of the learning-based super-resolution. Within the novel framework of super-resolution, a low-rank decomposition technique is used to share the information of different super-resolution estimations and to remove the sparse estimation errors from different learning algorithms or training samples. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed framework in enhancing the performance of different learning-based algorithms.

  7. Antiproton complex at the FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A.; Knie, K.; Dimopoulou, C.; Gostishchev, V.; Litvinov, S.; Nolden, F.; Steck, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a set of calculations for the antiproton production in a complex composed of target area, collector, separator, beam line and collector ring for the antiproton source of the future FAIR facility (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The emphasis is on the optimization of the accumulation rate of antiprotons in order to maximize the luminosity of experiments with cooled antiproton beams in the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). Results of simulations for each component of the antiproton production complex are presented in order to identify the present limitations of the antiproton production rate.

  8. Fair market value vs. net investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that among the 300 some hydro electric power stations coming up for relicensing in the 1990s, some of them will certainly be taken over by the federal government or by competing license applications. Under prevailing interpretations of net investment value contained in the Federal Power Act, it is entirely likely that companies who lose a hydro station this way will go substantially uncompensated. Professional appraisal techniques for determining fair market value of property could produce substantially higher payments for lost hydro stations and may be a more appropriate standard for such applications

  9. Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2014-01-01

    Next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities like FAIR will open a bright future for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics research. In particular, very exotic nuclei (mainly neutron rich) isotopes will be produced and a lot of new exciting experimental data will help to test and improve the current nuclear models. In addition, these data (masses, reaction cross sections, beta decay half-lives, etc.) combined with the development of better theoretical approaches will be used as the nuclear physics input for astrophysical simulations. In this presentation I will review some of the state-of-the-art nuclear structure methods and their applications.

  10. The fair factor in matters of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren L

    2006-01-01

    Communities are bound together by trust among their members. Trust thrives when a pervasive sense of fairness exists. Evidence suggests that trust has social, professional, and economic value for today's organizations, making it worthy of attention. Matters of trust and justice are important and timely for nurse leaders to consider given the challenge to improve practice settings in a manner that enhances nurse satisfaction. The aim of this article is to make explicit the value in building organizational justice and trust within an organization's nursing community. Nursing leadership strategies are integrated, thus offering practical guidance in creating a culture of justice, making trust explicit, and establishing trustworthiness.

  11. A Prudent Approach to Fair Use Workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karey Patterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster will outline a new highly efficient workflow for the management of copyright materials that is prudent and accommodates generally and legally accepted Fair Use limits. The workflow allows library or copyright staff an easy means to keep on top of their copyright obligations, manage licenses and review and adjust schedules but is still a highly efficient means to cope with large numbers of requests to use materials. The poster details speed and efficiency gains for professors and library staff while reducing legal exposure.

  12. Sensitive beam current measurement for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickert, Marcus; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjoerg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Seidel, Paul; Neubert, Ralf [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Geithner, Rene; Vodel, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Presently FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, entered the final planning phase at GSI. The new accelerator facility requires precise devices for beam current measurements due to the large dynamics in beam intensities for the various synchrotrons, transport lines and storage rings. We report on the actual developments of beam diagnostic devices for the measurement of beam intensities ranging from 5 x 10{sup 11} uranium ions down to the detection of less than 10{sup 4} antiprotons. This contribution gives an overview of the planned instruments with a focus on non-intercepting beam current transformers, and summarizes the on-going development of a cryogenic current comparator.

  13. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2013: FAIR NExt generation of ScientistS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannah; Destefanis, Marco; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Montes, Fernando; Nicmorus, Diana; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura; Vogel, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2013 was the second edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on 16-21 September 2013 in Berlin, Germany. The topics of the workshop cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in box to stimulate discussions. Since the physics program of FAIR is very broad, this is reflected in the wide range of topics covered at the Conference: Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions Hadron spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NuSTAR, as well as NICA and the RHIC low beam energy scan New developments in atomic and plasma physics For all of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2013 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of

  14. Pinching parameters for open (super) strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.

  15. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  16. The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryon densities. The experiment is being laid out for nuclear collision rates from 0.1 to 10 MHz to access a unique wide spectrum of probes, including rarest particles like hadrons containing charm quarks, or multi-strange hyperons. The physics programme will be performed with ion beams of energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon. Those will be delivered by the SIS-300 synchrotron at the completed FAIR accelerator complex. Parts of the research programme can already be addressed with the SIS-100 synchrotron at the start of FAIR operation in 2018. The initial energy range of up to 11 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons, allows addressing the equation of state of compressed nuclear matter, the properties of hadrons in a dense medium, the production and propagation of charm near the production threshold, and exploring the third, strange dimension of the nuclide chart. In this article we summarize the CBM physics programme, the preparation of the detector, and give an outline of the recently begun construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

