WorldWideScience

Sample records for super power hydrogen

  1. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  2. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  3. Photo-stability of Super-hydrogenated PAHs Determined by Action Spectroscopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Kiefer, H. V.; Langeland, J.; Andersen, L. H.; Zettergren, H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Stockett, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the photo-stability of pristine and super-hydrogenated pyrene cations ({{{C}}}16{{{H}}}10+m+,m=0,6,{{}} {{or}} {{}}16) by means of gas-phase action spectroscopy. Optical absorption spectra and photo-induced dissociation mass spectra are presented. By measuring the yield of mass-selected photo-fragment ions as a function of laser pulse intensity, the number of photons (and hence the energy) needed for fragmentation of the carbon backbone was determined. Backbone fragmentation of pristine pyrene ions ({{{C}}}16{{{H}}}10+) requires absorption of three photons of energy just below 3 eV, whereas super-hydrogenated hexahydropyrene (C16H{}16+) must absorb two such photons and fully hydrogenated hexadecahydropyrene (C16H{}26+) only a single photon. These results are consistent with previously reported dissociation energies for these ions. Our experiments clearly demonstrate that the increased heat capacity from the additional hydrogen atoms does not compensate for the weakening of the carbon backbone when pyrene is hydrogenated. In photodissociation regions, super-hydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed to serve as catalysts for H2 formation. Our results indicate that carbon backbone fragmentation may be a serious competitor to H2 formation at least for small hydrogenated PAHs like pyrene.

  4. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  5. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  7. Probing the Blow-Off Criteria of Hydrogen-Rich "Super-Earths"

    CERN Document Server

    Lammer, H; Odert, P; Kislyakova, K G; Leitzinger, M; Khodachenko, M L

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of transiting "super-Earths" with inflated radii and known masses such as Kepler-11b-f, GJ 1214b and 55 Cnc e, indicates that these exoplanets did not lose their nebula-captured, degassed or impact-delivered hydrogen-rich protoatmospheres by atmospheric escape processes. Because hydrodynamic blow-off of atmospheric hydrogen atoms is the most efficient atmospheric escape process we apply a time-dependent numerical algorithm which is able to solve the system of 1-D fluid equations for mass, momentum, and energy conservation to investigate the criteria under which hydrogen-rich "super-Earths" can experience hydrodynamic expansion by heating of the stellar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation and thermal escape via blow-off. Depending on orbit location, XUV flux, heating efficiency and the planet's mean density our results indicate that the upper atmospheres of all "super-Earths" can expand to large distances, so that besides of Kepler-11c all of them experience atmospheric mass-loss ...

  8. Photo-stability of super-hydrogenated PAHs determined by action spectroscopy experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, M; Langeland, J; Andersen, L H; Zettergren, H; Schmidt, H T; Cederquist, H; Stockett, M H

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the photo-stability of pristine and super-hydrogenated pyrene cations C$_{16}$H$_{10+m}^+, m = 0,6, \\mathrm{\\ or\\ } 16$) by means of gas-phase action spectroscopy. Optical absorption spectra and photo-induced dissociation mass spectra are presented. By measuring the yield of mass-selected photo-fragment ions as a function of laser pulse intensity, the number of photons (and hence the energy) needed for fragmentation of the carbon backbone was determined. Backbone fragmentation of pristine pyrene ions (C$_{16}$H$_{10}^+$) requires absorption of three photons of energy just below 3 eV, whereas super-hydrogenated hexahydropyrene (C$_{16}$H$_{16}^+$) must absorb two such photons and fully hydrogenated hexadecahydropyrene (C$_{16}$H$_{26}^+$) only a single photon. These results are consistent with previously reported dissociation energies for these ions. Our experiments clearly demonstrate that the increased heat capacity from the additional hydrogen atoms does not compensate for the weakening...

  9. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Philip K. [Transformational Space Corp., Reston, VA (United States); Haynes, William E.

    2005-10-15

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS. (Author)

  10. The relationship between the super plasticity of laser welding joint of titanium alloy and hydrogen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zean; Cheng, Donghai; Jiang, Xunyan; Hu, Dean; Chen, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    The superplastic deformation uniformity of laser welded joint of TC4 titanium alloy is improved by hydrogen treatment. The non-uniform deformation coefficient K was introduced to quantification ally characterize the non-uniform deformation. The results show when the content of hydrogen exceeds 0.29%, the super plasticity of the titanium alloy welded plate decreases with the increase of the hydrogen content. The decrease of the shrinkage of the base material is larger than that of the weld section with the increase of hydrogen content. The K can be used to describe the non-uniform deformation of the weld and the base material during the superplastic deformation of laser welded joint of the TC4. The K value increases with increaseing hydrogen content, increaseing deformation temperature and decreaseing strain rate. The K value reaches the maximum of 0.84 with hydrogen content of 1.299%, deformation temperature of 920 °C, strain rate of 10-4S-1.

  11. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  12. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  13. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  14. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  15. Hydrogen embrittlement of super austenitic stainless steel welded joints; Fragilizacao por hidrogenio em juntas soldadas de acos inoxidaveis superausteniticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Ramon S. Cortes [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Inst. de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC); Berthier, Thiana; Kuromoto, Neide K. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais e Tratamento de Superficies. Lab. de Nanopropriedades Mecanicas

    2004-09-15

    The austenitic stainless steel embrittlement is usually present on sulphurous medium due to the hydrogen presence, resulting on cracks and corrosion on acid medium. Several researches carried out on the behaviour of hydrogenated stainless steel structures, had shown that the hydrogen induces superficial phase transformation during hydrogenation period and cracks formation after this period. These are due to the permeation of the hydrogen into the material, which is apprehended on preferential site, resulting on high pressure zones of molecular hydrogen. These zones may lead the crack formation, compromising the mechanical properties. There are few results on austenitic and super austenitic stainless steel, considering the transformations induced on welded unions. This work evaluates the cracks nucleation on welded unions of super austenitic stainless steel AISI 904L exposed to hydrogen rich environments and its relation to the reduction of material ductility. The samples were welded by the Mig/Mag process, followed by hydrogenation which were cathodic on sulfuric acid solution at room temperature. The results showed that the tested super austenitic stainless steel has a significant amount of cracks and no phase transformation has occurred after hydronization. (author)

  16. Producing hydrogen from water for nuclear hydrogen power engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbachev, A.K.; Andryushchenko, F.K.; Bochin, V.P.; Ishchenko, L.I.; Nechiporenko, N.N.; Nikiforov, V.K.; Soldat, Ye.F.; Zadorozhnyy, P.S.; Zhuk, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of production of H/sub 2/ for nuclear-hydrogen power engineering using the sulphuric acid cycle with depolarization of the anode by sulphur gas are demonstrated. The kinetics of oxidation of sulphur gas on porous activated graphite anodes depending on the concentration of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and the presence of a homogeneous catalyst in the solution is examined. The results for kinetics of separation of H/sub 2/ in 5 M solution H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ on titanium nitride, alloys E194, EP496, EP567, E159 and an alloy of titanium and miludimum 4201 are cited. Electroysis of aqueous solutions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with depolarization of the anode process can be carried out on technically accessible materials. The voltage on the electrolyzer is approximately 1 volt when carrying out the process on recommended materials.

  17. Maintenance-free super-capacitor-based WSN power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrascu, Mihai G.; Svasta, Paul; Vladescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Super-capacitors are highly reliable devices, outlasting any existing battery in operating conditions, cycle number and ruggedness. They are perfect candidates for energy storage in remote wireless sensor network nodes. Other applications [1] use a combination of rechargeable battery as the main storage device and a low capacity EDLC as energy buffer. This paper describes the design and the results from a module consisting of a single large capacitor, a MPPC charger and a boost converter. Unlike other devices, this prototype uses one storage device (a single EDLC), it does not involve software components [2] and it can operate from a single solar cell.

  18. Sliding mode control of an autonomous parallel fuel cell-super capacitor power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Jeronimo J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Lab. de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion], Email: jmore@ing.unlp.edu.ar; Puleston, Paul F. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kunusch, Cristian; Colomer, Jordi Riera I. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRII)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) based systems emerge as one promising renewable alternative to fossil fuel systems in automotive and residential applications. However, their output dynamic response is relatively slow, mostly due to water and reactant gases dynamics. To overcome this limitation, FC-super capacitors (SCs) topologies can be used. The latter is capable of managing very fast power variations, presenting in addition high power density, long life cycle and good charge/discharge efficiency. In this work, a FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system for residential applications is considered. The FC and SCs are connected in parallel, through two separate DC/DC converters, to a DC bus. Under steady state conditions, the FC must deliver the load power requirement, while maintaining the SCs voltage regulated to the desired value. Under sudden load variations, the FC current rate must be limited to assure a safe transition to the new point of operation. During this current rate limitation mode, the SCs must deliver or absorb the power difference. To this end, a sliding mode strategy is proposed to satisfy to control objectives. The main one is the robust regulation of the DC bus voltage, even in the presence of system uncertainties and disturbances, such as load changes and FC voltage variations. Additionally, a second control objective is attained, namely to guarantee the adequate level of charge in the SCs, once the FC reaches the new steady state operation point. In this way, the system can meet the load power demand, even under sudden changes, and it can also satisfy a power demand higher than the nominal FC power, during short periods. The proposed control strategy is evaluated exhaustively by computer simulation considering fast load variations. The results presented in this work, corresponds to the first stage of a R and D collaboration project for the design and development of a novel FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system. In the next phase, the proposed

  19. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  20. No hydrogen exosphere detected around the super-Earth HD97658 b

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrier, Vincent; King, George; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Wheatley, Peter J; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The exoplanet HD97658b provides a rare opportunity to probe the atmospheric composition and evolution of moderately irradiated super-Earths. It transits a bright K star at a moderate orbital distance of 0.08 au. Its low density is compatible with a massive steam envelope that could photodissociate at high altitudes and become observable as escaping hydrogen. Our analysis of 3 transits with HST/STIS at Ly-alpha reveals no such signature, suggesting that the thermosphere is not hydrodynamically expanding and is subjected to a low escape of neutral hydrogen (<10^8 g/s at 3 sigma). Using HST Ly-alpha and Chandra & XMM-Newton observations at different epochs, we find that HD97658 is a weak and soft X-ray source with signs of chromospheric variability in the Ly-alpha line core. We determine an average reference for the intrinsic Ly-alpha line and XUV spectrum of the star, and show that HD97658 b is in mild conditions of irradiation compared to other known evaporating exoplanets with an XUV irradiation about ...

  1. No hydrogen exosphere detected around the super-Earth HD 97658 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D.; King, G.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Wheatley, P. J.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Pepe, F.; Udry, S.

    2017-01-01

    The exoplanet HD 97658 b provides a rare opportunity to probe the atmospheric composition and evolution of moderately irradiated super-Earths. It transits a bright K star at a moderate orbital distance of 0.08 au. Its low density is compatible with a massive steam envelope that could photodissociate at high altitudes and become observable as escaping neutral hydrogen. Our analysis of three transits with HST/STIS at Lyman-α reveals no such signature, suggesting that the thermosphere of HD 97658 b is not hydrodynamically expanding and is subjected to a low escape of neutral hydrogen (core. We determine an average reference for the intrinsic Lyman-α line and X-EUV (XUV) spectrum of the star, and show that HD 97658 b is in mild conditions of irradiation compared to other known evaporating exoplanets with an XUV irradiation about three times lower than the evaporating warm Neptune GJ436 b. This could be the reason why the thermosphere of HD 97658 b is not expanding: the low XUV irradiation prevents an efficient photodissociation of any putative steam envelope. Alternatively, it could be linked to a low hydrogen content or inefficient conversion of the stellar energy input. The HD 97658 system provides clues for understanding the stability of low-mass planet atmospheres in terms of composition, planetary density, and irradiation. Our study of HD 97658 b can be seen as a control experiment of our methodology, confirming that it does not bias detections of atmospheric escape and underlining its strength and reliability. Our results show that stellar activity can be efficiently discriminated from absorption signatures by a transiting exospheric cloud. They also highlight the potential of observing the upper atmosphere of small transiting planets to probe their physical and chemical properties.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN HYDROGEN POWER ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Covaliova O.V.; Covaliov V.V.; Duca Gh.G.; Ivanov M. V.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility is studied of using the three-dimensional voluminous-porous electrodes made of the carbonic-fibrous materials and foamy metals, which surface is covered with Ni-Re alloy, for hydrogen electrochemical generation. Electrode surface modification makes it possible to obtain high reactive surface with low overvoltage of hydrogen evolution. The design is given of the developed compact electrochemical reactors for hydrogen power engineering. The method is described of oxygen-hydrogen...

  3. Super-luminous supernovae: 56Ni power versus magnetar radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, Luc; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli; Blondin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Much uncertainty surrounds the origin of super-luminous supernovae (SNe). Motivated by the discovery of the Type Ic SN2007bi, we study its proposed association with a pair-instability SN (PISN). We compute stellar-evolution models for primordial ~200Msun stars, simulating the implosion/explosion due to the pair-production instability, and use them as inputs for detailed non-LTE time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations that include non-local energy deposition and non-thermal processes. We retrieve the basic morphology of PISN light curves from red-supergiant, blue-supergiant, and Wolf-Rayet (WR) star progenitors. Although we confirm that a progenitor 100Msun helium core (PISN model He100) fits well the SN2007bi light curve, the low ratios of its kinetic energy and 56Ni mass to the ejecta mass, similar to standard core-collapse SNe, conspire to produce cool photospheres, red spectra subject to strong line blanketing, and narrow line profiles, all conflicting with SN2007bi observations. He-core models of in...

  4. Wide Operational Range Processor Power Delivery Design for Both Super-Threshold Voltage and Near-Threshold Voltage Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin He; Gui-Hai Yan; Yin-He Han; Xiao-Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    The load power range of modern processors is greatly enlarged because many advanced power management techniques are employed, such as dynamic voltage frequency scaling, Turbo Boosting, and near-threshold voltage (NTV) technologies. However, because the efficiency of power delivery varies greatly with different load conditions, conventional power delivery designs cannot maintain high efficiency over the entire voltage spectrum, and the gained power saving may be offset by power loss in power delivery. We propose SuperRange, a wide operational range power delivery unit. SuperRange complements the power delivery capability of on-chip voltage regulator and off-chip voltage regulator. On top of SuperRange, we analyze its power conversion characteristics and propose a voltage regulator (VR) aware power management algorithm. Moreover, as more and more cores have been integrated on a singe chip, multiple SuperRange units can serve as basic building blocks to build, in a highly scalable way, more powerful power delivery subsystem with larger power capacity. Experimental results show SuperRange unit offers 1x and 1.3x higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than other two conventional power delivery schemes at NTV region and exhibits an average 70%PCE over entire operational range. It also exhibits superior resilience to power-constrained systems.

  5. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  6. Study of hydrogen production from wind power in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiche-Hamane, Lilia; Belhamel, Maiouf; Benyoucef, Boumedienne; Hamane, Mustapha [Centre for Development of Renewable Energies (CDER), Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the potentiality of hydrogen production from wind power in Algeria has been given in this study. Wind resource assessment has been presented in cartographic form and windy sites have been identified for wind power application. A system constituted by a wind turbine, an electrolyser and a power conditioning device have been proposed for the study of hydrogen production in the southwest region of Algeria. For this purpose, the transient system simulation program (TRNSYS) have been used. The results obtained showed the sensitivity of hydrogen production to the wind resource trend and the importance of optimisation of the electrolyser according to the power produced by the wind turbine. (orig.)

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  9. Renewable Production of Water, Hydrogen, and Power From Ambient Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PRODUCTION OF WATER , HYDROGEN, AND POWER FROM AMBIENT MOISTURE by Angel Aviles December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RENEWABLE PRODUCTION OF WATER , HYDROGEN, AND POWER FROM AMBIENT MOISTURE 5. FUNDING...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This thesis developed a concept design and prototype system capable of increasing and

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN HYDROGEN POWER ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaliova O.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility is studied of using the three-dimensional voluminous-porous electrodes made of the carbonic-fibrous materials and foamy metals, which surface is covered with Ni-Re alloy, for hydrogen electrochemical generation. Electrode surface modification makes it possible to obtain high reactive surface with low overvoltage of hydrogen evolution. The design is given of the developed compact electrochemical reactors for hydrogen power engineering. The method is described of oxygen-hydrogen mixture separation in the water electrolysis processes.

  11. The advanced super critical 700{sup o}C pulverized coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Klauke, F.; Vanstone, R.; Zeijseink, A.; Weissinger, G.; Kristensen, P.; Meier, J.; Blum, R.; Wieghardt, K. [Tech-Wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{sup o}C PF Power Plant'. The first phase started in 1998 based on a grant from the Commission's Thermie programme under the 4th Framework programme. The overall objective of the project is to ensure a role for coal in Europe also in future. The project's targets renewedpublic and political acceptance of coal by improving efficiency and economy of well-proven, super critical pulverised coal-fired technology. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{sup o}C. Principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. Three benchmarks for theinvestigations have been set up: (i) the net efficiency of the demonstration plant from the present state of the art performance of 44% will be boosted into the range of 50-51% for a plant located inland with a cooling tower and 53-54% for the best seawater-cooled versions. (ii) reductions of investment cost of PF power plant by revising the overall architecture of the plant. (iii) Co-firing of up to 20% biomass with coal. The Advanced 700{sup o}C PF power plant project (or AD700) will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation and give a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A hydrogen leakage detection system using self-powered wireless hydrogen sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, J.; Chou, B.; Lin, J.; Phipps, A.; Shengwen, X.; Ngo, K.; Johnson, D.; Kasyap, A.; Nishida, T.; Wang, H. T.; Kang, B. S.; Ren, F.; Tien, L. C.; Sadik, P. W.; Norton, D. P.; Voss, L. F.; Pearton, S. J.

    2007-07-01

    A self-powered wireless hydrogen sensor node has been designed and developed from a system level approach. By using multi-source energy harvesting circuitry such as scavenged or "reclaimed" energy from light emitting and vibrational sources as the source of power for commercial low power microcontrollers, amplifiers, and RF transmitters, the sensor node is capable of conditioning and deciphering the output of hydrogen sensitive ZnO nanorods sensors. Upon the detection of a discernible amount of hydrogen, the system will 'wake' from an idle state to create a wireless data communication link to relay the detection of hydrogen to a central monitoring station. Two modes of operation were designed for the use of hydrogen detection. The first mode would sense for the presence of hydrogen above a set threshold, and alert a central monitoring station of the detection of significant levels of hydrogen. In the second mode of operation, actual hydrogen concentrations starting as low as 10 ppm are relayed to the receiver to track the amount of hydrogen present.

  13. Metallic hydrogen: The most powerful rocket fuel yet to exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, Isaac F [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cole, John W, E-mail: silvera@physics.harvard.ed [NASA MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35801 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metastable metallic hydrogen to rocketry. Metastable metallic hydrogen would be a very light-weight, low volume, powerful rocket propellant. One of the characteristics of a propellant is its specific impulse, I{sub sp}. Liquid (molecular) hydrogen-oxygen used in modern rockets has an Isp of {approx}460s; metallic hydrogen has a theoretical I{sub sp} of 1700s. Detailed analysis shows that such a fuel would allow single-stage rockets to enter into orbit or carry economical payloads to the moon. If pure metallic hydrogen is used as a propellant, the reaction chamber temperature is calculated to be greater than 6000 K, too high for currently known rocket engine materials. By diluting metallic hydrogen with liquid hydrogen or water, the reaction temperature can be reduced, yet there is still a significant performance improvement for the diluted mixture.

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R., E-mail: robert.smith@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Whittaker, D.A.J.; Butler, B.; Hollingsworth, A.; Lawless, R.E.; Lefebvre, X.; Medley, S.A.; Parracho, A.I.; Wakeling, B. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Summary of the tritium plant, the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS), at JET. • Review of the Water Detritiation System (WDS) under construction. • Design of the new Material Detritiation Facility (MDF). • Review of problems in fusion related to metal/hydrogen system. - Abstract: The invited talk given at MH2014 in Salford ranged over many issues associated with hydrogen isotope separation, fusion machines and the hydrogen/metal systems found in the Joint European Torus (JET) machine located near Oxford. As this sort of talk does not lend itself well to a paper below I have attempted to highlight some of the more pertinent information. After a description of the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) a brief summary of isotope separation systems is described followed by descriptions of three major projects currently being undertaken by the Tritium Engineering and Science Group (TESG), the upgrade to the Analytical Systems (AN-GC) at the AGH, the construction of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) and a Material Detritiation Facility (MDF). Finally, a review of some of the challenges facing fusion with respect to metal/hydrogen systems is presented.

  15. Fuel rod behavior under normal operating conditions in Super Fast Reactor with high power density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Haitao, E-mail: haitaoju@gmail.com [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Ishiwatari, Yuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Oka, Yoshiaki [Joint Department of Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Totsukamachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The improved core of Super Fast Reactor with high power density is analyzed. • We analyzed four types of the limiting fuel rods. • The influence of Pu enrichment and compressive stress to yield strength ratio are analyzed. • The improved fuel rod design of the new core is suggested. - Abstract: A Super Fast Reactor is a pressure-vessel type, fast spectrum SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR) which is presently researched in a Japanese project. A preliminary core has an average power density of 158.8 W/cc. However one of the most important advantages of the Super Fast Reactor is the higher power density compared to the thermal spectrum SCWR, which reduces the capital cost. After the sensitivity analyses on the fuel rod configurations, the fuel assembly configurations and the core configurations, an improved core with an average power density of 294.8 W/cc is designed by 3-D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled calculations. In order to ensure the fuel rod integrity of new core design with high power density, the fuel rod behaviors under normal operating condition are analyzed using fuel performance code FEMAXI-6. The power histories of each fuel rod are taken from the neutronics calculation results in the core design. The cladding surface temperature histories are generated from the thermal-hydraulic calculation results in the core design. Four types of the limiting fuel rods, individually with the Maximum Cladding Surface Temperature (MCST), Maximum Power Peak (MPP), Maximum Discharge Burnup (MDB) and Different Coolant Flow Pattern (DCFP), are chosen to cover all the fuel rods in the core. The available design range of the fuel rod design parameters, such as initial gas plenum pressure, gas plenum position, gas plenum length, grain size and gap size, are found out in order to satisfy the following design criteria: (1) Maximum fuel centerline temperature should be less than 1900 °C. (2) Maximum cladding stress in circumferential direction should

  16. A flexible super-capacitive solid-state power supply for miniature implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Gall, Oren Z; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2013-12-01

    We present a high-energy local power supply based on a flexible and solid-state supercapacitor for miniature wireless implantable medical devices. Wireless radio-frequency (RF) powering recharges the supercapacitor through an antenna with an RF rectifier. A power management circuit for the super-capacitive system includes a boost converter to increase the breakdown voltage required for powering device circuits, and a parallel conventional capacitor as an intermediate power source to deliver current spikes during high current transients (e.g., wireless data transmission). The supercapacitor has an extremely high area capacitance of ~1.3 mF/mm(2), and is in the novel form of a 100 μm-thick thin film with the merit of mechanical flexibility and a tailorable size down to 1 mm(2) to meet various clinical dimension requirements. We experimentally demonstrate that after fully recharging the capacitor with an external RF powering source, the supercapacitor-based local power supply runs a full system for electromyogram (EMG) recording that consumes ~670 μW with wireless-data-transmission functionality for a period of ~1 s in the absence of additional RF powering. Since the quality of wireless powering for implantable devices is sensitive to the position of those devices within the RF electromagnetic field, this high-energy local power supply plays a crucial role in providing continuous and reliable power for medical device operations.

  17. A variety of microstructures in Mg/Cu super-laminate composites caused by competitive reactions during hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Shibata, K.; Nishida, Y.; Kurumatani, K.; Kondo, R.; Kikuchi, S.; Takeshita, H. T.

    2015-04-01

    A variety of microstructures in Mg/Cu super-laminate composites (SLCs) caused by competitive reactions during hydrogenation has been shown experimentally. Two types of MgCu2 structures, three-dimensional (3-D) network and layer, were observed after initial hydrogenation of Mg/Cu SLCs under the conditions of 573K, 86.4ks in H2 of 3-3MPa. It was proposed that Mg/Cu SLCs could be hydrogenated by two kinds of processes. The one is alloying Mg with Cu to form Mg2Cu followed by hydrogenation of Mg2Cu, leading to the formation of 3-D network of MgCu2. The other is hydrogenation of Mg followed by the reaction of MgH2 to Cu, leading to the formation of layer MgCu2. SEM observations revealed that there existed Mg2Cu nano-crystals at the interface between Mg and Cu in as-rolled Mg/Cu SLCs, and layer MgCu2 at the interface between MgH2 and Cu in pellets of MgH2 powder and Cu powder heated under the conditions of 673K, 86.4ks in H2 of 8.0 MPa. The existence of Mg2Cu nano-crystals enables alloying Mg with Cu at low temperatures (<473K).

  18. The super-Turing computational power of plastic recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabessa, Jérémie; Siegelmann, Hava T

    2014-12-01

    We study the computational capabilities of a biologically inspired neural model where the synaptic weights, the connectivity pattern, and the number of neurons can evolve over time rather than stay static. Our study focuses on the mere concept of plasticity of the model so that the nature of the updates is assumed to be not constrained. In this context, we show that the so-called plastic recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are capable of the precise super-Turing computational power--as the static analog neural networks--irrespective of whether their synaptic weights are modeled by rational or real numbers, and moreover, irrespective of whether their patterns of plasticity are restricted to bi-valued updates or expressed by any other more general form of updating. Consequently, the incorporation of only bi-valued plastic capabilities in a basic model of RNNs suffices to break the Turing barrier and achieve the super-Turing level of computation. The consideration of more general mechanisms of architectural plasticity or of real synaptic weights does not further increase the capabilities of the networks. These results support the claim that the general mechanism of plasticity is crucially involved in the computational and dynamical capabilities of biological neural networks. They further show that the super-Turing level of computation reflects in a suitable way the capabilities of brain-like models of computation.

  19. DC-DC Conversion Powering Schemes for the CMS Tracker at Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja; Jussen, Rüdiger; Karpinski, Waclaw; Merz, Jennifer; Sammet, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, houses the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. For the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the Super-LHC, however, a completely new silicon tracker will have to be constructed. One out of several major improvements currently under consideration is the implementation of a track trigger, with tracking information being provided to the first level trigger. Such an intelligent tracker design, utilising fast digital readout electronics, will most certainly lead to an increased power consumption, compared to today's tracker. In combination with the desire to reduce the amount of passive material inside the tracking volume and the impracticality to exchange or even add additional supply cables, a novel powering scheme will be inevitable. In this article a powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion is proposed, and requirements for the DC-DC converters are discussed. Studies of important DC-DC converter quantities such as th...

  20. Existing large steam power plant upgraded for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanti, L.; Franzoni, A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a complete thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated power plant for co-production of electricity and hydrogen via pyrolysis and gasification processes fed by various coals and mixture of coal and biomass, applied to an existing large steam power plant (ENEL Brindisi power plant - 660 MWe). Two different technologies for the syngas production section are considered: pyrolysis process and direct pressurized gasification. Moreover, the proximity of a hydrogen production and purification plants to an existing steam power plant favors the inter-exchange of energy streams, mainly in the form of hot water and steam, which reduces the costs of auxiliary equipment. The high quality of the hydrogen would guarantee its usability for distributed generation and for public transport. The results were obtained using WTEMP thermoeconomic software, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, and this project has been carried out within the framework of the FISR National project 'Integrated systems for hydrogen production and utilization in distributed power generation'.

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  2. Super-resolving power and tunneling as cases of "weak measurement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Mugnai, Daniela; Ranfagni, Anedio

    2017-01-01

    A way for transferring the results obtained with super-gain antennas to optical systems, in order to increase their resolving power, was proposed by Toraldo di Francia in 1952. Recent experimental work performed in the microwave range has confirmed the correctness of the theoretical predictions, which could even seem to be in contradiction with the uncertainty principle. Here we propose a simple way to overcome this contradiction based on the "weak measurement" theory. This theory was originally proposed for quantum-mechanical systems, and represents a powerful tool for interpreting even a variety of classical situations. We demonstrate that the results obtained by means of electromagnetic analysis are confirmed by a "weak measurement" interpretation. Moreover, even the case of tunneling in the microwave range has been considered in the light of such a theory.

  3. Performance evaluation of the hydrogen-powered prototype locomotive 'Hydrogen Pioneer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffrichter, Andreas; Fisher, Peter; Tutcher, Jonathan; Hillmansen, Stuart; Roberts, Clive

    2014-03-01

    The narrow-gauge locomotive 'Hydrogen Pioneer', which was developed and constructed at the University of Birmingham, was employed to establish the performance of a hydrogen-hybrid railway traction vehicle. To achieve this several empirical tests were conducted. The locomotive utilises hydrogen gas in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell power-plant to supply electricity to the traction motors or charge the on-board lead-acid batteries. First, the resistance to motion of the vehicle was determined, then operating tests were conducted for the speeds 2 km h-1, 6 km h-1, 7 km h-1, and 10 km h-1 on a 30 m straight, level alignment resembling light running. The power-plant and vehicle efficiency as well as the performance of the hybrid system were recorded. The observed overall duty cycle efficiency of the power-plant was from 28% to 40% and peak-power demand, such as during acceleration, was provided by the battery-pack, while average power during the duty cycle was met by the fuel cell stack, as designed. The tests establish the proof-of-concept for a hydrogen-hybrid railway traction vehicle and the results indicate that the traction system can be applied to full-scale locomotives.

  4. The 10 kW power electronics for hydrogen arcjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1992-01-01

    A combination of emerging mission considerations such as 'launch on schedule', resource limitations, and the development of higher power spacecraft busses has resulted in renewed interest in high power hydrogen arcjet systems with specific impulses greater than 1000 s for Earth-space orbit transfer and maneuver applications. Solar electric propulsion systems with about 10 kW of power appear to offer payload benefits at acceptable trip times. This work outlines the design and development of 10 kW hydrogen arcjet power electronics and results of arcjet integration testing. The power electronics incorporated a full bridge switching topology similar to that employed in state of the art 5 kW power electronics, and the output filter included an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding for arcjet ignition. Phase shifted, pulse width modulation with current mode control was used to regulate the current delivered to arcjet, and a low inductance power stage minimized switching transients. Hybrid power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors were used to minimize conduction losses. Switching losses were minimized using a fast response, optically isolated, totem-pole gate drive circuit. The input bus voltage for the unit was 150 V, with a maximum output voltage of 225 V. The switching frequency of 20 kHz was a compromise between mass savings and higher efficiency. Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 0.94 were demonstrated, along with steady state load current regulation of 1 percent. The power electronics were successfully integrated with a 10 kW laboratory hydrogen arcjet, and reliable, nondestructive starts and transitions to steady state operation were demonstrated. The estimated specific mass for a flight packaged unit was 2 kg/kW.

  5. A super junction SiGe low-loss fast switching power diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Gao Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel super junction (S J) SiGe switching power diode which has a columnar structure of alternating p-and n- doped pillar substituting conventional n- base region and has far thinner strained SiGe p+layer to overcome the drawbacks of existing Si switching power diode. The SJ SiCe diode can achieve low specific on-resistance, high breakdown voltages and fast switching speed. The results indicate that the forward voltage drop of SJ SiGe diode is much lower than that of conventional Si power diode when the operating current densities do not exceed 1000 A/cm2which is very good for getting lower operating loss. The forward voltage drop of the Si diode is 0.66 V whereas that of the SJ SiGe diode is only 0.52 V at operating current density of 10 A/cm2The breakdown voltages are 203 V for the former and 235 V for the latter. Compared with the conventional Si power diode, the reverse recovery time of SJ SiGe diode with 20 per cent Ge content is shortened by above a half and the peak reverse current is reduced by over 15%. The SJ SiGe diode can remarkably improve the characteristics of power diode by combining the merits of both SJ structure and SiGe material.

  6. Coproduction of hydrogen and electric power using coal hydrogasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Carapellucci; G. Girardi; G. Marcotullio [DIMEG - University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A performance investigation on innovative integrated coal gasification power plants for coproducing hydrogen and electric power has been carried out. To this aim, power is generated using a non conventional thermodynamic cycle, with high efficiency and zero emission: it is a semi-closed combined cycle where the syngas fuel is burnt with stoichiometric O{sub 2} and the combustion temperature is moderated by a steam-CO{sub 2} mixture. Two different ways for coal gasification and hydrogen production have been explored: in the first one, a novel coal hydrogasification is adopted, while hydrogen is obtained from syngas through steam reforming and water-gas shift with simultaneous CO{sub 2} fixation by CaO sorbent; in the second one, oxygen-blown gasification is carried out, a high purity hydrogen stream is simply separated from sulphur-free syngas by a pressure swing adsorption unit, and a CO{sub 2}-rich gaseous phase is extracted from condenser, dried and sent to sequestration. A comparative performance analysis shows that coal anaerobic gasification gives very high efficiencies in H{sub 2}-oriented production, while if only electricity is produced oxygen-blown gasification allows competitive performance by easy operation and absence of CO{sub 2} sorbents. 14 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Analysis of combined hydrogen, heat, and power as a bridge to a hydrogen transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalik, M.; Stephan, C. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-01-18

    Combined hydrogen, heat, and power (CHHP) technology is envisioned as a means to providing heat and electricity, generated on-site, to large end users, such as hospitals, hotels, and distribution centers, while simultaneously producing hydrogen as a by-product. The hydrogen can be stored for later conversion to electricity, used on-site (e.g., in forklifts), or dispensed to hydrogen-powered vehicles. Argonne has developed a complex-adaptive-system model, H2CAS, to simulate how vehicles and infrastructure can evolve in a transition to hydrogen. This study applies the H2CAS model to examine how CHHP technology can be used to aid the transition to hydrogen. It does not attempt to predict the future or provide one forecast of system development. Rather, the purpose of the model is to understand how the system works. The model uses a 50- by 100-mile rectangular grid of 1-square-mile cells centered on the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The major expressways are incorporated into the model, and local streets are considered to be ubiquitous, except where there are natural barriers. The model has two types of agents. Driver agents are characterized by a number of parameters: home and job locations, income, various types of 'personalities' reflective of marketing distinctions (e.g., innovators, early adopters), willingness to spend extra money on 'green' vehicles, etc. At the beginning of the simulations, almost all driver agents own conventional vehicles. They drive around the metropolitan area, commuting to and from work and traveling to various other destinations. As they do so, they observe the presence or absence of facilities selling hydrogen. If they find such facilities conveniently located along their routes, they are motivated to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle when it becomes time to replace their present vehicle. Conversely, if they find that they would be inconvenienced by having to purchase hydrogen earlier than necessary or if they

  8. DC-DC conversion powering schemes for the CMS tracker at Super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, K; Feld, L; Jussen, R; Karpinski, W; Merz, J; Sammet, J, E-mail: katja.klein@cern.c [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, houses the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. For the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the Super-LHC, however, a completely new silicon tracker will have to be constructed. One out of several major improvements currently under consideration is the implementation of a track trigger, with tracking information being provided to the first level trigger. Such an intelligent tracker design, utilising fast digital readout electronics, will most certainly lead to an increased power consumption, compared to today's tracker. In combination with the desire to reduce the amount of passive material inside the tracking volume and the impracticality to exchange or even add additional supply cables, a novel powering scheme will be inevitable. In this article a powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion is proposed, and requirements for the DC-DC converters are discussed. Studies of important DC-DC converter quantities such as the power efficiency, conducted and radiated noise levels, and material budget are presented, and a possible implementation of DC-DC buck converters into one proposed track trigger layout is sketched.

  9. Challenges and opportunities of power systems from smart homes to super-grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Philipp; Huber, Matthias; Dorfner, Johannes; Hamacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The world's power systems are facing a structural change including liberalization of markets and integration of renewable energy sources. This paper describes the challenges that lie ahead in this process and points out avenues for overcoming different problems at different scopes, ranging from individual homes to international super-grids. We apply energy system models at those different scopes and find a trade-off between technical and social complexity. Small-scale systems would require technological breakthroughs, especially for storage, but individual agents can and do already start to build and operate such systems. In contrast, large-scale systems could potentially be more efficient from a techno-economic point of view. However, new political frameworks are required that enable long-term cooperation among sovereign entities through mutual trust. Which scope first achieves its breakthrough is not clear yet.

  10. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  11. Hydrogen-fuel-powered bell segments of biomimetic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yonas; Villanueva, Alex; Haines, Carter; Novitski, David; Baughman, Ray; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    Artificial muscles powered by a renewable energy source are desired for joint articulation in bio-inspired autonomous systems. In this study, a robotic underwater vehicle, inspired by jellyfish, was designed to be actuated by a chemical fuel source. The fuel-powered muscles presented in this work comprise nano-platinum catalyst-coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets, wrapped on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA). As a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases makes contact with the platinum, the resulting exothermic reaction activates the nickel-titanium (NiTi)-based SMA. The MWCNT sheets serve as a support for the platinum particles and enhance the heat transfer due to the high thermal conductivity between the composite and the SMA. A hydrogen and oxygen fuel source could potentially provide higher power density than electrical sources. Several vehicle designs were considered and a peripheral SMA configuration under the robotic bell was chosen as the best arrangement. Constitutive equations combined with thermodynamic modeling were developed to understand the influence of system parameters that affect the overall actuation behavior of the fuel-powered SMA. The model is based on the changes in entropy of the hydrogen and oxygen fuel on the composite actuator within a channel. The specific heat capacity is the dominant factor controlling the width of the strain for various pulse widths of fuel delivery. Both theoretical and experimental strains for different diameter (100 and 150 µm) SMA/MWCNT/Pt fuel-powered muscles with dead weight attached at the end exhibited the highest magnitude under 450 ms of fuel delivery within 1.6 mm diameter conduit size. Fuel-powered bell deformation of 13.5% was found to be comparable to that of electrically powered (29%) and natural jellyfish (42%).

  12. A New Approach of Modeling an Ultra-Super-Critical Power Plant for Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolian Hou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A suitable model of coordinated control system (CCS with high accuracy and simple structure is essential for the design of advanced controllers which can improve the efficiency of the ultra-super-critical (USC power plant. Therefore, with the demand of plant performance improvement, an improved T-S fuzzy model identification approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the improved entropy cluster algorithm is applied to identify the premise parameters which can automatically determine the cluster numbers and initial cluster centers by introducing the concept of a decision-making constant and threshold. Then, the learning algorithm is used to modify the initial cluster center and a new structure of concluding part is discussed, the incremental data around the cluster center is used to identify the local linear model through a weighted recursive least-square algorithm. Finally, the proposed approach is employed to model the CCS of a 1000 MW USC one-through boiler power plant by using on-site measured data. Simulation results show that the T-S fuzzy model built in this paper is accurate enough to reflect the dynamic performance of CCS and can be treated as a foundation model for the overall optimizing control of the USC power plant.

  13. Analysis of combined hydrogen, heat, and power as a bridge to a hydrogen transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalik, M.; Stephan, C. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-01-18

    Combined hydrogen, heat, and power (CHHP) technology is envisioned as a means to providing heat and electricity, generated on-site, to large end users, such as hospitals, hotels, and distribution centers, while simultaneously producing hydrogen as a by-product. The hydrogen can be stored for later conversion to electricity, used on-site (e.g., in forklifts), or dispensed to hydrogen-powered vehicles. Argonne has developed a complex-adaptive-system model, H2CAS, to simulate how vehicles and infrastructure can evolve in a transition to hydrogen. This study applies the H2CAS model to examine how CHHP technology can be used to aid the transition to hydrogen. It does not attempt to predict the future or provide one forecast of system development. Rather, the purpose of the model is to understand how the system works. The model uses a 50- by 100-mile rectangular grid of 1-square-mile cells centered on the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The major expressways are incorporated into the model, and local streets are considered to be ubiquitous, except where there are natural barriers. The model has two types of agents. Driver agents are characterized by a number of parameters: home and job locations, income, various types of 'personalities' reflective of marketing distinctions (e.g., innovators, early adopters), willingness to spend extra money on 'green' vehicles, etc. At the beginning of the simulations, almost all driver agents own conventional vehicles. They drive around the metropolitan area, commuting to and from work and traveling to various other destinations. As they do so, they observe the presence or absence of facilities selling hydrogen. If they find such facilities conveniently located along their routes, they are motivated to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle when it becomes time to replace their present vehicle. Conversely, if they find that they would be inconvenienced by having to purchase hydrogen earlier than necessary or if they

  14. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  15. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the

  16. Hydrogen generation from small-scale wind-powered electrolysis system in different power matching modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcek, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nigde University, Campus, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    This study presents a techno-economic evaluation on hydrogen generation from a small-scale wind-powered electrolysis system in different power matching modes. For the analysis, wind speed data, which measured as hourly time series in Kirklareli, Turkey, were used to predict the electrical energy and hydrogen produced by the wind-hydrogen energy system and their variation according to the height of the wind turbine. The system considered in this study is primarily consisted of a 6 kW wind-energy conversion system and a 2 kW PEM electrolyzer. The calculation of energy production was made by means of the levelized cost method by considering two different systems that are the grid-independent system and the grid-integrated system. Annual production of electrical energy and hydrogen was calculated as 15,148.26 kWh/year and 102.37 kg/year, respectively. The highest hydrogen production is obtained in January. The analyses showed that both electrical energy and hydrogen production depend strongly on the hub height of wind turbine in addition to the economic indicators. In the grid-integrated system, the calculated levelized cost of hydrogen changes in the range of 0.3485-4.4849 US$/kg for 36 m hub height related to the specific turbine cost. The grid-integrated system can be considered as profitable when the excess electrical energy delivered by system sold to the grid. (author)

  17. Bounds of Efficiency at Maximum Power for Normal-, Sub-and Super-Dissipative Carnot-Like Heat Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; TU Zhan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Carnot-like heat engines are classified into three types (normal-,sub-and,super-dissipative) according to relations between the minimum irreversible entropy production in the "isothermal" processes and the time for completing those processes.The efficiencies at maximum power of normal-,sub-and super-dissipative Carnot-like heat engines are proved to be bounded between ηc/2 and ηc/ (2-ηc),ηc/2 and ηc,0 and ηc/ (2-ηc),respectively.These bounds are also shared by linear,sub-and super-linear irreversible Carnot-like engines [Tu and Wang,Europhys.Lett.98 (2012) 40001] although the dissipative engines and the irreversible ones are inequivalent to each other.

  18. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  19. Outline of super power generation from garbage first in Japan; Kokunai hatsu no supa gomi hatsuden no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.

    1997-04-01

    The Enterprise Department of Gunma Prefecture established a model plant of super power generation from garbage (power generation from garbage using the combined system of gas t5urbine and steam turbine) for verifying the system construction, installation, and operation in the site of Takahama Power Plant. The power generation efficiency of the conventional plant of power generation from garbage has been limited because of keeping the surface temperature of the heat transfer tube relatively low for preventing the corrosion of the tube of boiler by the attack of corrosive gas generated in the incinerator. It is said that the corrosion progresses violently when the temperature exceeds 400{degree}C. In the super power generation from garbage, the power generation is first done by the gas turbine, and the exhaust gas from the gas turbine is led to the waste heat boiler. In this way, a higher power generation efficiency is obtained as compared with the conventional power generation from garbage. The power plant is as follows: Total output; 25,000 kW, gas turbine 17,500 kW, and steam turbine 10,500 kW. The construction work was started in April 1994, and finished in June 1996. After commissioning, the commercial operation was commenced from November 1996. 8 figs.

  20. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  1. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  2. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-based propulsion and power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melof, Brian Matthew; Keese, David L.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Ruffner, Judith Alison; Escapule, William Rusty

    2004-04-01

    Less toxic, storable, hypergolic propellants are desired to replace nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and hydrazine in certain applications. Hydrogen peroxide is a very attractive replacement oxidizer, but finding acceptable replacement fuels is more challenging. The focus of this investigation is to find fuels that have short hypergolic ignition delays, high specific impulse, and desirable storage properties. The resulting hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination would be highly desirable for virtually any high energy-density applications such as small but powerful gas generating systems, attitude control motors, or main propulsion. These systems would be implemented on platforms ranging from guided bombs to replacement of environmentally unfriendly existing systems to manned space vehicles.

  4. High-power production targets for the Super-FRS using a fast extraction scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Kojouharova, J; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Chishkine, V; Geissel, H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kindler, B; Landre-Pellemoine, F; Lommel, B; Mittig, W; Münzenberg, G; Shutov, A; Weick, H; Yavor, M

    2003-01-01

    The high-power production target of the Super-FRS [H. Geissel et al., these Proceedings] will be irradiated by very intense heavy-ion beams which will be delivered from the future SIS100/200 [An International Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons, GSI-Report, 2001] synchrotron facility at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. This paper presents calculations of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of such a target, considering that a uranium ion beam with an energy of 1 GeV/u and an intensity of 10 sup 1 sup 2 particles will impinge within 50 ns on a solid carbon target with a thickness of 4 g/cm sup 2. Due to the high beam intensity the target may be strongly heated and could be destroyed in a single shot. The purpose of this work is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations how one can minimize target heating and avoid target destruction.

  5. Application of evaporative cooling technology in super-high power density magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Gu, G B; Guo, S Q; Cao, R; Li, Z G; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    Evaporative cooling technology utilizes phase-change heat transfer mode to achieve the cooling for heating equipment. The heat transfer capacity of evaporative cooling technology is far more than air or water cooling technology. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source magnet is a typical super-high power density magnet, and the evaporative cooling technology is an ideal cooling method for the coils of magnet. In this paper we show the structure and process of coils and the special design of flow channels of coolant for an experiment magnet model. Additionally, the heat transfer circulation is presented and analyzed. By the finite element method, the flow channels are optimized to rationally allocate coolant and to reduce the temperature of coils. For the experiment model, the current density of copper wire of coils is 19 A/mm(2), and the coil-windows current density is larger than 12 A/mm(2). The max temperature of coils is below 80 °C, and the total heat is about 200 kW.

  6. Development of a rotor alloy for advanced ultra super critical turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Shigekazu; Yamada, Masayuki; Suga, Takeo; Imai, Kiyoshi; Nemoto, Kuniyoshi; Yoshioka, Youmei [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A Ni-based superalloy ''TOS1X'', for the rotor material of the 700 class advanced ultra super critical (A-USC) turbine power generation system was developed. TOS1X is an alloy that is improved in the creep rupture strength of Inconel trademark 617 maintaining both forgeability and weldability. The 7 t weight model rotor made of TOS1X was manufactured by double melt process, vacuum induction melting and electro slag remelting, and forging. During forging process, forging cracks and any other abnormalities were not detected on the ingots. The metallurgical and the mechanical properties in this rotor were investigated. Macro and micro structure observation, and some mechanical tests were conducted. According to the metallurgical structure investigation, there was no remarkable segregation in whole area and the forging effect was reached in the center part of the rotor ingot. The results of tensile test and creep rupture test proved that proof stress and tensile stress of the TOS1X are higher than those of Inconel trademark 617 and creep rupture strength of TOS1X is much superior than that of Inconel trademark 617. (orig.)

  7. The Power Control System of Constant Power Super-high Pressure Mercury Lamp%超高压汞灯功率控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫平; 葛劢冲

    2012-01-01

    A super-high pressure mercury lamp power of mask aligner is introduced in this paper,using analogue power feedback control,effectively improving power stability.The principle and major circuit structure of constant power control are emphatically expounded in this paper.%介绍了一种光刻机超高压汞灯电源,采用模拟功率反馈控制,有效提高了光源稳定性;重点阐述了恒功率控制的原理和主要电路结构。

  8. Performance study of a hydrogen powered metal hydride actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainul Hossain Bhuiya, Md; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-04-01

    A thermally driven hydrogen powered actuator integrating metal hydride hydrogen storage reactor, which is compact, noiseless, and able to generate smooth actuation, is presented in this article. To test the plausibility of a thermally driven actuator, a conventional piston type actuator was integrated with LaNi5 based hydrogen storage system. Copper encapsulation followed by compaction of particles into pellets, were adopted to improve overall thermal conductivity of the reactor. The operation of the actuator was thoroughly investigated for an array of operating temperature ranges. Temperature swing of the hydride reactor triggering smooth and noiseless actuation over several operating temperature ranges were monitored for quantification of actuator efficiency. Overall, the actuator generated smooth and consistent strokes during repeated cycles of operation. The efficiency of the actuator was found to be as high as 13.36% for operating a temperature range of 20 °C-50 °C. Stress-strain characteristics, actuation hysteresis etc were studied experimentally. Comparison of stress-strain characteristics of the proposed actuator with traditional actuators, artificial muscles and so on was made. The study suggests that design modification and use of high pressure hydride may enhance the performance and broaden the application horizon of the proposed actuator in future.

  9. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  10. Super low power consumption middle infrared LED-PD optopairs for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Nikolay D.; Salikhov, Khafiz M.; Kalinina, Karina V.; Kizhaev, Sergey S.; Chernyaev, Anton V.

    2014-03-01

    The new photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths at 3640 nm, 4600 nm and 5150 nm have been recently developed in a high-tech company LED Microsensor NT (St.Petersburg, Russia) in cooperation with Aalto University (Espoo, Finland). Photodiode (PD) heterostructures InAsSb/InAsSbP were grown by MOVPE on InAs substrates. For the PDs with a cutoff wavelength at 3640 nm at room temperature the responsivity at 3300 nm reached 1.46 A/W and, detectivity was 1.56*1010 cm.Hz1/2/W. For the PDs with a cut-off 4600 nm the same parameters were: 1.91 A/W and 6.7*109 cm.Hz1/2/W respectively (lambda=4100 nm). For the third type of PDs with a cut-off at 5150 nm responsivity was 0.29 A/W, detectivity was 4.2*108 cm.Hz1/2/W (lambda=5000 nm). Creation of photodiodes for the spectral range 2500-5200 nm with acceptable efficiency in photovoltaic operation mode (with no reverse bias) and using them in a pair with spectrally matched LEDs driven by very short current pulses allows developing optical cells with very low power consumption (less than 1 mW). Small size of the LED and PD dies (0.4-0.8 mm) and low heating makes it possible to design very thin optical cells (less than 2 mm) for measuring CH4, CO2, CO, H2O and other substances [1]. Mounting of a few LED dies that emit at different wavelengths in such a small cell allows measuring different chemical substances simultaneously. Direct coating of optical filters on the LED or PD surface during post-growth process allows improving selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. Super low power consumption of the diode-based optical cells makes them promising candidates for the wireless mesh sensor networks for various gas monitoring purposes as well as for HVAC systems. Combination of the low power consumption and thin size of the cells opens possibility to embed them in mobile devices.

  11. Operative and technological management of super-large united power grids: lessons of major world's blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkis, K.; Kreslins, V.; Mutule, A.

    2014-02-01

    Power system (PS) blackouts still persist worldwide, evidencing that the existing protective structures need to be improved. The discussed requirements and criteria to be met for joint synchronous operation of large and super-large united PSs should be based on close co-ordination of operative and technological management of all PSs involved in order to ensure secure and stable electricity supply and minimise or avoid the threat of a total PS blackout. The authors analyse the July 2012 India blackout - the largest power outage in history, which affected over 620 million people, i.e. half of India's population and spread across its 22 states. The analysis is of a general character, being applicable also to similar blackouts that have occurred in Europe and worldwide since 2003. The authors summarise and develop the main principles and methods of operative and technological management aimed at preventing total blackouts in large and super-large PSs. Neskatoties uz sasniegumiem elektroenerģētikas jomā un energosistēmu nepārtrauktu modernizāciju, pasaulē regulāri notiek sabrukumu avārijas. Rakstā apskatīti lielu un superlielu energosistēmu apvienību savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasības un kritēriji, kas pamatojas uz operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības ciešu koordināciju starp energosistēmām. Savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasībām un kritērijiem ir izšķiroša nozīme, lai panāktu elektroapgādes drošumu un stabilitāti katrā energosistēmā, kas darbojas apvienotas energosistēmas sastāvā. Šo prasību un kritēriju ievērošana sekmē totālo avāriju izcelšanās iespēju samazināšanu un to novēršanu. Indijas 2012.gada totālo avāriju un citu analogo avāriju Eiropā un Amerikā analīze un izvērtējums laika posmā no 2003.gada, deva iespēju apkopot un izstrādāt lielu un superlielu energosistēmu operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības principus un metodoloģiju, lai novērstu vai

  12. Safety Implementation of Hydrogen Igniters and Recombiners for Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accident Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianjun; ZHOU Zhiwei; JING Xingqing

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building may threaten the integrity of the containment. Hydrogen recombiners and igniters are two methods to reduce hydrogen levels in containment buildings during severe accidents. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety implementation of hydrogen igniters and recombiners. This paper analyzes the risk of deliberate hydrogen ignition and investigates three mitigation measures using igniters only, hydrogen recombiners only or a combination of recombiners and igniters. The results indicate that steam can effectively control the hydrogen flame acceleration and the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  13. Control of an innovative super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy actuated accumulator for blowout preventer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The design of a super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuated accumulator for blowout preventer (BOP) presented in this paper featured several advantages over conventional hydraulic accumulators including instant large current drive, quick system response and elimination of need for the pressure conduits. However, the mechanical design introduced two challenges, the nonlinear nature of SMA actuators and the varying voltage provided by a super capacitor, for control system design. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) feedforward plus PID controller was developed with the aim of compensation for these adverse effects. Experiments were conducted on a scaled down model and experimental results show that precision control can be achieved with the proposed configurations and algorithms.

  14. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  15. Commercializable power source from forming new states of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.L.; Zhao, G.; Akhtar, K.; Chang, Z.; He, J.; Lu, Y.; Good, W. [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States); Dhandapani, B. [35 Stoney Hill Road, Jamesburg, NJ 08831 (United States); Chu, G.

    2009-01-15

    The data from a broad spectrum of investigational techniques strongly and consistently indicates that hydrogen can exist in lower-energy states than previously thought possible. The predicted reaction involves a resonant, nonradiative energy transfer from otherwise stable atomic hydrogen to a catalyst capable of accepting the energy. The product is H(1/p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen called ''hydrino atoms'' wherein n=(1/2,1/3,1/4,..1/p) (p {<=} 137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. Atomic lithium and molecular NaH served as catalysts since they meet the catalyst criterion - a chemical or physical process with an enthalpy change equal to an integer multiple m of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2 eV (e.g. m = 3 for Li and m = 2 for NaH). Specific predictions based on closed-form equations for energy levels of the corresponding hydrino hydride ions H{sup -}(1/4) of novel alkali halido hydrino hydride compounds (MH*X; M = Li or Na, X = halide) and molecular hydrino H{sub 2}(1/4) were tested using chemically generated catalysis reactants. First, Li catalyst was tested. Li and LiNH{sub 2} were used as a source of atomic lithium and hydrogen atoms. Using water-flow, batch calorimetry, the measured power from 1 g Li, 0.5 g LiNH{sub 2}, 10 g LiBr, and 15 g Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was about 160 W with an energy balance of {delta}H = -19.1 kJ. The observed energy balance was 4.4 times the maximum theoretical energy based on known chemistry. Next, Raney nickel (R-Ni) served as a dissociator when the power reaction mixture was used in chemical synthesis wherein LiBr acted as a getter of the catalysis product H(1/4) to form LiH*X as well as to trap H{sub 2}(1/4) in the crystal. The ToF-SIMs showed LiH*X peaks. The {sup 1}H MAS NMR of LiH*Br and LiH*I showed a large distinct upfield resonance at about -2.5 ppm that matched H{sup -}(1/4) in a LiX matrix

  16. Use of super-capacitors in the motorization of fuel cell electric powered vehicles; Utilisation de supercondensateurs dans la motorisation de vehicules electriques a pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djerdir, A.; Gualous, H.; Berthon, A. [L2ES, IGE, 90 - Belfort (France); Bouquain, D. [CREEBEL, 90 - Belfort (France); Ayad, M.Y.; Rasoanarivo, I.; Rael, S.; Davat, B. [GREEN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work is to integrate super-capacitors in a fuel cell vehicle as an auxiliary energy source able to provide and to recover an energy power. The super-capacitors elements are got together in series/parallel and inserted on-board of the vehicle. A tension level and an energy converter/packager have been chosen. (O.M.)

  17. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  18. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  20. Background and methods for a reliable test for hydrogen cracking of super-martensitic stainless steel flow-lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroe, Mioara [Materials Science and Electrochemistry Dept., Free University of Brussels, U.L.B., Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, Brussels (Belgium)]|[CEBELCOR, Av. Paul Heger, grille 2, 1000, Brussels (Belgium); Delplancke, Jean-Luc [Materials Science and Electrochemistry Dept., Free University of Brussels, U.L.B., Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, Brussels (Belgium); Pourbaix, Antoine [CEBELCOR, Av. Paul Heger, grille 2, 1000, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The most recent models proposed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) suggest that there is a strong interaction between hydrogen in the material and dislocation's movement. Parameters like hydrogen content and hydrogen localisation in the material, load mode and plastic deformation are important for HE. A representative test to determine the susceptibility to should take into account these parameters. The solubility of hydrogen and its diffusion coefficient were determined by permeation tests. Extraction of hydrogen at different temperatures identified the types of hydrogen traps. Nano-indentation tests gave an insight of the modification of mechanical properties at the nano scale, in the presence of hydrogen. Constant load tests (CL) and slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were performed on samples under cathodic charging and on pre-charged samples. The results obtained until now by CL and SSRT suggest that dynamic deformation is very important for the susceptibility to HE. (authors)

  1. Metallic Hydrogen: The Most Powerful Rocket Fuel Yet To Exist

    OpenAIRE

    Silvera, Isaac F.; Cole, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metast...

  2. Origin and Quenching of Novel ultraviolet and blue emission in NdGaO3: Concept of Super-Hydrogenic Dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Saha, Surajit; Liu, Zhiqi; Motapothula, M.; Patra, Abhijeet; Yakovlev, Nikolai; Cai, Yao; Prakash, Saurav; Huang, Xiao Hu; Tay, Chuan Beng; Cong, Chun Xiao; Bhatt, Thirumaleshwara; Dolmanan, Surani B.; Chen, Jianqiang; Lü, Weiming; Huang, Zhen; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Chua, Soo Jin; Yu, Ting; Asta, Mark; Ariando, A.; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we report the existence of novel ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission in rare-earth based perovskite NdGaO3 (NGO) and the systematic quench of the NGO photoluminescence (PL) by Ce doping. Study of room temperature PL was performed in both single-crystal and polycrystalline NGO (substrates and pellets) respectively. Several NGO pellets were prepared with varying Ce concentration and their room temperature PL was studied using 325 nm laser. It was found that the PL intensity shows a systematic quench with increasing Ce concentration. XPS measurements indicated that nearly 50% of Ce atoms are in the 4+ state. The PL quench was attributed to the novel concept of super hydrogenic dopant (SHD)”, where each Ce4+ ion contributes an electron which forms a super hydrogenic atom with an enhanced Bohr radius, due to the large dielectric constant of the host. Based on the critical Ce concentration for complete quenching this SHD radius was estimated to be within a range of 0.85 nm and 1.15 nm whereas the predicted theoretical value of SHD radius for NdGaO3 is ~1.01 nm.

  3. Origin and Quenching of Novel ultraviolet and blue emission in NdGaO3: Concept of Super-Hydrogenic Dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Saha, Surajit; Liu, Zhiqi; Motapothula, M.; Patra, Abhijeet; Yakovlev, Nikolai; Cai, Yao; Prakash, Saurav; Huang, Xiao Hu; Tay, Chuan Beng; Cong, Chun Xiao; Bhatt, Thirumaleshwara; Dolmanan, Surani B.; Chen, Jianqiang; Lü, Weiming; Huang, Zhen; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Chua, Soo Jin; Yu, Ting; Asta, Mark; Ariando, A.; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we report the existence of novel ultraviolet (UV) and blue emission in rare-earth based perovskite NdGaO3 (NGO) and the systematic quench of the NGO photoluminescence (PL) by Ce doping. Study of room temperature PL was performed in both single-crystal and polycrystalline NGO (substrates and pellets) respectively. Several NGO pellets were prepared with varying Ce concentration and their room temperature PL was studied using 325 nm laser. It was found that the PL intensity shows a systematic quench with increasing Ce concentration. XPS measurements indicated that nearly 50% of Ce atoms are in the 4+ state. The PL quench was attributed to the novel concept of super hydrogenic dopant (SHD)”, where each Ce4+ ion contributes an electron which forms a super hydrogenic atom with an enhanced Bohr radius, due to the large dielectric constant of the host. Based on the critical Ce concentration for complete quenching this SHD radius was estimated to be within a range of 0.85 nm and 1.15 nm whereas the predicted theoretical value of SHD radius for NdGaO3 is ~1.01 nm. PMID:27808272

  4. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  5. Small proton exchange membrane fuel cell power station by using bio-hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 毛宗强; 王诚; 任南琪

    2006-01-01

    In fermentative organic waste water treatment process, there was hydrogen as a by-product. After some purification,there was about 50% ~ 70% hydrogen in the bio-gas, which could be utilized for electricity generation with fuel cell. Half a year ago, joint experiments between biological hydrogen production in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power station in Tsinghua University were conducted for electricity generation with bio-hydrogen from the pilot plant in HIT. The results proved the feasibility of the bio-hydrogen as a by-product utilization with PEMFC power station and revealed some problems of fuel cell power station for this application.

  6. Sensor for measuring hydrogen partial pressure in parabolic trough power plant expansion tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  7. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  8. Investigation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond films grown with nitrogen/methane/hydrogen plasma at high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. J.; Hou, Haihong; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Jiang, X. F.; Pinto, J. L.; Ye, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of some growth parameters such as high microwave power ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 kW and N2 additive on the incorporation of bonded hydrogen defects in nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films grown through a small amount of pure N2 addition into conventional 4% CH4/H2 plasma using a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD system. Incorporation form and content of hydrogen point defects in the NCD films produced with pure N2 addition was analyzed by employing Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the first time. A large amount of hydrogen related defects was detected in all the produced NCD films with N2 additive ranging from 29 to 87 μm thick with grain size from 47 nm to 31 nm. Furthermore, a specific new H related sharp absorption peak appears in all the NCD films grown with pure N2/CH4/H2 plasma at high powers and becomes stronger at powers higher than 3.0 kW and is even stronger than the 2920 cm-1 peak, which is commonly found in CVD diamond films. Based on these experimental findings, the role of high power and pure nitrogen addition on the growth of NCD films including hydrogen defect formation is analyzed and discussed.

  9. Round-the-clock power supply and a sustainable economy via synergistic integration of solar thermal power and hydrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Emre; Mallapragada, Dharik S; Maréchal, François; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-12-29

    We introduce a paradigm-"hydricity"-that involves the coproduction of hydrogen and electricity from solar thermal energy and their judicious use to enable a sustainable economy. We identify and implement synergistic integrations while improving each of the two individual processes. When the proposed integrated process is operated in a standalone, solely power production mode, the resulting solar water power cycle can generate electricity with unprecedented efficiencies of 40-46%. Similarly, in standalone hydrogen mode, pressurized hydrogen is produced at efficiencies approaching ∼50%. In the coproduction mode, the coproduced hydrogen is stored for uninterrupted solar power production. When sunlight is unavailable, we envision that the stored hydrogen is used in a "turbine"-based hydrogen water power (H2WP) cycle with the calculated hydrogen-to-electricity efficiency of 65-70%, which is comparable to the fuel cell efficiencies. The H2WP cycle uses much of the same equipment as the solar water power cycle, reducing capital outlays. The overall sun-to-electricity efficiency of the hydricity process, averaged over a 24-h cycle, is shown to approach ∼35%, which is nearly the efficiency attained by using the best multijunction photovoltaic cells along with batteries. In comparison, our proposed process has the following advantages: (i) It stores energy thermochemically with a two- to threefold higher density, (ii) coproduced hydrogen has alternate uses in transportation/chemical/petrochemical industries, and (iii) unlike batteries, the stored energy does not discharge over time and the storage medium does not degrade with repeated uses.

  10. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  11. Failure investigation of a secondary super heater tube in a 140 MW thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Saha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the findings of a detailed investigation into the failure of a secondary super heater tube in a 140 MW thermal power plant. Preliminary macroscopic examinations along with visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis were carried out to deduce the probable cause of failure. In addition optical microscopy was a necessary supplement to understand the cause of failure. It was concluded that the tube had failed due to severe creep damage caused by high metal temperature during service. The probable causes of high metal temperature may be in sufficient flow of steam due to partial blockage, presence of thick oxide scale on ID surface, high flue gas temperature etc. rupture.

  12. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell industry : clean power for the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Natural Resources Canada has been involved in the research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells and has worked closely with industry for more than 15 years to bring world-leading technologies to market. This brochure presented some of Canada's key players in the area of hydrogen and fuel cell technology and described their respective projects. The players included Agile Systems Inc., Armstrong Monitoring Corp., Ballard Power Systems, Bureau de normalisation du Quebec, Cellex Power Products Inc., the Canadian Hydrogen Association, the Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies, Dynetek Industries Ltd., Fuel Cell Technologies Corp., FuelMaker Corporation, GFI Control Systems Inc., Global Thermoelectric, H Power Enterprises of Canada Inc., Hydrogen Systems Inc., Hydrogenics Corporation, Hydro-Quebec, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, the Institut de recherche sur l'hydrogene, Kinectrics Inc., Kraus Group Inc., McGill University, Powertech Labs Inc., QuestAir Technologies Inc., Stuart Energy Systems, TISEC Inc., Xantrex Technology Inc., and XCELLSIS Fuel Cell Engines Inc. The brochure included a map depicting the Canadian locations where hydrogen and fuel cell activities are taking place. Alternative fuels in the transportation sector is the most prominent opportunity for hydrogen and fuel cell technology, with a zero emission fuel cycle as the goal. Remote and portable power are other opportunities for this technology, along with residential and stationary power generation. It was noted that with fuel cell powered vehicles are close to becoming a commercial reality, but a proper infrastructure must be put in place to receive these vehicles. The brochure also discussed initiatives such as the new National Fuel Cell Research and Innovation Initiative, a $30 million commitment toward the development of a Fuel Cell Testing and Demonstration Facility at the Innovation Centre in Vancouver, a Research and Development deployment program, and a fund

  13. Hydrogen-fueled Wankel engines for small integrated power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanki, P. A.; Wallace, J. S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    An experimental investigation into hydrogen fueling of Wankel engines, currently underway at the University of Toronto, was described. The objective of the experiment was to generate an emissions and efficiency database. In the first phase of the work, external mixture formation was used. Results confirmed Mazda`s own unpublished results. Using a small air-cooled Wankel engine, the authors investigated simpler means of injecting hydrogen through a row of four symmetric and equally separated orifices drilled through the epitrochoid wall. Hydrogen was supplied continuously to the orifices through the distribution manifold on the outside of the housing, with the flow controlled by a needle valve at the inlet of the distribution manifold. Although this system of continuous injection did not provide the complete separation of inlet air and injected hydrogen achieved by the Mazda timed hydrogen injection system, it was considered to be far simpler and achieved the critical goal of isolating open air intake from the hot combustion chamber surfaces. It was concluded that the epitrochoid wall injection offers some advantages over simple external mixture formation. It also has the added advantage of avoiding the complexity of a timed injection system with a valve. 9 refs., 4 figs..