  17. Equity, fairness, and the development of a sustainability ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates made just before the 21st century indicate that, by the year 2100, Earth may have between 10 and 11 billion people - not quite double the 6 billion population count reached in October 1999. Sustainable use of the planet requires that human needs be met without impairing the integrity of the planet's ecological life support system. This objective will almost certainly require equity and fairness in resource allocation among members of the human species and with natural systems upon which human depend. For the first time in history, humans have the power to create serious disequilibrium in natural systems at a global level. Nature is not vengeful, but it is opportunistic; new 'equilibrium conditions' are likely to be far less favorable to humans than present conditions. To prevent disequilibrium, a new ethos or set of guiding beliefs regarding human society's relationship with natural systems is essential. The best descriptor of the new ethos is eco-ethics (www.eeiu.org guided by ethical science and implemented by compassionate, reasoned environmental politics. ESEP, the publication organ of the Eco-Ethics International Union, should be a powerful force in developing the necessary integration of science and value systems while maintaining the integrity of both.

  18. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.S.; Lindström, University

    2017-01-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  19. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,Uppsala, SE-751 20 (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-22

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  20. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    in a controlled laboratory environment have been conducted with the element in order to evaluate its performance in airborne and impact sound insulation. These results have been employed in simulations of the flanking transmission to estimate the in-situ performance of the super-light slab element. The flanking...... aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  1. Super-preshowers (DPG-Fruehjahrstagung 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaepae, Alex [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Based on the current data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, no evidence of cosmic ray photon primaries has been found. However, photon primaries could induce so-called ''super-preshowers'', which have not been considered sofar, but are a promising candidate for explaining the ''composition puzzle'' at ultra-high energies. In this presentation, possible super-preshower processes are examined, and their effects on important Auger parameters, such as the energy deposit and muon production, are studied via simulations.

  2. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  3. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  4. Covariant super reggeon calculus for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.; Tollsten, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    A previously developed formalism for the bosonic string is extended to the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond string using 2-d superspace techniques throughout. 3-string vertices for NS- and R-strings are constructed, sewing rules developed, and the technique of quasi-superconformal modes is set up for constructing the measure on super moduli space. Symmetries, such as superconformal invariance and BRST-invariance, are guaranteed ab initio. Picture changing and bosonization are avoided. Examples are given. The formalism should allow a superstring loop calculus based on supermoduli. Results concerning the ensuing super-Schottky description are given. (orig.)

  5. Temporal super resolution using variational methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...... observed when watching video on large and bright displays where the motion of high contrast edges often seem jerky and unnatural. A novel motion compensated (MC) TSR algorithm using variational methods for both optical flow calculation and the actual new frame interpolation is presented. The flow...

  6. What is effective is fair Lo eficaz es justo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mouël Jacques

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this text, which comes from Chapter 3 of his book, Jacques Le Mouel completes the philosophical reflection about the entrepreneurial myth of effectiveness founded in the sophism: "What is effective is true. What is true is faie. Therefore, what is effective is fair". The fact that management is elevated to the category of paradigm for the economic model of Western society and the collapse of the economies of the East has led to neglect that, now, we ourselves are the modelo His analysis of the supposed neutrality of science and of the differences between ethics and morality, in the framework of the firm and its relations with society, lead him to conclude that it is not true that what is effective is fair, and that the firm cannot serve as a model for contemporary society, since the end does not justify the means.En este texto, que corresponde al capitulo 3 de su libro, Jaques Le Mouël completa la reflexión filosófica sobre el mito empresarial de la eficacia funadado en el sofisma: "Lo eficaz es verdadero. Lo verdadero es justo. Luego, lo eficaz es justo". El hecho de elevar la administración a la categoría de paradigma del modelo económico de la sociedad occidental y el hundimiento de las economías del Este han llevado a ignorar que, ahora, el modelo somos nosotros mismos. Su análisis de la pretendida neutralidad de la ciencia y las diferencias entre ética y moral, en el marco de la empresa y en sus relaciones con la sociedad, lo lleva a concluir que no es cierto que lo eficaz sea justo y que la empresa no puede servir de modelo a la sociedad contemporánea, pues el fin no justifica los medios.