  14. Carbon nanofibers as hydrogen adsorbing materials for power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M.O.; Kolbasov, G.Ya. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Palladina 32/34, Kyiv 142 (Ukraine); Melezhyk, A.V. [TM Spetsmash Ltd., vul. Viskoznaya 5, build. 23, 02660 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2008-01-21

    Porous carbon nanofibers are synthesized by CVD method from acetylene with use of iron-containing catalysts. Activation of the nanofibers in melted potassium hydroxide results in increasing surface area from initial 300-400 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} to 1700 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. As follows from XRD data, activated nanofibers do not contain regular packages of graphene layers, but retain high electric conductivity. Deposition of copper improves electrochemical hydrogen storing characteristics of carbon nanofibers. Carbon nanomaterials obtained can be used as hydrogen storing materials in batteries instead of hydride forming metals. (author)

  15. Chemical composition of total suspended particulates (TSP) and trace gases near a super thermal power plant (Shaktinagar) U.P.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Upadhyaya, V. [Rain and Cloud Physics Research Centre (IITM), New Delhi (India)

    1997-06-01

    Total suspended particulates (TSP) and its chemical composition as well as concentrations of trace gases (i.e. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} ad O{sub 3}) sampled near Singrauli super coal-fired power plant situated at Shaktinagar in U.P were investigated. The sampling site is situated at a distance of 1 km north of the power plant and the samples were collected during the monsoon seasons of 1991 and 1992. The concentration of TSP has been found to be higher in 1991 than in 1992. This is attributed to the prevailing wind direction which were mainly north and north easterly in 1991 and carried more TSP from coal mines situated in the north. Out of the eight major water soluble ionic components of TSP measured (i.e. Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}, Na, K, Ca and Mg), concentrations of soil oriented aerosols, especially Ca and concentration of SO{sub 4} which is emitted from thermal power plant have been found to be dominant. Analysis of trace gases showed that the concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are much higher as compared to the concentrations of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Ultralow-power hydrogen sensing with single palladium nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, C.J.M. van; Merken, P.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium nanowires were fabricated on silicon substrates using conventional microfabrication techniques. Sensors based on such nanowires show a reversible response to hydrogen concentrations as low as 27 ppm with response times varying from 5 s (H2 concentrations >20%) to 30 s (H2 concentrations <1

  17. Pulsations powered by hydrogen shell burning in white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Camisassa, María E; Althaus, Leandro G; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of a third dredge-up episode during the asymptotic giant branch phase, white dwarf models evolved from low-metallicity progenitors have a thick hydrogen envelope, which makes hydrogen shell burning be the most important energy source. We investigate the pulsational stability of white dwarf models with thick envelopes to see whether nonradial $g$-mode pulsations are triggered by hydrogen burning, with the aim of placing constraints on hydrogen shell burning in cool white dwarfs and on a third dredge-up during the asymptotic giant branch evolution of their progenitor stars. We construct white-dwarf sequences from low-metallicity progenitors by means of full evolutionary calculations, and analyze their pulsation stability for the models in the range of effective temperatures $T_{\\rm eff} \\sim 15\\,000\\,-\\, 8\\,000$ K. We demonstrate that, for white dwarf models with masses $M_{\\star} \\lesssim 0.71\\,\\rm M_{\\sun}$ and effective temperatures $8\\,500 \\lesssim T_{\\rm eff} \\lesssim 11\\,600$ K that evolved...

  18. Implementation of a Dual on Die 140 V Super-Junction Power Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    Increasing the switching frequency for switch mode power supplies is one method to achieve smaller, lighter weight and hopefully cheaper power converters. Silicon is not only the dominant material used to produce the switches but also it allows more circuitry to be easily integrated on the same d....... This work presents an application customized switches to be used in switch mode power supplies. The prototype chip was implemented using a 0.18 μm SOI process and includes dual electrically isolated 140 V, 1.2 Ω N-channel MOSFETs....

  19. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  1. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  2. SINTESA POP FAT MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI DAN FRAKSINASI BERBAHAN MINYAK SAWIT DAN OLEIN SUPER TERHIDROGENASI [Synthesis of POP Fat via Interesterification and Fractionation Based on Plam Oil and Hydrogenated Super Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesterification of fat blends containing palm oil (RBDPO and hydrogenated super olein (HSOL at weight ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and fractionation was studied for production POP fat. POP fat is cocoa butter equivalent (CBE which contains high triglyceride of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP and its can be used as alternative fat for cocoa butter with the standard i.e. triglyceride composition of saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS more than 65% and melting point about of 32-35°C. Interesterification was conducted chemically using sodium methoxide. Then, interesterified product was fractionated two stages using hexane and acetone as solvent, respectively. Interesterification of the subtrates resulted change of triglycerides composition of PPP, PPS, POP, POS and POO which were showed with the concentration of several triglycerides were increased, some were decreased and several new triglycerides were formed. The change of triglyceride structure cause melting point and solid fat content were decreased. Fractionation 2 stages of interesterified product resulted fat containing high triglyceride of POP (above 62% and POS range of 10-17% and melting point about of 35-39°C. This product can be categorized as CBE which produced from the substrate of RBDPO to HSOL at weight ratio was 2:1 with characteristic i.e. POP 68.2%, POS 10.8 % and melting point of 35°C.

  3. Prediction of Production Power for High-pressure Hydrogen by High-pressure Water Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyakuno, Takahiro; Hattori, Kikuo; Ito, Kohei; Onda, Kazuo

    Recently the high attention for fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is pushing to construct the hydrogen supplying station for FCEV in the world. The hydrogen pressure supplied at the current test station is intended to be high for increasing the FCEV’s driving distance. The water electrolysis can produce cleanly the hydrogen by utilizing the electricity from renewable energy without emitting CO2 to atmosphere, when it is compared to be the popular reforming process of fossil fuel in the industry. The power required for the high-pressure water electrolysis, where water is pumped up to high-pressure, may be smaller than the power for the atmospheric water electrolysis, where the produced atmospheric hydrogen is pumped up by compressor, since the compression power for water is much smaller than that for hydrogen gas. In this study the ideal water electrolysis voltage up to 70MPa and 523K is estimated referring to both the results by LeRoy et al up to 10MPa and 523K, and to the latest steam table. By using this high-pressure water electrolysis voltage, the power required for high-pressure hydrogen produced by the high-pressure water electrolysis method is estimated to be about 5% smaller than that by the atmospheric water electrolysis method, by assuming the compressor and pump efficiency of 50%.

  4. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  5. Marrying gas power and hydrogen energy: A catalytic system for combining methane conversion and hydrogen generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Gaudillère, C.; Farrusseng, D.; Rothenberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    Ceria-based catalysts are good candidates for integrating methane combustion and hydrogen generation. These new, tuneable catalysts are easily prepared. They are robust inorganic crystalline materials, and perform well at the 400 °C-550 °C range, in some cases even without precious metals. This make

  6. Super-Eddington mechanical power of an accreting black hole in M83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, R; Long, K S; Blair, W P; Godfrey, L; Kuntz, K D; Lenc, E; Stockdale, C; Winkler, P F

    2014-03-21

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(40) erg second(-1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.

  7. Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.

  8. Gas-fired wind power and electric hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the seemingly endless discussions about the pros and cons of wind power even its advocates have to agree that though wind can fly, with offshore wind farms soon to become reality, this only exacerbates the problem of the winds changeability. Even now the major producers of electricity and power

  9. Gas-fired wind power and electric hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In the seemingly endless discussions about the pros and cons of wind power even its advocates have to agree that though wind can fly, with offshore wind farms soon to become reality, this only exacerbates the problem of the winds changeability. Even now the major producers of electricity and power g

  10. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. A central objective of a LANL/Industry collaborative effort supported by the Hydrogen Program is to integrate PEM fuel cell and novel stack designs at LANL with stack technology of H-Power Corporation (H-Power) in order to develop a manufacturable, low-cost/high-performance hydrogen/air fuel cell stack for stationary generation of electric power. A LANL/H-Power CRADA includes Tasks ranging from exchange, testing and optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies of large areas, development and demonstration of manufacturable flow field, backing and bipolar plate components, and testing of stacks at the 3-5 cell level and, finally, at the 4-5 kW level. The stack should demonstrate the basic features of manufacturability, overall low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Plans for future work are to continue the CRADA work along the time line defined in a two-year program, to continue the LANL activities of developing and testing stainless steel hardware for longer term stability including testing in a stack, and to further enhance air cathode performance to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies as required for stationary power application.

  11. Power-Law Scattering Models and Nonlinear Parametric Estimation for Super-Resolution Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    multiplicities. This is the decomposition, Eq. 3, where P is any matrix. That is, the JNF is the result of a nonunique similarity transform taking A into upper...important feature in the system engineering of real-time systems. - Because it addresses the problem of power law models directly, it is not subject to

  12. Implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiner system as a hydrogen mitigation system in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Sung, Je Joong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, In Seon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Ensuring the containment integrity during a severe accident in nuclear power reactor by maintaining the hydrogen concentration below an acceptable level has been recognized to be of critical importance since Three Mile Island and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents. Although there exist various mitigation measures for hydrogen risk, a passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) has been emphasized as a viable option for the mitigation of hydrogen risk under the extended station blackout conditions due to its passive operation characteristics for the hydrogen removal. To enhance the capability of hydrogen control, the hydrogen mitigation system with various types of PARs has been implemented for all nuclear power plants in Korea. This paper presents an implementation procedure of PAR system and the analysis results to determine the location and capacity of PAR in OPR1000. Various accident scenarios have been adopted considering important event sequences from a combination of probabilistic methods, deterministic methods and sound engineering judgment. A MAAP 4.0.6+ with a multi-compartment model has been used as an analysis tool with conservative hydrogen generation and removal models. The detailed analyses have been performed for selected severe accident scenarios including sensitivity analysis with/without operations of various safety systems. The possibility of global flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration-to-detonation transient (DDT) has been assessed with sigma (flame acceleration potential) and 7-lambda (DDT potential) criterion. It is concluded that the newly designed hydrogen mitigation system with twenty-four (24) PARs can effectively remove hydrogen in the containment atmosphere and prevent global FA and DDT.

  13. Fuel Cell Power System and Equipment Bay for High Altitude, Super- Pressured, Powered Aerostat (HASPA) Operational Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-20

    Identify hy block number) Fuel cell High altitude Power system Aerostat f HASPA Manual .A8SRACt (Continue on reverse aide If rI coeeary and identify...Control Unit 37 VI. Pin Identification - Fuel Cell Control Unit 38 VIH . Pin Identification - Fuel Cell Auxiliary Data Unit 39 - VIII. HASPA - Equipment

  14. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  15. A synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, S.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is very flexible in different fields of application of energy conversion. It can be generated by water electrolysis. Stored in tanks it is available for re-electrification by fuel cells. But it is not only the power system, which benefits from use of hydrogen, but also the life support system, which can contain hydrogen consuming technologies for recycling management (e.g. carbon dioxide removal and waste combustion processes). This paper points out various fields of hydrogen use in a human spaceflight system. Depending on mission scenarios, shadow phases, and the need of energy storage, regenerative fuel cell systems can be more efficient than secondary batteries. Here, different power storage concepts are compared by equivalent system mass calculation, thus including impact in the peripheral structure (volume, thermal management, etc.) on the space system. It is also focused on the technical integration aspect, e.g. which peripheral components have to be adapted when hydrogen is also used for life support technologies and what system mass benefit can be expected. Finally, a recommendation is given for the following development steps for a synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems.

  16. Super short term forecasting of photovoltaic power generation output in micro grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Chi, Zhongjun; Zhang, Baoqun; Jiao, Ran; Yang, Bing; Chen, Jianshu; Zeng, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    The prediction model combining data mining and support vector machine (SVM) was built. Which provide information of photovoltaic (PV) power generation output for economic operation and optimal control of micro gird, and which reduce influence of power system from PV fluctuation. Because of the characteristic which output of PV rely on radiation intensity, ambient temperature, cloudiness, etc., so data mining was brought in. This technology can deal with large amounts of historical data and eliminate superfluous data, by using fuzzy classifier of daily type and grey related degree. The model of SVM was built, which can dock with information from data mining. Based on measured data from a small PV station, the prediction model was tested. The numerical example shows that the prediction model is fast and accurate.

  17. Developmental condition and technical problems on electric insulation for super-conducting electric power machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, H.

    1989-05-01

    The present situations of superconducting electric power machines in the world and studied problems were investigated from viewpoint of the electric insulation. 50MVA generator (CRIE/Hitachi) or 120MVA generator (KWU/Siemens) where the dc superconducting technique was applied on field windings, are developed. As to Superconducting transformer, 220KVA transformer is trially manufactured and the conceptual design of 1,000MVA transformer is made by W.H. or Alstom. Future problems are the study of protecting method for the overvoltage to superconducting electric power machines and the study to prevent the quench for superconducting windings. The respective insulating characteristics of solid and liquid insulators become clear gradually under the cryogenic condition but a large part of insulating characteristics of composite insulator prepared by combination of both insulators are not clear, so that these problems must be clarified.

  18. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  19. The Performance of 600F Power Super Capacitor Using Carbon Nanotubes Electrodes and Nonaqueous Electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Many applications for supercapacitors have been proposed in recent years. The popularity of these devices is derived from their high energy density compared with conventional capacitors and their long cycle life and high power density relative to batteries. Supercapacitors based on charge storage at the interface between a high surface area carbon nanotubes electrode and LiClO4/PC electrolyte is assembled in this paper. The carbon nanotubes prepared catalytically exhibited double layer capacitance of 12F.g-1 in LiClO4/PC electrolyte. The performance of the capacitor depends not only on the materials used in the cells but also on the construction of the cells. Evaluation of capacitor performance by different techniques is also discussed. The performance of carbon nanotubes based capacitors for high power sources used in electronic equipment or hybrid vehicle application are described. From a constant charge-discharge test, the capacitance of 600 F and impedance of 2.5mΩ are obtained for this device. Values for the specific energy and specific power of 0.SWh-kg-1 and lkW-kg-1, respectively, are demonstrated for a cell with 2.5V maximum operating voltage.

  20. Wind-hydrogen-biomass. The hybrid power plant of ENERTRAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miege, Andreas; Luschtinetz, T. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany); Wenske, M.; Gamallo, F. [ENERTRAG AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ENERTRAG Hybrid Power Plant is designed around the following components: three wind turbines of 2 MW each, an electrolyser of 500 kW, a hydrogen storage system, and two CHP units of 350 kW each, able to run with variable mixtures of biogas and hydrogen. The use of the electrolyser - acting as a deferrable load, and running under variable power - and the possibility of reconverting the hydrogen again into electricity will allow a feeding-in of the produced electricity to the grid, free of any of the changing characteristics of the wind power. Besides of that renewable electricity, the Hybrid Power Plant will also be able of delivering hydrogen as a clean fuel for the transport sector, as well as oxygen and heat. The project will show that renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, will be able, in the future, of producing back-up power without any support of fossile sources; and also of feeding electricity to the grid as a part of the base-load demand. As a first step towards this direction, the project has the goal of assuring that the energy production of the three wind turbines will be in accordance to the 24-h-forecasted wind power values. (orig.)

  1. Pd/Ag coated fiber Bragg grating sensor for hydrogen monitoring in power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G. M.; Jiang, J.; Li, C. R.; Song, H. T.; Luo, Y. T.; Wang, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    Compared with conventional DGA (dissolved gas analysis) method for on-line monitoring of power transformers, FBG (fiber Bragg grating) hydrogen sensor represents marked advantages over immunity to electromagnetic field, time-saving, and convenience to defect location. Thus, a novel FBG hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ag (Palladium/Silver) along with polyimide composite film to measure dissolved hydrogen concentration in large power transformers is proposed in this article. With the help of Pd/Ag composite coating, the enhanced performance on mechanical strength and sensitivity is demonstrated, moreover, the response time and sensitivity influenced by oil temperature are solved by correction lines. Sensitivity measurement and temperature calibration of the specific hydrogen sensor have been done respectively in the lab. And experiment results show a high sensitivity of 0.055 pm/(μl/l) with instant response time about 0.4 h under the typical operating temperature of power transformers, which proves a potential utilization inside power transformers to monitor the health status by detecting the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  2. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  3. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  4. Super-Survey Tidal Effect on Redshift-space Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Long-wavelength matter inhomogeneities contain cleaner information on the nature of primordial perturbations as well as the physics of the early universe. The large-scale coherent overdensity and tidal force, not directly observable for a finite-volume galaxy survey, are both related to the Hessian matrix of large-scale gravitational potential and therefore of equal importance. We show that the coherent tidal force causes a homogeneous anisotropic distortion of the observed distribution of galaxies in all three directions, perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight direction. This effect mimics the redshift-space distortion signal of galaxy peculiar velocities, as well as a distortion by the Alcock-Paczynski effect. We quantify its impact on the redshift-space power spectrum to the leading order, and discuss its importance for the ongoing and upcoming galaxy surveys.

  5. California Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Hydrogen Near-Term Business Case Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Flexible operation of electrolysis systems represents an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen for a variety of end-uses while also supporting grid operations and thereby enabling greater renewable penetration. California is an ideal location to realize that value on account of growing renewable capacity and markets for hydrogen as a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel, refineries, and other end-uses. Shifting the production of hydrogen to avoid high cost electricity and participation in utility and system operator markets along with installing renewable generation to avoid utility charges and increase revenue from the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can result in around $2.5/kg (21%) reduction in the production and delivery cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. This reduction can be achieved without impacting the consumers of hydrogen. Additionally, future strategies for reducing hydrogen cost were explored and include lower cost of capital, participation in the Renewable Fuel Standard program, capital cost reduction, and increased LCFS value. Each must be achieved independently and could each contribute to further reductions. Using the assumptions in this study found a 29% reduction in cost if all future strategies are realized. Flexible hydrogen production can simultaneously improve the performance and decarbonize multiple energy sectors. The lessons learned from this study should be used to understand near-term cost drivers and to support longer-term research activities to further improve cost effectiveness of grid integrated electrolysis systems.

  6. Design, fabrication and performance testing of a hydrogen powered urban vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavaleta, D.; Brackett, S.; Hartoog, L.; Kopytoff, V.; Saczalski, K.J.

    1983-12-01

    In the search to find an energy storage system to replace petroleum for automobile propulsion, the chemical/energy potential of hydrogen in a hydride composition seems to be very promising. In addition to being a non-polluting energy source, the specific energy of the hydrogen/hydride system is quite high, when compared to electrochemical (batteries) energy storage devices, and about half the level of a conventional Internal Combustion (I.C.) engine. This paper discusses one phase of the research results of a alternate energy project initiated at the Northern Arizona University College of Engineering and Technology and funded by the Arizona Department of Transportation. This phase of the project involves the design and fabrication, from scratch, of a hydrogen powered urban vehicle. While some previous work has been conducted on hydrogen powered vehicles this study emphasizes safety as well as performance and efficiency. This paper also addresses key hydrogen fuel issues such as fuel storage, safety and use hazards, heat-transfer enhancement, hydrogen availability and cost comparisons with petroleum and other energy storage devices.

  7. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ting Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying-Ting; Wang, Hong-Bin; Ma, Guo-Ming; Song, Hong-Tu; Li, Chengrong; Jiang, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG) sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index)-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  9. Plasma Outages in Pulsed, High-Power RF Hydrogen Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, Martin; Han, Baoxi; Murray, Syd; Pennisi, Terry; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed, high-power RF ion sources are needed to produce copious amounts of negative H-ions for high-power accelerators with charge-changing injection schemes. When increasing the RF power, the plasma inductance changes the RF resonance, which drifts away from the low-power resonance. When the RF circuit is tuned to maximize the (pulsed) plasma power, the (off-resonance) power at the beginning of the pulse is reduced. If the induced electric fields fall below the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas, the plasma fails to develop. This can be avoided with a compromise tune and/or by increasing the inductance of the resonant circuit. However, the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas increases with time due to the gradual decrease of the electron-rich plasma impurities, which causes plasma outages after weeks of reliable operation. In this paper we discuss the success of different mitigations that were tested and implemented to overcome this fundamental problem of pulsed, high-power RF hydrogen ion sources.

  10. Canada as an energy superpower : how clean, how powerful, how super?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, M. [Canadian Gas Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Policy and Economics

    2007-12-15

    In 2006, Canada's Prime Minister declared Canada to be an emerging energy superpower due to its vast reserves of oil, gas, and uranium. This article clarified the attributes of a superpower and explained how they can be used to evaluate Canada's situation. The attributes of a superpower include a capability to potentially influence the behaviour of other countries and the course of world events; the capacity to deploy that capability when it can be effective; a clear understanding of one's national interests and policies; and, a will to use the energy capacity when called upon. This framework was used to test the hypothesis of Canada as a power in energy. It was agreed that in terms of reserves, production and exports, Canada is a significant player by world standards. Canada has technological leadership in some parts of the fuel cell industry, possibly nuclear energy and the deployment of advanced technology in resource extraction. However, it was argued that deployment capacity must be maintained and enhanced. The author claimed that Canada's ability to exercise power through unilateral deployment of energy resources is modest, although Canada does have an implicit policy expressed through international treaties such as its membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Energy Agency (IEA), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Canada also benefits from pipeline and powerline regulations for shared regulation of electricity reliability. It was suggested that Canada has the capability to be a voice in support of market-based approaches to energy and an open international trade and investment regime. It was determined that Canada is committed to market-based energy policies and to North American partnership in a broader international context. The author suggested that although Canada has many capabilities regarding energy resources and the capacity to deliver them to markets, it lacks energy policy at the national

  11. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  12. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  13. Palladium-rare-earth metal alloys-advanced materials for hydrogen power engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen of no less than 99. 999 % (vol. fraction) purity is a principal power media of hydrogen power engineering. A single method for the preparation of high purity hydrogen consists in its separation from vapour-gas mixtures via the selective diffusion of hydrogen through a palladium membrane. The rate of hydrogen diffusion and the strength and stability during the operation in aggressive gases are important characteristics of palladium membranes. The increase in the strength, plasticity, and hydrogen-permeability of membrane alloys can be reached by alloying palladium with the formation of solid solutions.The formation of wide ranges of palladium-rare-earth metal (REM) solid solutions is an interesting feature of palladium. Earlier, we have shown that the alloying of Pd with REM substantially increases the rate of hydrogen diffusion and markedly increases the strength of palladium on retention of the adequate plasticity.In this work, we have studied alloys of the Pd-Y and Pd-Y-Me systems. It was shown that the following conditions should be satisfied to prepare high-quality alloys exhibiting high service properties: (1)the use of high-purity components (whose purity is no less than 99.95%, mass fraction), in particular,high-purity Y prepared by vacuum distillation, and (2) holding the reached purity for the final product.For this purpose, we suggested a cycle of manufacturing operations including the preparation of a vacuumtight foil of 50 (m thick as the final stage.The hydrogen-permeability of the alloys was measured at different temperatures and hydrogen pressures. The instability of operation of binary Pd-Y alloys w alloying the composition with a Ⅷ Group metal. For example, the alloy of the optimum composition Pd-8Y-Me in the annealed state exhibits the following mechanical properties: HV= 75 kg/mm2 , σu = 58 kg/mm2 , and δ= 20%. Its hydrogen-permeability (QH2) measured as a function of the temperature exceeds that of the Pd-23Ag alloy (that is widely

  14. Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper descirbes a relatively simple axial flow gas expansion turbine mass model, which we developed for use in our space power system studies. The model uses basic engineering principles and realistic physical properties, including gas conditions, power level, and material stresses, to provide reasonable and consistent estimates of turbine mass and size. Turbine design modifications caused by boundary layer interactions, stress concentrations, stage leakage, or bending and thermal stresses are not accounted for. The program runs on an IBM PC, uses little computer time and has been incorporated into our system-level space power platform analysis computer codes. Parametric design studies of hydrogen turbines using this model are presented for both nickel superalloy and carbon/carbon composite turbines. The effects of speed, pressure ratio, and power level on hydrogen turbine mass are shown and compared to a baseline case 100-MWe, 10,000-rpm hydrogen turbine. Comparison with more detailed hydrogen turbine designs indicates that our simplified model provides mass estimates that are within 25% of the ones provided by more complex calculations. 8 figs.

  15. The microstructure evolution of hydrogenated microcrystalline germanium promoted by power gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ni, Jian; Li, Chang; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Li, Zhenglong; Cai, Hongkun; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the microstructure evolution of hydrogenated microcrystalline germanium (μc-Ge:H) thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). There is an amorphous incubation layer formed in the initial deposition stage of μc-Ge:H thin film. It is demonstrated that the thickness of incubation layer can be reduced by high hydrogen dilution and high discharge power method. However, at high hydrogen dilution, the deposition rate of μc-Ge:H appears a sharply decrease. Using a high discharge power can compensate the deposition rate decrease but lead to decrease of average grain size and appearance of micro-void in the μc-Ge:H thin film. In addition, by comparing two thickness groups of μc-Ge:H thin films deposited at different discharge powers, it is noticed that the evolution process relates to the formation of crystal nucleuses. Thus, a power gradient method is proposed to understand the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth in the initial deposition process of μc-Ge:H films. Finally, by power gradient method, the incubation layer thickness of μc-Ge:H thin films has been decreased to less than 6 nm. Moreover, Raman scattering spectra shows a 38 nm μc-Ge:H film has a crystal fraction (XC) of 62.4%. Meanwhile, the mobility of TFT devices shows the improved electrical property of μc-Ge:H film deposited by power gradient method.

  16. Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power-to-Gas: Establishing Criteria for Successful Business Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua; Melaina, Marc

    2015-10-27

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility, sufficient capacity and greater concern for overgeneration. As a result there is growing interest in exploring the role of energy storage and demand response technologies to support grid needs. Hydrogen is a versatile feedstock that can be used in a variety of applications including chemical and industrial processes, as well as a transportation fuel and heating fuel. Traditionally, hydrogen technologies focus on providing services to a single sector; however, participating in multiple sectors has the potential to provide benefits to each sector and increase the revenue for hydrogen technologies. The goal of this work is to explore promising system configurations for hydrogen systems and the conditions that will make for successful business cases in a renewable, low-carbon future. Current electricity market data, electric and gas infrastructure data and credit and incentive information are used to perform a techno-economic analysis to identify promising criteria and locations for successful hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas projects. Infrastructure data will be assessed using geographic information system applications. An operation optimization model is used to co-optimizes participation in energy and ancillary service markets as well as the sale of hydrogen. From previous work we recognize the great opportunity that energy storage and power-to-gas but there is a lack of information about the economic favorability of such systems. This work explores criteria for selecting locations and compares the system cost and potential revenue to establish competitiveness for a variety of equipment configurations. Hydrogen technologies offer unique system flexibility that can enable interactions between multiple energy sectors including electric, transport, heating fuel and industrial. Previous research established that

  17. Advanced DC-DC converter for power conditioning in hydrogen fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacevic, G.; Tenconi, A.; Bojoi, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The fuel cell (FC) generators can produce electric energy directly from hydrogen and oxygen. The DC voltage generated by FC is generally low amplitude and it is not constant, depending on the operating conditions. Furthermore, FC systems have dynamic response that is slower than the transient responses typically requested by the load. For this reason, in many applications the FC generators must be interfaced with other energy/power sources by means of an electronic power converter. An advanced full-bridge (FB) DC-DC converter, which effectively achieves zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching (ZVS-ZCS), is proposed for power-conditioning (PC) in hydrogen FC applications. The operation and features of the converter are analyzed and verified by simulations results. The ZVS-ZCS operation is obtained by means of a simple auxiliary circuit. Introduction of the soft-switching operation in PC unit brings improvements not only from the converter efficiency point of view, but also in terms of increased converter power density. Quantitative analysis of hard and soft-switching operating of the proposed converter is also made, bringing in evidence the benefits of soft-switching operation mode. The proposed converter can be a suitable solution for PC in hydrogen FC systems, especially for the medium to high-power applications. (author)

  18. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A., E-mail: ivanov@inp.nsk.su; Mishagin, V.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Prospect Lavrentieva 11, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  19. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  20. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  1. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  2. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  3. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best

  4. Analysis and optimisation of the Zecomix high efficiency zero emission hydrogen and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Calabro; Paolo Deiana; Paolo Fiorini; Stefano Stendardo; Giuseppe Girardi [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Rome (Italy). Energy and Environment

    2005-07-01

    The paper reports the analysis and the optimization of a high efficiency and zero emissions hydrogen and power production plant. The work is part of a larger project named Zecomix, lead by ENEA, studying an integrated process which produces both hydrogen and electricity from coal. A thermodynamic model of the plant has been realized by adopting a commercial software, ChemCAD. The key element of the proposed plant is the integration of the gasification island characterized by coal hydrogasification, simultaneous steam reforming and carbon dioxide sequestration, with the power island. Crucial characteristics involve the regeneration of the CO{sub 2}-acceptor sorbent, that takes place by a calcination process. The needed heat can be supplied directly, by burning additional coal or a part of the produced syngas in the calciner reactor, or indirectly by mean of an high temperature heat exchanger situated downstream the hydrogen combustor. An advanced steam cycle has been considered for power generation consisting of an internal combustion steam cycle characterized by the presence of innovative components such as the medium pressure steam compressor and medium-pressure high-temperature expander. Possible steps for the optimization of the whole plant have been studied. The solution proposed aims also to identify the most feasible plant configuration, adopting, where possible, current technology solution. The plant could reach an energy conversion efficiency close to 54%, competitive with innovative power cycle proposed in other studies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A fatal case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a geothermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, S; Ito, S; Kishida, T; Kudo, K; Ikeda, N

    1998-07-01

    An adult man entered an oil separator room to remove waste oil from a vacuum pump in a geothermal power plant. He suddenly collapsed and died soon after. Since hydrogen sulfide gas was detected in the atmosphere at the scene of the accident, poisoning by this gas was suspected and toxicological analysis of sulfide and thiosulfate in blood, brain, lung, femoral muscle was made using the extractive alkylation technique combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The concentrations of sulfide in these tissues were similar to those previously reported for fatal cases of hydrogen sulfide gas. The concentration of thiosulfate in the blood was at least 48 times higher than the level in control samples. Based on these results, the cause of death was attributed to hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning.

  6. Recycling a hydrogen rich residual stream to the power and steam plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250 Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eliceche, A.M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional del Sur, PLAPIQUI-CONICET, Camino La Carrindanga Km 7 (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The benefits of using a residual hydrogen rich stream as a clean combustion fuel in order to reduce Carbon dioxide emissions and cost is quantified. A residual stream containing 86% of hydrogen, coming from the top of the demethanizer column of the cryogenic separation sector of an ethylene plant, is recycled to be mixed with natural gas and burned in the boilers of the utility plant to generate high pressure steam and power. The main advantage is due to the fact that the hydrogen rich residual gas has a higher heating value and less CO{sub 2} combustion emissions than the natural gas. The residual gas flowrate to be recycled is selected optimally together with other continuous and binary operating variables. A Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming problem is formulated in GAMS to select the operating conditions to minimize life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  7. Study of the pulse power supply unit for the four-horn system of the CERN to Fréjus neutrino super beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V

    2013-01-01

    The power supply studies for the four-horn system for the CERN to Fréjus neutrino Super Beam oscillation experiment are discussed here. The power supply is being studied to meet the physics potential and the mega-watt (MW) power requirements of the proton driver of the Super Beam. A one-half sinusoid current waveform with a 350 kA maximum current and pulse length of 100 \\mu s at 50 Hz frequency is generated and distributed to four-horns. In order to provide the necessary current needed to focus the charged mesons producing the neutrino beam, a bench of capacitors is charged at 50 Hz frequency to a +12 kV reference voltage and then discharged through a large switch to each horn via a set of strip-lines at the same rate. A current recovery stage allows to invert rapidly the negative voltage of the capacitor after the discharging stage in order to recuperate large part of the injected energy and thus to limit the power consuption. The energy recovery efficiency of that system is very high at 97%. For feasibilit...

  8. Extension Sliding Mode Controller for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells (FCs are characterized by low pollution, low noise, and high efficiency. However, the voltage-current response of an FC is nonlinear, with the result that there exists just one operating point which maximizes the output power given a particular set of operating conditions. Accordingly, the present study proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT control scheme based on extension theory to stabilize the output of an FC at the point of maximum power. The simulation results confirm the ability of the controller to stabilize the output power at the maximum power point despite sudden changes in the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and membrane water content. Moreover, the transient response time of the proposed controller is shown to be faster than that of existing sliding mode (SM and extremum seeking (ES controllers.

  9. Cationic reverse micelles create water with super hydrogen-bond-donor capacity for enzymatic catalysis: hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate by alpha-chymotrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Fernando; Falcone, R Dario; Mejuto, J C; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano

    2010-08-02

    Reverse micelles (RMs) are very good nanoreactors because they can create a unique microenvironment for carrying out a variety of chemical and biochemical reactions. The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of different RM interfaces on the hydrolysis of 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA) by alpha-chymotrypsin (alpha-CT). The reaction was studied in water/benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)/benzene RMs and, its efficiency compared with that observed in pure water and in sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) RMs. Thus, the hydrolysis rates of 2-NA catalyzed by alpha-CT were determined by spectroscopic measurements. In addition, the method used allows the joint evaluation of the substrate partition constant K(p) between the organic and the micellar pseudophase and the kinetic parameters: catalytic rate constant k(cat), and the Michaelis constant K(M) of the enzymatic reaction. The effect of the surfactant concentration on the kinetics parameters was determined at constant W(0)=[H(2)O]/[surfactant], and the variation of W(0) with surfactant constant concentration was investigated. The results show that the classical Michaelis-Menten mechanism is valid for alpha-CT in all of the RMs systems studied and that the reaction takes place at both RM interfaces. Moreover, the catalytic efficiency values k(cat)/K(M) obtained in the RMs systems are higher than that reported in water. Furthermore, there is a remarkable increase in alpha-CT efficiency in the cationic RMs in comparison with the anionic system, presumably due to the unique water properties found in these confined media. The results show that in cationic RMs the hydrogen-bond donor capacity of water is enhanced due to its interaction with the cationic interface. Hence, entrapped water can be converted into "super-water" for the enzymatic reaction studied in this work.

  10. A comparison between Zecomix High Efficiency Zero Emission Plant and modern Hydrogen and Power IGCC Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiana, P.; Calabro, A.; Fiorini, P.; Stendardo, S.; Girardi, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper reports the analysis and the comparison of two different plant concepts in the field of high efficiency and zero emissions hydrogen and power production plant. The study has been made as a part of a larger research project, named Zecomix, leaded by ENEA (Italian Research Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), and aimed at studying an integrated process that produces both hydrogen and electricity from coal. A thermodynamic model of the two different plants has been set using the industrial software ChemCAD. The Zecomix plant is based on coal hydrogasification and simultaneous steam reforming and carbon dioxide sequestration. Other crucial characteristics involve high temperature sorbent regeneration. The combustion occurs with pure oxygen and high temperature steam evolves in a nonconventional advanced gas-steam turbine cycle. The considered IGCC plant is capable of producing hydrogen and power adopting current technology solutions. The plant configuration includes a pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow gasifier, syngas cleanup and decarbonization based on high pressure physical absorption, the adoption of class H gas turbine and three pressure level recovery boiler. Moreover a pressure swing adsorption unit has been considered for further hydrogen purification. The comparative analysis, based on the same coal input, underlines the differences between the two plants in terms of efficiency and performance of the single component. Moreover a simple environmental impact analysis has been considered to compare specific CO2 emissions of each alternative. (Author)

  11. An integrated MEMS infrastructure for fuel processing: hydrogen generation and separation for portable power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, M. J.; McLeod, L.; Meacham, J. M.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2007-09-01

    Portable fuel cells are an enabling technology for high efficiency and ultra-high density distributed power generation, which is essential for many terrestrial and aerospace applications. A key element of fuel cell power sources is the fuel processor, which should have the capability to efficiently reform liquid fuels and produce high purity hydrogen that is consumed by the fuel cells. To this end, we are reporting on the development of two novel MEMS hydrogen generators with improved functionality achieved through an innovative process organization and system integration approach that exploits the advantages of transport and catalysis on the micro/nano scale. One fuel processor design utilizes transient, reverse-flow operation of an autothermal MEMS microreactor with an intimately integrated, micromachined ultrasonic fuel atomizer and a Pd/Ag membrane for in situ hydrogen separation from the product stream. The other design features a simpler, more compact planar structure with the atomized fuel ejected directly onto the catalyst layer, which is coupled to an integrated hydrogen selective membrane.

  12. DE PODER NULO A SUPERPODER: O JUDICIÁRIO DE MONTESQUIEU, REVISITADO | FROM NULL TO SUPER-POWER: MONTESQUIEU’S JUDICIARY REVIEWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luís Tomás Ballande Romanelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Judiciary within the doctrine of separation of powers, aiming to provide historical and political data that could explain judicial protagonism. This is achieved through book reviews of contemporary political science literature and classic authors from the 18 th century. Therefore, it aims to examine in depth some chapters of Montesquieu’s “Spirit of laws” classic book, expressing how its theory of judicial power was deeply linked with ancient régime’s judicial system, in a context where 18 th century French Judiciary Power was a great source of threat to both political and legislative powers. The paper addresses how the American Constitution bended the original theory, moving from an absolute separation of powers towards a super-powered Judiciary in defence of individual liberties, acting as counterbalance to state assemblies and local political powers. In conclusion, it stands that Judicial Power protagonism doesn’t violate the classic theory of separation of powers.

  13. Hydrogen production via steam-gasification of petroleum coke using concentrated solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obladen, M.; Romey, I.; Schulz, A.; Schiffers, U.; Gunster, W.; Nobel, W.; Laerhoven, F. van; Herman, S.

    2005-07-01

    There is an increasing tendency in refinery's scope of refinery products towards light H2-enriched chemicals simultaneously resulting in a rising amount of heavy residues which would have to be disposed of. Gasifying these residues opens various ways for utilization, first of all the cost-effective production of H2 for the refining process and for future pilot markets like stationary and mobile fuel cell applications. This finally means bridging between conventional fossil fuel and future H2-based power supply. A strong consortium comprising University of Essen as coordinator, Siemens Power Generation, Continental Engineers and ECN from the Netherlands, ELCOGAS, the Spanish operator of Puertollano IGCC station as well as IST from Lisbon, carries out a new EU-funded three-year project called MIGREYD (Modular IGCC Concepts for In-Refinery Energy and Hydrogen Supply) together with the refinery company BP as subcontractor. Within this research and technical development (RTD) project an advanced modular highly efficient in-refinery energy and hydrogen supply system will be developed, using synergetic effects, which will be suitable for the production of power, process heat, hydrogen and other chemicals from residues, biomass and low-grade fossil fuels. By enhanced total plant efficiency and extensive CO2 reduction as well as saving resources by substituting high-grade fossil fuels, sustainable pollution control is possible. The main work topics in this project are. (Author)

  14. Possible optimal configurations for the ZECOMIX high efficiency zero emission hydrogen and power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabro, A.; Deiana, P.; Florini, P.; Girardi, G.; Stendardo, S. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Italian Agency for New Technology Energy & Environment

    2008-06-15

    Coal use for electricity generation will continue growing in importance. In the present work the optimization of a high efficiency and zero emissions coal-fired plant, which produces both hydrogen and electricity, has been developed. The majority of this paper concerns an integration of gasification unit, which is characterized by coal hydrogasification and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) separation, with a power island, where a high-hydrogen content syngas is burnt with pure oxygen stream. Another issue is the high temperature CO{sub 2} desorption. Because of the elevated temperature heat supply, the regeneration process affects the overall performance of ZECOMIX plant. An advanced steam cycle characterized by a medium pressure steam compressor and expander has been considered for power generation. A preliminary study of different components leads to analyze possible routes for optimization of the whole plant. The plant equipped with a CO{sub 2} capture unit could reach efficiency close to 50%. The simulations of a thermodynamic model were carried out using the software ChemCAD. This study is a part of a larger research project, named ZECOMIX, led by ENEA (Italian Research Agency for New technologies, Energy and Environment), other partners being ANSALDO and different Italian Universities. It is aimed at analyzing an integrated hydrogen and power production plant.

  15. Intermediate energy proton stopping power for hydrogen molecules and monoatomic helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stopping power in the intermediate energy region (100 keV to 1 MeV) was investigated, based on the work of Lindhard and Winther, and on the local plasma model. The theory is applied to calculate stopping power of hydrogen molecules and helium gas for protons of energy ranging from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV. Agreement with the experimental data is found to be within 10 percent. Previously announced in STAR as N84-16955

  16. Electric Eel-Skin-Inspired Mechanically Durable and Super-Stretchable Nanogenerator for Deformable Power Source and Fully Autonomous Conformable Electronic-Skin Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chih; Deng, Jianan; Niu, Simiao; Peng, Wenbo; Wu, Changsheng; Liu, Ruiyuan; Wen, Zhen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-01

    Electric eel-skin-inspired mechanically durable and super-stretchable nanogenerator is demonstrated for the first time by using triboelectric effect. This newly designed nanogenerator can produce electricity by touch or tapping despite under various extreme mechanical deformations or even after experiencing damage. This device can be used not only as deformable and wearable power source but also as fully autonomous and self-sufficient adaptive electronic skin system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  18. The ZECOMIX experimental facility for hydrogen and power generation from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Calabro; P. Deiana; P. Fiorini; S. Stendardo; G. Girardi [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Rome (Italy). Energy and Environment Energy and Plants Division

    2006-07-01

    The Zecomix project, conceived by ENEA in the framework of Italian National Hydrogen Project, is aimed at studying an integrated process that produces both hydrogen and electricity from coal, with zero emissions and very high efficiency. The Zero Emission Coal Mixed technology concept combines two different systems: the Zero Emission Coal gasification and the Zero Emission Combustion Technology based on Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion turbine cycle. The key element is the integration of a gasification process, characterized by coal hydrogasification technology and carbon dioxide sequestration, with the power island, where an oxy-combustion occurs. The experimental facility will be realized at the ENEA Research Centre of Casaccia at about thirty kilometres from the centre of Rome. It consists of a very flexible plant, in which more components can be tested separately or connected together. The plant is provided with an atmospheric fixed bed gasifier coal and a carbonator/calcinator reactor; moreover a pressurized hydrogasifier reactor and a 100 kWe microturbine test bench are present. Other auxiliary components are a gas mixing system, for hydrogen-based syngas production, and a 200 kW steam generator. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Design and implementation of power supply for super computer%超级计算机电源设计及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚信安; 宋飞; 胡世平

    2012-01-01

    为了满足某千万亿次超级计算机高效率、低成本、高可靠的供电要求,采用了12 V直流分布式供电系统.详细介绍了机柜级、板级和处理器的电源设计框图和工作原理,采用SIMPLIS仿真软件对电压调节模块和其他DCDC变换器进行了仿真和验证.在此基础上,对系统稳定性进行了分析,提出了解决稳定性问题的若干措施.最后实测了系统运行时的部分电源电压波形.测量和运行结果表明,电源设计完全满足该超级计算机的供电要求.%To meet high efficiency, low cost and high reliability power requirements of petaflops super computer, a distributed power system with 12 V DC was developed. The block diagram and operation principle of power supply for cabinet, motherboard and processor were described in detail. The voltage regulator module and other DC-DC converters were simulated and verified by SIMPLIS software. Based on these, system stability was analyzed and some measures were proposed to improve system stability. Finally, the voltage/current waveforms were measured. Experimental and application results show that proposed power supply can fully meet power requirements of super computer.

  20. A field application experience of integrating hydrogen technology with wind power in a remote island location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazey, R.; Salman, S. K.; Aklil-D'Halluin, D. D.

    This paper aims to share the field application experience related to the development of an innovative stand-alone sustainable energy system known as the PURE project. The PURE project has been developed alongside a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) scheme, which is supported by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and executed by siGEN in collaboration with The Robert Gordon University. The system has been constructed within an industrial estate on the island of Unst in Shetland, 200 miles north of the Scottish mainland. The energy system now supplies five business properties with clean reliable power and utilises wind turbine and hydrogen technology to provide a sustainable energy source. The stored hydrogen gas generated by the system is used as an energy source for periods when electrical demand within the business properties exceeds wind turbine production. The hydrogen is also utilised as a fuel source for transportation and as a transportable energy source for mobile power generation. The paper therefore gives a detailed description of the PURE project and discusses the field experience accumulated during the development and installation of the system. It also shares a number of practical issues that had to be overcome during its integration and operation. The installation of the PURE project has resulted in a number of unexpected conclusions being identified and marks a significant step forward in the accessible deployment of this technology for community use.

  1. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  2. Energy-Efficient Hydrogenated Zinc Oxide Nanoflakes for High-Performance Self-Powered Ultraviolet Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka Boruah, Buddha; Misra, Abha

    2016-07-20

    Light absorption efficiency and doping induced charge carrier density play a vital role in self-powered optoelectronic devices. Unique vanadium-doped zinc oxide nanoflake array (VZnO NFs) is fabricated for self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetection. The light harvesting efficiency drastically improved from 84% in ZnO NRs to 98% in VZnO NFs. Moreover, the hydrogenation of as-synthesized VZnO (H:VZnO) NFs displayed an outstanding increase in response current as compared to pristine structures. The H:VZnO NFs device presents an extraordinary photoelastic behavior with faster photodetection speed in the order of ms under a low UV illumination signal. Excellent responsivity and external quantum efficiency with larger value of specific detectivity of H:VZnO NFs device promises an outstanding sensitivity for UV signal and self-powered high-performance visible-blind photodetector.

  3. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  4. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Moeller-Holst, S.; Webb, D.M.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1998-08-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a 4 kW, hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack, based on non-machined stainless steel hardware and on membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) of low catalyst loadings. The stack is designed to operate at ambient pressure on the air-side and can accommodate operation at higher fuel pressures, if so required. This is to be accomplished by working jointly with a fuel cell stack manufacturer, based on a CRADA. The performance goals are 57% energy conversion efficiency hydrogen-to-electricity (DC) at a power density of 0.9 kW/liter for a stack operating at ambient inlet pressures. The cost goal is $600/kW, based on present materials costs.

  5. A high-efficiency power cycle in which hydrogen is compressed by absorption in metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R; Salzano, F J; Yu, W S; Milau, J S

    1976-07-23

    A high-efficiency power cycle is proposed in which molecular hydrogen gas is used as a working fluid in a regenerative closed Brayton cycle. The hydrogen gas is compressed by an absorption-desorption cycle on metal hydride (FeTiH(x)) beds. Low-temperature solar or geothermal heat (temperature about 100 degrees C) is used for the compression process, and high-temperature fossil fuel or nuclear heat (temperature about 700 degrees C) supplies the expansion work in the turbine. Typically, about 90 percent of the high-temperature heat input is converted to electricity, while about 3 kilowatts of low-temperature heat is required per kilowatt of electrical output.

  6. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in nuclear power plant containment under severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present a hydrogen-concentration prediction method in an NPP containment. • The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) is used in this prediction model. • The CFNN model is much better than the existing FNN model. • This prediction can help prevent severe accidents in NPP due to hydrogen explosion. - Abstract: Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have attracted worldwide interest since the Fukushima accident. If the hydrogen concentration in an NPP containment is increased above 4% in atmospheric pressure, hydrogen combustion will likely occur. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration must be kept below 4%. This study presents the prediction of hydrogen concentration using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model was developed using data on severe accidents in NPPs. The data were obtained by numerically simulating the accident scenarios using the MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The root-mean-square error level predicted by the CFNN model is below approximately 5%. It was confirmed that the CFNN model could accurately predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. If NPP operators can predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment using the CFNN model, this prediction can assist them in preventing a hydrogen explosion.

  7. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-12-15

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

  8. An numerical analysis of high-temperature helium reactor power plant for co-production of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, M.; Podsadna, J.; Jaszczur, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the feasibility of using a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor (HTR) for electricity generation and hydrogen production are analysed. The HTR is combined with a steam and a gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for medium temperature hydrogen production. Industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high temperature electrolysis. Presented cycle shows a very promising route for continuous, efficient, large-scale and environmentally benign hydrogen production without CO2 emissions. The results show that the integration of a high temperature helium reactor, with a combined cycle for electric power generation and hydrogen production, may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  9. Mechanochemical activation and synthesis of nanomaterials for hydrogen storage and conversion in electrochemical power sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Zbigniew S; Varin, Robert A; Czujko, Tom

    2009-07-01

    In this study we discuss a process of mechanical activation employed in place of chemical or thermal activation to improve the mobility and reactivity of hydrogen atoms and ions in nanomaterials for energy applications: rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage for fuel cell systems. Two materials are discussed. Both are used or intended for use in power sources. One is nickel hydroxide, Ni(OH)2, which converts to oxyhydroxide in the positive Ni electrode of rechargeable metal hydride batteries. The other is a complex hydride, Mg(AIH4)2, intended for use in reversible, solid-state hydrogen storage for fuel cells. The feature shared by these unlikely materials (hydroxide and hydride) is a sheet-like hexagonal crystal structure. The mechanical activation was conducted in high-energy ball mills. We discuss and demonstrate that the mechanical excitation of atoms and ions imparted on these powders stems from the same class of phenomena. These are (i) proliferation of structural defects, in particular stacking faults in a sheet-like structure of hexagonal crystals, and (ii) possible fragmentation of a faulted structure into a mosaic of layered nanocrystals. The hydrogen atoms bonded in such nanocrystals may be inserted and abstracted more easily from OH- hydroxyl group in Ni(OH)2 and AlH4- hydride complex in Mg(AlH4)2 during hydrogen charge and discharge reactions. However, the effects of mechanical excitation imparted on these powders are different. While the Ni(OH)2 powder is greatly activated for cycling in batteries, the Mg(AlH4)2 complex hydride phase is greatly destabilized for use in reversible hydrogen storage. Such a "synchronic" view of the structure-property relationship in respect to materials involved in hydrogen energy storage and conversion is supported in experiments employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and direct imaging of the structure with a high-resolution transmission-electron microscope (HREM), as well as in

  10. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  11. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  12. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  13. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  14. Simulation study of power load with impurity seeding in advanced divertor “short super-X divertor” for a tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, N., E-mail: asakura.nobuyuki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Hoshino, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Shinya, K. [Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Services Co., Isogo, Yokohama 25-8523 (Japan); Utoh, H.; Tokunaga, S.; Tobita, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    A short super-X divertor (SXD) is proposed as an option for the Demo divertor, where the field line length from the divertor null to the outer target was largely increased compared to a similar-size conventional divertor. Physics and engineering design studies for a 3 GW-level fusion power Demo reactor (SlimCS) (Tobita et al., 2009) have recently progressed. Minimal number of the divertor coils were installed inside the toroidal field coil, i.e. interlink-winding. Arrangement of the poloidal field coils and their currents were determined, taking into account of the engineering design such as vacuum vessel and the neutron shield structures, and the divertor maintenance scenario. Divertor plasma simulation showed that significant radiation region is produced between the super-X null and the target. Radiation loss in the divertor was increased, producing fully detached plasmas efficiently. Advantages of the short SXD were demonstrated, but the total peak heat load was a marginal level (10 MW m{sup −2}) for the engineering design.

  15. Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) (Space Shuttle). PRSA hydrogen and oxygen DVT tank refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) liquid hydrogen Development Verification Test (H2 DVT) tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0116-1, S/N 07399000SHT0001) and liquid oxygen (O2) DVT tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0115-1, S/N 07399000SXT0001) were refurbished by Ball Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division to provide NASA JSC, Propulsion and Power Division, the capability of performing engineering tests. The refurbishments incorporated the latest flight configuration hardware and avionics changes necessary to make the tanks function like flight articles. This final report summarizes these refurbishment activities. Also included are up-to-date records of the pressure time and cycle histories.

  16. Gaseous hydrocarbon production by the reaction of coal char with hydrogen plasma at relatively lower microwave power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Nishikubo, K.; Imamura, T. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Tosu (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Experimental conditions such as reaction temperature, microwave power and reaction pressure were changed in the reaction of carbon with hydrogen plasma. Methane was major product and other hydrocarbons such as acetylene and C2-C4 hydrocarbons were also produced. Methane production shows its maximum at 700-900 K and at 30W of microwave power. 2 figs.

  17. Current research and development activities on fission products and hydrogen risk after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Hoshi, Harutaka; Hotta, Akitoshi [Regulatory Standard and Research Department, Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, new regulatory requirements were enforced in July 2013 and a backfit was required for all existing nuclear power plants. It is required to take measures to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their radiological consequences. The Regulatory Standard and Research Department, Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority (S/NRA/R) has been conducting numerical studies and experimental studies on relevant severe accident phenomena and countermeasures. This article highlights fission product (FP) release and hydrogen risk as two major areas. Relevant activities in the S/NRA/R are briefly introduced, as follows: 1. For FP release: Identifying the source terms and leak mechanisms is a key issue from the viewpoint of understanding the progression of accident phenomena and planning effective countermeasures that take into account vulnerabilities of containment under severe accident conditions. To resolve these issues, the activities focus on wet well venting, pool scrubbing, iodine chemistry (in-vessel and ex-vessel), containment failure mode, and treatment of radioactive liquid effluent. 2. For hydrogen risk: because of three incidents of hydrogen explosion in reactor buildings, a comprehensive reinforcement of the hydrogen risk management has been a high priority topic. Therefore, the activities in evaluation methods focus on hydrogen generation, hydrogen distribution, and hydrogen combustion.

  18. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  19. Current Status of Study on Hydrogen Production with Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M.; Kagawa, H.; Nagayama, H.; Saito, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been conducting studies on Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) using microwave and laser beams for years since FY1998 organizing a special committee and working groups. The microwave based SSPS are huge solar power systems that generate GW power by solar cells. The electric power is transmitted via microwave from the SSPS to the ground. In the laser based SSPS, a solar condenser equipped with lenses or mirrors and laser-generator would be put into orbit. A laser beam would be sent to Earth-based hydrogen generating device. We are proposing a roadmap that consists of a stepwise approach to achieve commercial SSPS in 20-30 years. The first step is 50kW class Technology Demonstration Satellite to demonstrate microwave power transmission. The second step is to demonstrate robotic assembly of 10MW class large scale flexible structure in space on ISS co-orbit. The third step is to build a prototype SSPS in GEO. The final step is to build commercial SSPS in GEO. We continue the study of SSPS concepts and architectures, technology flight demonstration and major technology development. System design of tens of kW class Technology Demonstration Satellite and conceptual study of 10MW class demonstration system on ISS co-orbit are also conducted. Several key technologies which are needed to be developed in appropriate R&D roadmap, such as high-voltage solar cell array, fiber type of direct solar pumping solid-state laser, high efficiency magnetron, thermal control technology and control technology of large scale flexible structure etc. are also investigated. In the study of concept design of commercial SSPS mentioned above, we have studied some configurations of both microwave based SSPS and laser based SSPS. In case of microwave based SSPS, the solar energy must be converted to electricity and then converted to a microwave beam. The on-ground rectifying antenna will collect the microwave beam and convert it to electricity to connect

  20. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  1. A novel power generation system based on combination of hydrogen and direct carbon fuel cells for decentralized applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; Choi, Pyoungho; Bokerman, Gary [Central Florida Univ., FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell (FC) based power generation systems are characterized by highest chemical-toelectrical (CTE) energy conversion efficiency compared to conventional power generators (e.g., internal combustion and diesel engines, turbines). Most efforts in this area relate to hydrogen-FC coupled with hydrocarbon fuel reformers (HFR). However, the overall CTE efficiency of the combined HFR-FC systems is relatively low (about 30-35%). The objective of this work is to develop a highly-efficient power generation system integrating a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor (HDR) with both hydrogen and direct-carbon FC. A unique feature of direct carbon FC is that its theoretical CTE efficiency is close to 100% and the practical efficiency could rich 80-90%. The concept of the integrated hydrogen and direct carbon FC system is discussed and the experimental data on the performance testing of a HDR coupled with PEM FC are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  3. Analysis and control of an in situ hydrogen generation and fuel cell power system for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolavennu, Panini K.

    A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles. The development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the true long term goal. However significant difficulties exist in developing these vehicles, due to hydrogen storage problems. For automotive applications, it is desirable to use a carbon-based hydrogenous fuel. The focus of this research was to analyze a fuel cell system for automotive applications, which generated hydrogen in situ using methane as a fuel source. This system consists of four parts: (1) an in situ hydrogen generation subsystem, (2) a power generation subsystem, (3) a thermal management subsystem and (4) a switching control subsystem. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the entire system was considered from a systems engineering viewpoint with realistic constraints. A fuel processor subsystem was designed and its volume optimized to less than 100 liters. A relationship between the fuel fed into the fuel processor and the hydrogen coming out of it was developed. Using a fuel cell model an overall relationship between the fuel feed rate and the power output was established. The fuel cell car must be fully operational within a minute or so of a cold-start and must respond to rapidly varying loads. Significant load transitions occur frequently as a result of changes in driving conditions. These engineering constraints were addressed by coupling a battery to the fuel cell. A switching controller was designed and it was validated using realistic power profiles. Finally, a model reference adaptive controller was designed to handle nonlinearities and load transitions. The adaptive controller performance was enhanced by adding dead zone

  4. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  5. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  6. Mixed refrigerant cycle with neon, hydrogen, and helium for cooling sc power transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, S.; Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch; Quack, H.

    2017-02-01

    The use of superconductors in very long power transmission lines requires a reliable and effective cooling. Since the use of cryocoolers does not appear feasible for very long distances, a cryogenic refrigeration cycle needs to be developed. For cooling superconducting cables based on MgB2 (T c = 39 K), liquid hydrogen (LH2) is the obvious cooling agent. For recooling LH2, one would need a refrigeration cycle providing temperatures at around 20 K. For this purpose, one could propose the use of a helium refrigeration cycle. But the very low molecular weight of helium restricts the use of turbo compressors, which limits the overall efficiency. In order to increase the molecular weight of the refrigerant a mixture of cryogens could be used, allowing the use of a turbo compressor. Temperatures below the triple point of neon are achieved by phase separation. This paper presents a possible layout of a refrigeration cycle utilizing a three component mixture of neon, hydrogen, and helium.

  7. Electrolyzer Performance Analysis of an Integrated Hydrogen Power System for Greenhouse Heating. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse containing an integrated system of photovoltaic panels, a water electrolyzer, fuel cells and a geothermal heat pump was set up to investigate suitable solutions for a power system based on solar energy and hydrogen, feeding a self-sufficient, geothermal-heated greenhouse. The electricity produced by the photovoltaic source supplies the electrolyzer; the manufactured hydrogen gas is held in a pressure tank. In these systems, the electrolyzer is a crucial component; the technical challenge is to make it work regularly despite the irregularity of the solar source. The focus of this paper is to study the performance and the real energy efficiency of the electrolyzer, analyzing its operational data collected under different operating conditions affected by the changeable solar radiant energy characterizing the site where the experimental plant was located. The analysis of the measured values allowed evaluation of its suitability for the agricultural requirements such as greenhouse heating. On the strength of the obtained result, a new layout of the battery bank has been designed and exemplified to improve the performance of the electrolyzer. The evaluations resulting from this case study may have a genuine value, therefore assisting in further studies to better understand these devices and their associated technologies.

  8. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  9. Olefin metathesis and quadruple hydrogen bonding: A powerful combination in multistep supramolecular synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Oren A.; Ligthart, G. B. W. L.; Ohkawa, Haruki; Sijbesma, Rint P.; Meijer, E. W.

    2006-08-01

    We show that combining concepts generally used in covalent organic synthesis such as retrosynthetic analysis and the use of protecting groups, and applying them to the self-assembly of polymeric building blocks in multiple steps, results in a powerful strategy for the self-assembly of dynamic materials with a high level of architectural control. We present a highly efficient synthesis of bifunctional telechelic polymers by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with complementary quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs. Because the degree of functionality for the polymers is 2.0, the formation of alternating, blocky copolymers was demonstrated in both solution and the bulk leading to stable, microphase-separated copolymer morphologies. ring-opening metathesis polymerization | self-assembly | block copolymer | retrosynthesis

  10. Olefin metathesis and quadruple hydrogen bonding: A powerful combination in multistep supramolecular synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Oren A.; Ligthart, G. B. W. L.; Ohkawa, Haruki; Sijbesma, Rint P.; Meijer, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    We show that combining concepts generally used in covalent organic synthesis such as retrosynthetic analysis and the use of protecting groups, and applying them to the self-assembly of polymeric building blocks in multiple steps, results in a powerful strategy for the self-assembly of dynamic materials with a high level of architectural control. We present a highly efficient synthesis of bifunctional telechelic polymers by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with complementary quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs. Because the degree of functionality for the polymers is 2.0, the formation of alternating, blocky copolymers was demonstrated in both solution and the bulk leading to stable, microphase-separated copolymer morphologies. PMID:16877543

  11. Power Hydrogen Evaluation of Apexification Materials: EndoCal 10, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calasept Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ersan; Bodrumlu, Emre

    2015-06-01

    The present study was to evaluate pH values of apexification materials. The materials were placed in 1 cm long and 4 mm diameter tubes. After sample immersion, glass flasks were hermetically sealed with rubber caps to attenuate any effects of external environmental factors and maintained at 37°C. The power hydrogen of the pastes was measured 1 hour, 3 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days after preparation. pH was calibrated with solutions of known pH (7.0). Mann-Whitney test were used to determine significant differences. The mean pH of all medications was materials (p materials in apexification should have some properties, such as high pH and stimulating to be hard tissue. Therefore, the material should be chosen carefully in apexification of immature teeth.

  12. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  13. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Somma; Domenico, Granieri; Claudia, Troise; Carlo, Terranova; Natale Giuseppe, De; Maria, Pedone

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the main gaseous substances contained in deep fluids exploited by geo-thermoelectric plant. Therefore, it is a "waste" pollutant product by plants for energy production. Hydrogen sulfide is perceived by humans at very low concentrations in the air ( 0,008 ppm, World Health Organization, hereafter WHO, 2003) but it becomes odorless in higher concentrations (> 100 ppm, WHO, 2003) and, for values close to the ones lethal (> 500 ppm), produces an almost pleasant smell. The typical concentration in urban areas is plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). DISGAS code has simulated scenarios consistent with the prevailing wind conditions, estimating reasonable H2S concentrations for each area, and for each active power plant. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100 ug/m3) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Furthermore, this study indicates the potential of DISGAS as a tool for an improved understanding of the atmospheric and environmental impacts of the H2S continuous degassing from geothermal plants but also its potential for reliable prediction of H2S pollution in case of unexpected events, like the blowout of a geothermal well or the malfunctioning of a geothermal plant resulting in an anomalous and not-controlled emission of harmful gas in the atmosphere.

  14. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  15. An Innovative Test Platform for Hydrogen Production and Zero Emission Power Generation from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabro A; Deiana P; Fiorini P; Stendardo S; Girardi G [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment Energy and Plants Division - Via Anguillarese - 301 00060 S Maria di Galeria - Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The ZECOMIX project, conceived by ENEA in the framework of Italian National Hydrogen Project, is aimed at studying an integrated process that produces both hydrogen and electricity from coal, with zero emissions and very high efficiency. The key element is the integration of a gasification process, characterized by coal hydro-gasification technology and carbon dioxide sequestration, with the power island, where an oxy-combustion occurs. Many optimization analysis and simulations have been carried out demonstrating the possibility to achieve very high net efficiencies (higher than 50% LHV) and very low (quasi-zero) emissions. The project schedule consists of the design, already started, the construction and the operation of an experimental facility finalized to demonstrate the feasibility of the described reference process. The facility will be realized in the ENEA Research Center of Casaccia, near Rome. It consists of a very flexible plant, in which more components can be tested separately or connected together. The plant is provided with a 50 kg/h coal atmospheric fluid bed gasifier, a fluid bed decarbonator/calcinator reactor filled with calcium oxide pellets, a pressurized hydro-gasifier reactor characterized by a pressure variable from 30 to 100 bar, a 100 kWe micro-turbine test bench, with the combustor chamber modified because of de-carbonized syngas fuelling and finally an oxygen/hydrogen combustor test bench, for experimental activities about the definition of stability limits, operative conditions (dilution, temperature pattern, chemicals) and combustion control. Other auxiliary components are mixing station for hydrogen-based syngas production, and an ordinary steam generator. The first part of the research project is aimed at testing the single component, in particular the main preliminary design criteria adopted for hydro-gasification reactor and carbonator reactor are presented in this paper. The second part of the Project is focused on the integration

  16. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasvold, Øistein; Johansen, Kjell Håvard; Mollestad, Ole; Forseth, Sissel; Størkersen, Nils

    In 1993, The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on an UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m.

  17. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasvold, Oe.; Johansen, K.H.; Mollestad, O.; Forseth, S.; Stoerkersen, N. [Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt, Kjeller (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    In 1993, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on a UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen-Enhanced Lunar Oxygen Extraction and Storage Using Only Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, rodney; King, Darren

    2013-01-01

    The innovation consists of a thermodynamic system for extracting in situ oxygen vapor from lunar regolith using a solar photovoltaic power source in a reactor, a method for thermally insulating the reactor, a method for protecting the reactor internal components from oxidation by the extracted oxygen, a method for removing unwanted chemical species produced in the reactor from the oxygen vapor, a method for passively storing the oxygen, and a method for releasing high-purity oxygen from storage for lunar use. Lunar oxygen exists in various types of minerals, mostly silicates. The energy required to extract the oxygen from the minerals is 30 to 60 MJ/kg O. Using simple heating, the extraction rate depends on temperature. The minimum temperature is approximately 2,500 K, which is at the upper end of available oven temperatures. The oxygen is released from storage in a purified state, as needed, especially if for human consumption. This method extracts oxygen from regolith by treating the problem as a closed batch cycle system. The innovation works equally well in Earth or Lunar gravity fields, at low partial pressure of oxygen, and makes use of in situ regolith for system insulation. The innovation extracts oxygen from lunar regolith using a method similar to vacuum pyrolysis, but with hydrogen cover gas added stoichiometrically to react with the oxygen as it is produced by radiatively heating regolith to 2,500 K. The hydrogen flows over and through the heating element (HE), protecting it from released oxygen. The H2 O2 heat of reaction is regeneratively recovered to assist the heating process. Lunar regolith is loaded into a large-diameter, low-height pancake reactor powered by photovoltaic cells. The reactor lid contains a 2,500 K HE that radiates downward onto the regolith to heat it and extract oxygen, and is shielded above by a multi-layer tungsten radiation shield. Hydrogen cover gas percolates through the perforated tungsten shielding and HE, preventing

  19. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Renato; Granieri, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; Terranova, Carlo; De Natale, Giuseppe; Pedone, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). An updated geographic database, for use in a GIS environment, was realized in order to process input data required by the code and to handle the outputs. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100μg/m(3)) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of wind-powered hydrogen fuel cell vehicles on stratospheric ozone and global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2008-10-01

    Converting the world's fossil-fuel onroad vehicles (FFOV) to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV), where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis, is estimated to reduce global fossil, biofuel, and biomass-burning emissions of CO2 by ~13.4%, NOx ~23.0%, nonmethane organic gases ~18.9%, black carbon ~8% H2 ~3.2% (at 3% leakage), and H2O ~0.2%. Over 10 years, such reductions were calculated to reduce tropospheric CO ~5%, NOx ~5-13%, most organic gases ~3-15%, OH ~4%, ozone ~6%, and PAN ~13%, but to increase tropospheric CH4 ~0.25% due to the lower OH. Lower OH also increased upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric ozone, increasing its global column by ~0.41%. WHFCV cooled the troposphere and warmed the stratosphere, reduced aerosol and cloud surface areas, and increased precipitation. Other renewable-powered HFCV or battery electric vehicles should have similar impacts.