  7. Tailored two-photon correlation and fair-sampling: a cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J.; Giovannini, D.; Tasca, D. S.; Barnett, S. M.; Padgett, M. J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate an experimental test of the Clauser-Horne- Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality which seemingly exhibits correlations beyond the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. Inspired by the idea of Fourier synthesis, we design analysers that measure specific superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, such that when one analyser is rotated with respect to the other, the resulting coincidence curves are similar to a square-wave. Calculating the CHSH Bell parameter, S, from these curves result to values beyond the Tsirelson bound of S_{ {QM}}=2\\sqrt {2} . We obtain S = 3.99 ± 0.02, implying almost perfect nonlocal Popescu-Rohrlich correlations. The ‘super-quantum’ values of S is only possible in our experiment because our experiment, subtly, does not comply with fair-sampling. The way our Bell test fails fair-sampling is not immediately obvious and requires knowledge of the states being measured. Our experiment highlights the caution needed in Bell-type experiments based on measurements within high-dimensional state spaces such as that of OAM, especially in the advent of device-independent quantum protocols.

  8. What do you think is "fair"? Effects of ingroup norms and outcome control on fairness judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, G.; Aarts, H.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies are reported that examine whether fairness judgments in dyadic exchange situations are influenced by descriptive ingroup norms or the interdependence structure of the exchange situation. In both studies, these factors were varied within a minimal group categorization paradigm. Results

  9. The Fair Trade Balance: New Challenges after 25 years of Fair Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2012-01-01

    During the last 25 years Fair Trade (FT) experienced substantial growth, but competition from private labels is increasingly challenging the policy foundations of the FT business model. While direct welfare effects of FT for farmers are rather modest, security of delivery contracts and pre-financing

  10. Me, Myself, Fairness, and I: On the Self-Related Aspects of Fairness Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loseman, A.

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation focuses on the psychology of justice as a self-related process. Six experiments within three justice domains are reported in which specific self-related aspects and their influence on fairness reactions are investigated. The construction of one’s self-image (i.e., the

  11. On the monodromy group for the super Schwarzian differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Shozo; Yasui, Yukinori.

    1991-03-01

    We calculate the first variation of the monodromy group associated with a super Schwarzian differential equation. The relation between the monodromy period and the Fenchel-Nielsen deformation of a super Riemann surface is presented. (author)

  12. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  13. Enabling FAIR and Open Data - The Importance of Communities on Influencing Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.; Lehnert, K.; Robinson, E.; Parsons, M. A.; Hanson, B.; Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J.; Nosek, B.

    2017-12-01

    Our research ecosystem is diverse and dependent on many interacting stakeholders that influence and support the process of science. These include funders, institutions, libraries, publishers, researchers, data managers, repositories, archives and communities. Process improvement in this ecosystem thus usually needs support by more than one of these many stakeholders. For example, mandates for open data extend across this ecosystem. Solutions require these stakeholders to come together and agree upon improvements. Recently, the value of FAIR and Open Data has encouraged funders to sponsor discussions with tangible agreements that include the steps needed to move the ecosystem towards results. Work by many of these stakeholders over the past years have developed pilot efforts that are ready to be scaled with broader engagement. A partnership of the AGU, Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), Research Data Alliance (RDA), Center for Open Science, and key publishers including Science, Nature, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) have agreed to work together to develop integrated processes, leveraging these pilots, to make FAIR and open data the default for Earth and space science publications. This effort will build on the work of COPDESS.org, ESIP, RDA, the scientific journals, and domain repositories to ensure that well documented data, preserved in a repository with community agreed-upon metadata, and supporting persistent identifiers becomes part of the expected research products submitted in support of each publication.

  14. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  15. Wavelet Filter Banks for Super-Resolution SAR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Ehsan O.; Deshpande, Manohar; Memarsadeghi, Nargess

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Innovative wavelet-based filter banks designed to enhance the analysis of super resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using parametric spectral methods and signal classification algorithms, SAR finds applications In many of NASA's earth science fields such as deformation, ecosystem structure, and dynamics of Ice, snow and cold land processes, and surface water and ocean topography. Traditionally, standard methods such as Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse Fast-Fourier Transform (IFFT) have been used to extract Images from SAR radar data, Due to non-parametric features of these methods and their resolution limitations and observation time dependence, use of spectral estimation and signal pre- and post-processing techniques based on wavelets to process SAR radar data has been proposed. Multi-resolution wavelet transforms and advanced spectral estimation techniques have proven to offer efficient solutions to this problem.

  16. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  17. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  18. Non commutative geometry and super Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigatti, D.