  1. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  2. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  3. Drinking water purification by electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a power-producing PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Winton; Bonakdarpour, Arman; Gyenge, Előd; Wilkinson, David P

    2013-11-01

    The industrial anthraquinone auto-oxidation process produces most of the world's supply of hydrogen peroxide. For applications that require small amounts of H2 O2 or have economically difficult transportation means, an alternate, on-site H2 O2 production method is needed. Advanced drinking water purification technologies use neutral-pH H2 O2 in combination with UV treatment to reach the desired water purity targets. To produce neutral H2 O2 on-site and on-demand for drinking water purification, the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated in either electrolysis (power consuming) or fuel cell (power generating) mode could be a possible solution. The work presented here focuses on the H2 /O2 fuel cell mode to produce H2 O2 . The fuel cell reactor is operated with a continuous flow of carrier water through the cathode to remove the product H2 O2 . The impact of the cobalt-carbon composite cathode catalyst loading, Teflon content in the cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode carrier water flowrate on the production of H2 O2 are examined. H2 O2 production rates of up to 200 μmol h(-1)  cmgeometric (-2) are achieved using a continuous flow of carrier water operating at 30 % current efficiency. Operation times of more than 24 h have shown consistent H2 O2 and power production, with no degradation of the cobalt catalyst.

  4. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  5. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  6. Proton acceleration in the interaction of high power laser and cryogenic hydrogen targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rohini; Fiuza, Frederico; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    High intensity laser driven ion acceleration has attracted great interest due to many prospective applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion, cancer therapy, particle accelerators. Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations are performed to model and design experiments at MEC for high power laser interaction with cryogenic hydrogen targets of tunable density and thickness. Preliminary 1D and 2D simulations, using fully relativistic particle-in-cell code PICLS, show a unique regime of proton acceleration, e.g. ~ 300 MeV peak energy protons are observed in the 1D run for interaction of ~1020 W/cm2, 110 fs intense laser with 6nc dense (nc = 1021 cm-3) and 2 micron thin target. The target is relativistically under-dense for the laser and we observe that a strong (multi-terawatt) shock electric field is produced and protons are reflected to high velocities by this field. Further, the shock field and the laser field keep propagating through the hydrogen target and meets up with target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) electric field produced at the target rear edge and vacuum interface and this superposition amplifies the TNSA fields resulting in higher proton energy. In addition, the electrons present at the rear edge of the target continue to gain energy via strong interaction with laser that crosses the target and these accelerated electrons maintains higher electric sheath fields which further provides acceleration to protons. We will also present detailed investigation with 2D PICLS simulations to gain a better insight of such physical processes to characterize multidimensional effects and establish analytical scaling between laser and target conditions for the optimization of proton acceleration.

  7. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production from Existing Nuclear Power Plants Using Alkaline Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana R. Swalla

    2008-12-31

    The mid-range industrial market currently consumes 4.2 million metric tons of hydrogen per year and has an annual growth rate of 15% industries in this range require between 100 and 1000 kilograms of hydrogen per day and comprise a wide range of operations such as food hydrogenation, electronic chip fabrication, metals processing and nuclear reactor chemistry modulation.

  8. A solar-powered microbial electrolysis cell with a platinum catalyst-free cathode to produce hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Ajayi, Folusho F; Chang, In-Seop; Kim, In S

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports successful hydrogen evolution using a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-powered microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) without a Pt catalyst on the cathode, indicating a solution for the inherent drawbacks of conventional MECs, such as the need for an external bias and catalyst. DSSCs fabricated by assembling a ruthenium dye-loaded TiO(2) film and platinized FTO glass with an I(-)/I(3)(-) redox couple were demonstrated as an alternative bias (V(oc) = 0.65 V). Pt-loaded (0.3 mg Pt/cm(2)) electrodes with a Pt/C nanopowder showed relatively faster hydrogen production than the Pt-free electrodes, particularly at lower voltages. However, once the applied photovoltage exceeded a certain level (0.7 V), platinum did not have any additional effect on hydrogen evolution in the solar-powered MECs: hydrogen conversion efficiency was almost comparable for either the plain (71.3-77.0%) or Pt-loaded carbon felt (79.3-82.0%) at >0.7 V. In particular, the carbon nanopowder-coated electrode without Pt showed significantly enhanced performance compared to the plain electrode, which indicates efficient electrohydrogenesis, even without Pt by enhancing the surface area. As the applied photovoltage was increased, anodic methanogenesis decreased gradually, resulting in increasing hydrogen yield.

  9. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  10. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. In a membrane reactor process, the thermal energy needed for the endothermic hydrocarbon reforming may be provided by combustion of the membrane reject gas. The energy efficiency of the overall hydrogen generation is maximized by controlling the hydrogen product yield such that the heat value of the membrane reject gas is sufficient to provide all of the heat necessary for the integrated process. Optimization of the system temperature, pressure and operating parameters such as net hydrogen recovery is necessary to realize an efficient integrated membrane reformer suitable for compact portable hydrogen generation. This paper presents results of theoretical model simulations of the integrated membrane reformer concept elucidating the effect of operating parameters on the extent of fuel conversion to hydrogen and hydrogen product yield. Model simulations indicate that the net possible hydrogen product yield is strongly influenced by the efficiency of heat recovery from the combustion of membrane reject gas and from the hot exhaust gases. When butane is used as a fuel, a net hydrogen recovery of 68% of that stoichiometrically possible may be achieved with membrane reformer operation at 600 °C (873 K) temperature and 100 psig (0.791 MPa) pressure provided 90% of available combustion and exhaust gas heat is recovered. Operation at a greater pressure or temperature provides a marginal improvement in the performance whereas operation at a significantly lower temperature or pressure will not be able to achieve the optimal hydrogen yield. Slightly higher, up to 76%, net hydrogen recovery is possible when methanol is used as a fuel due to the lower heat

  11. A mathematical model of the maximum power density attainable in an alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Michael C.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of a hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell is presented that can be used to predict the polarization behavior under various power loads. The major limitations to achieving high power densities are indicated and methods to increase the maximum attainable power density are suggested. The alkaline fuel cell model describes the phenomena occurring in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of the anode, separator, and cathode regions based on porous electrode theory applied to three phases. Fundamental equations of chemical engineering that describe conservation of mass and charge, species transport, and kinetic phenomena are used to develop the model by treating all phases as a homogeneous continuum.

  12. 9 kV, 1 cm x 1 cm SiC Super GTO Technology Development For Pulse Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    capacitor C1, and inductor, L1. C1 consists of 60 Electronics Power Ring polypropylene capacitors . L1 is a single turn inductor providing a total circuit...Characteristics The schematic circuit diagram for turn measurements is shown in Figure 9 with a load resistor of 10 Ω and a capacitor of 3 µF...PiN diode, D1, with snubber capacitor and resistor, a CREE 6 kV, 0.25 cm 2 SiC PiN antiparallel diode, a series resonant circuit composed of

  13. A High Power Density, High Efficiency Hydrogen-Chlorine Regenerative Fuel Cell with a Low Precious Metal Content Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Huskinson, Brian; Rugolo, Jason; Mondal, Sujit K.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the performance of a hydrogen-chlorine electrochemical cell with a chlorine electrode employing a low precious metal content alloy oxide electrocatalyst for the chlorine electrode: (Ru_0.09Co_0.91)_3O_4. The cell employs a commercial hydrogen fuel cell electrode and transports protons through a Nafion membrane in both galvanic and electrolytic mode. The peak galvanic power density exceeds 1 W cm^-2, which is twice previous literature values. The precious metal loading of the chlorin...

  14. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Ayad, M. Y.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin's maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: - Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, - Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, - Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, - Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control.Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  15. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A. [MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khiderBiskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: ayadmy@gmail.com [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  16. Optimization of caesium dynamics in large and powerful RF sources for negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimo, Alessandro; Wimmer, Christian; Wuenderlich, Dirk; Fantz, Ursel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The development of large and powerful RF sources for negative hydrogen and deuterium ions is mandatory for the realization of the Neutral Beam Injection system at ITER. Caesium seeding into negative ion sources is necessary to obtain the required ion current with a tolerable level of co-extracted electrons. The caesium dynamics, during both plasma and vacuum phases, was investigated by means of the Monte Carlo transport code CsFlow3D, which is used to simulate the time evolution of the distribution of neutral and ionic caesium in the IPP prototype RF ion source. Simulations were performed for different durations of plasma-on and plasma-off phases, with the purpose of understanding how the duty cycle influences the caesium distribution and hence the source performance. In order to investigate asymmetry effects in the caesium distribution, caused by the positioning of caesium evaporator, the caesium coverage on the top and on the bottom part of the plasma grid was simulated and data were compared to the caesium density measured by laser absorption in the prototype source. The next step will be to introduce in the code the simulation of diagnostics such as laser absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy, in order to achieve a direct benchmark of the code with experimental data.

  17. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  18. Catalytic activity of Pd-Ni in the oxidation of hydrogen for the safety of nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łomot Dariusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pd-Ni/Al2O3 systems were investigated in the reaction of hydrogen oxidation in terms of their possible application as catalysts used in passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs used in nuclear power plants. Testing experiments were carried out in a flowing system at different temperatures and humidity of the reaction mixture. The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher response to the increase of temperature and higher resistance to inhibit water than the monometallic palladium catalyst. They showed excellent stability during a few tens of hours, similarly, like their monometallic counterpart. Our bimetallic catalysts of hydrogen oxidation can be used as cheaper alternatives to catalysts based on the precious metals in the hydrogen oxidation without loss of their activity over time.

  19. Integrated SiC Super Junction Transistor-Diode Devices for High-Power Motor Control ModulesOoperating at 500 C Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monolithic Integrated SiC Super Junction Transistor-JBS diode (MIDSJT) devices are used to construct 500

  20. Geothermal power plants at Mt. Amiata (Tuscany-Italy): mercury and hydrogen sulphide deposition revealed by vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, E; Gaggi, C; Lanzillotti, E; Ferrozzi, S; Valli, L

    2000-04-01

    At Mt. Amiata (Italy) geothermal energy is used, since 1969, to generate electricity in five plants with a nominal capacity of 88 MW. Anomalous levels of mercury characterise geothermal fluids of Mt. Amiata, an area renowned for its vast cinnabar deposits and for the mercury production carried out in the past. Mercury emission rates range from 300 to 400 g/h, or 3-4 g/h per MW electrical installed capacity. These emissions are coupled with a release of 7-8 kg/(h MW) of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Mercury is discharged as Hg0 gaseous species and reaches the atmosphere with the non-condensable gas fraction. In this fraction, CO, is the major component (94-98%), H2S is around 1% and mercury concentration is as high as 1-10 mg/Nm3. Leaves of a spontaneous grass (Avena sterilis), at the end of the vegetative cycle, were used as mercury bioconcentrators to map deposition near geothermal power plants and to calculate the corresponding average levels of Hg0 in the air. Direct measurements of mercury and hydrogen sulphide vapours in the air reached by power plant emissions showed a ratio of about 1-2000. This ratio was applied to calculate average levels of hydrogen sulphide starting from mercury deposition mapping: typical concentrations of mercury and hydrogen sulphide were of the order of 10-20 ng/m3 and 20-40 microg/m3, respectively.

  1. Wavelet analysis of cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine powered by gasoline-hydrogen fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Asok K. [Richard G. Lugar Centre for Renewable Energy, and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University, (United States)], email: asen@iupui.edu; Akif Ceviz, M.; Volkan Oner, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ataturk (Turkey)], email: aceviz@atauni.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline and gasoline-hydrogen blends is investigated. CCVs are estimated by using the coefficient of variation (COV) and the overall spectral power given by the global wavelet spectrum (GWS). It was found that the addition of hydrogen reduces the CCV of the IMEP. Analysis of the wavelet can also identify the dominant modes of variability and delineate the engine cycles over which these modes can persist. Air-fuel ratio was varied from 1.0 to 1.3, and hydrogen was added up to 7.74% by volume. The engine was operated at 2000 rpm. Results demonstrate that subject to air-fuel ratio and % of hydrogen added, IMEP time series can exhibit multiscale dynamics consisting of persistent oscillations and intermittent fluctuations. These results can help develop effective control strategies to reduce cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline-hydrogen mixtures.

  2. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Brown

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999. The highlights for this period are: (1) The methodologies for searching the literature for potentially attractive thermochemical water-splitting cycles, storing cycle and reference data, and screening the cycles have been established; and (2) The water-splitting cycle screening criteria were established on schedule.

  3. Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita eKothari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 μm wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 μm long, encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1 %. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp. It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43 % encode proteins of known functional role, 26 % corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6 % encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3 % encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain’s genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose and glycine

  4. Conceptual Design of Hydrogen Isotopes Chromatographic Separation System With Super Large Capacity%超大容量氢同位素色谱分离系统的概念设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢波; 翁葵平; 刘云怒; 侯建平

    2012-01-01

    A super largecapacity hydrogen isotopes separation system, including total plan, unit (including making and purification of gas, three-grade chromatographic columns, gas loop and auto-controll, and carrier recovery) and experimental scheme, had been designed on the basis of a series of hydrogen-deuterium experiments by temperature programmed de-sorption. The characteristic of the system was that desorption kinetic parameters could be directly calculated from the hydrogen isotope separation desorption spectra information. In other words, the complicated dynamic process of separation could be described by the desorption rate equation, shape parameter and desorption activation energy calculation on the condition of the experimental data and appropriate assumptions (equilibrium and adsorption, uniform surface). In previous work, an experimental series of operation to verify the successive enrichment of D2 from a H2-D2 mixture, the production of the deuterium from natural hydrogen and the recovery of tritium such as from the nuclear heavy-water were car-ried out using MS5A at 77 K. This work was only conceptual design, so it was necessary to identify the availability of super large capacity system by experiment.%在多年从事色谱分离氢同位素技术研究的基础上,设计了一套超大容量氢同位素分离系统,包括系统的总体设计,以配气及纯化、三级色谱柱、气体流路及自动控制和载气回收为主的单元设计,以及调试实验方案设计.该系统的特点是可以根据氢同位素分离解吸谱图的信息比较直接地计算出解吸过程的动力学参数,即在实验数据的支持和适当的假设条件(平衡再吸附、均匀表面)下,依靠解吸速率方程、形状参数和解吸活化能的计算便可比较系统地描述其复杂的动力学过程.在以前的工作中,虽然已经证实了采用5A分子筛柱在77 K的低温下,可以连续富集氢-氘混合气中的氘、天然氢中的氘,甚至含

  5. 超级电容器在独立光伏发电系统中的研究与应用%Research and application of the super capacitor in the stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹新生; 张江伟

    2015-01-01

    对超级电容器串联后电压、容量、储能大小情况进行分析,介绍电容器串联实现均压的几种方法,用实际案例说明超级电容器在独立光伏发电系统中的应用。%The voltage,capacity and storage capacity of the super capacitor series are analyzed,and several methods for realizing the average pressure in series are introduced. The application of the super capacitor in the stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system is illustrated with a practical case.

  6. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ...

  7. Demonstrating hydrogen production from ammonia using lithium imide - Powering a small proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Hazel M. A.; Makepeace, Joshua W.; Wood, Thomas J.; Mylius, O. Simon; Kibble, Mark G.; Nutter, Jamie B.; Jones, Martin O.; David, William I. F.

    2016-10-01

    Accessing the intrinsic hydrogen content within ammonia, NH3, has the potential to play a very significant role in the future of a CO2-free sustainable energy supply. Inexpensive light metal imides and amides are effective at decomposing ammonia to hydrogen and nitrogen (2NH3 → 3H2 + N2), at modest temperatures, and thus represent a low-cost approach to on-demand hydrogen production. Building upon this discovery, this paper describes the integration of an ammonia cracking unit with a post-reactor gas purification system and a small-scale PEM fuel cell to create a first bench-top demonstrator for the production of hydrogen using light metal imides.

  8. Note: Dissolved hydrogen detection in power transformer oil based on chemically etched fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Ma, Guo-ming; Song, Hong-tu; Zhou, Hong-yang; Li, Cheng-rong; Luo, Ying-ting; Wang, Hong-bin

    2015-10-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor based on chemically etched cladding to detect dissolved hydrogen is proposed and studied in this paper. Low hydrogen concentration tests have been carried out in mixed gases and transformer oil to investigate the repeatability and sensitivity. Moreover, to estimate the influence of etched cladding thickness, a physical model of FBG-based hydrogen sensor is analyzed. Experimental results prove that thin cladding chemically etched by HF acid solution improves the response to hydrogen detection in oil effectively. At last, the sensitivity of FBG sensor chemically etched 16 μm could be as high as 0.060 pm/(μl/l), increased by more than 30% in comparison to un-etched FBG.

  9. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) supported by Lockheed Martin and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier...

  10. Powered by DFT: Screening methods that accelerate materials development for hydrogen in metals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kelly M; Chandrasekhar, Nita; Sholl, David S

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Not only is hydrogen critical for current chemical and refining processes, it is also projected to be an important energy carrier for future green energy systems such as fuel cell vehicles. Scientists have examined light metal hydrides for this purpose, which need to have both good thermodynamic properties and fast charging/discharging kinetics. The properties of hydrogen in metals are also important in the development of membranes for hydrogen purification. In this Account, we highlight our recent work aimed at the large scale screening of metal-based systems with either favorable hydrogen capacities and thermodynamics for hydrogen storage in metal hydrides for use in onboard fuel cell vehicles or promising hydrogen permeabilities relative to pure Pd for hydrogen separation from high temperature mixed gas streams using dense metal membranes. Previously, chemists have found that the metal hydrides need to hit a stability sweet spot: if the compound is too stable, it will not release enough hydrogen under low temperatures; if the compound is too unstable, the reaction may not be reversible under practical conditions. Fortunately, we can use DFT-based methods to assess this stability via prediction of thermodynamic properties, equilibrium reaction pathways, and phase diagrams for candidate metal hydride systems with reasonable accuracy using only proposed crystal structures and compositions as inputs. We have efficiently screened millions of mixtures of pure metals, metal hydrides, and alloys to identify promising reaction schemes via the grand canonical linear programming method. Pure Pd and Pd-based membranes have ideal hydrogen selectivities over other gases but suffer shortcomings such as sensitivity to sulfur poisoning and hydrogen embrittlement. Using a combination of detailed DFT, Monte Carlo techniques, and simplified models, we are able to accurately predict hydrogen permeabilities of metal membranes and screen large libraries of candidate alloys

  11. Thermal cycling and high power density hydrogen ion beam irradiation of tungsten layers on tungsten substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Gretskaya, I. Yu; Grunin, A. V.; Dyachenko, M. Yu; Puntakov, N. A.; Sadovskiy, Ya A.

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten layers with iron impurity were deposited on tungsten substrates modeling re-deposited layers in a fusion device. The samples were tested by thermocycling and hydrogen ion beam tests. Thermocycling revealed globule formation on the surface. The size of the globules depended on iron impurity content in the coating deposited. Pore formation was observed which in some cases lead to exfoliation of the coatings. Hydrogen ion irradiation lead to formation of blisters on the coating and finally its exfoliation.

  12. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  13. Technologies for coal based hydrogen and electricity co-production power plants with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, C.G.; Tzimas, E.; Peteves, S.D.

    2009-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants allow the combination of the production of hydrogen and electricity because coal gasification process produces a syngas that can be used for the production of both commodities. A hydrogen and electricity power plant has been denominated as HYPOGEN. This report starts by reviewing the basics of the coal gasification process and continues by trying to map all the technological options currently available in the market as well as possible future trends that can be included in a HYPOGEN system. Besides, it offers an overview of the operating conditions and outputs of each process in order to provide the modeller with a useful information tool enabling an easier analysis of compatibilities and implementation of the model. 119 refs., 53 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Power System Mass Analysis for Hydrogen Reduction Oxygen Production on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the lunar regolith requires both thermal and electrical power in roughly similar proportions. This unique power requirement is unlike most applications on the lunar surface. To efficiently meet these requirements, both solar PV array and solar concentrator systems were evaluated. The mass of various types of photovoltaic and concentrator based systems were calculated to determine the type of power system that provided the highest specific power. These were compared over a range of oxygen production rates. Also a hybrid type power system was also considered. This system utilized a photovoltaic array to produce the electrical power and a concentrator to provide the thermal power. For a single source system the three systems with the highest specific power were a flexible concentrator/Stirling engine system, a rigid concentrator/Stirling engine system and a tracking triple junction solar array system. These systems had specific power values of 43, 34, and 33 W/kg, respectively. The hybrid power system provided much higher specific power values then the single source systems. The best hybrid combinations were the triple junction solar array with the flexible concentrator and the rigid concentrator. These systems had a specific power of 81 and 68 W/kg, respectively.

  15. Collisions of low-energy antiprotons with molecular hydrogen: ionization, excitation and stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    A time-dependent coupled-channel approach was used to calculate ionization, excitation, and energy-loss cross sections as well as energy spectra for antiproton and proton collisions with molecular hydrogen for impact energies 8 < E < 4000 keV....

  16. Hydrogen monitoring for power plant applications using SiC sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loloee, R. (Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, MI); Chorpening, B.T.; Beer, S.K.; Ghosh, R.N. (Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, MI)

    2008-01-29

    We have developed a high-temperature gas sensing system for the detection of combustion products under harsh conditions, such as an energy plant. The sensor, based on the wide band gap semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC), is a catalytic gate field-effect device (Pt–SiO2–SiC) that can detect hydrogen-containing species in chemically reactive, high-temperature environments. The hydrogen response of the device in an industrially robust module was determined under both laboratory and industrial conditions (1000 sccm of 350 °C gas) from 52 ppm to 50% H2, with the sensor held at 620 °C. From our data we find that the hydrogen adsorption kinetics at the catalyst–oxide interface are well fitted by the linearized Langmuir adsorption isotherm. For hydrogen monitoring in a coal gasification application, we investigated the effect of common interferants on the device response to a 20% H2 gas stream. Within our signal to noise ratio, 40% CO and 5% CH4 had no measurable effect and a 2000 ppm pulse of H2S did not poison the Pt sensing film. We have demonstrated the long-term reliability of our SiC sensor and the robustness of the sensor packaging techniques, as all the data are from a single device, obtained during 5 days of industrial measurements in addition to 480 continuous hours of operation under laboratory conditions.

  17. Hydrogen-powered road vehicles : the health benfits and drawbacks of a new fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, W.F.; Erisman, J.W.; Hazel, van den P.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Leemans, R.; Legler, J.; Sluijs, J.P.; Dogger, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the political, social and environmental problems associated with dependency on fossil fuels, there is considerable interest in alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is regarded as a promising option, particularly as a fuel for road vehicles. The Dutch Energy Research Centre (ECN) recently

  18. Stand-alone power systems for the future: Optimal design, operation and control of solar-hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein

    1998-12-31

    This thesis gives a systematic review of the fundamentals of energy systems, the governing physical and chemical laws related to energy, inherent characteristics of energy system, and the availability of the earth`s energy. It shows clearly why solar-hydrogen systems are one of the most viable options for the future. The main subject discussed is the modelling of SAPS (Stand-Alone Power Systems), with focus on photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems. Simulation models for a transient simulation program are developed for PV-H{sub 2} components, including models for photovoltaics, water electrolysis, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and secondary batteries. A PV-H{sub 2} demonstration plant in Juelich, Germany, is studied as a reference plant and the models validated against data from this plant. Most of the models developed were found to be sufficiently accurate to perform short-term system simulations, while all were more than accurate enough to perform long-term simulations. Finally, the verified simulation models are used to find the optimal operation and control strategies of an existing PV-H{sub 2} system. The main conclusion is that the simulation methods can be successfully used to find optimal operation and control strategies for a system with fixed design, and similar methods could be used to find alternative system designs. 148 refs., 78 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Ziegler, James F.

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u-1 to 450 MeV u-1 or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  20. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D; Ziegler, James F

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u(-1) to 450 MeV u(-1) or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  1. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures

  2. Effects of Antenna Beam Chromaticity on Redshifted 21~cm Power Spectrum and Implications for Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; DeBoer, David; Bowman, Judd; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Neben, Abraham; Patra, Nipanjana

    2016-01-01

    Unaccounted for systematics from foregrounds and instruments can severely limit the sensitivity of current experiments from detecting redshifted 21~cm signals from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Upcoming experiments are faced with a challenge to deliver more collecting area per antenna element without degrading the data with systematics. This paper and its companions show that dishes are viable for achieving this balance using the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an example. Here, we specifically identify spectral systematics associated with the antenna power pattern as a significant detriment to all EoR experiments which causes the already bright foreground power to leak well beyond ideal limits and contaminate the otherwise clean EoR signal modes. A primary source of this chromaticity is reflections in the antenna-feed assembly and between structures in neighboring antennas. Using precise foreground simulations taking wide-field effects into account, we provide a framework to set cosmologica...

  3. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Weiqiang Dong; Yanjun Li; Ji Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/wind turbine (WT)/battery (B)/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH)) for reliable and economic supply. Two...

  4. Solar-powered electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds coupled with the cathodic production of molecular hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunwoong; Vecitis, Chad D; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2008-08-21

    A Bi-doped TiO2 anode, which is prepared from a mixed metal oxide coating deposited on Ti metal, is shown to be efficient for conventional water splitting. In this hybrid photovoltaic-electrochemical system, a photovoltaic (PV) cell is used to convert solar light to electricity, which is then used to oxidize a series of phenolic compounds at the semiconductor anode to carbon dioxide with the simultaneous production of molecular hydrogen from water/proton reduction at the stainless steel cathode. Degradation of phenol in the presence of a background NaCl electrolyte produces chlorinated phenols as reaction intermediates, which are subsequently oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and low-molecular weight carboxylic acids. The anodic current efficiency for the complete oxidation of phenolic compounds ranges from 3% to 17%, while the cathodic current efficiency and the energy efficiency for hydrogen gas generation range from 68% to 95% and 30% to 70%, respectively.

  5. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process.

  6. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (pressures; (ii) comparison of the forklift performances during heavy-duty operation when changing the powering in the series: standard battery - fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  7. Role of hydrogen in future North European power system in 2060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2010-01-01

    the future success of fuel cell technologies have been investigated as well as different electricity and heat demand assumptions. The variability of wind power production was handled by varying the hydropower production and the production on CHP plants using biomass, by power transmission, by varying...

  8. Experimental Hydrogen Plant with Metal Hydrides to Store and Generate Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzatti, Frank; Nizolli, Vinícius; Ferrigolo, Fredi Zancan; Farret, Felix Alberto; de Mello, Marcos Augusto Silva

    2016-02-01

    Generation of electrical energy with renewable sources is interruptible due to the primary energy characteristics (sun, wind, hydro, etc.). In these cases, it is necessary to use energy storage so increasing penetrability of these sources connected to the distribution system. This paper discusses in details some equipment and accessories of an integrated power plant using fuel cell stack, electrolyzer and metal hydrides. During the plant operation were collected the power consumption data and established the efficiency of each plant component. These data demonstrated an overall efficiency of about 11% due to the low efficiencies of the commercial electrolyzers and power inverters used in the experiments.

  9. Saturation Ion Current Densities in Inductively Coupled Hydrogen Plasma Produced by Large-Power Radio Frequency Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songbai; Lei, Guangjiu; Bi, Zhenhua; Ghomi, H.; Yang, Size; Liu, Dongping

    2016-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the saturation ion current densities (Jions) in hydrogen inductively coupled plasma (ICP) produced by a large-power (2-32 kW) radio frequency (RF) generator is reported, then some reasonable explanations are given out. With the increase of RF power, the experimental results show three stages: in the first stage (2-14 kW), the electron temperature will rise with the increase of RF power in the ICP, thus, the Jions increases continually as the electron temperature rises in the ICP. In the second stage (14-20 kW), as some H- ions lead to the mutual neutralization (MN), the slope of Jions variation firstly decreases then increases. In the third stage (20-32 kW), both the electronic detachment (ED) and the associative detachment (AD) in the ICP result in the destruction of H- ions, therefore, the increased amplitude of the Jions in the third stage is weaker than the one in the first stage. In addition, with the equivalent transformer model, we successfully explain that the Jions at different radial locations in ICP has the same rule. Finally, it is found that the Jions has nothing to do with the outer/inner puffing gas pressure ratio, which is attributed to the high-speed movement of hydrogen molecules. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2011GB108011 and 2010GB103001), the Major International (Regional) Project Cooperation and Exchanges of China (No. 11320101005) and the Startup Fund from Fuzhou University (No. 510071)

  10. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  11. Thermal Power: Focusing on Efficient and Clean Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wei; Li Jialu

    2009-01-01

    @@ History review Before the foundation of New China, there was no thermal power equipment manufacturing industry in China at all. China imported the manufacturing technology of 6-MW and 12-MW thermal power units from the former Czechoslovakia in 1952, and imported the manufacturing technology of 6-MW and 50-MW thermal power units from the former Soviet Union in 1953. At that time, the thermal power equipment manufacturing industry in China started to develop. Before the reform and opening up, China had been able to independently develop 6-300-MW thermal power units of high-pressure, super high-pressure and sub-critical utility boiler, impulse turbine, dual internal water cooling or water-hydrogen-hydrogen turbogenerator, among which the 100-MW, 125-MW,200-MW and 300-MW thermal power units had become the main parts in power grids, and three large-scale power generation equipment manufacturing bases of Harbin, Shanghai and Dongfang had been established simultaneously.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  13. 涠洲11-1油田混输原油超重力脱硫化氢试验研究%Experimental Study on Mixed Transportation Crude Oil Super Gravity Hydro-gen Sulfide Removal in Weizhou 11-1 Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾合买江·芒力克

    2016-01-01

    According to mixed transportation crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide in Wei-zhou 11-1 Oilfield, in view of the limited space for offshore oil platform, subsea pipeline mixed transmission fluid composition characteristics and key corrosive factors,using the grav-ity desulfurization device together with a complete set of reagents, field industrial testing on the gravity subsea pipeline mixed transportation crude oil multiphase flow hydrogen sulfide re-moval. The experimental results showed that: super gravity device can effectively removing the free gas in multiphase flow,super gravity desulfurization equipment cooperate with GLT-203 hydrogen sulfide scavenger makes multiphase fluid levels of hydrogen sulphide can be lowered to below 20 mg/m3;super gravity machine rotor speed increase is beneficial to strengthen mass transfer, enhance the desulfurization effect of drugs;oil temperature is more advantageous to rotating packed bed spread liquid for more tiny droplets, greatly reduces the mass transfer resistance of hydrogen sulfide, accelerated the reaction rate of reagents with hy-drogen sulfide.%根据涠洲11-1油田混输原油含硫化氢情况,针对海上采油平台空间受限、海管混输流体组成特点以及腐蚀性因素,采用超重力脱硫装置协同配套药剂进行了超重力海管混输原油多相流体脱硫化氢现场工业试验。试验结果表明:超重力脱硫设备能够有效地脱除多相流体中的游离气体;超重力脱硫设备协同GLT-203硫化氢清除剂可以将多相流体中的硫化氢浓度降至20 mg/m3以下;提高超重力机转子转速有利于强化传质,增强药剂的脱硫效果;原油温度升高更有利于旋转填料床将液相分散为更细小的液滴,大大降低硫化氢的传质阻力,加速药剂同硫化氢的反应速率。

  14. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  15. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

    2013-02-12

    A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

  16. Electronic stopping power of hydrogen in KCl at the stopping maximum and at very low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Bauer, P.

    2011-10-01

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions in KCl was investigated in a wide energy range. Thin films of KCl were evaporated on an Au/Si substrate. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was performed with protons and deuterons at energies from 30 to 400 keV/nucleon. At lower energies experiments were performed by Time-Of-Flight Low energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) again with proton and deuteron projectiles. Experimental results are compared to calculated/tabulated values for the electronic energy loss. Whereas at energies beyond the stopping maximum very good agreement is found, at lower ion energies discrepancies between experiment and calculations increase. At very low ion velocities the extrapolated stopping cross section ɛ predicts vanishing electronic energy loss at energies below 100 eV/nucleon.

  17. Magnetically Induced Continuous CO2 Hydrogenation Using Composite Iron Carbide Nanoparticles of Exceptionally High Heating Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordet, Alexis; Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Fazzini, Pier-Francesco; Carrey, Julian; Soulantica, Katerina; Chaudret, Bruno

    2016-12-19

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles to convert electromagnetic energy into heat is known to be a key strategy for numerous biomedical applications but is also an approach of growing interest in the field of catalysis. The heating efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles is limited by the poor magnetic properties of most of them. Here we show that the new generation of iron carbide nanoparticles of controlled size and with over 80 % crystalline Fe2.2 C leads to exceptional heating properties, which are much better than the heating properties of currently available nanoparticles. Associated to catalytic metals (Ni, Ru), iron carbide nanoparticles submitted to magnetic excitation very efficiently catalyze CO2 hydrogenation in a dedicated continuous-flow reactor. Hence, we demonstrate that the concept of magnetically induced heterogeneous catalysis can be successfully applied to methanation of CO2 and represents an approach of strategic interest in the context of intermittent energy storage and CO2 recovery.