    1999-01-01

    We aim to connect the non commutative geometry 'quotient space' viewpoint with the standard super Yang Mills theory approach in the spirit of Connes-Douglas-Schwartz and Douglas-Hull description of application of noncommutative geometry to matrix theory. This will result in a relation between the parameters of a rational foliation of the torus and the dimension of the group U(N). Namely, we will be provided with a prescription which allows to study a noncommutative geometry with rational parameter p/N by means of a U(N) gauge theory on a torus of size Σ/N with the boundary conditions given by a system with p units of magnetic flux. The transition to irrational parameter can be obtained by letting N and p tend to infinity with fixed ratio. The precise meaning of the limiting process will presumably allow better clarification. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Fair trial in international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh khedri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fair hearing in the courts requires the principles of procedure. Because the arbitration is considered as private judgment, thus in arbitration hearing regarding to non-ceremonial proceedings, arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect the principles of civil procedure in arbitration hearing. Equal treatment with parties of arbitration and Adversarial procedure are principles that arbitrator or arbitration panel obliged to satisfy them in proceeding whit action arbitration parties. Independence and impartiality are elements of Equal treatment and proper notice and give a full opportunity to presentation case are elements of adversarial procedure in Arbitration hearing that arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect them in proceeding between action arbitration parties. Disclosure Obligation, Challenge to arbitrators competence, application for setting aside and refuse to recognition and enforcement of award are tools to satisfy compliance of principles of procedural civil in Arbitration hearing. In this paper, ways of satisfying principles of procedure and its sanctions has been considered.

  20. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    of their last names, implying that all contributed equally, and by contribution, where authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution to the paper. We perform a game theoretic analysis of the impact of author ordering schemes, uncovering two considerable advantages of alphabetical ordering......The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order......: it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...

  1. ITB Berlin: The world's leading tourism fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeri Lukrecija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE is a significant segment of tourism industry. It is of great interest for exhibitors and visitors, as well as for host cities and organizers. ITB Berlin represents the world's leading travel trade show. This paper analyses the key trends of this event in the last five year period (from 2004 until 2008. Analyzed data was annually gathered by Gelzus Messe-Marktforschung GmbH. This research focused on exhibitors', trade visitors and private visitors' origin, age distribution of private visitors, exhibiting companies, exhibiting branches, interest for travel according to type and overall impression and outlook that was gathered through surveys at ITB Berlin. Data was collected in the period 2004-2008 and placed together to make a five year overview. The goal is to present a development of above mentioned values and to discover potential patterns and predict future trends for this tourism fair. .

  2. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N + - N - ) and the total charge N ch = (N + + N - ) where the quantities N + and N - are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  3. Phenomenology of quarkyonic percolation at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrieri, Giorgio; Lottini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We will give an introduction to the concept of quarkyonic matter, presenting an overview of what is meant by this term in the literature. We will then argue that the quarkyonic phase, as defined in the original paper, is a percolation-type phase transition whose phase transition line is strongly curved in ρ B − N c space, where N C is the number of colors and ρ B the baryon density. With a toy model estimate, we show that it might be possible to obtain a percolating but confined phase at N c = 3, N f = 2 at densities larger than one baryon per one baryon size. We conclude by discussing how this phase can be observed at FAIR.

  4. The fair value of operational reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    Information about the uncertainties that surround the operation of the power system can be used to enlighten the debate of how much reliability should be pursued and how resources should be allocated to pursue it. In this paper we present a method to determine the value of having flexible generators to react to load fluctuations. This value can be seen as the value of hedging against the uncertainty on the load due to the volatility of the demand and the possibility of congestion. Because having this flexibility can be related to a financial option, we will use an extension of options theory and in particular the risk-neutral valuation method, to find a risk neutral quantification of its value. We illustrate our point valuing the flexibility that leads to ''operational reliability'' in the PJM market. Our formula for that value is what we call ''the fair value'' of operational reliability. (Author)

  5. International Fairs in the Modern Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Santucci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade fairs are an important marketing tool for the expanding organic market. Although much output is marketed locally and there is a growing demand for the so-called zero miles products, Italian organic raw materials and processed foods are largely exported. For the first time, a direct survey has been conducted on 100 Italian firms attending BioFach 2000, to analyze aspects like activities performed, goals and expectations, forms of private – public partnerships. By using seven relevant variables, the firms are grouped into five categories. The same firms have been contacted after one month, to assess results, level of satisfaction and willingness to participate in a next edition.