  18. Attenuation of hydrogen peroxide and ferric reducing/antioxidant power serum levels in colorectal cancer patients with intestinal parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramathi, Samudi; Suresh, Kumar Govind; Anita, Zarina Bustam; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed several common oxidative indices in subjects infected with intestinal parasites, as well as in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients both with and without intestinal parasites. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were measured, as were plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), all according to established methods. The presence of intestinal parasites was confirmed by stool examination. All intestinal parasiteinfected subjects and CRC patients showed the presence of oxidative stress. Thirtysix percent of the CRC patients had intestinal parasitic infections. The levels of H(2)O(2) and FRAP in parasite-infected subjects were significantly higher than in CRC patients, but these levels were significantly lower in the CRC patients with parasitic infections. Parasitic infection and CRC may contribute to oxidative stress independently, but when present together, the oxidative stress burden imposed by parasites may be attenuated.

  19. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  20. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  1. Measurement of Hydrogen Chloride in Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, K. L.; Chanda, A.; Mackay, G.; Pisano, J. T.; Durbin, T. D.; Crabbe, K.; Smith, T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report on TDL HCl measurements obtained at a coal-fi red power plant which indicate that there is a significant perturbation of the HCl absorption feature. A methodology was also developed to remediate this effect and provide accurate measurement that will meet the EPA precision and detection limits currently being developed for HCl measurements of process gas emissions.

  2. Transport dynamics of a high-power-density matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Hagedorn, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental transport dynamics tests were made on a space power fuel cell of current design. Various operating transients were introduced and transport-related response data were recorded with fluidic humidity sensing instruments. Also, sampled data techniques were developed for measuring the cathode-side electrolyte concentration during transient operation.

  3. Ultra-low power hydrogen sensing based on a palladium-coated nanomechanical beam resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Jonas; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    of H 2, therefore generating a stress build-up that causes the frequency of the device to drop. The devices are able to detect H2 concentrations below 0.5% within 1 s of the onset of the exposure using only a few hundreds of pW of power, matching the industry requirements for H 2 safety sensors....... In addition, we investigate the strongly detrimental effect that relative humidity (RH) has on the Pd responsivity to H2, showing that the response is almost nullified at about 70% RH. As a remedy for this intrinsic limitation, we applied a mild heating current through the beam, generating a few μW of power...

  4. The future of power. Pt. 6. Great hopes in hydrogen; Die Zukunft der Energie. T. 6. Hoffnungs(energie)traeger Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artero, Vincent [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux; Guillet, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Grenoble (FR). Lab. d' Innovation pour les Technologies des Energies Nouvelles et les nanomateriaux (LITEN); Fruchart, Daniel [McPhy-Energy S.A., La Motte-Fanjas (France); Fontecave, Marc [College de France, Paris (France)

    2012-05-15

    Hydrogen today appears as a beacon of hope. Water is in sufficient supply, and hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis. Excess power, e.g. from solar and wind power plants, can be stored in the form of hydrogen. The stored chemical energy can then be converted into electric power with the aid of fuel cells. The by-product is water instead of climate-relevant CO2. Of course, both the electrolysis and the hydrogen storage must be optimised if fuel cells are to be able to compete with established technologies like petroleum or internal combustion engines. Attempts are therefore being made to copy nature (biomimetry) or to use metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. [German] Wasserstoff erscheint heute als Hoffnungstraeger, weil Wasser reichlich vorhanden ist und er durch Elektrolyse daraus gewonnen kann. Dort wo Stromueberschuesse produziert werden - wie z.B. bei Sonnen- und Windenergie - kann man sie ''zwischenlagern'', indem man sie fuer die Elektrolyse von Wasser nutzt und so die Energie in Form von Wasserstoff speichern. Man kann mit Hilfe von Brennstoffzellen die gespeicherte chemische Energie in elektrische Energie umwandeln. Dabei entsteht nur Wasser als Abfallprodukt und nicht das Treibhausgas CO{sub 2}. Natuerlich muss sowohl die Elektrolyse als auch die Wasserstoffspeicherung noch weiterentwickelt werden, um mit den etablierten Verfahren der Energieversorgung wie dem System Erdoelindustrie/Verbrennungsmotor konkurrieren zu koennen. So versucht man z.B. bei der Wasserstoffproduktion die Natur zu kopieren (Biomimetrie) oder Wasserstoffspeicherung Metallhydride einzusetzen.

  5. Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

  6. Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A program of laboratory and pilot plant tests, detailed process and project engineering work, and process engineering and economic evaluation studies has been carried out in support of the design of a test facility for demonstration of the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions. A demonstration plant has been designed which is capable of removing 99% of the H/sub 2/S, 90% of the NH/sub 3/, and significant amounts of H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ and particulates from 100,000 lb/hr of geothermal steam of The Geysers composition. Criteria for the mechanical and process design of the scrubber have been confirmed in field tests of fifty hours duration on an eight-inch diameter scrubber at PG and E's Unit No. 7, The Geysers. The background of the problem and the technical approach to its solution, the scope and results of the first-phase laboratory testing, the scope and results of the experimental and analytical studies carried out in the second phase, and a description of the configuration of the demonstration plant and the test plan for its operation are summarized. (MHR)

  7. THE EFFECT OF ADDING HYDROGEN ON THE PERFORMANCE AND THE CYCLIC VARIABILITY OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Chríbik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of blending hydrogen (from 0 to 50% vol. on the parameters and the cyclic variability of a Lombardini LGW702 combustion engine powered by natural gas. The experimental measurements were carried out at various air excess ratios and at various angles of spark advance, at an operating speed of 1500 min−1. An analysis of the combustion pressure showed that as the proportion of hydrogen in the mixture increases, the maximum pressure value also increases. However, at the same time the cyclic variability decreases. Both the ignition-delay period and the period of combustion of the mixture become shorter, which requires optimization of the spark advance angle for various proportions of hydrogen in the fuel. The increasing proportion of hydrogen extends the flammability limit to the area of lean-burn mixtures and, at the same time, the coefficient of cyclic variability of the mean indicated pressure decreases.

  8. 500C/3.8 kW-class Resonant-Mode Power Converter featuring SiC Super Junction Transistors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capitalizing on a potent confluence of expertise in III-Nitride epitaxy, GaN-Si power device designs, and wide-bandgap power electronics, researchers at GeneSiC...

  9. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  10. Fast detection and low power hydrogen sensor using edge-oriented vertically aligned 3-D network of MoS2 flakes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A. V.; Kumar, R.; Venkatesan, S.; Zakhidov, A.; Zhu, Z.; Bao, Jiming; Kumar, Mahesh; Kumar, Mukesh

    2017-08-01

    The increased usage of hydrogen as a next generation clean fuel strongly demands the parallel development of room temperature and low power hydrogen sensors for their safety operation. In this work, we report strong evidence for preferential hydrogen adsorption at edge-sites in an edge oriented vertically aligned 3-D network of MoS2 flakes at room temperature. The vertically aligned edge-oriented MoS2 flakes were synthesised by a modified CVD process on a SiO2/Si substrate and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and PL spectroscopy reveal the signature of few-layer MoS2 flakes in the sample. The sensor's performance was tested from room temperature to 150 °C for 1% hydrogen concentration. The device shows a fast response of 14.3 s even at room temperature. The sensitivity of the device strongly depends on temperature and increases from ˜1% to ˜11% as temperature increases. A detail hydrogen sensing mechanism was proposed based on the preferential hydrogen adsorption at MoS2 edge sites. The proposed gas sensing mechanism was verified by depositing ˜2-3 nm of ZnO on top of the MoS2 flakes that partially passivated the edge sites. We found a decrease in the relative response of MoS2-ZnO hybrid structures. This study provides a strong experimental evidence for the role of MoS2 edge-sites in the fast hydrogen sensing and a step closer towards room temperature, low power (0.3 mW), hydrogen sensor development.

  11. Super Tomboy Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sparked by Super Girl, the androgynous look is in among Chinese youth On September 8, this year's top six contestants on the Super Girl television show, a singing contest for young women, stepped into the spotlight. Nearly none of them had long black hair or wore evening gowns, traditionally associated with beauty in China. Rather, they

  12. The effects of the small-scale DM power on the cosmological neutral hydrogen (\\HI) distribution at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Abir; Das, Subinoy; Sethi, Shiv K; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Marsh, David J E

    2015-01-01

    The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models---Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models---where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range $2 4 \\times 10^5$ (for LFDM) and the axion mass $m_a > 2.6 \\times 10^{-23} \\, \\rm eV$ (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: $z_f > 2 \\times 10^5$ and $m_a > 10^{-23} \\, \\rm eV$. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables and, in the case of ULAs, are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem...

  13. The effects of the small-scale DM power on the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abir; Mondal, Rajesh; Das, Subinoy; Sethi, Shiv. K.; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Marsh, David J. E.

    2016-04-01

    The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models—Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models—where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range 2 4 × 105 (for LFDM) and the axion mass ma > 2.6 × 10-23 eV (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-α observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: zf > 2 × 105 and ma > 10-23 eV. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables; we briefly discuss how these bounds compare with possible constraints from the observation of luminosity function of galaxies at high redshifts. In the case of ULAs, these constraints are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem of CDM.

  14. Effects of Antenna Beam Chromaticity on Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectrum and Implications for Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Parsons, Aaron R.; DeBoer, David R.; Bowman, Judd D.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron M.; Neben, Abraham R.; Patra, Nipanjana

    2016-07-01

    Unaccounted for systematics from foregrounds and instruments can severely limit the sensitivity of current experiments from detecting redshifted 21 cm signals from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Upcoming experiments are faced with a challenge to deliver more collecting area per antenna element without degrading the data with systematics. This paper and its companions show that dishes are viable for achieving this balance using the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an example. Here, we specifically identify spectral systematics associated with the antenna power pattern as a significant detriment to all EoR experiments which causes the already bright foreground power to leak well beyond ideal limits and contaminate the otherwise clean EoR signal modes. A primary source of this chromaticity is reflections in the antenna-feed assembly and between structures in neighboring antennas. Using precise foreground simulations taking wide-field effects into account, we provide a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated design specifications on these reflections to prevent further EoR signal degradation. We show that HERA will not be impeded by such spectral systematics and demonstrate that even in a conservative scenario that does not perform removal of foregrounds, HERA will detect the EoR signal in line-of-sight k-modes, {k}\\parallel ≳ 0.2 h Mpc-1, with high significance. Under these conditions, all baselines in a 19-element HERA layout are capable of detecting EoR over a substantial observing window on the sky.

  15. A LOPA application to the hydrogen cooling system of the main electric generator of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Flavia M.; Frutuoso e Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: flaviamvasconcelos@gmail.com; frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Saldanha, P.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    The Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a powerful analytical tool for assessing the adequacy of protection layers used to mitigate risks in a process plant. LOPA applies semi-quantitative measures to evaluate the frequency of potential incidents and the probability of failure of protection layers. This paper presents an application of the Layer of Protection Analysis technique to a nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the cooling system of an electric generator, so as to identify scenarios that might lead to a plant shutdown. Next, the frequencies of occurrence of these events and the probability of failure on demand of the independent protection layers are determined. Here a difficulty is related to the lack of failure and initiating event data. The consequences identified are listed as impact events and are classified as to their severity level. The initiating causes are listed for each impact event and the likelihood is estimated for each initiating cause. Independent Protection Layers (ILPs) are listed. The mitigated event likelihood is studied and additional ILPs can be evaluated and added to reduce the risk. As a conclusion, LOPA demonstrated that the hydrogen inner-cooling electric generator system is in compliance with the risk scenarios adopted for this study. Some suggestions were made in order to automate some manual actions to increase the system reliability. (author)

  16. Hydrogen powered sports car series (internal combustion engine and fuel cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthold, J.P. [American Hydrogen Association, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The electric hybrid vehicle can solve the problems which today make the pure electric car limited in its acceptance. The primary limitations are excess weight and short range due to a heavy battery pack of limited energy density. Our basic vehicular design makes use of three power technologies in a balanced way. The chassis is the standard Volkswagen Beetle type which carried many millions of the {open_quotes}beetles{close_quotes} across all the Earth`s continents. The body is a fiberfab replica of a 1970s design sports car which provides three compartments from it`s original mid engine design and a classic aerodynamic shape.

  17. Partial conversion of hydrocarbons to syngas and hydrogen in volumetric radiation burners as a prospective way to enhance the performance characteristics of power engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Shmelev, V. M.; Shapovalova, O. V.; Rakhmetov, A. N.; Strekova, L. N.

    2013-03-01

    New type of syngas generator based on the partial conversion of natural gas (methane) or heavier hydrocarbons in volumetric permeable matrix burners in the conditions of locked infrared (IR) radiation is suggested as a high-productive, adaptable, and rather simple way of syngas and hydrogen production for various low-scale applications including enhancing the performance characteristics of power engines.

  18. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  19. Feasability of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Albertus B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane

  20. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane sep

  1. Research on super capacitor charging control technology of uninterruptible power supply%不间断电源超级电容充电控制技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚斗春

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent the losses caused by production equipment downtime,uninterruptible power supply is used in industrial production. During charging,the main issue is super capacitor charging control technology. In order to solve the problem that the equivalent resistance of super capacity of uninterruptible power supply affects the charging efficiency ,buck charging circuit is designed in this paper. The relationship between input and output voltages under different circumstances is derived. The circuit and charging model is established. Finally the quantitative comparison control mode was verified. The simulation based on the model is established in Proteus and the charging current curve is observed through analogue chart , which verified the advantages of quantitative comparison control mode in the charging speed and efficiency .%为解决不间断电源超级电容等效内阻随SOC变化而影响充电效率的问题,文中采用BUCK型充电电路,针对该电路推导出不同情况下输入输出电压关系,在此基础上建立充电电路模型和充电数学模型。提出定值比较控制模式,根据建立的模型,在Proteus中建立仿真模型,通过ANALOGUE图表观察充电电流曲线,验证了定量比较控制模式的在充电速度以及效率上的明显优势。

  2. Study of a high power hydrogen beam diagnostic based on secondary electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Management and Engineering, University di Padova strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Panasenkov, A. [NRC, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serianni, G.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current. To investigate the diagnostic performances in different conditions, we developed a numerical model of secondary electron emission, induced by beam particle impact on the copper tubes, and reproducing the cascade of secondary emission caused by successive electron impacts. The model is first validated against IREK measurements. It is then applied to the HNB case, to assess the locality of the measurement, the proportionality to the beam current density, and the influence of beam plasma.

  3. Study of a high power hydrogen beam diagnostic based on secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Panasenkov, A.; Veltri, P.; Serianni, G.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current. To investigate the diagnostic performances in different conditions, we developed a numerical model of secondary electron emission, induced by beam particle impact on the copper tubes, and reproducing the cascade of secondary emission caused by successive electron impacts. The model is first validated against IREK measurements. It is then applied to the HNB case, to assess the locality of the measurement, the proportionality to the beam current density, and the influence of beam plasma.

  4. Electrochemical studies of nickel deposition from aqueous solution in super-gravity field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO ZhanCheng; GONG YingPeng; LU WeiChang

    2007-01-01

    The effect of super-gravity on electrochemical deposition of nickel from aqueous solution was studied. The SEM pictures show that the microstructure of nickel film deposited under the super-gravity condition is finer and more uniform compared with that obtained in normal gravity condition, and the crystal grains diminish with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. The XRD patterns indicate that the arrangement of crystalline grains of nickel film deposited under the super-gravity field is more regular, and the crystalline grain sizes decrease with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. Toughness, tensile stress and hardness of the nickel film are markedly raised with the increase of super-gravity coefficient, and hydrogen content in the nickel film decreases with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. From the polarization curves of hydrogen evolution reaction under the super-gravity condition, a significant reduction of over-potential on electrode was found when current density increased. The process of hydrogen evolution reaction was enhanced under the super-gravity condition. The electro-deposition rate, the microstructure and properties of deposited nickel film under super-gravity condition were still affected by the relative orientation between inertia force and depositing surface. It is favorable to gain the nickel film with better mechanic properties when inertia force orientates vertically towards depositing surface.

  5. Mean excitation energies for stopping powers in various materials composed of elements hydrogen through argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Xu, Y. J.; Kamaratos, E.; Chang, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The local plasma model is used to study the effects of the chemical and physical state of a medium on its stopping power. The relationship between that model and a more exact quantum treatment of bound systems is elucidated by examining related quantities in both theories for the case of one and two-electron systems. Atomic mean excitation energies and straggling parameters in the local plasma model are compared with the accurate calculations of Inokuti et al. (1975, 1978, 1981). The use of the Gordon-Kim electron gas model of molecular bonding is used to determine the effects of covalent chemical bond shifts on the mean excitation energies for elements of the first two rows. Calculations of mean excitation energies of ionic bonded substances are presented, and the mean excitation energies of metals are discussed.

  6. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  7. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  8. SSH2S: Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides for an auxiliary power unit based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricco, Marcello; Bang, Mads; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hauback, Bjorn; Linder, Marc; Luetto, Carlo; Moretto, Pietro; Sgroi, Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the SSH2S (Fuel Cell Coupled Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tank) project was to develop a solid state hydrogen storage tank based on complex hydrides and to fully integrate it with a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack. A mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was used as the main storage material for the tank, due to its high gravimetric storage capacity and relatively low hydrogen desorption temperature. The mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was coupled with a standard intermetallic compound to take advantage of its capability to release hydrogen at ambient temperature and to ensure a fast start-up of the system. The hydrogen storage tank was designed to feed a 1 kW HT-PEM stack for 2 h to be used for an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). A full thermal integration was possible thanks to the high operation temperature of the fuel cell and to the relative low temperature (170 °C) for hydrogen release from the mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system.

  9. Comparative analysis of photovoltaic power storage systems by means of batteries and hydrogen in remote areas of the Amazon region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Andre Luis; Silva Pinto, Cristiano da [FEM/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering; Neves, Newton Pimenta Jr. [IFGW/UNICAMP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Lab. of Hydrogen

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the photovoltaic power storage comparing the traditional lead-acid batteries with electrolytic hydrogen where the gas is reconverted to power in a fuel cell. In order to design the two systems a load profile of the Brazilian Amazon communities was used as well as some practical operational data of equipment tested in the laboratory. A mathematical model was developed, implemented in a spreadsheet that considers the several devices and their efficiencies in order to specify and match the systems components. The results were employed to evaluate the economic viability of the two systems in remote communities. Considering the present conditions, it was verified that the battery system is slightly cheaper. However, it was also observed that a minor cost reduction in the electrolyser, as well as in the buffer and fuel cell would make the hydrogen system very competitive, becoming the best option for photovoltaic power storage with important benefits to the environment. (orig.)

  10. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  11. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily

  12. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources Powered by Radiatively Efficient Two-Phased Super-Eddington Accretion onto Stellar Mass Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.

    2005-01-01

    The radiation spectra of many of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are dominated by a hard power law component, likely powered by a hot, optically thin corona that Comptonizes soft seed photons emitted from a cool, optically thick black hole accretion disk. Before its dissipation and subsequent conversion into coronal photon power, the randomized gravitational binding energy responsible for powering ULX phenomena must separate from the mass of its origin by a means other than, and quicker than, electron scattering-mediated radiative diffusion. Therefore, the release of accretion power in ULXs is not necessarily subject to Eddington-limited photon trapping, as long as it occurs in a corona. Motivated by these basic considerations, we present a model of ULXs powered by geometrically thin accretion onto stellar mass black holes. We argue that the radiative efficiency of the flow remains high if the corona is magnetized or optically thin and the majority of the accretion power escapes in the form o...

  13. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  14. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  15. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  16. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current......Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  17. Extreme Supernova Models for the Super-luminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Nagy, A. P.; Wiggins, B. K.; Even, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly super-luminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) with its UV-bright secondary peak challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for super-luminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the light curve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that, as a supernova, ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of an ˜40 M ⊙ star interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ˜20 M ⊙. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the final supernova explosion. Additional energy injection by a magnetar with an initial period of 1-2 ms and magnetic field of 0.1-1 × 1014 G may supply the excess luminosity required to overcome the deficit in single-component models, but this requires more fine-tuning and extreme parameters for the magnetar, as well as the assumption of efficient conversion of magnetar energy into radiation. We thus favor a single-input model where the reverse shock formed in a strong SN ejecta-circumstellar matter interaction following a very powerful core-collapse SN explosion can supply the luminosity needed to reproduce the late-time UV-bright plateau.

  18. Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  19. The Super Girl Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Changsha,the capital city of Hunan Province, has become famous across China for its innovative TV channel, in particular the cultural phenomenon of the Super Girl talent show. And as far as culture goes, Hunan TV is merely a reflection of a renaissance happening in the city. Animation, music halls, drama festivals and a famous book market are just some of the city's cultural sectors that are benefiting from the fame and notoriety of the Super Girl show.

  20. The formation of super-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1980-01-01

    The author has calculated the collision of a small neutral cloud (surface density approximately 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/) with a constant density galactic disk. Through the collision, a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume of the galaxy, resulting in a supersonic expansion of very hot (10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/K) gas into the Galaxy and out of the galactic disk. The expansion generates a large cavity (a super-ring) with physical characteristics (diameter, velocity of expansion, etc.) in agreement with the observations, and a large volume of hot low-density gas with properties similar to those of the observed coronal gas. (31 refs).

  1. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤福财

    2012-01-01

    We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy.

  2. Optimal Sizing of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System Based on Battery/Hydrogen with an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A distributed power system with renewable energy sources is very popular in recent years due to the rapid depletion of conventional sources of energy. Reasonable sizing for such power systems could improve the power supply reliability and reduce the annual system cost. The goal of this work is to optimize the size of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic (PV/wind turbine (WT/battery (B/hydrogen system (a hybrid system based on battery and hydrogen (HS-BH for reliable and economic supply. Two objectives that take the minimum annual system cost and maximum system reliability described as the loss of power supply probability (LPSP have been addressed for sizing HS-BH from a more comprehensive perspective, considering the basic demand of load, the profit from hydrogen, which is produced by HS-BH, and an effective energy storage strategy. An improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm has been presented to solve the sizing problem of HS-BH. Finally, a simulation experiment has been done to demonstrate the developed results, in which some comparisons have been done to emphasize the advantage of HS-BH with the aid of data from an island of Zhejiang, China.

  3. Influence of hydrogen on the thermoelectric power of palladium alloyed with neighbouring elements: I. Pd/Ru/H and Pd/Rh/H alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Szafranski, A W

    2003-01-01

    Pd/Ru and Pd/Rh alloys have been loaded with hydrogen in high-pressure conditions. The resulting hydrogen contents were close to the stoichiometric composition, H/(Pd + Me) = 1. Lower hydrogen contents have been obtained by successive partial desorptions. The thermoelectric power and electrical resistance of one- and two-phase alloys have been measured simultaneously in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K. A Nordheim-Gorter type correlation of the two quantities has been observed in many cases and the partial thermopowers corresponding to electron-phonon scattering and lattice disorder could be determined. The observed anomalous behaviour of the total and partial thermopowers is attributed to virtual bound states of ruthenium or rhodium.

  4. Electrochemical studies of nickel deposition from aqueous solution in super-gravity field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of super-gravity on electrochemical deposition of nickel from aqueous solution was studied. The SEM pictures show that the microstructure of nickel film deposited under the super-gravity condition is finer and more uniform compared with that obtained in normal gravity condition, and the crystal grains diminish with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. The XRD patterns indicate that the ar-rangement of crystalline grains of nickel film deposited under the super-gravity field is more regular, and the crystalline grain sizes decrease with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. Toughness, tensile stress and hardness of the nickel film are markedly raised with the increase of super-gravity coefficient, and hydrogen content in the nickel film decreases with the increase of super-gravity coefficient. From the polarization curves of hydrogen evolution reaction under the su-per-gravity condition, a significant reduction of over-potential on electrode was found when current density increased. The process of hydrogen evolution reaction was enhanced under the super-gravity condition. The electro-deposition rate, the microstructure and properties of deposited nickel film under super-gravity condi-tion were still affected by the relative orientation between inertia force and depos-iting surface. It is favorable to gain the nickel film with better mechanic properties when inertia force orientates vertically towards depositing surface.

  5. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A.

    2015-01-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows to build black holes dressed with all the (su...

  6. Photoelectrochemical splitting of water to produce a power appetizer Hydrogen: A green system for future –( A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet the future energy demand, Hydrogen has been accepted as a fuel for future. Out of several renewable methods to produce hydrogen, solar assisted splitting of water (Photoelectrochemical splitting of water is emerging as a most desired method to produce hydrogen which is a advancement of Photovoltaic process. However, the efficiency of PEC cell is a matter of concern. Various strategies have been adopted by different researchers to increase the efficiency of the system especially using nanotechnology as a tool. In this article, attempts have been made to summarise different approaches applied to obtain effective and viable photoelectrochemical system for splitting water to obtain hydrogen an energy carrier.

  7. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  8. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  9. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-12-12

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  10. Catalysis of atomic hydrogen to novel hydrogen species H{sup -}(1/4) and H{sub 2}(1/4) as a new power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.; He, J.; Chang, Z.; Good, W.; Lu, Y.; Dhandapani, B. [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The data from a broad spectrum of investigational techniques strongly and consistently indicate that hydrogen can exist in lower-energy states than previously thought possible. The predicted reaction involves a resonant, nonradiative energy transfer from otherwise stable atomic hydrogen to a catalyst capable of accepting the energy. The product is H(1/p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen wherein n={l_brace}1/2{r_brace},{l_brace}1/3{r_brace},{l_brace}1/4{r_brace},..,1/p (p{<=}137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n=integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. He{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and K are predicted to serve as catalysts since they meet the catalyst criterion - a chemical or physical process with an enthalpy change equal to an integer multiple of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2 eV. Specific predictions based on closed-form equations for energy levels were tested. For example, two H(1/p) may react to form H{sub 2}(1/p) that have vibrational and rotational energies that are p{sup 2} times those of H{sub 2} comprising uncatalyzed atomic hydrogen. Rotational lines were observed in the 145-300 nm region from atmospheric pressure electron-beam-excited argon-hydrogen plasmas. The unprecedented energy spacing of 4{sup 2} times that of hydrogen established the internuclear distance as 1/4 that of H{sub 2} and identified H{sub 2}(1/4). The predicted products of alkali catalyst K are H{sup -}(1/4) which form KH{sup *}X, a novel alkali halido (X) hydride compound, and H{sub 2}(1/4) which may be trapped in the crystal. The {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectrum of novel compound KH{sup *}Cl relative to external tetramethylsilane (TMS) showed a large distinct upfield resonance at -4.4ppm corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of -35.9ppm that matched the theoretical prediction of H(1/4) with p=4. The predicted frequencies of ortho- and para-H{sub 2}(1/4) were observed at 1943 and 2012cm{sup -1} in the high-resolution FTIR

  11. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m-3. However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ∼1.5× to 118 W h m-3. Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m-3 or ∼1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  12. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  13. Development and simulation of a hydrogen production plant on a solar power tower; Entwicklung und Simulation einer Wasserstofferzeugungsanlage auf einem Solarturm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeck, Jan-Peter

    2012-08-29

    The purpose of the present project was to develop and qualify a test plant for thermochemical hydrogen production on a solar power tower and to create and validate a systems and control model as well as an operating strategy for this purpose. [German] Ziel der Arbeit war, eine Testanlage zur thermochemischen Wasserstofferzeugung auf einem Solarturmsystem zu entwickeln und zu qualifizieren, sowie ein System- und Regelungsmodell und eine Betriebsstrategie dafuer zu erstellen und zu validieren.

  14. Ionization history of the Universe as a test for Super Heavy Dark Matter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the possible distortions of the ionization history of the universe caused by an injection of non-thermal energy due to decays of hypothetical Super Heavy Dark Matter (SHDM) particles. These particles are usually considered as a possible source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) in the framework of the Top-Down model. Estimates of fraction of energy of decays converted to the UV range show that, for suitable parameters of SHDM particles, the significant distortions of power spectra of CMB anisotropy appear. Comparison with the observed power spectrum allows to restrict some properties of the SHDM particles. These decays can also increase of about 5 -- 10 times the degree of ionization of hydrogen at redshifts $z\\sim$ 10 -- 50 that essentially accelerates the formation of molecules $H_2$ and first stars during "dark ages".

  15. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  16. 超轻度混合动力汽车动力转换控制策略%Control strategy on power conversion of the super-mild hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯俊; 郭家田

    2011-01-01

    The control strategy on power conversion that the engine keeps on working along the optimal economy curve or the motor running in a higher efficiency is elaborated in this paper. With the throttle position and the battery's SOC state to determine the working state of the two power source, the power conversion fuzzy control of the super-mild hybrid electric vehicles is designed. And the overall vehicle control and simulation model is built. In the end the control of engine starting, speed regulation is discussed, which makes the quick and smooth clutch combination.%讨论以发动机最佳燃油经济性或电动机最佳效率为控制目标的动力转换控制策略,以油门踏板位置及蓄电池SOC状态为输入变量,设计了混合动力汽车动力转换模糊控制器,建立了整车控制仿真模型。文中阐述了由电机切换到发动机工作时发动机的起动、调速控制,以及离合器快速平稳地结合的过程。仿真结果表明:对转换车速的门限值控制模糊化能够使转换车速更加符合驾驶员对动力性的要求。

  17. Stakeholder Power Dynamics in Environmental Decision Making:A Case Study of the 2012 FVMargiris ‘Super Trawler’Fishing Dilemma in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wainwright, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of diverse stakeholders in the decision making process and the acknowledgement of their multiple and often conflicting objectives is accepted as a critical ingredient in arriving at environmentally responsible outcomes which balance long term environmental sustainability with pragmatic, short term realities. While existing literature has accepted that unequal power dynamics between actors exist in the process of environmental decision making, little coverage has been given to ...

  18. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  19. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  20. 面向Z箍缩驱动聚变能源需求的超高功率重复频率驱动器技术%Super-power repetitive Z-pinch driver for fusion-fission reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 陈林; 夏明鹤; 计策; 袁建强; 宋盛义; 黄显宾; 彭先觉; 王勐; 谢卫平; 周良骥; 邹文康; 郭帆; 章乐; 李逢; 丰树平

    2014-01-01

    According to the demands of Z-pinch driven fusion-fission reactor(Z-FFR),several possible technical schemes are analyzed and evaluated.A novel technical scheme named mixed-mode LTD is proposed.A conceptual design of Z-FFR driver is presented based on mixed-mode LTD scheme.The main directions for key technologies development are pointed out.A road-map is proposed for the super-power Z-pinch driver development.%针对Z箍缩驱动聚变裂变混合能源系统对驱动器的总体要求,对可能的技术路线进行了分析评述,结合当前在单脉冲超高功率Z箍缩驱动器和重复频率脉冲功率技术方面的研究基础,提出了混合模式直线变压驱动器概念设计思想,分析了主要的技术难点,明确了相应的关键技术攻关方向,同时对 Z 箍缩驱动器的总体发展计划提出了建议。

  1. Optimization for Main Steam Super Pipe Hot Extrusion Mouthpiece of Nuclear Power Station%核电站主蒸汽超级管道热挤压管嘴设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王磊; 马国顺; 刘翠波

    2015-01-01

    By the finite element method based on commercial software,ANASY,it show that inner pressure plays a major role in the mouthpiece stress of main steam super pipe in nuclear power station.In addition, through studying the effect of mouthpiece radius and longitudinal inner arc radius on mouthpiece stress, The range of longitudinal inner arc radius to optimize the peak stress and local thin film stress were pro-posed.Specifically,it is emphasized that the optimized longitudinal inner arc radius of No.1 mouthpiece is 30 mm.%对核电站主蒸汽超级管道热挤压管嘴进行有限元分析,结果表明内压是影响管嘴应力的主要因素。通过研究管嘴纵向内角半径对管嘴应力的影响,得出在给定载荷的情况下峰值应力和局部薄膜应力存在一个最优的纵向内角半径范围。根据分析结果,推荐了1号管嘴纵向内角半径尺寸为 R =30 mm。

  2. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  3. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accura...... of the same proteins were close to the values typical for other precursor ion-based quantification methods. The raw data is deposited to ProteomeXchange (PXD001907). The developed node is available for testing at https://github.com/caetera/SuperQuantNode....

  4. Super-knock Suppression Using Split Injection in a Turbo-Charged GDI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-knock, which occurs under low-speed and big load operate condition in turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI engine, is an abnormal combustion phenomenon. Due to its potential to cause degradation of the engine, super knock has become the main obstacle for increasing specific power and lowing fuel consumption of engine. In order to investigate suppress strategies of super-knock, split injection is applied on a high boosted GDI engine. The results shows that: super knock correlates to some extent with split injection; further study shows that appropriate split injection duty ratio and the end of second injection time could reduce super knock effectively.

  5. 一种超低纹波组合开关电源的研制%Research on the Super-low Ripple Combination Power-switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏

    2000-01-01

    介绍了一种超低纹波开关电源的设计方案,该方案已在150V、250V、300V、450V、600V、1800V等系列开关电源系统中得到检验,其纹波分量仅占输出电压的万分之一。文中详细介绍了该开关电源的构成,并给出了其实用效果。%This paper introduces a superlow ripple combinationpower-switch whose constitution and practical effort are discussed here. The design has been examined in a series of power switch systems.

  6. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  7. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  8. (Super-)renormalizably dressed black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Méndez-Zavaleta, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    Black holes supported by self-interacting conformal scalar fields can be considered as renormalizably dressed since the conformal potential is nothing but the top power-counting renormalizable self-interaction in the relevant dimension. On the other hand, potentials defined by powers which are lower than the conformal one are also phenomenologically relevant since they are in fact super-renormalizable. In this work we provide a new map that allows to build black holes dressed with all the (super-)renormalizable contributions starting from known conformal seeds. We explicitly construct several new examples of these solutions in dimensions $D=3$ and $D=4$, including not only stationary configurations but also time-dependent ones.

  9. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  10. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5-1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  11. The Control Measures of Hydrogen in AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant%AP1000核电厂氢气控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜福伟

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the supervision departments of the government all over the world have put forward more strict requirements of the prevention and mitigation measurements for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. These requirements are to limit the radwaste release from the containment if the severe accidents happened, although the probability is very low. The control measures of hydrogen for severe accidents in AP1000 nuclear power plant are analyzed, including the location of hydrogen production, reaction mechanism, challenge to the containment, arrangement of the igniters and passive hydrogen recombiners. According to these introductions of design and management measures, combined with other research findings, we can say the control of hydrogen during severe accidents in AP1000 nuclear power plant is effective. It can meet the requirements of NNSA and ensure the integrity of the containment.%福岛核事故之后,各国核电监管部门对于核电厂严重事故的预防和缓解措施都提出了更为严格的要求,确保在发生概率极低的严重事故的情况下,也能限制放射性物质向环境的释放。本文以AP1000针对严重事故的氢气控制措施为研究方向,介绍了严重事故情况下氢气的产生位置、反应机理、对安全壳的威胁、氢气点火器和非能动氢气复合器的布置。通过对上述设计和管理措施的介绍,结合其他研究成果,说明了AP1000核电厂对于严重事故情况下的氢气控制是有效的,能够满足国家核安全局的要求,可以确保安全壳的完整性。

  12. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  13. Experimental and theoretical determination of the efficiency of a sub-atmospheric flowing high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; D.C. Schram,; Shumack, A. E.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Cascaded arc plasma sources with channel diameters between 4 and 8mm were experimentally investigated at discharge currents up to 900A and hydrogen (H-2) flow rates up to 10 slm. Pressure measurements at the arc exit showed that the heavy particle temperature in the discharge channel was about 0.8 e

  14. Cost Benefit Analysis of Performing a Pilot Project for Hydrogen-Powered Ground Support Equipment at Lemoore Naval Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    34 Bullnet eCommerce Solutions, Bull Group. http://www.bullnet.co.uk/ (accessed November 25, 2006). 13 Philip Baxley, Cynthia Verdugo-Peralta, and Wolfgang...Benefits of Fuel Cells." Bullnet eCommerce Solutions, Bull Group. http://www.bullnet.co.uk/ (accessed November 25, 2006). "Hydrogen Production and

  15. 基于STATCOM的超级电容储能系统的风电并网%Super Capacitor Energy Storage System Based on STATCOM of Wind Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪珠; 张馨瑜; 孙佳月

    2015-01-01

    为了提高电网的电能质量,探讨了一种与永磁同步发电机(PMSG)相连接的电网控制和运行策略。该电机以直驱变速风电机组和静止同步补偿器(STATCOM)为基础,STATCOM的应用是通过风力涡轮机的不脱网运转能力来提高了系统性能,发电机侧变换器的控制策略是应用STATCOM控制器实现传输效率最大化。通过Matlab对其进行了仿真验证。仿真结果表明,带有STATCOM的超级电容器能量存储系统能够提高风能系统电网故障或扰动时的稳态和动态性能。%In order to improve the quality ,this paper discusses a strategy to control and run with permanent magnet synchronous generator(PMSG) connected to the grid. The direct-drive motor with variable speed wind turbines and static synchronous compensator(STATCOM) basis. STATCOM applications through wind turbines do not operate off-grid power to improve system performance. Generator-side converter control strategy is the application of STATCOM controller to maximize transmission efficiency. This paper was carried out by Matlab simulation verification. Super capacitor energy storage system with STATCOM can improve grid wind energy system failures or disturbances during steady-state and dynamic performance.

  16. Super Audio Induction Heating Power in the Application of Aquatic Breeding%超音频感应加热电源在水产养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文江; 陈刚; 万卜源; 刘南

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional aquiculture heat boiler (coal,fuel or electricity) heating devicehas high in energy consumption,low power, pollution serious,and operation cost higher etc shortcomings, a kind of electromagnetic induction based on the principle of super audio induction heating device was put forward. With high speed digital sig-nal processor TMS320F2812DSP as control core,finished design of frequency tracking digital phase lock loop (DPLL), the fuzzy PID control method to real-time dynamic adjustment of temperature,and realized the precise control of the water supply system digital constant temperature. The prototype test show that the device has fast heating speed,high precision,high efficiency,energy saving and environmental protection.%  针对水产养殖传统加温采用锅炉(燃煤、燃油或用电)加热装置能耗高、功率低、污染严重、运行费用高等缺点,设计一款以电磁感应原理为基础的超音频感应加热装置。该装置以高速数字信号处理器TMS320F2812DSP为控制核心,完成了频率跟踪的数字锁相环(DPLL)设计,采用模糊PID控制方法对温度进行实时动态调整,实现了高精度数字化控制的恒温供水系统。样机试验表明,该装置加热速度快,精度高,效率高,节能环保。

  17. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  18. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  19. Super-diversité

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.; Lelie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Le concept de super-diversité, en cernant les conditions d'un scénario 'avenir optimiste, offre un nouvel éclairage au débat sur l'intégration. Nous sommes à la croisée des chemins. Cette étude comparative internationale montre qu'un avenir souriant se profile dans les villes qui donnent des chances

  20. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  1. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  2. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  3. Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.

  4. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    CERN Document Server

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce $\\beta$-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated $\\alpha/\\beta$-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  5. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  6. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  7. “Distributed hybrid” MH–CGH2 system for hydrogen storage and its supply to LT PEMFC power modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: mlototskyy@uwc.ac.za [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Tolj, I.; Davids, M.W.; Bujlo, P. [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Smith, F. [Impala Platinum Ltd, Springs (South Africa); Pollet, B.G. [HySA Systems Competence Centre, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Prototype hydrogen storage and supply system for LTPEMFC applications was developed. • Combination of MH and CGH2 tanks with common gas manifold was used. • Thermal coupling of fuel cell stack and MH tank was applied. • The system uses AB2-type MH; H2 equilibrium pressure ∼10 bar at room temperature. • Shorter H2 charge time and stable H2 supply at a fluctuating load were observed. - Abstract: This paper describes the layout and presents the results of the testing of a novel prototype “distributed hybrid” hydrogen storage and supply system that has the potential to be used for Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (LT-PEMFC) applications. The system consists of individual Metal Hydride (MH) and Compressed Gas (CGH2) tanks with common gas manifold, and a thermal management system where heat exchanger of the liquid heated-cooled MH tank is integrated with the cooling system of the LT-PEMFC BoP. The MH tank is filled with a medium-stability AB{sub 2}-type MH material (H{sub 2} equilibrium pressure of about 10 bar at room temperature). This innovative solution allows for (i) an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of the whole gas storage system and the reduction of H{sub 2} charge pressure; (ii) shorter charging times in the refuelling mode and smoother peaks of H{sub 2} consumption during its supply to the fuel cell stack; (iii) the use of standard parts with simple layout and lower costs; and (iv) adding flexibility in the layout and placement of the components of the hydrogen storage and supply system.

  8. Electric and energy modelling of the super-condenser and method of characterization: application to the cycling of a module of super-condensers low tension in great power; Modelisation electrique et energetique des supercondensateurs et methodes de caracterisation: application au cyclage d'un module de supercondensateurs basse tension en grande puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizoug, N.

    2006-02-15

    This document presents a study of the electrical and energetic behaviour of super-capacitors under conditions similar to industrial applications' ones. For that, a test bench has been developed in our laboratory in order to characterize a super-capacitors' module (112 F-48 V) composed of 24 elements of 2700 F/2,3 V. The goal of this work was firstly to evaluate the precision of the existing model about the electrical and energetic characteristics and secondly to improve this precision. For that, two models representing the energetic and electrical behaviour of these components are developed. These models are obtained by a simple identification of the data measured during the cycling tests using frequency and temporal approaches. Numerous electrical and thermal data are obtained during the cycling test of the module. These data are used to observe the evolution of the equivalent capacity and resistance of several super-capacitor elements of the tested module according to the temperature. For the first 200.000 cycles, the ageing process of super-capacitors and the variation of the module parameters during all the life of this tested module are presented. This study allowed to obtain information about the degradation (R, rs and C) according to the number of cycles carried out. Finally, the tests of cycling done without balancing device (except the impedance of the measurement system) allow to observe a natural dispersion of the voltage according to the position of the components in the module. (author)

  9. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  10. Least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Wooseok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of multipath channel estimation for direct sequence spread spectrum signals. To resolve multipath components arriving within a short interval, we propose a new algorithm called the least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution (LIMS). Compared to conventional super-resolution techniques, such as the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariance techniques (ESPRIT), our algorithm has several appealing features. In particular, even in critical situations where the conventional super-resolution techniques are not very powerful due to limited data or the correlation between path coefficients, the LIMS algorithm can produce successful results. In addition, due to its iterative nature, the LIMS algorithm is suitable for recursive multipath tracking, whereas the conventional super-resolution techniques may not be. Through numerical simulations, we show that the LIMS algorithm can resolve the first arrival path amo...

  11. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  12. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  13. Analysis on Power Quality of Grid-Connected Direct-Driven Wind Power System with Super Capacitor Storage Energy%基于超级电容器储能的直驱风电系统并网性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冬雷; 张新宇; 黄晓江; 廖晓钟; 杨莹

    2012-01-01

    为改善直驱风电系统的并网性能,在直流母线电压端并入超级电容器储能装置.分析了基于超级电容器储能的直驱风电系统模型,设计了控制策略,通过控制双向直流变换器及并网变流器,抑制风机功率的波动以向电网输出平滑的功率.在电网电压跌落时,使直驱风电系统安全实现低电压穿越,并向电网提供一定的无功功率支撑.利用依兰风电场18#风机实际输出功率作为控制对象进行仿真.结果表明,加入超级电容器储能装置可以改善直驱风电系统的并网性能.%Super capacitor energy storage (SCES) device connected in parallel with DC-bus was used to improve the grid-connected power quality of direct-driven wind power system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The system model was analyzed and the control scheme was designed. By controlling the bi-directional DC/DC converter and the grid-side converter, the fluctuation of wind power could be restricted so that the active grid power is smooth. During the grid voltage sags, wing system low voltage ride through (LVRT) could be realized to apply certain reactive power support to power grid. Simulation has been done to test the output power of No. 18 wind turbine at Yilan wind farm. The results show that, the grid power quality of the direct-driven wind power system could be improved with the aid of SCES device.

  14. On the hydrogen atom via Wigner-Heisenberg algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Cuite, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Educacao]. E-mail: rafael@df.ufcg.edu.br; rafaelr@cbpf.br

    2008-07-01

    We extend the usual Kustaanheimo-Stiefel 4D {yields} 3D mapping to study and discuss a constrained super-Wigner oscillator in four dimensions. We show that the physical hydrogen atom is the system that emerges in the bosonic sector of the mapped super 3D system. (author)

  15. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  16. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  17. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  18. Current research and development activities on fission products and hydrogen risk after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP accident, new regulatory requirements were enforced in July 2013 and a backfit was required for all existing nuclear power plants. It is required to take measures to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their radiological consequences. The Regulatory Standard and Research Department, Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority (S/NRA/R has been conducting numerical studies and experimental studies on relevant severe accident phenomena and countermeasures. This article highlights fission product (FP release and hydrogen risk as two major areas. Relevant activities in the S/NRA/R are briefly introduced, as follows: 1. For FP release: Identifying the source terms and leak mechanisms is a key issue from the viewpoint of understanding the progression of accident phenomena and planning effective countermeasures that take into account vulnerabilities of containment under severe accident conditions. To resolve these issues, the activities focus on wet well venting, pool scrubbing, iodine chemistry (in-vessel and ex-vessel, containment failure mode, and treatment of radioactive liquid effluent. 2. For hydrogen risk: because of three incidents of hydrogen explosion in reactor buildings, a comprehensive reinforcement of the hydrogen risk management has been a high priority topic. Therefore, the activities in evaluation methods focus on hydrogen generation, hydrogen distribution, and hydrogen combustion.

  19. Hydrogen storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  20. Quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkes, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Super-Resolution Microscopy is an optical fluorescence technique. In this thesis we focus on single molecule super-resolution, where the position of single molecules is determined. Typically these molecules can be localized with a 10 to 30nm precision. This technique is applied in four different s

  1. Applications of the use of the renewable energies, solar power and wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells; Obtencion de hidrogeno, a partir de la electrolisis del agua mediante energias renovables almacenamiento y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, J. J.; Martin, I.; Aperribay, V.; San Martin, J. I.; Arrieta, J. M.; Zuazua, J.; Romero, E.

    2004-07-01

    The object of the presented communication is to show the applications of the use of the renewable energies, particularly the solar power and the wind power, for the securing of hydrogen, as power supply of the fuel cells. The electrical energy produced in the solar badges and in the windpowers is, principally, injected into the electrical networks, for his transport, distribution and consumption, if the network the demand. The novel aspect is, that if the network does not demand potency, this one is transformed into hydrogen at the same photovoltaic station or into the base of the tower of the windpower and, later, stored to feed the fuel cells, not producing to him any type of element pollutant, since the residual element is the water. (Author)

  2. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  3. Travel with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F. Jo

    2017-03-01

    In the field of transportation, hydrogen does not have a particularly glorious history. Just think of the dozens of hydrogen airships destroyed by fire over the years, with the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 as the most famous example. Now H2 is trying a comeback on the road, often in combination with a fuel cell and an electric motor to power the car.

  4. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  5. Super Marx Generator for Thermonuclear Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-01-01

    In ongoing electric pulse power driven inertial confinement fusion experiments, Marx generators are connected in parallel with the target in the center of a ring of the Marx generators. There the currents, not the voltages add up. Instead of connecting a bank of Marx generator in parallel, one may connect them in series, adding up their voltages, not the currents. If, for example, fifty 20 MV Marx generators are connected in series, they would add up to a gigavolt. But to prevent breakdown, the adding up of the voltages in such a super-Marx generator must be fast. For this reason, it is proposed that each of the Marx generators charges up a fast discharge capacitor, with the thusly charged fast capacitors becoming the elements of a second stage super Marx generator. In a super Marx generator, the Marx generators also assume the role of the resistors in the original Marx circuit. With a voltage of 10^9 Volt and a discharge current of 10^7 Ampere, the generation of a 10^16 Watt GeV proton beam becomes possible,...

  6. On the transferability of atomic contributions to the optical rotatory power of hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide and dimethyl peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Marina; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2014-01-01

    The chirality of molecules expresses itself, for example, in the fact that a solution of a chiral molecule rotates the plane of linear polarised light. The underlying molecular property is the optical rotatory power (ORP) tensor, which according to time-dependent perturbation theory can be calcul...

  7. Direct alcohol fuel cells: toward the power densities of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxin; Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    A 2 μm thick layer of TiO2 nanotube arrays was prepared on the surface of the Ti fibers of a nonwoven web electrode. After it was doped with Pd nanoparticles (1.5 mgPd  cm(-2) ), this anode was employed in a direct alcohol fuel cell. Peak power densities of 210, 170, and 160 mW cm(-2) at 80 °C were produced if the cell was fed with 10 wt % aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, respectively, in 2 M aqueous KOH. The Pd loading of the anode was increased to 6 mg cm(-2) by combining four single electrodes to produce a maximum peak power density with ethanol at 80 °C of 335 mW cm(-2) . Such high power densities result from a combination of the open 3 D structure of the anode electrode and the high electrochemically active surface area of the Pd catalyst, which promote very fast kinetics for alcohol electro-oxidation. The peak power and current densities obtained with ethanol at 80 °C approach the output of H2 -fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  8. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  9. Plans for Neutrino Super Beams in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Dracos, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. The first part of these facilities consists of an intense proton driver producing a beam higher than a MW power. The protons hit a target able to afford the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to produce elements able to resist to the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from the LHC upgrades. For this reason, the initial design of these upgrades has to include the possibility to go to high power facilities.

  10. Development of design and simulation model and safety study of large-scale hydrogen production using nuclear power.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbard, Fred; Oh, Seungmin (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Revankar, Shripad T. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gauntt, Randall O.; Cole, Randall K., Jr.; Espinosa, Flor (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Drennen, Thomas E.; Tournier, Jean-Michel (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Hogan, Kevin (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Archuleta, Louis (OMICRON Safety and Risk, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Malczynski, Leonard A.; Vierow, Karen (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); McFadden, Katherine Letizia; Martin, William Joseph; El-Genk, Mohamed S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Louie, David L. Y. (OMICRON Safety and Risk, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-01

    Before this LDRD research, no single tool could simulate a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) that is coupled to a secondary system and the sulfur iodine (SI) thermochemistry. Furthermore, the SI chemistry could only be modeled in steady state, typically via flow sheets. Additionally, the MELCOR nuclear reactor analysis code was suitable only for the modeling of light water reactors, not gas-cooled reactors. We extended MELCOR in order to address the above deficiencies. In particular, we developed three VHTR input models, added generalized, modular secondary system components, developed reactor point kinetics, included transient thermochemistry for the most important cycles [SI and the Westinghouse hybrid sulfur], and developed an interactive graphical user interface for full plant visualization. The new tool is called MELCOR-H2, and it allows users to maximize hydrogen and electrical production, as well as enhance overall plant safety. We conducted validation and verification studies on the key models, and showed that the MELCOR-H2 results typically compared to within less than 5% from experimental data, code-to-code comparisons, and/or analytical solutions.

  11. Pathways to Earth-Like Atmospheres. Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)-Powered Escape of Hydrogen-Rich Protoatmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Kislyakova, K. G.; Odert, P.; Leitzinger, M.; Schwarz, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Güdel, M.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the evolution of the atmosphere of early Earth and of terrestrial exoplanets which may be capable of sustaining liquid water oceans and continents where life may originate. The formation age of a terrestrial planet, its mass and size, as well as the lifetime in the EUV-saturated early phase of its host star play a significant role in its atmosphere evolution. We show that planets even in orbits within the habitable zone of their host stars might not lose nebular- or catastrophically outgassed initial protoatmospheres completely and could end up as water worlds with CO2 and hydrogen- or oxygen-rich upper atmospheres. If an atmosphere of a terrestrial planet evolves to an N2-rich atmosphere too early in its lifetime, the atmosphere may be lost. We show that the initial conditions set up by the formation of a terrestrial planet and by the evolution of the host star's EUV and plasma environment are very important factors owing to which a planet may evolve to a habitable world. Finally we present a method for studying the discussed atmosphere evolution hypotheses by future UV transit observations of terrestrial exoplanets.

  12. On the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen in the Universe: bias and shot-noise of the HI Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Universe contains a wealth of cosmological information. The 21 cm emission line can be used to map the HI up to very high redshift and therefore reveal us something about the evolution of the large scale structures in the Universe. However little is known about the abundance and clustering properties of the HI over cosmic time. Motivated by this, we build an analytic framework where the relevant parameters that govern how the HI is distributed among dark matter halos can be fixed using observations. At the same time we provide tools to study the column density distribution function of the HI absorbers together with their clustering properties. Our formalism is the first one able to account for all observations at a single redshift, $z = 2.3$. The linear bias of the HI and the mean number density of HI sources, two main ingredients in the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio of a cosmological survey, are then discussed in detail, also extrapolating t...

  13. Xinjiang Girl World Super Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leading Chinese model Yue Mei won thetitle of World Super Model at the ’98 WorldSuper Model Competition held in FranceSeptember 6 - 17. Yue, a university studentfrom the Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion, had won the top title at ’98 ChinaSuper Model Competition held in Beijingone month earier.After that, she underwentone month’s professional modeling trainingwith the New Silk Road ModelingManagement Company before setting off forthe world competition. In France, Yueimpressed the judges with her strikingfeatures, and display of oriental elegance and

  14. Cosmological tracking solution and the Super-Higgs mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, Ricardo C.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper we argue that minimal supergravity with a flat Kaehler metric and a power-law superpotential can relate the Super-Higgs mechanism for the local spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and the cosmological tracking solution, leading in turn to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe and alleviating the coincidence problem. (orig.)

  15. Calibration beams at the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autin, A.; Edwards, H. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA)); Bensinger, J.R. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA) Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA)); Baller, B.; Browning, F.; Coleman, R.; Cooper, J.; Cossairt, D.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Stefanski, R.; Stutte, L. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1989-04-30

    This paper discusses the following topics on the Superconducting Super Collider: beam specification at calibration halls; high energy booster options with tunnels to surface; switchyard; six beams with high and low power options; switchyard optics for both high and low energy transport; secondary beams; wide band beams; radiation shielding; tagging system; and test and calibration halls.

  16. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  17. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  18. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  19. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  20. Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.; Hansen, J. [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Wennike, F. [Hydrogen Link Denmark Association, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) was launched in an effort to build hydrogen filling stations in Scandinavian countries by 2012 in order to enable hydrogen powered vehicles to operate and refuel when needed. Three hydrogen refueling stations are currently in operation in Scandinavia to fuel a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fuelled cars. It is anticipated that by the end of 2009, there will be 14 hydrogen refueling stations and more than 70 vehicles in operation. Beyond 2012, the number of filling stations and vehicles is expected to increase significantly through large scale demonstration, where SHHP aims to attract funding from the European Union. The current activities of SHHP are co-funded by national and regional authorities. The SHHP network is funded by Nordic Energy Research.

  1. What's So Super about Superfoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with meals. The Skinny on Common Super Foods Salmon is a fatty fish that’s low in saturated ... soy nuts are high in polyunsaturated fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals but low in saturated fat. They ...

  2. Super Ministries,Better Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese lawmakers on March 15th endorsed a State Counci l proposal for institutional overhaul of the tentral government,which involves the establishment of"super ministries"concerning energy,transport,industry and environmental protection.

  3. Model based predictive control of a high temperature gas cooled power plant coupled to a hydrogen production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Lloyd A.

    This thesis builds upon recent studies focusing on modeling, operation, and control of high temperature gas cooled reactors. A computer model was developed, based on mass, energy, and momentum balances of control volumes throughout the plant. Several simulations of the plant behavior were conducted and their results were compared with those from the literature. Proportional control was combined with optimal control to form a time varying, adjustable gain predictive controller which adjusts the proportional gains during transients. The controller was designed to utilize control rod motions and bypass control valves to maintain desired plant conditions. An optimization scheme was introduced to efficiently solve the optimization problem formulated as part of the predictive controller operation. Several additional transients were run to examine the full plant controller performance. Multiple predictive controllers were designed and their performance was compared with a proportional controller throughout each transient. The predictive controller results confirmed the importance of proper selection of the optimal controller parameters, in particular the controller time step size and the horizon time. The well-designed proportional controllers clearly demonstrated improvements in plant performance during short time scale transients, namely a loss of secondary heat transfer transient and a step change in desired power transient. Results from long time scale transients demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed bypass control system to control electrical power production without the need for storage vessels.

  4. Where Do We Stand with Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-01-29

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become an invaluable, powerful approach to study biomolecular dynamics and interactions via selective labeling and observation of specific molecules in living cells, tissues and even entire organisms. In this perspective, we present a brief overview of the main techniques and their application to cellular biophysics. We place special emphasis on super-resolution imaging via single-molecule localization microscopy and stimulated emission depletion/reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions microscopy, and we also briefly address fluorescence fluctuation approaches, notably raster image correlation spectroscopy, as tools to record fast diffusion and transport.

  5. Color-Coded Super-Resolution Small-Molecule Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzer, Paolo; La Clair, James J; Cang, Hu

    2016-06-02

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy dates back to 1994, its applications have been primarily focused on visualizing cellular structures and targets, including proteins, DNA and sugars. We now report on a system that allows both monitoring of the localization of exogenous small molecules in live cells at low resolution and subsequent super-resolution imaging by using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) on fixed cells. This represents a powerful new tool to understand the dynamics of subcellular trafficking associated with the mode and mechanism of action of exogenous small molecules.

  6. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of chromosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessin, Patrick J M; Finan, Kieran; Heilemann, Mike

    2012-02-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a powerful tool for understanding cellular function. However one of the most important biomolecules - DNA - remains somewhat inaccessible because it cannot be effectively and appropriately labeled. Here, we demonstrate that robust and detailed super-resolution images of DNA can be produced by combining 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling using the 'click chemistry' approach and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). This method can resolve fine chromatin structure, and - when used in conjunction with pulse labeling - can reveal the paths taken by individual fibers through the nucleus. This technique should provide a useful tool for the study of nuclear structure and function.

  7. 超(超)临界发电机组用Super304H钢管关键制造工艺的分析%Analysis on Key Producing Process of Super304H Steel Tube for Ultra-Supercritical Electric Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳芳; 朱国良; 宋建新

    2008-01-01

    通过对国内外制造的600 MW以上的超(超)临界发电机组用Super304H钢(%:0.07~0.13C、17.0~19.0Cr、7.5~10.5Ni、0.001~0.010B、0.3~0.6Nb、2.5~3.5Cu、0.05~0.12N)管材的制造工艺和质量分析,得出为获得较好的高温力学性能和耐腐蚀性,最佳的成分控制为:≤0.08%C、≤3.0%Cu、0.0002%S、Nb/C≥5、Nb/(C+N)≥2.文中叙述了Super304H钢管的热处理,冷加工变形量,喷丸等关键工艺.

  8. What are super-enhancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Sebastian; Lieb, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The term 'super-enhancer' has been used to describe groups of putative enhancers in close genomic proximity with unusually high levels of Mediator binding, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). Here we review the identification and composition of super-enhancers, describe links between super-enhancers, gene regulation and disease, and discuss the functional significance of enhancer clustering. We also provide our perspective regarding the proposition that super-enhancers are a regulatory entity conceptually distinct from what was known before the introduction of the term. Our opinion is that there is not yet strong evidence that super-enhancers are a novel paradigm in gene regulation and that use of the term in this context is not currently justified. However, the term likely identifies strong enhancers that exhibit behaviors consistent with previous models and concepts of transcriptional regulation. In this respect, the super-enhancer definition is useful in identifying regulatory elements likely to control genes important for cell type specification.

  9. Holography based super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  10. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  11. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATION SYSTEMS AND DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL APPLICATION AREAS FOR MODERN SUPER FLYWHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sokolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review and comparative analysis of late years native and foreign literature on various energy storage devices: state of the art designs, application experience in various technical fields. Comparative characteristics of energy storage devices are formulated: efficiency, quality and stability. Typical characteristics are shown for such devices as electrochemical batteries, super capacitors, pumped hydroelectric storage, power systems based on compressed air and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The advantages and prospects of high-speed super flywheels as means of energy accumulation in the form of rotational kinetic energy are shown. High output power of a super flywheels energy storage system gives the possibility to use it as a buffer source of peak power. It is shown that super flywheels have great life cycle (over 20 years and are environmental. A distinctive feature of these energy storage devices is their good scalability. It is demonstrated that super flywheels are especially effective in hybrid power systems that operate in a charge/discharge mode, and are used particularly in electric vehicles. The most important factors for space applications of the super flywheels are their modularity, high efficiency, no mechanical friction and long operating time without maintenance. Quick response to network disturbances and high power output can be used to maintain the desired power quality and overall network stability along with fulfilling energy accumulation needs.

  14. The Operation And Fault Handling Of The Qinshan Second Nuclear Power Plant's Hydrogen Gas Dryer%秦山第二核电厂氢气干燥器的运行及故障处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞军

    2016-01-01

    氢气湿度超标对氢冷发电机组内部部件会产生不良影响,甚至威胁到发电机组的安全可靠运行。调节氢气湿度的主要设备---氢气干燥器的运行状态好坏,直接关系到发电机运行状态的好坏。了解氢气干燥器的运行原理,及时处理氢气干燥器运行中出现的故障,是每一位电厂运行人员的必修功课。%Hydrogen humidity levels More than the standard will have an adverse influence on hydrogen-cooled generator internal components , and even threat the safe and reliable operation of the generator set. Adjust the main equipment of the hydrogen humidity.The success or failure of the operation of hydrogen gas dryer, directly relates to the stand or fall of running state of generator. Understanding of hydrogen gas dryer operation principle and in a timely manner to deal with the faults in the operation of hydrogen gas dryer ,is a compulsory lesson to every power plant operators.

  15. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A., E-mail: ashiva@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Paunska, Ts. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tarnev, Kh. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical University-Sofia, BG-1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  16. On the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen in the Universe: bias and shot-noise of the H I power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Emanuele; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the Universe contains a wealth of cosmological information. The 21-cm emission line can be used to map the H I up to very high redshift and therefore reveal us something about the evolution of the large-scale structures in the Universe. However, little is known about the abundance and clustering properties of the H I over cosmic time. Motivated by this, we build an analytic framework where the relevant parameters that govern how the H I is distributed among dark matter haloes can be fixed using observations. At the same time, we provide tools to study the column density distribution function of the H I absorbers together with their clustering properties. Our formalism is the first one able to account for all observations at a single redshift, z = 2.3. The linear bias of the H I and the mean number density of H I sources, two main ingredients in the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio of a cosmological survey, are then discussed in detail, also extrapolating the results to low and high redshift. We find that H I bias is relatively higher than the value reported in similar studies, but the shot noise level is always sub-dominant, making the H I power spectrum always a high signal-to-noise measurement up to z ≃ 5 in the limit of no instrumental noise and foreground contamination.

  17. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Tazima S

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helmholtz double layer). Making the electrodes porous increases their effective surface area [6-8]. A separating layer between the anode and the cathode electrodes is used to minimize unintentional electrical discharge (Figure 1). Here we show how to increase the capacitance of super-capacitors by more than 45 percent when modifying the otherwise passive separator layer into an active diode-like structure. Active control of super-capacitors may increase their efficiency during charge and discharge cycles. Controlling ion flow...

  18. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-15

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U{sub q}(sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U{sub q}(sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L{sup 2}(R) x C{sup 1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 1} and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  19. Super-Virasoro anomaly, super-Weyl anomaly and the super-Liouville action for 2D supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, T; Suzuki, T; Fujiwara, Takanori; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tadao

    1996-01-01

    The relation between super-Virasoro anomaly and super-Weyl anomaly in N=1 NSR superstring coupled with 2D supergravity is investigated from canonical theoretical view point. The WZW action canceling the super-Virasoro anomaly is explicitly constructed. It is super-Weyl invariant but nonlocal functional of 2D supergravity. The nonlocality can be remedied by the super-Liouvlle action, which in turn recovers the super-Weyl anomaly. The final gravitational effective action turns out to be local but noncovariant super-Liouville action, describing the dynamical behavior of the super-Liouville fields. The BRST invariance of this approach is examined in the superconformal gauge and in the light-cone gauge.

  20. The Super-Kamiokande Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, C W

    2008-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is a 50 kiloton water Cherenkov detector located at the Kamioka Observatory of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. It was designed to study neutrino oscillations and carry out searches for the decay of the nucleon. The Super-Kamiokande experiment began in 1996 and in the ensuing decade of running has produced extremely important results in the fields of atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, along with setting stringent limits on the decay of the nucleon and the existence of dark matter and astrophysical sources of neutrinos. Perhaps most crucially, Super-Kamiokande for the first time definitively showed that neutrinos have mass and undergo flavor oscillations. This chapter will summarize the published scientific output of the experiment with a particular emphasis on the atmospheric neutrino results.

  1. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Dalton , “Li ion batteries for aerospace applications,” J. Power Sources, vol. 97, pp. 25–27, 2001. [11] J. Caley, private communication, Aug...Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. 52 [14] P. Simon and Y. Gogotsi, “Materials for

  2. Super-iron Nanoparticles with Facile Cathodic Charge Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Farmand; D Jiang; B Wang; S Ghosh; D Ramaker; S Licht

    2011-12-31

    Super-irons contain the + 6 valence state of iron. One advantage of this is that it provides a multiple electron opportunity to store additional battery charge. A decrease of particle size from the micrometer to the nanometer domain provides a higher surface area to volume ratio, and opportunity to facilitate charge transfer, and improve the power, voltage and depth of discharge of cathodes made from such salts. However, super-iron salts are fragile, readily reduced to the ferric state, with both heat and contact with water, and little is known of the resultant passivating and non-passivating ferric oxide products. A pathway to decrease the super-iron particle size to the nano-domain is introduced, which overcomes this fragility, and retains the battery capacity advantage of their Fe(VI) valence state. Time and power controlled mechanosynthesis, through less aggressive, dry ball milling, leads to facile charge transfer of super-iron nanoparticles. Ex-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is used to explore the oxidation state and structure of these iron oxides during discharge and shows the significant change in stability of the ferrate structure to lower oxidation state when the particle size is in the nano-domain.

  3. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  4. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen. PMID:24975958

  5. The early Earth under a superflare and super-CME attack: prospects for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Gronoff, Guillaume

    Kepler observations suggest that G-type stars produce powerful flares suggesting that the early Earth may also have been exposed to frequent and energetic solar explosive events generated by the young Sun. We show that powerful coronal mass ejection (CME) events associated with superflares impacting the Earth magnetosphere with a frequency of 1 event/day. What was the impact of superflares, CMEs and associated solar energetic particle (SEPs) events on the atmospheric erosion of the young Earth and habitability? In this paper we discuss our three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that show that frequent and energetic CMEs from the early Sun continuously destroyed the sub-solar parts of Earth's magnetosphere at heights Photo-collisional dissociation of molecular nitrogen and carbon dioxide creates reactive chemistry that efficiently produces nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, the essential molecule in prebiotic life chemistry. This raises an possibility that frequent super-CMEs could serve as a potential catalyst for the origin of life on early Earth.