  6. Privacy, Liveliness and Fairness for Reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Stefan; Clauß, Sebastian; Steinbrecher, Sandra

    In various Internet applications, reputation systems are typical means to collect experiences users make with each other. We present a reputation system that balances the security and privacy requirements of all users involed. Our system provides privacy in the form of information theoretic relationship anonymity w.r.t. users and the reputation provider. Furthermore, it preserves liveliness, i.e., all past ratings can influence the current reputation profile of a user. In addition, mutual ratings are forced to be simultaneous and self rating is prevented, which enforces fairness. What is more, without performing mock interactions - even if all users are colluding - users cannot forge ratings. As far as we know, this is the first protocol proposed that fulfills all these properties simultaneously.

  7. The PANDA DIRC detectors at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Allison, L.; Hyde, C.

    2017-07-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. An excellent hadronic particle identification (PID) will be accomplished by two DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters in the target spectrometer. The design for the barrel region covering polar angles between 22o to 140o is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. The novel Endcap Disc DIRC will cover the smaller forward angles between 5o (10o) to 22o in the vertical (horizontal) direction. Both DIRC counters will use lifetime-enhanced microchannel plate PMTs for photon detection in combination with fast readout electronics. Geant4 simulations and tests with several prototypes at various beam facilities have been used to evaluate the designs and validate the expected PID performance of both PANDA DIRC counters.

  8. Future Experiments with HADES at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlusty, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Dielectron Spectrometer HADES installed at GSI Darmstadt recently provided new intriguing results on production of electron pairs and strangeness from elementary and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The obtained data call for further systematic investigations of heavier systems and/or at higher energies.For this purpose, the HADES spectrometer has been upgraded with a high-granularity RPC time-of-flight wall. In addition, a completely new detector read-out and data-acquisition system has been implemented which will greatly improve our data-taking rates. We describe the current status of the HADES spectrometer and our plans for experiments on heavy system collisions at energies up to 10 A GeV on the upcoming FAIR facility.

  9. On 18 November 2010, CERN signed an agreement with the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) GmbH, the company that is co-ordinating the construction of the accelerator and experiment facilities for the FAIR project in Germany.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    The agreement, which was signed by CERN's director-general, Rolf Heuer (left) and FAIR's scientific director Boris Sharkov, concerns collaboration in accelerator sciences and technologies and other scientific domains of mutual interest.

  10. Is Quantum Gravity a Super-Quantum Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2013-01-01

    We argue that quantum gravity should be a super-quantum theory, that is, a theory whose non-local correlations are stronger than those of canonical quantum theory. As a super-quantum theory, quantum gravity should display distinct experimentally observable super-correlations of entangled stringy states.

  11. The compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At top RHIC and LHC energies, the QCD phase diagram is studied at very high temperatures and very low net-baryon densities. These conditions presumably existed in the early universe about a microsecond after the big bang. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure such as a critical point, a first order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter, or new phases like quarkyonic matter. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific pillars of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at neutron star core densities, and the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The CBM detector is designed to measure rare diagnostic probes such as multi-strange hyperons, charmed particles and vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs with unprecedented precision and statistics. Most of these particles will be studied for the first time in the FAIR energy range. In order to achieve the required precision, the measurements will be performed at very high reaction rates of 100 kHz to 10 MHz. This requires very fast and radiation-hard detectors, and a novel data read-out and analysis concept based on free streaming front-end electronics and a high-performance computing cluster for online event selection. The layout, the physics performance, and the status of the proposed CBM experimental facility

  12. Super-Resolution for Color Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    September 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2016‒30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Super...slightly lighter shade of purple. There is slightly less purple coloring on the white paper than with the other 2 color spaces, and the black font is

  13. Super-Kamiokande worth full restoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Mishima, I

    2002-01-01

    While prospects are good that the SuperKamiokande facility will be partially repaired after an accident last November, the government has yet to confirm whether it will spend the estimated 2.5 billion yen needed for a full-scale restoration (1 page).

  14. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place

  15. General super Virasoro construction on affine G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-10-01

    We consider a bosonic current algebra and a theory of free fermions and construct a general N = 1 super Virasoro current algebra. We obtain a master-set of equations which comprises the bosonic master equation for general Virasoro construction on affine G. As an illustration we study the case of the group SU(2). (author). 13 refs

  16. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  17. Super-structure and building performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The super-structure consists predominantly of the load- and no-load-bearing walls-including all doors and windows and suspended floor slabs. The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard...

  18. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  19. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R ⊕ , 2–20M ⊕ ) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R ⊕ , 2–6M ⊕ ). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions

  20. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.