  6. Microsphere Super-resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zengbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was discovered that microsphere can generate super-resolution focusing beyond diffraction limit. This has led to the development of an exciting super-resolution imaging technique -microsphere nanoscopy- that features a record resolution of 50 nm under white lights. Different samples have been directly imaged in high resolution and real time without labelling, including both non-biological (nano devices, structures and materials) and biological (subcellular details, viruses) samples. This chapter reviews the technique, which covers its background, fundamentals, experiments, mechanisms as well as the future outlook.

  7. Interactive Super Mario Bros Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patrikk D.; Olsen, Jeppeh M.; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    to encourage the evolution of desired behaviors. In this paper, we show how casual users can create controllers for \\emph{Super Mario Bros} through an interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) approach, without prior domain or programming knowledge. By iteratively selecting Super Mario behaviors from a set...... of candidates, users are able to guide evolution towards a variety of different behaviors, which would be difficult with an automated approach. Additionally, the user-evolved controllers perform similarly well as controllers evolved with a traditional fitness-based approach when comparing distance traveled...

  8. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  9. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  10. Super capacitors for embarked systems as a storage energy device solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Rael, S.; Pierfederici, S.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The management of embarked electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances, in order to shave transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of super-capacitors for this storage system is quite suitable, because of appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, weak serial resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), of direct storage (energy ready for use), and of easy control by power electronic conversion. This paper deals with the conception and the achievement of two hybrid power sources using super-capacitors as auxiliary storage device. We present the structures, the control principles, and some experimental results. (authors)

  11. The construction of orthodox super rpp semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GUO Yuqi; Kar Ping Shum

    2004-01-01

    We define orthodox super rpp semigroups and study their semilattice decompositions. Standard representation theorem of orthodox super rpp semigroups whose subband of idempotents is in the varieties of bands described by an identity with at most three variables are obtained.

  12. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated...

  13. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  14. Super-atom molecular orbital excited states of fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, J Olof; Bohl, Elvira; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2016-09-13

    Super-atom molecular orbitals are orbitals that form diffuse hydrogenic excited electronic states of fullerenes with their electron density centred at the centre of the hollow carbon cage and a significant electron density inside the cage. This is a consequence of the high symmetry and hollow structure of the molecules and distinguishes them from typical low-lying molecular Rydberg states. This review summarizes the current experimental and theoretical studies related to these exotic excited electronic states with emphasis on femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on gas-phase fullerenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'.

  15. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  16. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  17. Super Girls Still Center Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The TV singing contest continues to draw a devoted audience, but will its impact on Chinese culture fall away like a shooting star? Ask any teenage girl in China to name the finalists of last year's Super Girl show and chances are she will instantly come up with the three big names.She'll probable

  18. Analysis of Forensic Super Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    BIB .1  vii List of Figures Figure Page...Hacker disconnects from User’s system  User clicks off Screen Saver  User closes Solitaire program  User logs off system BIB .1...analysis- tapestry_33836. BIB .2 Guðjónsson, K. (2010). Mastering the super timeline with log2timeline. SANS Gold Paper accepted June 29,2010

  19. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH4(-) oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92AgPt(-1)) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15AgPt(-1)) in NaBH4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH4 and 2M H2O2 (133.38mWcm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A theoretical analysis of the super-resolution capacity of imagers using speckle illuminations

    CERN Document Server

    Idier, Jérôme; Liu, Penghuan; Allain, Marc; Bourguignon, Sébastien; Sentenac, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Speckle based imaging consists in forming a super-resolved reconstruction of an unknown object from low-resolution images obtained under random inhomogeneous illuminations (speckles). However, the origin of this super-resolution is unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that, under physically realistic conditions, the correlation of the data have a super-resolution power corresponding to the squaring of the imager point spread function. This theoretical result is important for many practical imaging systems such as acoustic and electromagnetic tomographies, fluorescence and photoacoustic microscopies or synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  1. Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...... only, linear frequency chirp is induced by self-phase modulation which leads to a flat super-continuum. By launching the compressed 170 fs modelocked pulses with an average power of 10 mW into the fibre, super-continuum over 185 nm with less than 5 dB fluctuation is obtained from the all...

  2. Novel solid oxide cells with SrCo0.8Fe0.1Ga0.1O3-δ oxygen electrode for flexible power generation and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiuxia; Shen, Yichi; Xie, Menghan; Yin, Yimei; Yang, Naitao; Ma, Zi-Feng; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Liu, Shaomin

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the performance of solid oxide cells as fuel cells (SOFCs) for power production and also as electrolysis cells (SOECs) for hydrogen production. In order to deliver this dual mode flexible operation system, a novel perovskite oxide based on Ga3+ doped SrCo0.8Fe0.1Ga0.1O3-δ (SCFG) is synthesized via a sol-gel method. Its performance for oxygen electrode catalyst was then evaluated. Single solid oxide cell in the configuration of Ni-YSZ|YSZ|GDC|SCFG is assembled and tested in SOFC or SOEC modes from 550 to 850 °C with hydrogen as the fuel or as the product, respectively. GDC is used to avoid the reaction between the electrolyte YSZ and the cobalt-based electrode. Under SOFC mode, a maximum power density of 1044 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C. Further, the cell delivers a stable power output of 650 mW cm-2 up to 125 h at 0.7 V. In the electrolysis mode, when the applied voltage is controlled at 2 V, the electrolysis current density reaches 3.33 A cm-2 at 850 °C with the hydrogen production rate up to 22.9 mL min-1 cm-2 (STP). These results reveal that SCFG is a very promising oxygen electrode material for application in both SOFC and SOEC.

  3. Supermassive blackholes without super Eddington accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Damian Joseph; Kim, Matt I.; Garofalo, David; D'Avanzo, Jaclyn; Torres, John

    2017-08-01

    We explore the X-ray luminosity function at high redshift for active galactic nuclei using an albeit simplified model for mass build-up using a combination of mergers and mass accretion in the gap paradigm (Garofalo et al. 2010). Using a retrograde-dominated configuration we find an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion (Kim et al. 2016). This result is made more compelling by the connection between this channel and an end product involving active galaxies with FRI radio morphology but weaker jet powers in mildly sub-Eddington accretion regimes. We will discuss our connection between the unexplained paucity of a given family of AGNs and the rapid growth of supermassive black holes, two heretofore seemingly unrelated aspects of the physics of AGNs that will help further understand their properties and evolution.

  4. The SPL-based Neutrino Super Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Caretta, O; Cupial, P; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Dracos, M; Fitton, M; Gaudiot, G; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Lepers, B; Longhin, A; Loveridge, P; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Rooney, M; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrzycka, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Wilcox, D; Wroblewski, A; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Zito, M

    2012-01-01

    The EUROnu Super Beam work package has studied a neutrino beam based on SPL at CERN and aimed at MEMPHYS, a large water Cherenkov detector, proposed for the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (Fr\\'ejus tunnel, France), with a baseline of 130 km. The aim of this proposed experiment is to study the CP violation in the neutrino sector. In the study reported here, we have developed the conceptual design of the neutrino beam, especially the target and the magnetic focusing device. Indeed, this beam present several unprecedented challenges, like the high primary proton beam power (4 MW), the high repetition rate (50 Hz) and the low energy of the protons (4.5 GeV). The design is completed by a study of all the main component of the system, starting from the transport system to guide the beam to the target up to the beam dump.

  5. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  6. Evidence for super-exponentially accelerating atmospheric carbon dioxide growth

    CERN Document Server

    Hüsler, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the growth rates of atmospheric carbon dioxide and human population, by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model. Our empirical calibrations confirm that human population has decelerated from its previous super-exponential growth until 1960 to ``just' an exponential growth, but with no sign of more deceleration. As for atmospheric CO2 content, we find that it is at least exponentially increasing and most likely characterized by an accelerating growth rate as off 2009, consistent with an unsustainable FTS power law regime announcing a drastic change of regime. The coexistence of a quasi-exponential growth of human population with a super-exponential growth of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is a diagnostic of insignificant impr...

  7. Soldier System Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    squad level, with the fundamental goal of reducing the total mass of the electric power sources carried by a Marine in the Expeditionary Forces while...still meeting all of his electric power demands. To achieve that goal, this work investigated the effectiveness of hybrid power sources composed...variously of batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors, it developed control algorithms for those hybrid power sources , it assessed the value of

  8. Solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy with increased emission and super resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liau, Z. L.; Porter, J. M. [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Liau, A. A.; Chen, J. J. [Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Salmon, W. C. [Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Sheu, S. S. [Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

    2015-01-07

    We investigate solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy suitable for super-resolution nanotechnology and biological imaging, and have observed limit of resolution as small as 15 nm with microspheres, mitochondria, and chromatin fibers. We have further observed that fluorescence efficiency increases with excitation power density, implicating appreciable stimulated emission and increased resolution. We discuss potential advantages of the solid-immersion microscopy, including combined use with previously established super-resolution techniques for reaching deeper beyond the conventional diffraction limit.

  9. The Principles of Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Klementieva; E.V. Zagaynova; К.А. Lukyanov; A.S. Mishin

    2016-01-01

    Diffraction limit of optical microscopy impedes imaging of biological objects much smaller than the wavelength of light. Conventional fluorescence microscopy does not enable to study fine structure and processes in a living cell at the macromolecular level. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques that overcome the diffraction barrier have opened up new opportunities for biological and biomedical research. These methods combine the resolution power comparable to electron microscopy...

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  11. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  12. Hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Sloan, E.D.

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of hydrogen. The invention relates especially to storing hydrogen in a clathrate hydrate. The clathrate hydrate according to the present invention originates from a composition, which comprises water and hydrogen, as well as a promotor compound. The promotor comp

  13. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  14. Super-Resolution Recording by an Organic Photochromic Mask Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming; ZHAO Sheng-Min; YI Jia-Xiang; ZHAO Fu-Qun; NIU Li-Hong; LI Zhong-Yu; ZHANG Fu-Shi

    2007-01-01

    By using the super-resolution near-field structure(super-RENS)method,the super-resolution recording marks are obtained practically by an organic photochromic diarylethene mask layer,under much lower recording laser Dower of 0.45mW.The size of recording marks is decreased by 60% (from 1.6μm to 0.7μm) for a diarylethene (photo-mode)recording layer by the optical detection method(limited by optical diffraction),or decreased by 97%(from 1600nm to 50nm)for a heptaoxyl copper phthalocyanine(thermo-optical)recording layer,the latter is much smaller than the limitation of optical diffraction.In order to obtain a desirable result,a proper extent or Dhotochemistry reaction in the mask layer is needed.Thus,the super-resolution recording marks can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of diarylethene in the mask layer,the recording laser power,and the moving speed of the sample disc.

  15. Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy of Super-Earth Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Diana; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Lothringer, Joshua; Knutson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed that super-Earths (planets with radii between 1 and 4 R_Earth) are the most common class of planets in the Galaxy, though none are known in our own Solar System. These planets can theoretically have a wide range of compositions which we are just beginning to explore observationally. While studies based on Kepler data have revolutionized many areas of exoplanet research, the relative faintness of most of the host stars in the Kepler field means that atmospheric characterization of these super-Earths with currently available instruments is extremely challenging. However, a handful of transiting super-Earths are within reach of existing facilities. We have pointed both the HST and Spitzer toward these systems in an effort to paint a thorough picture of their atmospheres. Our transmission spectroscopy observations explore the transition region between terrestrial planets and miniature gas giants, and contribute to distinguishing between low-density hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and compact high-metallicity atmospheres. Transmission spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range is also essential to understanding the properties and effects of clouds in these atmospheres. The results of this program will inform the direction to be taken by future multi-wavelength studies of these worlds, in particular those enabled when the HST joins forces with the upcoming JWST.

  16. Theoretical Transit Spectra for GJ 1214b and Other "Super-Earths"

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, Alex R

    2012-01-01

    We present new calculations of transit spectra of super-Earths that allow for atmospheres with arbitrary proportions of common molecular species and haze. We test this method with generic spectra, reproducing the expected systematics and absorption features, then apply it to the nearby super-Earth GJ 1214b, which has produced conflicting observational data, leaving the questions of a hydrogen-rich versus hydrogen-poor atmosphere and the water content of the atmosphere ambiguous. We present representative transit spectra for a range of classes of atmosphere models for GJ 1214b. Our analysis supports a hydrogen-rich atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer, although a hydrogen-poor model with less than 10% water is not ruled out. Several classes of models are ruled out, however, including hydrogen-rich atmospheres with no haze, hydrogen-rich atmospheres with a haze of about 0.01-micron tholin particles, and hydrogen-poor atmospheres with major sources of absorption other than water. We propose an observational tes...

  17. Super-translations and super-rotations at the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Donnay, Laura; Gonzalez, Hernan A; Pino, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic symmetries close to non-extremal black hole horizons are generated by an extension of super-translations. This group is generated by a semi-direct sum of Virasoro and abelian currents. The charges associated to the asymptotic Killing symmetries satisfy the same algebra. When considering the special case of the stationary black hole, the zero mode charges correspond to the angular momentum and the entropy at the horizon.

  18. APPLICATION OF SUPER CONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM—SMES IN WIND POWER SYSTEM OF NETWORK-FORMING%超导储能单元在并网型风力发电系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星莺; 刘孟觉; 单渊达

    2001-01-01

    风力发电系统发展的趋势是将风力发电机组直接与高压电网相连(简称并网型风力发电系统—)。但风速变化造成风力涡轮机机械功率变化,会使发电机输出的有功和无功产生波动,从而使电网的电能质量下降。该文提出使用超导储能SMES(super conducting magnetic energy storage system)单元使风力发电机组输出的电压和频率稳定。文中详细介绍了SMES的调节能理及其最优控制方法,建立了SMES模型和加入SMES后系统的线性化仿真模型,采用基因算法求最优反馈矩阵,并借助MATLAB软件包设计控制器,仿真结果表明SMES单元对并网型风力发电系统中风力发电机的输出稳定具有极大的改善作用。

  19. Super-luminous supernovae from PESSTO

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; Chen, T -W; Kotak, R; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; McCrum, M; Margheim, S; Rest, A; Benetti, S; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Young, D R; Baltay, C; Hadjiyska, E; McKinnon, R; Rabinowitz, D; Walker, E S; Feindt, U; Nugent, P; Lawrence, A; Mead, A; Anderson, J P; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Leloudas, G; Mattila, S; Elias-Rosa, N

    2014-01-01

    We present optical spectra and light curves for three hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). Time series spectroscopy from a few days after maximum light to 100 days later shows them to be fairly typical of this class, with spectra dominated by Ca II, Mg II, Fe II and Si II, which evolve slowly over most of the post-peak photospheric phase. We determine bolometric light curves and apply simple fitting tools, based on the diffusion of energy input by magnetar spin-down, \\Ni decay, and collision of the ejecta with an opaque circumstellar shell. We investigate how the heterogeneous light curves of our sample (combined with others from the literature) can help to constrain the possible mechanisms behind these events. We have followed these events to beyond 100-200 days after peak, to disentangle host galaxy light from fading supernova flux and to differentiate between the models, which predict diverse behaviour at this phase. Models p...

  20. Three Super-Earths Orbiting HD 7924

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Sinukoff, Evan; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Henry, Gregory W; Holden, Bradford P; Kibrick, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two super-Earth mass planets orbiting the nearby K0.5 dwarf HD 7924 which was previously known to host one small planet. The new companions have masses of 7.9 and 6.4 M$_\\oplus$, and orbital periods of 15.3 and 24.5 days. We perform a joint analysis of high-precision radial velocity data from Keck/HIRES and the new Automated Planet Finder Telescope (APF) to robustly detect three total planets in the system. We refine the ephemeris of the previously known planet using five years of new Keck data and high-cadence observations over the last 1.3 years with the APF. With this new ephemeris, we show that a previous transit search for the inner-most planet would have covered 70% of the predicted ingress or egress times. Photometric data collected over the last eight years using the Automated Photometric Telescope shows no evidence for transits of any of the planets, which would be detectable if the planets transit and their compositions are hydrogen-dominated. We detect a long-period signa...

  1. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  2. Impedance measurement and modelling of super-capacitors for railway applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, A.; Chabas, J. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais (SNCF), Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France); Coquery, G.; Lallemand, R. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite (INRETS), Lab. des Technologies Nouvelles, 94 - Arcueil (France); Rojat, G.; Venet, P. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude Bernard, CEGELY, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    Railways and electrical traction systems require high power rates to achieve their operating performances. Systems of power supply based on super-capacitors should offer high power density along with good energy efficiency and expected operating safety. We investigate general behaviours of super-capacitors with two powerful methods of analysis. The first is constant charge/discharge current at high level value (500 A), the second is impedance spectroscopy which leads to the acquisition of a set of parameters that are considered sufficient to describe general properties of super-capacitor, in particular the state of health and the available energy in any operating conditions. An electrical circuit model is defined for super-capacitors based on activated carbon and organic electrolyte. It takes into account the dependence of super-capacitor to voltage and current. The mixture of data of the two methods permits to obtain a representative model for power applications. Matlab/Simulink simulations are shown to verify the validity of the model. (authors)

  3. Commande et supervision énergétique d'un générateur hybride actif éolien incluant du stockage sous forme d'hydrogène et des super-condensateurs pour l'intégration dans le système électrique d'un micro réseau

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou,Tao

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid power system is studied in this thesis for the distributed generation based on renewable energy resources and energy storage systems in microgrid applications. It consists of a wind generator as primary energy source, super-capacitors as fast-dynamic storage system, fuel cells and electrolyzers as long-term storage system in hydrogen. They are all connected to a common DC bus and an inverter is used for the connection of the whole system to the grid. In this thesis, we have presented...

  4. 伦敦SuperDesign展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柚子

    2011-01-01

    近日,英国伦敦Super Design展在伦敦Wakefield大街的The Dairy展厅如期举行。本次展览展出了来自包括知名设计师和新兴设计师的特别定制的工作室作品:到如今已经是第五个年头的伦敦Super Deslgn展,力图强发展,展出形式别出心裁、独树一帜,从一个崭新.活跃的角度集展示当代艺术。

  5. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  6. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi Mozumi, Hida city, Gifu prefecture (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    Results on atmospheric neutrino analysis at Super-Kamiokande I is presented. The whole data set of atmospheric neutrino sample in Super-Kamiokande I is consistently explained with an assumption of pure {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. The allowed range of parameters is 1.5x10{sup -3}<{delta}m{sup 2}<3.4x10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}>0.92 at 90% C.L. In the oscillation analysis, we improved the treatment of systematic errors so that they can be considered as independent. This makes possible to find which systematic errors have larger effect on the analysis results. Some sensitivity studies under several assumptions of improvements in systematic errors are presented.

  7. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  8. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  9. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  10. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  11. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experimen...

  13. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D. [TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London, (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway`s hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author`s main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs.

  14. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D. [TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London, (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and developmentprojects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs.

  15. Harvesting electrostatic energy using super-hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, Dominik; Zylka, Pawel

    2016-11-01

    Almost all environments are now being extensively populated by miniaturized, nano-powered electronic sensor devices communicated together through wireless sensor networks building Internet of Things (IoT). Various energy harvesting techniques are being more and more frequently proposed for battery-less powering of such remote, unattended, implantable or wearable sensors or other low-power electronic gadgets. Energy harvesting relays on extracting energy from the ambient sources readily accessible at the sensor location and converting it into electrical power. The paper exploits possibility of generating electric energy safely accessible for nano-power electronics using tribo-electric and electrostatic induction phenomena displayed at super-hydrophobic surfaces impinged by water droplets. Mechanism of such interaction is discussed and illustrated by experimental results.

  16. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  17. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  18. Super-resolved multimodal multiphoton microscopy with spatial frequency-modulated imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Jeffrey J; Domingue, Scott R; Motz, Alyssa M Allende; DeLuca, Keith F; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Kuciauskas, Darius; Levi, Dean H; Squier, Jeff A; Bartels, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Super-resolved far-field microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating the structure of objects with resolution well below the diffraction limit of light. Nearly all super-resolution imaging techniques reported to date rely on real energy states of probe molecules to circumvent the diffraction limit, preventing super-resolved imaging of contrast mechanisms that occur via virtual energy states such as harmonic generation (HG). Here we report a super-resolution technique based on SPatIal Frequency modulated Imaging (SPIFI) that permits super-resolved nonlinear microscopy with any contrast mechanism, and with single-pixel detection. We show multimodal super-resolved images with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) from biological and inorganic media. Multiphoton SPIFI (MP-SPIFI) provides spatial resolution up to 2$\\eta$ below the diffraction limit, where $\\eta$ is the highest power of the nonlinear intensity response. MP-SPIFI has the potential to not only pro...

  19. Trends of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ . Status of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys 1. R εt D of RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China AB5 hydrogen storage materials, taking rare earth mischmetals as raw materials, developed rapidly in China in recent years. Today, different countries attach importance to the development and application of the new environmental protection reproducible power sources.

  20. Hydrogen Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  1. GTI's hydrogen programs: hydrogen production, storage, and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范钦柏

    2006-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier could help address our concerns about energy security, global climate change,and air quality. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Future and have the potential to revolutionize theway we power our nation, offering cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil fuels.For over 45 years, GTI has been active in hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration. The Institute has extensive experience and on-going work in all aspects of the hydrogen energy economy including production, delivery, infrastructure,use, safety and public policy. This paper discusses the recent GTI programs in hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

  2. Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm (MUSICAL) for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is providing unprecedented insights into biology by resolving details much below the diffraction limit. State-of-the-art Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) techniques for super-resolution are restricted by long acquisition and computational times, or the need of special fluorophores or chemical environments. Here, we propose a novel statistical super-resolution technique of wide-field fluorescence microscopy called MUltiple SIgnal Classification ALgorithm (MUSICAL) which has several advantages over SMLM techniques. MUSICAL provides resolution down to at least 50 nm, has low requirements on number of frames and excitation power and works even at high fluorophore concentrations. Further, it works with any fluorophore that exhibits blinking on the time scale of the recording. We compare imaging results of MUSICAL with SMLM and four contemporary statistical super-resolution methods for experiments of in-vitro actin filaments and datasets provided by independent research gro...

  3. Super energy flows in a waveguide filled with air and left-handed materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guan-Xia; Cui Tie-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The phenomena of super energy flows are studied theoretically and numerically in a parallel-plate waveguide which is filled with two layered equally-thick different media,i.e.air and specific left-handed materials (LHM) with 6r1 =-1/(1+5) + iγ and μr1=-(1 +δ) + iγ.In this special waveguide,two-directional super-energy flows are excited by a three-dimensional horizontal electric dipole at the same time,which has transmission patterns different from those of two-dimensional source and three-dimensional vertical electric dipole.We also show that the retardation and loss in LHM are sensitive to the amplitude of super power densities,and the dimensions of waveguide determine the propagating modes,which makes super energy flows more practical.

  4. Watching the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2003-01-01

    Subarcsecond infrared and radio observations yield important information about the formation of super star clusters from their surrounding gas. We discuss the general properties of ionized and molecular gas near young, forming SSCs, as illustrated by the prototypical young forming super star cluster nebula in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. This super star cluster appears to have a gravitationally bound nebula. The lack of molecular gas suggests a very high star formation efficiency, consistent with the formation of a large, bound star cluster.

  5. Emergetic analysis of the electrolytic hydrogen production using the secondary energy from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant; Analise emergetica da producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico aproveitando a energia vertida nao turbinada da Usina Hidroeletrica de Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Espinola, Michel Osvaldo Galeano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2006-07-01

    Due to the possibility of increase in the energy market in a few years and awareness of the necessity of using the secondary energy in hydroelectric power plants and also concerned about the environmental problems related to energy enterprises, the present paper develops the emergy analyses of electrolytic hydrogen production in the Itaipu Power Plant located in the countries of Brazil and Paraguay. The emergy analyses despite being unknown by the major people and technicians responsible for the development of Environmental Impacts Studies, named EIA/RIMAS in Brazil, represents a way to fulfill all requirements imposed by law and government and also an important manner to internalize externalities in the evaluation of all variables involved in the execution and maintenance of natural and artificial processes. Afterwards, this database can be used to be compared with other actual processes of producing and supplying energy, guiding stake holders when deciding where and how to implement and take advantage of available energy sources. This work aims to evaluate with emergetic criteria the research done by Antonio Carlos Fonseca Santos Jr.: Analysis of the Economic Feasibility of Hydrogen Production in Hydroelectric Power Plants: A Case Study at Itaipu. (author)

  6. The hydrogen mine introduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betournay, M.C.; Howell, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to address air quality concerns in underground mines, the mining industry is considering the use fuel cells instead of diesel to power mine production vehicles. The immediate issues and opportunities associated with fuel cells use include a reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions; reduction in ventilation operating costs; reduction in energy consumption; improved health benefits; automation; and high productivity. The objective of the hydrogen mine introduction initiative (HMII) is to develop and test the range of fundamental and needed operational technology, specifications and best practices for underground hydrogen power applications. Although proof of concept studies have shown high potential for fuel cell use, safety considerations must be addressed, including hydrogen behaviour in confined conditions. This presentation highlighted the issues to meet operational requirements, notably hydrogen production; delivery and storage; mine regulations; and hydrogen behaviour underground. tabs., figs.

  7. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-08-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem.

  8. Laser plasma accelerator driven by a super-Gaussian pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermayr, Tobias; Petrovics, Stefan; Iqbal, Khalid; Klier, Constantin; Ruhl, Hartmut; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Deng, Aihua; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, Toshiki; Tajima

    2012-08-01

    A laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) with a weak focusing force is considered to seek improved beam quality in LWFA. We employ super-Gaussian laser pulses to generate the wakefield and study the behavior of the electron beam dynamics and synchrotron radiation arising from the transverse betatron oscillations through analysis and computation. We note that the super-Gaussian wakefields radically reduce the betatron oscillations and make the electron orbits mainly ballistic over a single stage. This feature permits to obtain small emittance and thus high luminosity, while still benefitting from the low-density operation of LWFA (Nakajima et al. 2011 Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 091301), such as the reduced radiation loss, less number of stages, less beam instabilities, and less required wall plug power than in higher density regimes.

  9. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    benefits over the traditional hydrogen sensors: The technology has excellent temperature stability (4K to 373 K), it can be used in cryogenic fluid applications, it is easy to apply and remove; it requires no power to operate; it has a quick response time; the leak points can be detected visually or electronically; it is nonhazardous, thus environmentally friendly; it can be reversible or irreversible; it does not require on-site monitoring; has a long shelf life; the detector is very durable; and the technology is inexpensive to manufacture.

  10. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yu; Jingwei Han

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and $r$ -matrix are also given in this paper.

  11. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and r-matrix are also given in this paper.

  12. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  13. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  14. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  15. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  16. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  17. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-11-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  18. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via νμ → νe oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group.

  19. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  20. Orderly packed anodes for high-power lithium-ion batteries with super-long cycle life: rational design of MnCO3/large-area graphene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiren; Yang, Mei; Zhou, Xianlong; Luo, Yuting; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    MnCO3 particles uniformly distributed on large-area graphene form 2D composites whose large-area character enables them to self-assemble face-to-face into orderly packed electrodes. Such regular structures form continuous and efficient transport networks, leading to outstanding lithium storage with high capacity, ultralong cycle life, and excellent rate capability--all characteristics that are required for high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Hydrogen, nitrogen and syngas enriched diesel combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Fanos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University On-board hydrogen and syngas production is considered as a transition solution from fossil fuel to hydrogen powered vehicles until problems associated with hydrogen infrastructure, distribution and storage are resolved. A hydrogen- or syngas-rich stream, which substitutes part of the main hydrocarbon fuel, can be produced by supplying diesel fuel in a fuel-reforming reactor, integrated within ...

  2. Super Network Model and Equilibrium Analysis of Electric Power Supply Chain%电力供应链的超网络模型与均衡分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣金钊; 张纪会; 张海滨

    2011-01-01

    在完全竞争假设下,分析了电力供应链的基本特征,建立了电力供应链的超网络模型,给出了电力供应链的均衡条件.根据变分不等式的基本理论,讨论了电力供应链均衡点的存在性,以及基于修正投影算法的均衡点的求解方法,并以一个实例来验证该方法的正确性及合理性.%The basic features of electric power supply chains are analyzed, and a supernetwork model for electric power supply chains is established. The equilibrium conditions of the model under the assumption of perfect competition are given. According to the fundamental theory of variational inequalities, we discussed the existence of equilibrium of electric power supply chains and the solution techniques of equilibrium based on a modified projection algorithm. An example is provided to verify the correctness and the rationality of the model.

  3. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  4. Hydrogen carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng; Pachfule, Pradip; Wu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to be a major energy vector in a renewable and sustainable future energy mix. The efficient production, storage and delivery of hydrogen are key technical issues that require improvement before its potential can be realized. In this Review, we focus on recent advances in materials development for on-board hydrogen storage. We highlight the strategic design and optimization of hydrides of light-weight elements (for example, boron, nitrogen and carbon) and physisorbents (for example, metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks). Furthermore, hydrogen carriers (for example, NH3, CH3OH-H2O and cycloalkanes) for large-scale distribution and for on-site hydrogen generation are discussed with an emphasis on dehydrogenation catalysts.

  5. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how; Stocker l'electricite: oui, c'est indispensable, et c'est possible. Pourquoi, ou, comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  6. Clean energy and the hydrogen economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, N P; Kurban, Z

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems. This paper presents the opportunities for the use of hydrogen in key sectors of the economy and identifies the benefits and challenges within the hydrogen supply chain for power-to-gas, power-to-power and gas-to-gas supply pathways. While industry players have already started the market introduction of hydrogen fuel cell systems, including fuel cell electric vehicles and micro-combined heat and power devices, the use of hydrogen at grid scale requires the challenges of clean hydrogen production, bulk storage and distribution to be resolved. Ultimately, greater government support, in partnership with industry and academia, is still needed to realize hydrogen's potential across all economic sectors.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  8. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We outline the possibility of optical trapping and tweezing with Super-Gaussian beam profiles. We show that the trapping strength can be tuned continuously by adjusting the order of a Super-Gaussian beam, approaching that of a perfect Gaussian...

  9. Tetrahedral Units: For Dodecahedral Super-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Y; Liebman, J F

    2016-01-01

    Different novel organic-chemical possibilities for tetrahedral building units are considered, with attention to their utility in constructing different super-structures. As a representative construction we consider the use of sets of 20 such identical tetrahedral units to form a super-dodecahedron.

  10. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-04

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities.

  11. Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

    2012-09-13

    Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  12. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  13. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  14. Propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams in fractional Schrödinger equation: from linear to nonlinear regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2016-06-27

    We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.

  15. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  16. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  17. Research progress of power system for hydrogen-electric hybrid fuel cell vehicles%氢电混合燃料电池汽车动力系统研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红军; 吕帅帅; 陈青青; 裴一

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cellhybrid vehicle (FCV) with zero emission and high efficiency is the ideal solution for sustainable mobility in the future. A new type of hydrogen fuel cells-lithium-ion battery hybrid power system was introduced; the energy efficiency factors as wel as improvement methods of fuel cellhybrid system were discussed. The research progress of hydrogen fuel cellvehicles power system at home and abroad was summarized.%零排放和高效率的燃料电池混合动力汽车是人类“可持续移动”的最理想解决方案。介绍了一种氢燃料电池-锂离子电池混合动力系统;讨论了车用燃料电池动力系统能源效率的影响因素及提高动力系统效率的途径,总结了氢燃料电池汽车动力系统的国内外研究进展。

  18. 核电厂严重事故下卸压对氢气产生的影响分析%Effect of Depressurization on Hydrogen Generation During Severe Accident in PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶俊; 李京喜; 佟立丽; 曹学武

    2011-01-01

    研究了1 000 MWe压水堆核电厂在典型的高压严重事故序列下卸压对氢气产生的影响.分析结果表明,开启1列、2列和3列卸压阀进行一回路卸压均会在堆芯熔化进程的3个阶段导致氢气产生率的明显增大:1)堆芯温度1 500~2 100 K;2)堆芯温度2 500~2 800 K;3)从形成由硬壳包容的熔融池(2 800 K)到熔融物向压力容器下封头下落.开启卸压阀的列数越多,氢气产生率的增大越明显.%The effect of depressurization on hydrogen generation during a typical high pressure severe accident sequence in a 1 000 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant was analyzed. Analyses results indicate that the hydrogen generation rate is obviously increased by the reactor coolant system depressurization of opening one, two or three power operated relief valves (PORVs) at three core damage states.The first is peak core temperature from 1 500 K to 2 100 K. The second is peak core temperature from 2 500 K to 2 800 K. The third is from formation of molten pool supported by crust to slumping of molten materials into reactor pressure vessel lower head.The more PORVs are opened the more increment of hydrogen generation rate.

  19. Calculation Research of Hydrogen Production Amount in Containment after LOCAL in PWR Nuclear Power Plants%压水堆核电厂失水事故后安全壳内产氢量计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军

    2013-01-01

    The ORIGEN2 code is adopted to calculate the amount of hydrogen production in the core and sump region after LOCAL in PWR nuclear power plants,to reduce the conservatism for the design evaluation of the combustible gas control in the containment.The calculation model of radiolytic decomposition coolant and other related calculation model are used to calculate the amount of hYdrogen production after LOCA in a 600MW PWR nuclear power plant,and the results show that over conservatism of the original evaluation,and there still exists abundant time to prepare and startup the hydrogen recombiners in the containment after LOCAL.%采用ORIGEN2程序对压水堆核电厂失水事故工况下堆芯区和地坑区氢气的产生量进行计算,以合理减少安全壳内可燃气体的控制设计评价的保守性.通过冷却剂的辐照分解产氢以及其他相关计算模型,对600MW(电功率)级压水堆核电厂失水事故工况下的氢气产生量进行计算.计算结果表明原评价结果过于保守,在核电厂失水事故后仍有充分的时间准备投入安全壳内氢气复合器.

  20. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.